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40 EIS ENGINEERING INTEGRITY MARCH 2016

JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INTEGRITY SOCIETY

papers on: • Strain rate effect in engineering applications • Predicting fatigue life from frequency domain data EIS Website: www.e-i-s.org.uk


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Engineering Integrity Society Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition The Silverstone Wing, Silverstone Race Track 15 March 2015 10am - 4pm

Entrance to the exhibition & open forums is free to visitors along with free car parking and complimentary refreshments. Over 55 exhibitors will present the latest advances in measurement analysis and testing technology in aerospace, automotive, motor-sport, rail, off-highway, mechanical handling, industrial and power generation industries. Visitors will be able to discuss these developments and their applications in an informal atmosphere with exhibitors. Open Forums include: • Data Collection and Analysis • Asset Management - Whole Life Modelling • Accelerated Testing • Tyre Road Interface - Characteristics of the Road Guest panels comprising experts from industry and academia will expand on the technical developments & take questions from the floor. Visitors If you are interested in attending please pre-register by emailing info@e-i-s.org.uk or visit www.e-i-s.org.uk. Co-sponsored by:

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Fundamentals of Vehicle Data Collection

19 April 2016, HORIBA MIRA, Nuneaton

This event is aimed at Engineers and Technicians who are interested in data collection on motor vehicles. The day will follow the processes required during a typical data collection; from initial specification, through installation, data collection and data handling. The focus will be more practical than theoretical and there will be an opportunity to look at a vehicle that has been prepared for data collection, as well as a tour of the HORIBA MIRA test track. For further information please contact Sara Atkin: info@e-i-s.org.uk or call 01572 811315 for more information.

Hydraulic Elements and their Control - What Engineers Need to Know and How to Avoid the Pitfalls

28 April 2016, Star Hydraulics, Tewkesbury The seminar outlines the use, function and performance of frequently misunderstood elements of dynamic hydraulic systems. The day will cover how they work, why they are needed and their effect (or lack of effect) on system performance. The reasons for maintaining temperature and cleanliness and how this achieved will also be discussed For further information or to book a place please contact Sara Atkin: info@e-i-s.org.uk or call 01572 811315.


Measurement Sensors Visit Micro-Epsilon at the EIS Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition, where you will find a solution to almost any measurement task; whether it’s distance, position, thickness, vibration, gap, profile, temperature or colour, our sensors can solve your application.

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Engineering Integrity Society The Theory & Practice of Developing Rubber Products with Good Fatigue Life 19 May 2016 Star Hydraulics, Tewkesbury The aim of the course is to give those making and using rubber products an understanding of stresses and strains in materials that undergo large deformation and the mechanical properties of the materials that affect the fatigue life. The course will also show how the ingredients of the mixed rubber formulation affect the structure and mechanical properties of products. Co-sponsored by the Rubber in Engineering Group of the Institute of Materials

Engineering Integrity Society Structural Dynamics - Implications of Weight Reduction on Structural Modal Performance Coventry University Thursday 16 June 2016

Full brochure coming soon. For more information contact the Secretariat, Sara Atkin, on 01572 811315 or email info@e-i-s.org.uk

www.e-i-s.org.uk


HONORARY EDITOR Dr Karen Perkins

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EDITORIAL POLICY Engineering Integrity contains various items of information of interest to, or directly generated by, the Engineering Integrity Society. The items of information can be approximately subdivided into three general categories: technical papers, topical discussion pieces and news items. The items labelled in the journal as technical papers are peer reviewed by a minimum of two reviewers in the normal manner of academic journals, following a standard protocol. The items of information labelled as topical discussions and the news items have been reviewed by the journal editorial staff and found to conform to the legal and professional standards of the Engineering Integrity Society.

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COPYRIGHT Copyright of the technical papers included in this issue is held by the Engineering Integrity Society unless otherwise stated.

The principal activity of the Engineering Integrity Society, is the arrangement of conferences, seminars, exhibitions and workshops to advance the education of persons working in the field of engineering. This is achieved by providing a forum for the interchange of ideas and information on engineering practice. The Society is particularly committed to promoting projects which support professional development and attract young people into the profession.

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‘Engineering Integrity’, the Journal of the Engineering Integrity Society is published twice a year.

ISSN 1365-4101/2016

The Engineering Integrity Society (EIS) Incorporated under the Companies Act 1985. Registered No. 1959979 Registered Office: c/o Hollis & Co., 35 Wilkinson Street, Sheffield S10 2GB Charity No: 327121

‘Engineering Integrity’ is lodged with the Agency for the Legal Deposit Libraries on behalf of the Bodleian Library Oxford University, the Cambridge University Library, National Library of Scotland, National Library of Wales and Trinity College Dublin.


Contents Index to Advertisements........................................................................................................................................................ 7 Editorial................................................................................................................................................................................. 8 Diary of Events...................................................................................................................................................................... 8 New President of the EIS: Professor Roderick Smith .......................................................................................................... 9 Technical Paper: Strain Rate Effect in Engineering Applications ........................................................................................ 10 Obituary - Dr Frank Sherratt ............................................................................................................................................... 13 Technical Paper: Predicting fatigue life from frequency domain data ................................................................................. 14 Membership Details............................................................................................................................................................. 18 What Engineers need to know about the Tyre/Road Interface............................................................................................ 19 Fatigue 2017, 3-5 July 2017, Downing College, Cambridge............................................................................................... 20 Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition, 15 March 2016, Silverstone Race Track .................................................. 22 Industry News...................................................................................................................................................................... 24 Product News ..................................................................................................................................................................... 28 News from British Standards .............................................................................................................................................. 30 Inspring the Next Generation.............................................................................................................................................. 31 News from Women’s Engineering Society.......................................................................................................................... 32 News from Institution of Mechanical Engineers.................................................................................................................. 33 Group News ....................................................................................................................................................................... 34 Report on 30th Anniversary Event ...................................................................................................................................... 35 Corporate Member Profiles ................................................................................................................................................ 36 Corporate Members............................................................................................................................................................ 38 New Personal Members...................................................................................................................................................... 38 Committee Members........................................................................................................................................................... 39

INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS Advanced Engineering ............................................41

M+P International.......................................Back cover

Data Physics.................................... Inside front cover

PCB Piezotronics.....................................................42

Dewesoft........................................................... 4 & 43

Sensors UK .............................................................44

DJB Instruments ......................................................43

Team Corporation.......................................................4

EIS..........................................................1, 3, 5, 20, 22

Techni Measure........................................................44

HBM UK ...................................................................44

Vibration Research ..................................................45

Head Acoustics ..........................................................2

Yokogawa ................................................................41

Micro-Epsilon .............................................................4 Front cover: Courtesy of Tata Steel

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Editorial Welcome to the spring edition of the EIS journal. I would like to thank everyone who attended the 30th anniversary dinner in November and helped make the event such a success. Particular thanks should go to Sara for all her hard work in organising the event. It was fascinating to see how much some things have changed over thirty years and how little others have. I suspect Air Vice Marshal Merriman would have the same issues with commercial suppliers today as he did in the fifties! Sadly Frank Sherratt, one of the founding members of EIS, passed away shortly before the society reached its 30th anniversary. In honour of his contribution to the society we are republishing Frank’s paper ‘predicting fatigue life from frequency domain data’ as one of our technical papers in this edition. Our other technical paper is ‘strain rate effect in engineering applications’ and looks at strain rate sensitivity of material and its implications and effects in vehicle impact modelling. Taking the theme of reflection from the anniversary and inspired by my son’s project theme of ‘the Victorians’ I have been researching his family tree. With coal miners on one side and steel workers on another, I found men and women who laboured in two of the key industries of Empire. Finding some of their names on the rolls of those killed in industrial accidents is a sharp reminder of the human cost of this industrial capacity. To modern eyes these lists are both long and peppered with preventable deaths – fewer men may have died falling from the cage down the mine shaft than in roof falls, but the former must have been preventable. Health and Safety is not all about banning conkers from school playgrounds as tabloid headlines would have us believe. What is deemed to be an acceptable accident rate is something that has changed dramatically over the centuries although there is always a tendency for some to accept fatalities as they have always happened. As Air Vice Marshal Merriman described, one pilot death a month in the fifties raised few concerns with officials used to wartime deaths rates. What would our Victorian forebears make of the world today? They would no doubt applaud the vast social transformation that has occurred, they may have mixed feelings about the loss of an Empire and a navy that ruled the waves, but could they comprehend a Britain without a coal or steel capability? While coal was a victim of both globalisation and alternative fuels, the current turmoil in the steel industry could see the end of British steel production while the material still underpins everything (quite literally in many cases). The IMechE column this edition provides us with some stark figures and bleak messages. With a plan to close all coal fired power stations and many aging nuclear plants by 2025, combined with cuts in subsidies for renewables, the UK is facing

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an energy shortfall of up to 50%. We do not have the time or the necessary skill set to build enough new plant to meet rising demand- another thing we will need to rely on other countries for! Swansea may escape some blackouts if the Swansea Bay Tidal lagoon is built, but it will be a Chinese company that builds it. On a brighter note, there is a new column in this edition ‘inspiring the next generation’. Young children are extremely impressionable and a good experience at the primary school age can make a big difference. The kind of outreach work that young enthusiastic engineers are doing inspires the younger generation and plants that seed that says ‘I can do that!’ and ‘girls can do engineering too!’ I have done a little of this myself and seen first-hand the response to such activities. For a week after I’d spent an afternoon at my son’s school with a baseball launcher, firing baseballs through different materials, all the children wanted to be materials engineers, before going back to wanting to be superheroes! At the University we are always under pressure to provide outreach programmes and will typically have several groups of A level students visit each summer to explore engineering and science. While this may be good for our recruitment, it is too late in the bigger picture – by this age they already know what they want to do: it is the children of primary school and early secondary school age we need to reach. Grant’s message is pertinent, we were all in school once. The right message at the right time can make a difference. This is a challenge for us all, both on the academic side and the industrial. Nearly 30 years ago I was told by the careers adviser at school that girls don’t go into science. Does this still happen today? I hope not, but I wouldn’t put much money on it! Karen Perkins, Honorary Editor

Diary of Events Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition 15 March 2016, Silverstone Fundamentals of Vehicle Data Collection 19 April 2016, HORIBA MIRA, Nuneaton Hydraulics - What the Engineer needs to knowand How to Avoid the Pitfalls 28 April 2016, Star Hydraulics, Tewksbury The Theory & Practice of Developing Rubber Products with Good Fatigue Life 19 May 2016, Star Hydraulics, Tewksbury Structural Dynamics - Implications of Weight Reduction on Structural Modal Performance 16 June 2016, Coventry University Fatigue 2017 3-5 July 2017, Downing College, Cambridge


President of the EIS: Professor Roderick Smith I am deeply honoured to have been invited to become President of the Engineering Integrity Society and I am grateful for this opportunity to introduce myself to members. I have in fact had a long association with EIS and its forbears but let me start at the beginning of my own career in engineering. I was fortunate enough to become a student engineering apprentice with the David Brown Corporation with periods of training before, during and after my degree course in Engineering Science at Oxford. This was a very traditional and practical apprenticeship with David Brown then being a huge company involved in the manufacture of gear ranging from tiny precision boxes to 40 feet diameter (12m) ring gears for ore crushing plant. Additionally David Brown’s then owned the Aston Martin car company and Vosper Thorneycroft making small specialist ships. My first appointment after training involved the inspection of gear installations in a wide variety of applications, for example the ore crushing plant at Hope cement works, the gears of the Jodrell Bank telescope and the many installations in the winding gear of mines and in steelworks. A chance reading of an advert in the Manchester Guardian led to a scholarship at Cambridge, funded by the Gas Council, to study fatigue crack growth from notches. This was my introduction to my supervisor Prof Keith Miller, one of the leading figures in fatigue research in this country and internationally. I began my work with a secondment to the CEGB Research Laboratories attached to Berkeley nuclear power station. This was like throwing a six at the start of the game. I was given a great grounding in fatigue and fracture mechanics, and in a very short period was fortunate enough to be joint author on a couple of papers, which have become embedded in fatigue literature. I soon met our previous President Peter Watson (please see his obituary which I wrote in the previous issue), then a very junior research officer at British Rail Research in Derby, but rapidly destined for greater things. I remained at Cambridge University after my Ph.D., as a lecturer in the Department of Engineering and as a Fellow of Queens’ College until 1988 when I was invited to take up a Chair of Mechanical Engineering at Sheffield re-joining my old supervisor Keith Miller who had moved there a few years previously. My research interests in other than fatigue and fracture mechanics rapidly broadened out at Sheffield: I was involved, with the Health and Safety Laboratories, in the technical enquiry into the 1989 Hillsborough stadium disaster, and later, when Peter Watson had moved on from GKN to the Board of British Rail, I became involved in railways. I have been fortunate enough to hold (I think uniquely) two

Royal Academy of Engineering Research Chairs in Railway Engineering, the first at Sheffield and then later at Imperial College London, where I moved to become Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering in 2000. Throughout all this time I have been very involved with Japan: through my wife Yayoi, to whom I have been married for nearly 41 years, and with contacts both in universities and the Japanese railway industry. Throughout my career I have tried to remain closely in contact with industry: through a succession of jointly funded research programmes and through consultancies in legal cases in shipping and railways but in many other industries as well. Allow me to return to the origins of the UK Fatigue Group with which I was involved at its birth in the mid-1970s. It was from this group that the EIS was eventually initiated with an enlarged remit of topics, but with the same principles in mind, that is the marriage of academic research to the activities of real engineers and designers in industry, and of advancing structural integrity in the UK to be aware of and to contribute to advances worldwide, and to propagate the latest developments through meetings, seminars and international conferences. In the intervening years the tools at our disposal have improved beyond recognition. Real-time loading data collection and analysis are now commonplace, finite element stress analysis, including non-linear cases, gives us insights we could not possibly conceive nearly 45 years ago, the electron microscope has enabled us to see fatigue processes in action at near atom size scales. But I still feel that our ability to observe the complex changes which are happening inside materials has not significantly contributed to our abilities to quantitatively predict macroscopic fatigue behaviour. Whilst it would be foolish to suggest that our abilities have not improved, equally it would be unwise to suggest that all issues concerning fatigue in structural integrity have been solved. With these thoughts in mind I am delighted to have taken up the Presidency of the Society. I always felt that these kind of roles should be shared around and additionally, taking account of my advancing years, I have agreed to serve the Society and its members for the next five years. I look forward to a fruitful five years and in joining in expanding our knowledge of fatigue and structural integrity whilst at the same time enjoying many convivial social activities with you. Professor Roderick A Smith, FREng, ScD Chair, Heathrow Airport Consultative Committee Research Professor, Future Rail Research Centre Imperial College London, SW7 2BX Formerly Chief Scientific Advisor Department for Transport, Past President Institution of Mechanical Engineers

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 40, MARCH 2016 pp.10-12.

ISSN 1365-4101/2016

Technical Paper Strain Rate Effect in Engineering Applications David Norman, Marcel Lansbergen, Steve Danks (Tata Steel) Introduction Strain Rate Sensitivity (SRS) is a material property, by which the strength changes as a consequence of loading at high speed. Many materials exhibit this behaviour and steel can strengthen significantly as a consequence of SRS. This article examines the effect of SRS in a vehicle impact model, considers the influence of the manufacturing pre-strain and also explains the test method used to determine the SRS of steel at Tata Steel.

Figure 2 – Influence of Strain Rate Sensitivity in the Main Longitudinal

Vehicle Impact Finite Element (FE) modelling of a vehicle 56kph full frontal impact into a rigid wall is used to show the influence of SRS (Figure 1). LS-DYNA (reference 1) is used to model the crash simulation. The vehicle modelled is the Ultra Light Steel Auto Body (ULSAB) (reference 2). The ULSAB vehicle was developed by a steel consortium in the 1990s together with Porsche in order to set a new industry benchmark for vehicle performance. In terms of crash, a full powertrain, chassis and suspension was included, together with the additional mass required to account for trim and seats. The kerb weight of the vehicle is 1.62 tonnes and met all of the industry crash requirements at the time. In terms of today’s vehicles, the structure is dated, but is considered a suitable structure to investigate the influence of strain rate in crash.

Maximum Load

Final Length

SRS Included

111.2kN

1213mm

SRS Switched Off

94.7kN

1159mm

Table 1: Main Longitudinal Crash Results These results clearly show that when SRS is modelled, the structure is stronger and the crush distance is reduced. With SRS switched off, the structure is softer, the crush distance is greater and buckling also occurs (circled region in Figure 2). As a consequence, if SRS is not considered and the same performance is to be achieved, the design would be heavier and more costly. Figure 3 shows the maximum strain rates observed during the impact. The results show that the bulk of the strain rates are actually very low (<10/s) and that the number of elements having higher strain rates reduces very quickly with increasing strain rate. In the main longitudinal (the central horizontal load bearing member in the front structure), the strain rates are mostly between 32/s and 130/s, with only 3 elements having strain rates above 200/s in the entire model. This suggests there is no real benefit to be gained from using strain rate property data for strain rates above 200/s.

Figure 1 – Vehicle Full 56kph Frontal Impact into Rigid Wall

The ULSAB model was initially run with SRS included and subsequently run with SRS switched off in all the materials. Switching SRS off is achieved by using only the static stress strain curve in the material data definition. Figure 2 shows the deformation in the main longitudinal in the engine compartment with SRS included (top image) and SRS switched off (bottom image). Table 1 shows the main longitudinal crush loads and displacements.

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Figure 3: Distribution of Strain Rates Observed


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 40, MARCH 2016 pp.10-12.

Influence of the Manufacturing Pre-Strain

test speed before loading the test coupon.

For strain rates up to 1/s it is possible to use a load cell and extensometer to measure the load and extension. For strain rates above 10/s, it is not possible to use a load cell and extensometer as the dynamic response of the measurement equipment affects the results. Therefore a different approach is needed. Figure 5 shows the method used at Tata Steel, which conforms to the ISO standard (reference 3). The load is measured using a strain gauge attached to the coupon on the fixed clamp side, and by calculating the load from the elastic strain measured in accordance with the ISO standard. For measuring the extension of the gauge length, a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method (reference 4) is used. This is a computer based optical method that uses a very high speed camera (40,000 frames per second) to track a black and white speckle pattern that has been painted on the test coupon. The gauge length is selected by picking 2 points 12.5mm apart in the centre of the test specimen at the start of the test. The distance between these 2 points is then tracked from the images using computer software. The load and extension measurements are synched together in order to produce the load displacement curves, which are Figure 4: Influence of Manufacturing Pre-Strain on Crash converted to engineering stress-strain. Performance

Strain rate sensitivity is not the only material property that influences crash performance. The manufacturing prestrain can also have an important influence on the material properties and it is often the combination of forming strain and strain rate sensitivity acting together that is needed to achieve good correlation in crash. Although not directly relevant to strain rate sensitivity, it is considered an important factor to mention.

During manufacturing, the material is subject to plastic deformation (i.e. the material changes shape) and this can also have a strengthening effect on steel while the thickness may also be reduced. Figure 4 shows how the effect of including the manufacturing pre-strains in the lower longitudinal influences the crash behaviour of the structure. The deformed shape of the lower front structure is completely changed as a consequence of including the strengthening effect, which comes from the manufacturing pre-strain.

Figure 5: High Strain Rate Test Machine (Strain Rates 10-200/s), Test Set Up Diagram, Speckle Paint Pattern and Extension Measurement Contour Plot and Graph

Strain Rate Testing Method At Tata Steel, 2 servo-hydraulic machines are used to measure the SRS of materials. One machine covers strain rates up to 1/s, the other is used for strain rates between 10/s and 200/s. The higher rate machine is shown in Figure 5. In the higher rate machine, a â&#x20AC;&#x153;slack adaptorâ&#x20AC;? (Figure 5) is used in to allow the machine to accelerate to the required

To convert the engineering stress strain data to true stressstrain, 4 steps are required: i) the engineering stress strain curves are truncated below the elastic limit, ii) the plastic strain is found by subtracting the elastic strain from the measured strain, iii) the curves are converted to true stress strain according to the formulae in equation 1, iv) the curves are truncated beyond the maximum load, where the true stress strain conversion formulae are no longer valid.

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 40, MARCH 2016 pp.10-12.

ISSN 1365-4101/2016

Conclusions

Equation 1: Conversion to True Stress Strain

In a crash structure, SRS can have a significant role in strengthening a material, making a structure stronger and reducing crush distances. When SRS is not accounted for in a model, the structure is softer, the crush distance is greater and buckling can also occur. The manufacturing pre-strain can also have an important influence on the material properties and this can act in combination with strain rate sensitivity to alter the crash performance of a structure.

Equation 2: Bergstrom van Liempt Stress, Strain, Strain Rate Law Once converted to true stress strain, it is necessary to smooth the data and extend the curves beyond the maximum load point. Smoothing is needed because the test data oscillates at higher strain rates and FE models require continuous smooth curves. Extending the curves is needed to enable higher strains to be modelled than can be achieved in a uni-axial tensile test, for example in cases such as compressive or biaxial tensile strain. There are a number of different methods that can be used for converting the data to FE models. Generally, most methods rely on curve fitting and smoothing to fit and extend the stress, strain and strain rate curves, and a certain degree of judgement is required to do this. Tata Steel use the Bergstrom van Liempt (BvL) method (Equation 2, references 5,6) for fitting and extending the stress, strain and strain rate curves. In the BvL equation, the strain and strain rate functions are based on fundamental dislocation theory in static and dynamic conditions.

In strain rate testing, DIC techniques have enabled strains to be measured directly, and this has improved the quality of strain measurements.

The process of generating FE material model data from strain rate test data requires some data manipulation, smoothing and extrapolation. The BvL method used by Tata Steel enables a smooth stress, strain and strain rate surface to be generated and is based on the principles of dislocation theory in static and dynamic conditions. References

1. LS-DYNA v R7.1.1 Rev 88541 – Livermore Software Technology Corporation, 7374 Las Positas Road, Livermore, CA 94551, USA. 2. “UltraLight Steel Auto Body Final Report”, American Iron and Steel Institute, 2000 Town Centre, Suite 320, Southfield, Michigan 48075, 1-877-STEELINDUSTRY, www.autosteel.org, March 1998. 3. ISO 26203-2:2011 “Metallic materials -- Tensile testing Figure 6 shows an example of test data that has been at high strain rates Part 2: Servo-hydraulic and other converted to true stress strain and subsequently fitted to test systems” www.iso.org, 2011. the BvL law. 4. ARAMIS – Optical Strain Measurement System, GOM UK Ltd, 14 The Cobalt Centre, Siskin Parkway East, Coventry, CV3 4PE. 5. Bergstrom, Y., “Dislocation model for the stress–strain behaviour of polycrystalline Fe with special emphasis on the variation of the densities of mobile and immobile dislocations.” Materials Science and Engineering 5, 193–200. 1969. 6. Van Liempt, P., “Workhardening and substructural geometry of metals. Journal of Materials Figure 6: Bergstrom van Liempt Surface Fit Used to Convert Data to FE Processing Technology” 45, 459– 464., 1994.

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Obituary - Dr Frank Sherratt B.Sc Eng, PhD 1928-2015 Born 21st May 1928, Etruria, Stoke on Trent. His father was a labourer who died when Frank was just 1. His mother Florrie was supported by a close extended family.

This first year of marriage was somewhat traumatic with two friends lost on Everest, another killed on Mont Blanc and yet another in a motor cycle accident as well as two people trying to write up their PhD theses.

In 1939 Frank won the 11+ prize for the whole of Stoke on Trent, gaining a place at Hanley High School as WW2 broke out. There were two brass plaques on the wall of his primary school, one recording Frank’s achievement and the other the fact that the Captain of the Titanic had also been a pupil at that school.

1960 Frank gained his PhD - Effect of Shotpeening on Aluminium Alloys 1964 The new Warwick University was planning an Engineering Science Department which very much appealed to Frank and he was appointed in 1964. Frank was involved in overall university policy on Senate and Faculty as well as course planning. 1965 lab equipment ordering, hiring technicians and the university mainframe computers to buy. 1970s Frank’s research interests involved large labs for testing to destruction. His most lasting achievement here was setting up the structures testing and teaching laboratory.

Frank was a studious boy at grammar school. He spent many hours in the library and discovered sport and athletics, running at county level and playing rugby for the school when not playing soccer. During these formative years a lady piano teacher, who employed his mother, took him to many classical concerts. This started a lifetime appreciation across the whole musical genre, from Chris Barber to Monteverdi. At sixteen, Frank and his mother resisted local pressure to start working rather than doing Higher School Certificate Maths, Physics and Chemistry in the sixth form. The war was not yet over and call up loomed. He was very keen to do a degree before National Service in the Air Force and he gained a London University scholarship to Queen Mary College to read civil engineering, in 1946. Frank gained colours in both rugby and soccer and achieved a first class honours degree in 1949. During the vacations he worked on the blast furnaces in the Stoke steelworks. His first job as a graduate civil engineer was with Bebington County Council in the Wirral, Cheshire. A lot of his spare time was spent in North Wales, where he became a very keen mountaineer. National Service call up was 1951/52. He was deployed as an officer to Germany in charge of building airfields on Lüneburg Heath, Hamburg when the Cold War was in full swing. He managed a German workforce and left the service with the rank of Flight Lieutenant in 1953/54 when he returned to the Wirral. The Comet aeroplane disasters at this time triggered a need for research in aircraft construction; publications in1954 gave metal fatigue in various components as the cause for failure. Professor Joseph Pope at Nottingham University was given MoD grants to fund further work. Frank joined the group in 1955 with the effect of shot-peening on aluminium alloys as his particular research area. Frank enjoyed the intellectual challenge of research and the social life. He joined the mountaineering club with trips to North Wales on his high powered motor bike. In 1957 he was asked to make up a four for tennis, his partner being a first year Zoology PhD student, Joan Dutton. She was introduced to the mountaineering club and was taken on bike pillion to Harlech. Frank joined the teaching staff as a lecturer [Civil Engineering] in 1957/58 and was married at Easter 1959.

By the eighties he was disillusioned with academic life and took early retirement in 1985, the year the EIS was founded. Frank was an active founder member, noted in the history of the Society in the EIS Journal (39) where his contribution spanned his working life and well into retirement although he never stopped thinking, writing papers, or inspiring others. One of his last PhD students, in 1985, was Turan Dirlik whose work has inspired many more PhDs in the area. Numerous colleagues and students have expressed their gratitude to Frank and acknowledged his brilliance as a teacher. Neil Bishop.... ‘in 1984, I knocked on his door to ask if he would supervise me on a PhD project related to fatigue. At first he said no, as he was near retirement, but relented and suggested a topic: how to connect fatigue and dynamics in the frequency domain using something called Rainflow cycle counting.’ More than anything this defines what Frank was about; at a time when the idea that fatigue analysis in the frequency domain was considered impossible, he pursued it with determination and conviction. In the end he was proved right and made a significant contribution to this area, the method being widely adopted by industry. In early retirement he was free to work independently, travelling widely as a consultant and particularly enjoying India. He continued to publish late in retirement, for example in 1990 along the lines of “A Theoretical Solution for the Estimation of Rainflow Ranges from Psd Data” and further advances at (EIS) Fatigue 2007 in Cambridge. He continued to publish (Basic Principles of Spectral Multi-axial Fatigue Analysis, VAL2015) and remained totally committed to fatigue issues. It is so right for him to have died at the computer whilst writing a paper. My thanks to various people, too many to list, for their memories with a common theme: good friend, contributed to our knowledge of fatigue and especially vibrations, will be missed. Robert Cawte

As a tribute to Dr Sherratt “Predicting fatigue life from frequency domain data” is reprinted on the following pages. The paper was previously published in Engineering Integrity, 18, September 2005.

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Technical Paper Predicting fatigue life from frequency domain data Frank Sherratt, Engineering Consultant, N W M Bishop, RLD Ltd and T Dirlik, Dirlik Controls Ltd 1. Introduction Ways of estimating fatigue life under vibration conditions have been in use since the mid 1960s. Application was limited at first to the aerospace industry, but when offshore oil rigs started to encounter similar problems in the 1970s the field was extended. Since then the field of use has steadily widened, and many modern design suites include relevant procedures. These are normally embedded in a Finite Element suite, and use various theories. After a relatively stable period since about the mid 1980s, with solutions limited to certain types of loading, recent work at several centres has widened the types of loading which can be analysed. The EIS website gives details of an article covering the basis of these â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;frequency domainâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; methods, which reviews some of the recent developments. This article is a shorter version intended for readers who already have some knowledge of the subject but want guidance about the limitations of current methods and the techniques being developed to overcome them. 2. History One simplified view of the situation is that the 1960s solutions were limited to narrow-band vibration having a time history of stress with a Gaussian amplitude probability distribution. In the 1980s the narrow-band restriction was largely removed, but by empirical methods which were still limited to Gaussian time histories, and made no allowance for mean stress. These methods are the ones used in current software. Recent research aims to remove the Gaussian restriction, and allow for mean stress. The theories underlying these new methods have been fully described in public domain papers, but mainstream design packages do not yet include them. 3. Cumulative damage for vibration conditions If a Stress/Life approach with the Palmgren-Miner damage hypothesis is being used damage will depend on the sum ÎŁn/N. Here n is the number of cycles of a given stress range experienced in unit time, as given by a rainflow count, N is the number of constant-amplitude cycles which would cause failure if applied alone and the summation is over all stress values. A practical difference when considering vibration is that it causes stress ranges of all magnitudes from zero to a set maximum, whereas in many non-vibration applications there are only a finite number of ranges. This means that for vibration the range content must be specified as

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a probability density distribution, pR, and the damage summation must be evaluated as an integral. If we use S for stress range, the number of cycles per unit time within a small interval dS is pR x dS. This is n in the hypothesis. The usual expression for the constant-amplitude life, N, at a stress range of S is N = aS-b where a and b are the intercept and slope of the measured S/N plot. Damage per unit time is then:-

(1)

where E[P] is the number of peaks in unit time. If we use this form the requirement reduces to predicting pR. This must agree with a rainflow count on the time history. The special requirement of the vibration situation is that the only data about the loading history is often its Power Spectral Density (PSD). This specifies how the characteristics of a random signal are distributed over a given frequency band, as opposed to specifying it in the time domain. This information is needed in many engineering disciplines, and routines to calculate it from a time record are part of most signal analysis packages. They use the Fourier Transform, or more precisely the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to compute the PSD. Because some of the original applications depended on the square of amplitude, rather than amplitude, conventional plots in all disciplines display amplitude squared, a regular unit in stress analysis being MPa2/ Hz.. This PSD, then, easily calculated from a time history using an FFT routine, is the basic building block of fatigue life prediction under vibration. More specifically, the basic building blocks used in fatigue calculations are the moments of the PSD function about the zero frequency axis. These appear in nearly every analysis in common use. If the x axis is frequency, f, and the y axis is G, an expression for the nth moment is:-

m0, m1, m2 and m4 have been found to provide all the information required for fatigue analysis.


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 40, MARCH 2016 pp.14-18.

3.1 The narrow band solution and its extensions One computation which has been accepted with little controversy for many years is the one for a stationary vibration with power present over only a narrow frequency band. The time history is then a modulated sine wave, with a peak for every positive zero crossing. It is reasonable then to pair each peak with the next trough to give half a fatigue cycle, and a rainflow count confirms this. Analytical solutions for the distribution of peaks are well established for one common type of time history, and if these can be used for ρR in equation (1) a solution is simple and exact. The critical parameter specifies the amount of time the signal spends at each level in the time history. If this fits the Gaussian formula the peaks fit the Rayleigh expression:-

(2)

where α = x/ σ and σ = sqrt(m0)

followed by curve-fitting has to be used. Assuming that rainflow counting is an essential element in any solution, the methods advocated in references (1) to (25) may be classified as:(a) ones which provide a correction factor to the narrowband Gaussian case (e.g. 19, 21, 22) (b) ones which are still limited to Gaussian signals, but provide a full probability distribution of ranges, though not the two-dimensional range-mean matrix (1, 6) (c) ones which are not limited to Gaussian signals, but still do not give a two-dimensional matrix. (6, 16, 25) (d) ones which deal with a two-dimensional matrix, making allowance for mean stress possible (11) Type (a) solutions were developed mainly for use in the offshore industry, and have had the longest use. They have been largely superseded by ones of Type (b). Types (c) and (d) solutions will obviously provide a better general solution eventually, but there is not yet a wide base of experience in their use.

Real loading histories are not usually narrow band, though, and have a less regular time history. It is still possible to use equation (2) for this case, just supplying a value for σ, but this has many implications. A rainflow count on a wide-band time history will give pR values more damaging than the ones predicted by assuming that every peak is followed by an equal and opposite trough. A life estimate from a wide band PSD using the narrow band assumption therefore gives a conservative result. The margin may be small if the real signal is close to the narrow band case, but in other cases the difference may be substantial, and we may have to tolerate an uneconomic design.

3.2.1 The Dirlik expression for pRR

3.2 Fatigue calculations for wide-band PSDs

Where D1, D2, D3, Q and R are all functions of m0, m1. m2, and m4 .Z is a normalised variable equal to

The most widely-used Type (b) solution is the Dirlik formula (ref. 1), which states that if the amplitude probability density distribution of S follows the Gaussian form, then the probability density distribution of rainflow ranges is:-

(3)

In spite of considerable effort (references 1 to 25) no general analytical solution is yet available for wideband histories. Compared to the narrow-band case with a Gaussian distribution the difficulties are:(1) If the amplitude probability density distribution in the time doman is not Gaussian, the peak distribution will not be Rayleigh. (2) Troughs will occur above the mean, and peaks below it. The probability density distribution of adjacent maxima (the peak-trough distribution) will then need to be a two-dimensional matrix, not a single array. Calling this the range-mean matrix, the fatigue damage due to a particular half-cycle will then depend on the mean stress or strain as well as its range. (3) Closed-form solutions to the various probability expressions are not all available, and numerical modeling

If pRR(S) from this equation is substituted for pR in equation (1) an estimate of damage can be produced which uses a Stress/Life approach, the Palmgren-Miner hypothesis and Rainflow Range Counting. The special contributions of the expression are firstly that it uses rainflow counting, and secondly that it was derived by Monte Carlo modelling. The empirical nature of the Dirlik expression means that it is reasonable to use it without studying the theory of random processes. Only the fact that a few low-value moments of the PSD are enough to control the probability density of ranges was used in deriving it. About sixty different PSDs

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were studied in the initial development, but algorithms for rainflow counting a time-domain history are well proven, and if one is available it is easy to compare pRR values from it with values given by Fourier transforming the same history and then using the expression on the resulting PSD. Checks like this have found that although some PSDs give better agreement than others the formula is acceptable in a wide variety of circumstances. Theoretical support for the expression has also been developed by Bishop and Sherratt (2), using Markov process theory. Like equ. (3) this was limited to histories with a Gaussian amplitude probability density distribution.

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Benasciutti expressions show a clear advantage in accuracy compared with the narrow-band assumption.

Table 1 (after Benasciutti) 3.2.2 Performance of the Dirlik expression Any design technique must be judged by how reliable it is and how much benefit is gained by using it. We may start by examining whether or not the Dirlik expression gives life predictions significantly different from the Rayleigh formula. The answer depends of course on the type of spectrum being investigated and the S/N data being used. In one exercise about sixty PSDs were used with different S/N data to provide Fig (1). The line shows the distribution of the ratio (Dirlik life)/(Narrow Band life). The narrow band estimate is conservative by a factor greater than two in 30% of the cases.

Bouyssy et al (4), examined various expressions and concluded that the Dirlik formula is the most consistent one available at present. We may therefore conclude that a rainflow range probability density distribution can be reliably estimated from a PSD and that equation (3) is acceptable. 3.2.3 Comparison of life estimates with test data The reliability of life estimates based on PSD data must then depend on whether or not a life estimate based on the rainflow range distribution is valid in the special case of vibration. The direct way of verifying this is to compare predictions with laboratory test data. The application for which the greatest amount of data has been generated is the offshore industry. The dominant critical detail is then a weld in a structural steel, where b for the S/N plot is about 3, and mean stresses may be ignored. Sarkani et. al (27) tested a cruciform geometry with lateral fillets welded either side of a plate subjected to axial random loading. Two PSDs were used, named the broadband and bimodal spectrum respectively by Sarkani, and designated Signal A and Signal B here. Table 2 compares test results with narrow band and Dirlik predictions. Each of the test figures is the geometric mean of four trials. In these particular circumstances even the narrow-band calculation gives figures which might be considered acceptable, but the Dirlik formula gives significantly better life estimates.

Fig (1) Deviation of a Dirlik life estimation from a narrow band one, shown as the distribution of the ratio (Dirlik life)/(NB life) for 63 PSDs. Because of their practical importance, many published vibration-fatigue tests are on welds in metals, like the S/N slopes of 3, 5 and 9 were used with a fatigue limit of zero, Sarkani data. They show fairly regularly that Minerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s plus a finite fatigue limit with a slope of 5 hypothesis is reliable if special measures are taken In another exercise Benasciutti (4) examined how accurately to deal with the fatigue limit. It is likely that the reliability various expressions model the rainflow range distribution comes from:by taking a variety of spectra and constant amplitude S/N slopes of 3 and 5. The rainflow distributions were compared (a) The steep slope (b is always approximately 3) with predictions by Zhao-Baker (7), Dirlik (1), and Tovo- (b) Insensitivity to mean stress. Because of the tensile Benasciutti (5 and 6). An error index was computed using residual stresses left by the welding process local the square of the life deviation from estimates from a stresses at the critical location do not normally go into time domain rainflow count. Both the Dirlik and the Tovocompression.

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assumes that its position depends on a combination of the two which depends on only one parameter. This parameter may be determined by inverse Fourier transforming a time history from a PSD and then rainflow counting it, as Dirlik and others have done. The upper and lower bounds can be estimated from any peak probability density distribution, and there are ways of estimating that distribution which do not rely on the amplitude distribution being Gaussian. Benasciutti (5) applied this approach to tests by Sarkani et. al. (27) using welded specimens as in section 3.2.3 above but subjected to non-Gaussian loading histories. Good correlations were obtained.

Table 2 Fatigue test results and predictions. Data used for N=aS-b is a=1.7811e12, b=3.21

Mean stress effects have had very little attention in the past, but ways of allowing for it are now being actively developed by Petrucci et. al. (11 and 12). The Goodman hypothesis is applied to the range-mean probability matrix to produce equivalent ranges before estimating life.

4. Future developments 5 Conclusion Most of the existing techniques, including the Dirlik formula, are limited in three ways. (1) The time history must have stable statistical properties, i.e. it must be stationary. This is a condition which must be met by all applications of simple PSD data. (2) The amplitude probability density distribution of the time history must be Gaussian. (3) No allowance is made for the effect of mean stress on fatigue life. Condition (1) can be controlled by choosing a suitable sampling period. Most real histories are stationary over at least short periods, which may be seconds, hours or even days depending on the application. It is essential to arrange sampling to match these periods, so that the FFT operation is only performed on stationary records. The speed and storage capacity of modern computers, even physically small ones, has practically eliminated this problem. Condition (2) is more difficult, and is an active research area at present. Many service histories are non-Gaussian, and it has been shown that deviations affect life. The TovoBenasciutti, method (ref. 6), has been developed to address this problem. Two probability density distributions of stress or strain ranges place bounds on a life prediction. The first links a turning point (peak or trough) with the next turning point in a history. This gives a range with the minimum value likely to determine fatigue damage. Usually rainflow counting will identify more damaging pairings. The other distribution is given by the narrow band assumption, which pairs a peak with a ‘mirror image’ trough. The probability distribution of adjacent peaks and troughs therefore allows a lower bound to be placed on damage, and the narrow-band assumption gives an upper bound. The rainflow distribution must lie between these bounds, and the Tovo-Benasciutti approach

Estimation of fatigue life from frequency domain data is now an accepted practice, particularly when life estimates are being based on Finite Element models. Estimates use the Power Spectral Density of a stress or strain history. An empirical formula developed by Dirlik, giving the probability distribution of rainflow ranges from the moments of the PSD, is widely accepted for use with stationary Gaussian loading histories. It is not restricted to particular forms of the Power Spectral Density provided that low-order moments can be evaluated, and in effect removes the conventional distinction between narrowband and wide-band fatigue loading. Techniques for predicting lives for time histories with non-Gaussian amplitude probability density distributions are in an advanced stage of development, and ways of dealing with mean stress have been proposed. 6. References (1) Dirlik, T., PhD thesis, “Application of Computers to Fatigue Analysis”, Warwick University, 1985. (2) Bishop, N.W.M., and Sherratt, F., “A theoretical solution for the estimation of ‘Rainflow’ ranges from power spectral density data”, Fat. Frac. Eng. Mats. Struct, 13, pp.311-326, 1990. (3) Braccesi, C., Cianneti, F., Lori, G., Pioli, D., “Fatigue behaviour analysis of mechanical components subjected to random bimodal stress process; frequency domain approach”, Int. J. Fatigue, 27, pp.335-345, 2005. (4) Bouyssy, V., Naboishikov, S.M., Rackwitz, R., “Comparison of analytical counting methods for Gaussian processes”, Structural Safety, 12, pp.35-37, 1993. (5) Benasciutti, D., “Fatigue analysis of random loadings”, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ferrera, Italy, 2004. (6) Benasciutti, D., Tovo, R., “Spectral methods for

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lifetime prediction under wide-band stationary random processes”, Int. J. Fatigue, 27 (8), pp.867-877, August 2005. (7) Zhao, W.W., Baker, M.J. “On the probability density function of rainflow stress range for stationary Gaussian processes”, Int. J. Fatigue, 14 (2), pp.121-135, 1992. (8) Kim, J.J., Kim, H.Y., “Simple method for evaluation of fatigue damage of structures in wide-band random vibration”, J. Mech. Eng. Sci. C 208, pp.63-68, 1994. (9) Sakai, S., Okamura, H., “On the distribution of rainflow range for Gaussian random processes with bimodal PSD”, JSME Int. J. A 38, pp.440-445, 1995. (10) Fu, T.T., Cebon, D., “Predicting fatigue lives for bimodal stress spectral densities”, Int. J. Fatigue, 22, pp.11-21, 2000. (11) Petrucci, G., Zuccarello, B., “On the estimation of the fatigue cycle distribution from spectral density data”, J. Mech. Engng. Sci. C 13, pp.819-831, 1999. (12) Petrucci, G., Di Paola, M., Zuccarello, B “On the characterisation of random processes by spectral parameters”, J. Appl. Mech., 67, pp.519-526, 2000. (13) Lindgren, G., Rychlik, I., “Rainflow cycle distributions for fatigue prediction under gaussian load processes”, Fatigue Fract. Engng. Mater. Struct., 10, pp.251-260, 1987. (14) Zapatero, J., Moreno, B., Gonzalez-Herrera, A., Dominguez, J. “Numerical and experimental analysis of fatigue crack growth under random loading”, Int. J. Fatigue, 27 (8), pp.878-890, August 2005. (15) Loren, D., Lutes, S., Corazo, M., Hu, S., Zimmerman, J., “Stochastic fatigue damage accumulation”, J. Struct. Engng., 110, pp.2585-2601, 1984. (16) Tovo, R., “A damage based evaluation of probability density distribution for rainflow ranges from random processes” Int. J. Fatigue, 22, pp.425-429, 2000.

(17) Tovo, R., “On the fatigue reliability evaluation of structural components under service loading”, Int. J. Fatigue, 23, pp.587-598, 2001. (18) Tovo, R., “Cycle distribution and fatigue damage under broad-band random loading”, Int. J. Fatigue, 24(11), pp.1137-1147. (19) Wirsching, P.H., Shehata, A.M., Fatigue under wideband random stresses using the rainflow method”, J. Engng. Mats. Tech., Trans. ASME, July 1977, pp.205-211. (20) Wirsching, P.H., Light,M.C., “Fatigue under wideband random stresses”, J. Struct. Div., ASCE, 106, pp.15931607, 1980. (21) Tunna, J.M., “Random load fatigue: theory and experiment”, Proc. Inst. Mech. Engrs. 199, pp.248257, 1985. (22) Kam, J.C.P., Dover, W.D., “Fast fatigue assessment for offshore structures under random stress history”, Proc. Inst. Civ. Engrs., Part 2, 1988, 85, Dec., pp.689-700. (23) Rychlik, I.,”A new definition of the rainflow cycle counting method”, Int. J. Fatigue, 9 (2), 1987. (24) Rychlik, I., “Note on cycle counts in irregular loads”, Fat. Frac. Engrg. Mats. Struct. 16(4), pp.377-390, 1993. (25) Yu, L., Das, P.K., Barltrop, N.D.P. “A new look at the effect of bandwidth and non-normality on fatigue damage”, Fat. Frac. Engrg. Mats. Struct., 27 (1), Jan 2004. (26) Sarkani, S., “Influence of high-frequency components on fatigue of welded joints”, Int. J. Fatigue, 12, N0. 2, pp.115-120, 1990. (27) Sarkani, S., Michaelov, G.,Kihl, D.P., Beach, J.E., “Fatigue of welded joints under wide-band loadings”, Prob. Engng. Mechanics, 11, pp.221-227, 1996.

MEMBERSHIP The Engineering Integrity Society is an independent charitable organisation, supported and sponsored by industry. The Society is committed to promoting events and publications, providing a forum for experienced engineers and new graduates to discuss current issues and new technologies. We aim for both company and personal development and to inspire newly qualified engineers to develop their chosen profession. Events run provide an ideal opportunity for engineers to meet others who operate in similar fields of activity over coffee and lunch. All of our events enable engineers to establish and renew an excellent ‘contact’ base while keeping up to date with new technology and developments in their field of interest. We are involved in a wide range of Industrial sectors including Automotive, Aerospace, Civil, Petrochemical etc and continue to be interested in new members from all sectors. Benefits: • EIS members receive a subscription to ‘Engineering Integrity’, mailed direct to their office or private address. • Discounts to EIS events. • Access to Task Groups, to take part, or to receive information and recommendations. Fees:

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What Engineers need to know about the Tyre/Road Interface We all need roads. People use them to get to work, without roads industry could not operate, we would not find food in our supermarkets. Our roads are designed, built and used by many different types of vehicle for many purposes. They need to be maintained until they reach a condition when they are replaced. Different types of engineer are involved throughout the life-cycle of a road. From engineers involved with their design, construction and maintenance, to those involved in the vehicle and tyre industries. This paper considers a common link between these engineers and those who use our roads. This common link is the tyre / road interface i.e. the points of contact that the tyres on a vehicle make with the road surface. This interface affects everyone using our roads whether they are on a bicycle, motorbike, car or truck. The tyre / road interface is a complex interaction of many factors that many of the driving public take for granted. Whilst hard hitting TV commercials vividly highlight the consequences of drink driving or excessive speed, do they appreciate the engineering that allows them to drive safely on busy roads. The majority are probably oblivious to how their vehicle is constantly interfacing the road through its tyres using technologies such as ABS and other proprietary systems. These technologies and systems have undoubtedly saved many lives by compensating for peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s varied driving abilities, particularly in response to changing conditions. One of the simplest, is what happens when it rains and water affects the tyre / surface interface. The media is full of dire warnings regarding the implications of climate change and extreme weather events. Flooded roads obviously make them impassable. But do the driving public know just how much dry grip is lost every time it rains. The measurement of road surface grip, involves wetting the road surface and measuring the effect of this at 30 mph using a smooth friction measuring tyre. Under these standardised test conditions, it is possible for a road made with aggregates that become polished due to trafficking to lose up to 80% of its dry grip. The road / friction measuring tyre interface is very sensitive to the presence of water. The interface being measured will have changed when a few drops of rain on the windscreen cause the driver to think about putting on the wipers. A film of water is forming between the two surfaces which will reduce the measured grip. As the road becomes wet, this film of water thickens. At slow speed this may not become an issue. At higher speeds and amounts of water, a wedge of water forms under the rotating tyre causing it to effectively float on a film of water.

reducing this. Unlike the standard smooth friction measuring tyre, the tyres used on vehicles must have at least a minimum tread depth. The same applies to a road surface. Tyre tread and road surface texture work together to remove bulk water from the interface. Just as the tyre tread pattern influences the wet weather characteristics of the tyre, the same can be said for the road surface. Two scales of road surface texture are important. The texture of the road surface is termed macrotexture and is controlled by the size and distribution of aggregate particles used in its manufacture. A second scale is termed microtexture and relates to the surface texture of individual aggregate particles. This microtexture scale helps break through the reduced films of water. Just like tyres, a new road surface will start to wear as it is trafficked. The replacement of worn tyres is easy compared to replacing a worn road surface that has reached the end of its life. A nine-year review of Englandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main road network found the main reason to be excessive loss of aggregate particles detrimentally influencing the tyre / road interface. From the perspective of the road engineer, this has prompted a rethink of what is required from the road surface and the role of texture at the road / tyre interface. Loss of aggregate particles can be minimised by reducing the size of aggregate particles and enclosing them in more bitumen. Testing these smaller textured road surfaces using high speed simulated high speed braking tests has found them to perform better than conventional road surface materials. This is thought to be due to their greater number of contact surfaces available to interface with tyre tread blocks and a macrotexture that allows bulk water removal. This short paper has introduced the important role of engineers and the tyre / road interface. Our highway infrastructure would not function without different types of engineer working in their respective areas. From the perspective of the road engineer relatively little is used from the vehicle and tyre industries in the design, construction and maintenance of our roads. Should road engineers continue to work in isolation as advances in vehicle safety systems and tyre technologies may be happening. Perhaps it is time for all the different types of engineer to start talking to one another? Dr David Woodward Reader in Infrastructure Engineering Ulster University

Tyres and road surfaces must therefore possess a means of

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Fatigue 2017

Downing College, Cambridge, UK 3-5 July 2017 First Announcement and Call for Papers FOREWORD Fatigue 2017 will bring the international fatigue and durability community together to share knowledge, and understand the challenges, in using high performance materials for reliable and cost effective products. The conference builds on the long established philosophy of the Engineering Integrity Society to provide a forum for practising engineers and researchers to exchange ideas and experiences in all aspects of structural integrity. The 3 day conference will focus on the complex interplay between materials and their processing, advanced manufacturing methods, and the subsequent durability and reliability of the products. Contributions will be welcome from all disciplines, and from all industries and research organisations. As well as giving practitioners an opportunity to keep up to date in the latest developments in durability of materials and structural analysis techniques, the conference will provide an excellent forum for researchers to promote their work and enhance its transfer to, and impact on, industrial applications. LOCATION The conference will take place at Downing College, University of Cambridge. Cambridge is one of the most important and picturesque cities in East Anglia. It is the county town of Cambridgeshire and the seat of one of the oldest universities in the British Isles. Downing College was founded in 1800 through a bequest made by Sir George Downing. The College’s beautiful neo-classical buildings are set in spacious and peaceful gardens in the centre of Cambridge. CALL FOR PAPERS A Special Issue of extended papers selected from the conference will be published in Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures. A selection of conference papers, including those of the Durability Prize winners, will be published in Engineering Integrity, the Journal of the EIS. We are particularly interested in papers that address the questions: • Do reduced manufacturing costs compromise durability, or the future life extension of aging machines? • Are components made by additive layer manufacturing as durable and reliable as those made by conventional methods? International Scientific Committee

Professor Hong Youshi (China) Professor Filippo Berto (Italy) Dr Yee Han Tai (UK) Professor Martin Bache (UK) Professor Jie Tong (UK) Professor Luca Susmel (UK) Professor Ir. Dr. Shahrum Abdullah (Malaysia)

Local Technical Committee Dr John Yates Robert Cawte Paul Roberts Dr Martin Whittaker Professor Filippo Berto Professor Angelo Maligno Dr Ali Mehmanparast Dr Peter Bailey

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• How durable are novel materials? Do they follow the same fatigue life correlations as traditional metallic materials? • Will multi-scale modelling give engineers better tools for assessing fatigue and durability? • Can experimental data and service experience be effectively integrated into software tools for fatigue and durability? EIS DURABILITY PRIZE The EIS Durability Prize will be awarded to the best presentation given by an engineer up to the age of 25 on the date of submission. (Potential entrants please provide date of birth with abstract). SUBMISSION OF PAPERS You are kindly requested to submit an abstract (one A4 page maximum, only in pdf format, size lower than 1MB) to the Conference Secretariat by 31 March 2016. The abstract should contain: Title of the paper Authors (full address of the company, email, personal titles of the corresponding author and co-authors) Statement of contents and main points The abstract should clearly emphasise the main scientific, technical, economic or practical aspects of the paper. KEY DATES Deadline for receipt of abstract - 31 March 2016 Notification of abstract acceptance - 30 April 2016 Full papers to be received - 30 September 2016 PROCEEDINGS AND EXHIBITION All accepted papers will be included in the conference proceedings. The proceedings containing the full texts will be distributed to delegates at the registration desk. An exhibition of material testing equipment and other fatigue related services is planned. Interested companies should contact the Conference Secretariat. HOTEL ACCOMMODATION Rooms have been reserved in Halls of Residence at Downing College. These are en-suite and of a high standard. The number of rooms available is limited and early reservation, through the Conference Secretariat, is recommended. CONFERENCE SECRETARIAT Sara Atkin: Engineering Integrity Society, 17 Harrier Close, Cottesmore, Rutland, LE15 7BT, UK Tel. +44 (0)1572 811315 Email: info@e-i-s.org.uk Website: www.fatigue2017.com Organising Committee Dr John Yates Robert Cawte Paul Roberts Trevor Margereson Sara Atkin

Conference Secretariat

Sara Atkin Engineering Integrity Society 17 Harrier Close Cottesmore Rutland, LE15 7BT, UK Tel. +44 (0)1572 811315 Email: info@e-i-s.org.uk Website: www.fatigue2017.com


The 2016 Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition will be held on 15 March in the Silverstone Wing. Following on from another successful exhibition last year the number of exhibition tables has been increased to 70. All these stands have been booked and we are delighted to offer visitors the opportunity to speak with exhibitors from a wide variety of sectors. Entrance to the exhibition and open forums is free and complimentary refreshments will be available. Car parking is also free of charge. A number of open forums will be held throughout the day on a diverse range of topics. The panels will be made up of experts from industry who will give short presentations expanding on the technical developments and take questions from the floor. 11.00-11.45 Reviewing Best Practices in Road Load Data & Analysis - Where it all Goes Wrong Chairman: David Ensor (HORIBA MIRA) Panel: Adrian Lincoln (Prosig), Bipan Jain (JLR), Herbert Wernigg (Dewesoft), Geoff Rowlands (HORIBA MIRA) This forum will build on a number of previous discussion groups. We will initially provide examples of where deviation from best practices and lack of experience or understanding of the background principles show RLDA exercises can go wrong. The forum will start with a short presentation illustrating the whole RLDA process (from request to analysed results). The discussion will go on to look at how modern equipment and software tools, by successfully masking the underlying fundamental principles from the user, can often create issues. This is especially true when handing information (data) from one stage to the next. There will then be an open forum led by a panel of experienced engineers, using anonymous questions where possible from the exhibition delegates. 11.30 - 12.15 Asset Management - Whole Life Modelling Chairman: Andrew Halfpenny (HBM nCode) Panel: Andy Rhodes (Serco), Jarek Rosinski (Transmission Dynamics) The forum will review the long term data field data collection techniques of plant equipment, and then discuss how the data can be used in the modelling of asset deterioration and whole life costing. This includes optimising maintenance regimes to produce substantial savings, and how changes to a part of the system can influence the maintenance programme. 14.00 - 14.45 Accelerated Testing Chairman: Geoff Rowlands (HORIBA MIRA) Panel: Andrew Halfpenny (HBM nCode), Paul Roberts (HBM nCode) There is never enough time to do all the tests required in a test programme, and so this forum will be a review of methods of accelerating testing. These include editing of signals, simpler test profiles, and better design of tests, while retaining the integrity of the result. 14.15 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 15.00 Tyre Road Interface - Characteristics of the Road Chairman: Norman Thornton (EIS) Panel: David Woodward (Ulster University), Owen Ardill (Highways England)

The forum will debate the functional characteristics of the road surface and how the contact patch is related to tyre performance and vehicle dynamics. The debate will include tyre and road construction and what happens at the road / tyre interface due to weather and wear.

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The following companies will be exhibiting: A&D Europe AB Mech Design and Analysis Ltd AcSoft Ltd A&D Europe ADwin Aerodyn Ltd Airbus

Polytec

Alfasoft

Racelogic Ltd

Alicona UK Ltd

RDP Electronics Ltd

ASDEC

Sensor Technology Ltd

bf1systems Ltd

Sensors UK Ltd

Bruel & Kjaer

Servotest

Calex Electronics Ltd

Siemens Industry Software Simulation & Test Ltd

CaTs3

Smart Fibres

Data Physics (UK) Ltd

Smithers Rapra & Smithers Pira Ltd

Datron Technology Ltd

Star Hydraulics

Data Acquisition and Testing Services Ltd

Strainsense

Dewesoft UK Ltd

Techni Measure

Dewetron

Teslatest Systems

DJB Instruments UK Ltd

Thermal Vision Research

Gantner Instruments

THP Systems Ltd

GOM UK Ltd

Tiab Ltd

HBM UK Ltd

Transmission Dynamics

Head Acoustics

Vibration Research

Interface Force Measurements Ltd

Vishay Measurements Group UK Ltd

Ixthus Instrumentation Ltd

Yokogawa Measurement Technologies Ltd

KDP Electronic Systems Ltd

Zwick Roell

Kemo Ltd Kistler M&P International (UK) Ltd Meggitt Sensing Systems

For more information or to register your attendance, please contact the EIS Secretariat (Sara Atkin): info@e-i-s.org.uk or visit the website www.e-i-s.org.uk

Micro-Epsilon Moog Muller BBM VibroAcoustic Systeme Nprime Ltd PC Environmental Ltd PCB Piezotronics Phoenix Calibration and Services Ltd Photo-Sonics Photron (Europe) Ltd

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Industry News Welcome to the Industry News section of the journal. Thank you to everyone for their submissions. The nominal limit for entry is 200 words, which should be sent to eis@amberinstruments.com or posted to EIS, c/o Amber Instruments Ltd, Dunston House, Dunston Road, Chesterfield, S41 9QD. We would appreciate you not sending entries by fax. British Safety Council. The cost of breaking the law just went up; keeping your employees healthy and safe pays From 1 February 2016 Crown Courts and Magistrates Courts in England and Wales will be bound by tough new guidelines when sentencing offenders who have been convicted of breaking health and safety law. For the first time courts in England and Wales will be required to follow comprehensive sentencing guidelines. Neal Stone, Policy and Standards Director at the British Safety Council, said: “We broadly welcome the new guidelines and in particular that in future that three factors will be key in determining fines for health and safety offences: the degree of harm caused, the culpability of the offender, and; the turnover of the offending organisation. Having consulted our members we were able to say in response to the Sentencing Council’s proposals that there was overwhelming support for this change which would help ensure greater consistency in the sentencing practice of our courts and a level of fines that fit the crime. “This long overdue change is specifically in relation to the level of fines imposed and in certain cases the use of imprisonment as a sanction. What is clear is that the courts have on occasions failed to properly take into account the seriousness of the offence in weighing up the appropriate penalty. To date the largest fine imposed in Great Britain for a health and safety offence – £15 million – was on Transco in 2005. That record may soon change.’

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British Engineering to bring Driverless Shuttles to London British manufactured shuttle joins GATEway driverless car pilot in Greenwich January 2016 – Three British companies are working in collaboration to develop new iconic automated pods for public trials this summer. Using entirely British engineering and software capabilities, Westfield Sportscars, Heathrow Enterprises and Oxbotica will develop pods capable of operating fully autonomously and safely on the streets of London, as part of the GATEway driverless car project taking place in the Royal Borough of Greenwich. The three companies, who have joined the GATEway project as consortium members, will be working together to develop the existing Ultra PODS currently in service at Heathrow Airport. Operating at Terminal 5 for nearly five years, these pods have already carried 1.5m passengers and completed 3m kilometres of fully automated operation. Led by Westfield Sportcars, these pods will now be adapted to navigate the streets of Greenwich without the need for dedicated tracks. The GATEway project (Greenwich Automated Transport Environment) is an £8 million project jointly funded by Innovate UK and industry. Led by TRL, which has over 50 years’ of experience in vehicle automation, the project will investigate public perception, reaction and engagement with a range of different types of automated vehicles. Dynamic finite element modelling of valve closing events leads to improved prediction of loads and greater valve durability with fewer design iterations January 2016 Federal-Mogul Powertrain, a division of Federal-Mogul Holdings Corporation (NASDAQ: FDML), has developed a simplified transient dynamic simulation model of valve closing action in order to predict

dynamic loading on engine valves. By improving the accuracy of calculated deformation and stress under load, the technique enables valve fatigue life to be estimated more reliably and helps to ensure optimum material selection from the early stages of a new engine design. “The dynamic loading during valve closing is a decisive factor in designing intake and exhaust valves,” says Gian Maria Olivetti, Chief Technology Officer, Federal-Mogul Powertrain. “With the new simulation method, we can quickly calculate the maximum expected valve loads, thus saving time and ensuring targeted development.” In the design of intake and exhaust valves for combustion engines, especially those with a high degree of forced induction by supercharging or turbocharging, particular attention is paid to the loading conditions during valve closing. The valve drive system is often still under development as the valves are being designed for new engine projects, restricting valve manufacturers to using simplified simulation models which limit valve loading evaluation to the main parameters such as valve closing speed, valve spring return force and the clearance between valve stem and guide. During the closing event, one side of the valve usually contacts the valve seat first, which can introduce heavy loading of the valve stem. The dynamic simulation model of the closing event, as developed and tested by FederalMogul Powertrain, enables precise calculation of these loads that in turn allows components to be configured optimally from the concept stage and life span to be determined more accurately. Engineers’ Guide to Nickel Aluminium Bronze Launched A new publication, launched at today’s Marine Corrosion Forum in London, offers practical guidance for engineers wishing to specify, design or produce nickel aluminium bronze components


for marine, aerospace and other sectors. Copper Development Association’s ‘Guide to Nickel Aluminium Bronze for Engineers’ assembles, for the first time, technical information previously scattered across industry publications and defence standards, making it readily accessible and presenting it in an easily-browsed and -digested form. The publication aims to give an engineering overview of the properties of the alloys, their specifications and their applications for operators, designers, manufacturers and fabricators. Their corrosion behaviour is explained and guidance is given to obtain optimum service performance. Methods of manufacture, welding and fabrication are described and a list of references and useful publications is provided. The Appendix covers full details of designations, specifications and related composition and mechanical property requirements. The publication has been written by Ivan Richardson, and reviewed by a group of technical metals and corrosion specialists. Ivan Richardson is an industry specialist in copper alloys. His experience spans all aspects of manufacture, product development, testing and metallurgical investigation. The Guide will also form the basis of a presentation at Technical Committee TEG 523X at NACE International’s Corrosion 2016 conference this March. Available to download from www. copperalliance.org.uk/nab, the Guide can also be requested in hard copy, free-of-charge, from the website. Dimensional X-ray Computed Tomography Conference 2016 10th May 2016, National Physical Laboratory This conference will give you the opportunity to meet leading experts working in the field of X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and to discover the latest developments of dimensional

XCT for industry, health and many other applications. The conference is also expected to define synergies and opportunities of collaborations between different organisations. The conference will host several presentations, from the following speakers: Ian Sinclair, University of Southampton, Michael McCarthy, National Physical Laboratory, Paul Bills, University of Huddersfield, David Eatock, Airbus, Moataz Attallah, University of Birmingham, Robert Atwood, Diamond Light Source, Robert Speller, University College London, Andrew Lodge, Rolls-Royce, David Bate, Nikon Metrology, Jay Warnett, University of Warwick, Nick Brierley, Manufacturing Technology Centre, Joe Lifton, University of Southampton. This conference is for anyone with an interest in: • Quantification (for example, internal and external geometry of samples) • Sample inspection and quality control (measurements of voids, porosity, cracks) • Non-destructive testing • State-of-the-art developments of XCT There is a unique and exciting opportunity to go on a guided tour of a few of NPL’s laboratories to discover our XCT, Large Volume Metrology laboratories and National Freeform Centre. Cost: £50 (plus VAT). Student registration fee: £25 (plus VAT), free if poster is accepted - please submit poster title and abstract by 30 March 2016 (Note posters format to be A1 portrait.) Lunch will be provided. Register at https://www.regonline. co.uk/Register/Checkin. aspx?EventID=1789024 Morgan Advanced Materials Makes Strides in Zero Flow Offset Measurement Morgan Advanced Materials has for the first time developed a method to

measure the zero flow offset property for a broad spectrum of transducers, optimising overall flow measurement accuracy in ultrasonic sensors. Morgan, a global leader in the design and manufacture of advanced materials for use in demanding environments, has made significant advances in minimising zero flow offset, to levels as low as 60ps. By streamlining the transducer design and production methods, this has been shown to restrict variation to less than 5% over a wide range of environmental conditions. Put simply, the lower the variation, the more accurate the meter reading. In industrial and domestic ultrasonic flow measurement applications accuracy in measuring flow rates in dynamic flow conditions is essential. Given that customers are charged on the basis of their meter readings, the reading needs to accurately reflect the quantity of material used, be this gas or water. Measuring the “time of flight” between the upstream and downstream transducers, and then reversing the process gives two figures which, together, provide a measurement of the flow rate of liquids and gases. However, even where there is no flow in the tube, there is typically a minimal discrepancy between the two. This phenomenon, known as ‘zero flow offset’, is a by-product of the physical constraints of materials and signal processing technologies that may impact on the accuracy of meters. Advancements made by Morgan’s team of sensor specialists have gone a long way towards addressing this. Growing the talent pool of UK automotive leaders Car giants BMW and Jaguar Land Rover have joined forces to drive up managerial skills in the UK’s automotive industry. The

ProLead

training

programme

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Industry News combines existing qualifications and tailors them to provide automotive leaders with in depth management and technical knowledge. It has been developed using best practice from the worldwide operations of UK based car manufacturers. The programme, developed and funded through the Automotive Industrial Partnership (an industry skills collaboration, supported by government), leads to a higher level qualification, encompassing both theoretical and practical training in leadership and technical management. ProLead is partly modelled on Germany’s well established and highly valued Meister qualification, which is a pre-requisite for anyone entering this role in the country. This generates a talent pool of future leaders wellprepared for promotions as they arise. BMW and Jaguar Land Rover are working together to ensure it becomes a standard qualification and around 100 of their managers are among the first cohort on ProLead training courses. BMW and Jaguar Land Rover anticipate putting hundreds of people through the programme over the next few years with the challenge to increase uptake across other businesses in the automotive and other industrial sectors. For more information about the Automotive Industrial Partnership go to www.automotiveip.co.uk Registration opens for the 11th International Symposium on Friction Stir Welding

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grouping of America, Europe and Asia. It presents an unrivalled opportunity to meet leading authorities on FSW including, researchers, practitioners, customers and suppliers from around the world. Attendance at the symposium provides an opportunity to hear the latest developments in this technology from speakers who are regarded as world authorities in the subject, and to discuss various topics with them. Registration has now opened for the upcoming symposium, which takes place on the 17–19 May 2016. Early registration is £475 per delegate and £450 for authors (one author discount per paper). After Friday 1 April 2016 all registrations will increase to £500 per delegate. As spaces are limited, early registration is strongly advised. To register, please visit the symposium website at http://www.fswsymposium. co.uk/ FSW, invented by Wayne Thomas at TWI in 1991, overcomes many of the problems associated with traditional joining techniques. FSW is a solidstate process which produces welds of high quality in difficult-to-weld materials such as aluminium, and is fast becoming the process of choice for manufacturing lightweight transport structures such as boats, trains and aeroplanes. APC 5 Competition Opens

TWI, where friction stir welding was first invented, plays host to the next International Symposium on Friction Stir Welding (FSW) at its new state-ofthe-art facilities near Cambridge, UK later this year.

• Competition now open. APC5: Driving UK Productivity through Low Carbon Propulsion Technology • £35 million grant funding available (combined project value target to be in excess of £70m) • Fifth competition round from APC

Organised on behalf of the Friction Stir Welding Licensees Association by TWI, the symposium is held every two years, rotating around the major FSW user

14 January 2016: This week marks the opening for applications to the latest APC funding competition aiming to support in excess of £70 million in

collaborative projects. The APC, in association with Innovate UK, will welcome applications from consortia with low carbon propulsion research and development projects that can deliver significant reductions in vehicle CO2 or other harmful emissions. Applicants will have until 23 March 2016 to register for the competition and until 30 March 2016 to submit their proposals. The competition will fund innovative low carbon propulsion technologies that will deliver significant reductions in vehicle emissions compared to current best-in-class technologies and have the capability to develop the UK’s low carbon vehicle technology supply chain. Projects must demonstrate the development of technologies around one or more of the following areas: • Internal combustion engines • Lightweight Vehicle and powertrain structures • Electric machines and power electronics storage and energy • Energy management • Alternative propulsion systems Project submissions are judged on both Technical and Value for Money considerations. Total eligible project costs should be between £5 million and £40 million and projects are expected to have a duration of 18 to 42 months. All projects must be collaborative and business-led, include a vehicle manufacturer or a tier 1 supplier and an SME partner. Project consortia can only request up to 50% of the total project costs as a publically funded grant. To register and apply https://interact. innovateuk.org Three outstanding celebrated as Young Engineers of the Year

women Woman

Recognising their ground-breaking work in engineering, the Institution


of Engineering and Technology (IET) has presented its prestigious Young Woman Engineer of the Year awards to three brilliant young women. All will play an ambassadorial role for the engineering and technology professions in the forthcoming months, promoting engineering careers to girls and young people. IET Young Woman Engineer of the Year: Audio Engineer Orla Murphy from Jaguar Land Rover, aged 25. IET Mary George Prize for Apprentices: Controls Engineer Emma Goulding from Siemens, aged 23. Women’s Engineering Society (WES) Award: Process Improvement Manager Helen Cavill from M&H Plastics, aged 31. The IET Young Woman Engineer of the Year Awards celebrate today’s most successful female engineers, encouraging them to become role models to inspire more girls to become engineers and help address the gender imbalance in engineering and science. Recognising and celebrating outstanding female engineers has never been so important. Recent statistics from the IET’s Skills and Demand in Industry survey showed that women represent only 9% of the engineering workforce. Naomi Climer, IET President, said: “I’d like to congratulate the three winners who have been recognised and rewarded for their talent. They are a real credit to the engineering profession. “But let’s not forget that these women will also help to champion engineering careers to the next generation, particularly girls, who may need a bit of encouragement to consider a career in engineering and technology.” Institution launches student Unmanned Aircraft Systems Challenge 2016 - Sixteen student teams from around the UK and one

Egyptian team to compete to build best aircraft without a human pilot

Engineered for business, London: Savoy Place opens

November 2015 - The best young engineers in the UK will design and build an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS), also known as a drone, as part of the annual competition run by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. This aircraft without a human pilot onboard is predominantly known for its use in military and special operations, such as delivering humanitarian aid.

The Institution of Engineering and Technology’s new flagship venue IET London: Savoy Place has officially opened its doors, following a £30 million, two year redevelopment on London’s embankment.

The competition will see some of the UK’s best young engineers develop their drones before taking on other teams in a ‘fly-off’, where they will be challenged to transport a package as accurately and rapidly as possible. John Turton, Chairman of the UAS Challenge, said: “The event has been set up to give students real world engineering experience before they leave university. The competition also offers recruitment opportunities for employers. “The Challenge helps students to learn more about practical aerospace engineering skills as well as develop connections with other like-minded students from other universities. “The competition directly supports the Institution’s objectives of inspiring young people about engineering while raising awareness of engineering and increasing the profile of the Institution.” Now in its second year, the UAS Challenge is the fourth student engineering challenge event run by the Institution, following Formula Student, the Railway Challenge and the Design Challenge. The event will be taking place at Pershore Airfield near Worcester on the 6 and 7 July 2016. The UAS Challenge welcomes Northrop Grumman, Thales and Siemens as Gold Sponsors for the event.

IET

The UK headquarters of the Institution of Engineering and Technology will act as an engineering hub in London for engineers everywhere, featuring a plethora of cutting edge exhibitions and engineering spaces combining connectivity, accessibility and inspiring views of the capital. Celebrating the past, present and future of the IET, Savoy Place is home to a series of exhibits highlighting the engineering history of the IET, as well as the future of engineering. These include a display of ‘100 engineering ideas that changed the world’, which honours the creations of engineers from around the world and a display of ‘126 most influential engineers’, which features a range of engineers, past and present, from around the world. These exhibitions celebrate the work and achievements of engineers who have dramatically improved the quality of our lives over the years. Naomi Climer, IET President, said: “We are delighted that IET London: Savoy Place is now transformed from top to bottom, other features include two brand new auditoriums, a second lecture theatre, enlarged riverside suite, state of the art boardrooms, Faraday Centre and Maxwell Library and roof terrace with unrivalled views of the Thames and the London skyline named after aviation pioneer Amy Johnson. There is also a digital chandelier hung in the reception and live video walls featuring the latest engineering innovations on the second floor.

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Product News ZEMIC strain gauges added to Variohm EuroSensor product range December 2015: Variohm EuroSensor has added ZEMIC strain gauges to its comprehensive range of sensors and transducers. The range covers a very wide selection of standard strain gauges as well as special purpose and customisable versions that suit use for high precision transducer applications, hostile environments, wide temperature variation and more. Standard strain gauges are encapsulated in Constantan foil with phenolic-acetal backing and, with self-temperature compensation, are available in a variety of patterns and materials for research and industrial stress measurement. Versions with paper-based acetal backings are also supplied for use in composite materials or cement structures. Special purpose strain gauges include Karma foil gauges with glass-fibre reinforced polyamide backing which have excellent heat-resistance and excellent insulation characteristics. Within the special purpose range, waterproof and submergible versions are available for use up to 50 bar (5 MPa). Special purpose strain gauges also suit applications where high elongation, uneven plastic deformation, high altitude and other challenging environmental factors need to be resolved. ZEMIC strain gauges for high precision transducers are available in four model versions with Constantan and Karma foil encapsulation to suit up to Class 0.02 transducers. With selftemperature and creep compensation these gauges excel where high elongation, excellent heat resistance and wide temperature range are prerequisites. In particular, versions are available to specifically suit electronic weighing instruments. Enquiries: Tel: +44 (0) 1327 351004 Email: graham@variohm.com Website: www.variohm.com

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Moisture problems can easily be mist Problems with fuel or water can be very serious in the aeronautical, aerospace and airship industries. A component made from one material may be perfect for containing liquid water or hydrocarbons, but can allow their vaporous to pass through virtually unchecked. Not only can this compromise safety but it can damage the electronics, navigation or power systems in a craft, missile or drone. Fortunately Versaperm measure this effect (permeability) across an exceptionally wide range of temperatures and pressures for just about every liquid, vapour material and component used in the industry. Conventional tests on materials, tanks, pipes, seals and components have been laboriously slow and expensive, even under room temperature conditions they can take days, weeks or even months - and produce results that are often neither accurate nor consistent. To overcome this, Versaperm produces a fully customisable version of its analytical vapour permeability measurement system which can employ sensors based on numerous different physical principles to suit almost any application. The system is simple to use, fast, precise and requires little or no re-calibration. Some results can be produced in as little as 30 minutes and accuracy is in the Parts Per Million (PPM) range for most commonly used materials and gasses (PPB in some cases). Versaperm offers a laboratory testing service and technical consultancy. Versaperm Ltd: Tel: +44 1628 777668 e.mail: info@versaperm.com 64-Bit Driver for DIAdem Measurement Software Application Data Translation announces the release of a new driver for the DIAdem measurement software. The driver

supports both the 32-bit and the 64-bit versions of DIAdem 2015 in conjunction with Data Translation’s current data acquisition hardware and its range of features. This includes USB modules for direct sensor connect like the DT9828 high-precision temperature data acquisition modules and the extensive range of devices for sound and vibration measurements, such as the DT9837 series and the DT9857E with 4 to 256 measurement channels. The DIAdem software application is an easy-to-use tool for loading, displaying, analysing and reporting measurement data and simulation data. With its optimised performance in 64-bit mode, DIAdem 2015 allows the efficient handling and analysis even of large data volumes and offers a wide range of new features. The new driver supports all analog inputs and outputs of Data Translation’s data acquisition modules with up to 24-bit and 32-bit resolution. If provided by the hardware, settings such as the thermocouple type, IEPE sensor support, AC/DC coupling and input range can be activated and configured in DIAdem, separately for each channel. The driver also supports the synchronous acquisition of digital signals, including the inputs of tachometers, counters and incremental encoders. In addition, multiple devices can be precisely synchronised through the Sync Bus of the Data Translation modules. Enquiries: Tel:+49 (0)7142/95 31-0 eMail: sales@datatranslation.eu Website: www.datatranslation.eu Imetrum launches ‘3D Precision Displacement Tracker (PDT)’ the world’s highest precision camera based 3D measurement system Bristol, UK, January 13, 2016: Imetrum, a world leader in noncontact precision measurement has launched a new precision, noncontact 3D measurement system. The Imetrum 3D Precision Displacement


Tracker (PDT) slashes setup times and provides richer data sets, without compromising measurement resolution or sampling speed. Pre-launch product demonstrations at world-leading universities and motorsport companies have already led to several system orders and glowing feedback from engineers working with composite materials and aerospace alloys, with comments such as “we’re seeing things we couldn’t measure before” and “cut our setup time from 3 days to half a day”. The 3D PDT uses pre-calibrated stereoscopic video cameras, combined with Imetrum’s patented Video GaugeTM software, to deliver precise non-contact measurements on any point that can be seen within the image. The 3D PDT eliminates the need to build frames for displacement sensors, bond strain gauges, run cabling or get too close to ‘hot’ objects, saving time and improving the safety of test environments. Adding the capability to take 3D displacement measurements at up to 0.5 μm resolution gives the company’s customers a wider range of opportunities to benefit from the precision, real-time measurement speed (up to 1000hz) and efficient workflows of sophisticated Video Gauge™ software.

for precise and measurement.

accurate

strain

Unless the environmental conditions of an application remain static, it is critical to know the temperature at the strain gauge location to correct for any change in resistance of the gauge due to temperature fluctuation (thermal output). Even as strain gauge manufacturers become more skilled in minimizing thermal output by controlling the metallurgy and heat treatment of the alloys used to produce the resistance grid, temperature monitoring to improve measurement accuracy continues to be of great importance. Micro-Measurements goes to great lengths to characterize the thermal output of its strain gauges, and it provides the appropriate fourth-order polynomial variables derived from the thermal output of each batch of gauges constructed of well-known materials. These variables are critical to minimizing the effect of thermal output on test data, a factor so critical to accurate strain measurement that Micro-Measurements offers temperature measurement capabilities in all its data acquisition systems, either via thermocouple inputs or an RTD.

Enquiries: Mandy Jackson. Imetrum Ltd. Tel: +44 (0) 1275 464443 E-mail: mandy.jackson@imetrum.com

For more information please contact straingage@vpgsensors.com Website: www.micro-measurements. com/transducer-class-strain-gages/ advanced-sensors/.

Micro-Measurements® Introduces Sensor Gauge With Built-In RTD for Accurate Temperature Measurement

Brüel & Kjær has created a new family of robust triaxial accelerometers for vibration measurements in harsh industrial environments - Type 4529

17 Nov 2015 — Micro-Measurements®, a brand of Vishay Precision Group, Inc. (VPG), today launched its new Sensor Gauge, which features a strain gauge and embedded resistance temperature detector (RTD) on the same substrate. Built on Micro-Measurements’ Advanced Sensors strain gauge technology, the new device simplifies layouts whilst meeting market demand

Designed as a replacement for the company’s popular Type 4506 model, the Type 4529 family has a tougher design and wider frequency range. They are nine times less sensitive to temperature fluctuations and 20 times less sensitive to base bending. Another major difference is that the new Type 4529-B has a single-axis

power supply, which allows much more flexibility. Now, accelerometer users can chose to measure with just one or two of the axes connected. Being able to make single-axial and biaxial measurements removes the need to connect all three channels, freeing up the data acquisition system for more accelerometers. If only one or two axes are of interest, the ability to disconnect other axes also reduces unnecessary test complexity. Having the flexibility to do this with the same accelerometer reduces the amount of accelerometers that testers need in their inventory. Type 4529 has a range of mounting surfaces and a selection of clips, helping engineers to save on set-up time and ensure accelerometers are correctly attached, making them ideal for structural testing. These enhancements make the Type 4529 suitable for use within a variety of application tests including aircraft, trains and satellites. More information is available on the website: http://www.bksv.com/products/ transducers/vibration/accelerometers/ accelerometers/4529-b-100 Miniature piezoelectric indirect force sensor minimises machine tool damage Ref: KIL/5445 The new measuring pin from Kistler (http://tinyurl.com/KIL-9240A), with its exceptionally small diameter of 8 mm and weight of only 34 g, is ideal for protecting a wide range of structures from overload damage. Fitting into an 8mm hole in the structure, the new piezoelectric strain sensor can be easily installed in any position to monitor the forces in a structure to warn of impending failure due to overload conditions. The small size and weight allows retro-fitting to existing installations without introducing measurement error.

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News from British Standards TDW/4/7 activity in 2015 and onwards into 2016 BSI’s TDW/4/7 committee on Design for Manufacture, A s s e m b l y , Disassembly and End-of-life processing (MADE) – chaired by Prof Brian Griffiths – had yet another busy, dynamic year during 2015. The committee was involved in a number of different projects and events, including the publication of the revised version of BS 7000-2 in September, ongoing work within the international standards body, ISO, to convert BS 8887-1 into an international standard, and early stages development work on a new part of the BS 8887 series. BS 7000-2:2015, Design management systems. Guide to managing the design of manufactured products, was published at the end of September 2015 becoming the latest addition to TDW/4/7’s growing list of standards: • BS 7000-2:2015, Design management systems. Guide to managing the design of manufactured products; • BS 8887-1:2006, Design for MADE – Part 1: General concepts, process and requirements; • BS 8887-2:2009, Design for MADE – Part 2: Terms and definitions; • BS 8887-220, Design for MADE – Part 220: The process of remanufacture; • BS 8887-240, Design for MADE – Part 240: Reconditioning; • BS 8887-211, Design for MADE – Part 211, Specification for reworking and remarketing of computing hardware. BS 8887-1:2006 is currently being developed as an international standard within ISO Technical Committee ISO/

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TC 10. A new UK-led working group, WG20, was set up to deal with the work with Brian Griffiths as its Convenor. Progress has been relatively slow so far as a number of additional internal working group ballots were needed in order to address comments and concerns from the countries involved in the work. However, after the latest 3rd round of internal balloting, WG20 would hope to be able to move the draft to its public comment voting stage later this year. The next annual plenary meeting series of ISO/TC 10 – when all of the various working groups meet ahead of the annual plenary meeting of the technical committee itself – takes place in May 2016, hosted by the German Standards Body, DIN, in Berlin. WG20 will be meeting as part of the Berlin meeting series.

at various locations around the country.

All public comment drafts are made available on the BSI draft review website:

With all of this work and activity, TDW/4/7 – and the broader TDW/4 committee area – is always looking for new committee members and experts to join its standards drafting groups, national committees or international working groups.

http://drafts.bsigroup.com/ Registration to the site is free and very straightforward. The site allows anyone interested in draft standards to review the documents and add any comments online. The comments are then circulated to the relevant BSI committee who review them and consider them as part of the comments resolution stage of the standards development process. In addition to its regular standards development work, TDW/4/7 is also kicking off another round of awarenessraising events in 2016. This follows the two successful events hosted by Brunel University in 2014 which were aimed at raising the profile of the BS 8887 series of standards and promoting the work that the committee is doing. The University of Sussex in Brighton have agreed to host the first event of 2016 which will be going ahead on Friday 19th February. Other universities represented on the committee are also looking into suitable dates to host similar events. Watch this space for news of an event near you as the committee is hoping to organize them

Also scheduled to start in 2016 is planned new work on a new part of the BS 8887 series of standards – a new guidance document aimed at helping designers choose an appropriate endof-life strategy. The draft is still at the very early stages of discussion but a subgroup of the committee are meeting early in the year to focus on taking it forward. Other TDW/4 committee areas are also going to be busy this year. The subcommittee responsible for BS 8888, TDW/4/8, is currently working on the next new edition of the technical production documentation and specification standard with publication expected in December 2016.

Further general information on taking part in standards work can be found at : http://www.bsigroup.com/en-GB/ about-bsi/uk-national-standards-body/ how-to-get-involved-with-standards/ If you would like more information on specific committees or their work programmes, the Standards Development website is a useful starting point: http://standardsdevelopment.bsigroup. com/ Finally, if you would like more information on any of TDW/4/7’s specific projects or work programme or if you would like to get involved in any way in the Design for MADE committee, please contact Sarah Kelly, Lead Programme Manager and Committee Secretary to TDW/4, at BSI on sarah.kelly@bsigroup.com.


Inspiring the Next Generation Firstly I should begin by introducing myself and putting some context as to why Science, Technology, Engineering and M a t h e m a t i c s ambassadors, (STEM ambassadors), are key to inspiring the next generation of talent. Born in North West London in the late 1980s I grew up in the fast paced 90s where technology was becoming a commodity. I had a seemingly random interest in lawnmowers and vacuum cleaners but was fortunate enough to see a space shuttle launch. So when I got a model rocket for Christmas at age 13, I had found my engineering outlet. Throughout my time at secondary school I put more and more effort into building bigger, more elaborate and possibly, more dangerous rockets. Unfortunately, my experience at school was not fantastic; to me the school seemed more interested in pupil’s exam results rather than passions and interests. Consequently, I understand the importance of encouraging young people to follow their dreams. I originally wanted to become a rocket engineer and went to Swansea University to study aerospace engineering with propulsion. At the end of the degree I realised that I had not thought about a suitable route into the career. Whilst I had good academic qualifications and some hands on engineering experience, I didn’t know the next steps to get into the industry. Fortunately my 3rd year supervisor suggested that I apply for an engineering doctorate in high temperature aerospace materials sponsored by Rolls-Royce Plc. I applied and to my amazement I started the doctorate in 2008. Around this time the media and the Government were starting to discuss the need to encourage more students into STEM subjects. Suddenly I realised that I could contribute and

I began supporting STEM activities in Derbyshire on a Rolls-Royce sponsored scheme called Science Alliance. The scheme paired local primary schools with a team of STEM ambassadors. Very quickly my model rocketry skills proved successful in a series of after school sessions, even with children, who were disengaged with the education system. From this activity I was given the title of “The Rocketman” as the sessions culminated in the group launching model rockets made from biscuits (for the fins) and chilli peppers (for the nose cone) to a height of 600ft.

2020. There is an overwhelmingly scary figure around the number of engineers required in the next 15 years and we must collectively do more, particularly to encourage females to ensure those gaps are filled. Over the coming issues I hope to explain and showcase some of those activities to hopefully inspire other engineers, scientists, technologists and mathematicians to become STEM ambassadors. I will leave you with this thought for now; we were all at school once upon a time. Grant Gibson EngD BEng (Hons) – Capability Acquisition Engineer, Additive Layer Manufacturing Centre of Competency, Rolls-Royce Plc. grant.gibson@rolls-royce.com Tel: 07469 375700.

Since then my role as a STEM ambassador has grown; I am now a lead Rolls-Royce/Bloodhound Super Sonic Car ambassador. I regularly deliver large scale public STEM events along with training new ambassadors. Rolls-Royce has a corporate target to reach 6 million people in a STEM context by

The Engineering Integrity Society is Supporting the Following Events:

IMechE - Vibrations in Rotating Machinery University Place University of Manchester 13-15 September 2016 *

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British Society for Strain Measurement’s 11th International Conference on Advances in Experimental Mechanics 5-7 September 2016 University of Exeter *

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News from Women’s Engineering Society Diversity engineering not

improving

in

marketplace, and we need to act now

it is a problem which needs solving by

is

to attract this future workforce.

women, a diversity committee or an

fast

outreach activity. In fact it is an issue

enough. After years of

If that alone wasn’t enough to stimulate

that every one of us needs to address in

effort, the engineering

action, other arguments should. We

every decision that we take and every

and

construction

have a skills shortage in engineering

project that we work on. Just as we

still

which is predicted to get worse over

need to be sure that we are following

struggling to get the

the next ten years. We will not be able

the principles of health and safety in

proportion of women

to fill these jobs if we recruit from only

everything we do, we need to follow

engineers above one

half of the population.

the principles of respect, diversity and

sectors

are

in ten, with other under-represented groups equally poorly represented.

inclusion. And finally, and crucially, women and certain groups of society (including

If you would like to find out more

Time has come for a concerted and

lesbian,

transgender,

about how the Women’s Engineering

co-ordinated effort to address this.

ethnic minority, and certain classes of

Society can help you address these

Individual pockets of excellence exist

society) are being denied equality of

challenges, get in touch with me at

within the industry and much money

choice. Girls do not see engineering

office@wes.org.uk. And remember that

has been spent on outreach activity

as being suitable for them, and other

inclusivity is a competency that has to

to persuade the next generation of

under-represented groups do not see

be learned and practiced continually

boys and girls that engineering is for

engineering as being inclusive enough

in order to ensure that it becomes

them. But what has been lacking is the

for them. These inequalities are often

embedded in best practice.

culture shift and the co-ordination that

compounded in people who have the

brings the need, and indeed the desire

characteristics

more

Disruptive Diversity - to a report written

for diversity into core business.

than one under-represented group

for the Institution of Civil Engineers by

(intersectionality), and these people

Dawn Bonfield which explores possible

Diversity and inclusion principles need

are

solutions to this challenge is due to be

to be pervasive - part of every decision

groups often do not feel comfortable

that is made, and constantly referenced.

in the sector, they are not respected

The philosophy of the removal of

sufficiently,

progress

Dawn Bonfield CEng, FICE, FIMMM,

barriers to diversity, in the hope that this

equally. They are being disadvantaged

FWES

is enough to actually create diversity,

in their career and life choices because

Chief Executive

is not sufficient. The door needs to be

the industry is inadequate at attracting

Women’s Engineering Society (WES)

unlocked, of course, but it has also got

them, reluctant to promote them, and

to be opened, and diversity invited in.

not sufficiently caring to support them

This is not favouritism to women and

back to work after career breaks.

under-represented groups - this is

This is not good enough. Something

business. Lack of diversity is costing

needs to be done to address these

the industry money in terms of lack

inequalities, and to ensure that we work

of skills, productivity, staff safety and

in an industry which can hold its head

morale, innovation, profit and creativity.

up and claim that it is truly welcoming

The industry is changing. The world

and inclusive of a diverse workforce.

gay,

doubly

black,

belonging

to

disadvantaged.

and

do

not

These

is changing. Disruptive technology,

32

big data, the lifestyle, values and

Although these inequalities are not

aspirations of young people all point to

deliberate or malicious, as an industry

a future which is different from the past.

we are guilty of complacency in not

Engineering needs this diversity and

addressing them adequately; in not

this creativity to thrive and the UK to

caring sufficiently to do something

remain competitive in the international

fundamental about it; in assuming that

released shortly.


News from Institution of Mechanical Engineers Dr Jenifer Baxter, Head of Energy and Environment at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, and Lead Author of the report said:

New report: closure of UK coal and nuclear plants to create electricity supply gap of up to 55% by 2025 • UK has neither the time, resources nor enough people with the right skills to build sufficient gas-fired or nuclear power stations to plug the gap • Greater reliance on interconnectors likely to be less secure and more expensive UK Government’s policy to close all coal-fired power stations by 2025, combined with the retirement of the majority of the UK’s ageing nuclear fleet and growing electricity demand will leave the UK facing a 40-55% electricity supply gap, according to a new report by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. The Engineering the UK Electricity Gap report says plans to plug the gap by building Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) plants are unrealistic, as the UK would need to build about 30 new CCGT plants in less than 10 years. The UK has built just four CCGTs in the last 10 years, closed one and eight other power stations. In addition, in 2005 twenty nuclear sites were listed for decommissioning, leaving a significant gap to be filled. According to the report, the country has neither the resources nor enough people with the right skills to build this many power stations in time. It is already too late for any other nuclear reactors to be planned and built by the coal ‘shutoff’ target of 2025, other than Hinkley Point C. The report also highlights that a greater reliance on interconnectors to import electricity from Europe and Scandinavia is likely to lead to higher electricity costs and less energy security.

“The UK is facing an electricity supply crisis. As the UK population rises and with the greater use of electricity use in transport and heating it looks almost certain that electricity demand is going to rise. “However with little or no focus on reducing electricity demand, the retirement of the majority of the country’s ageing nuclear fleet, recent proposals to phase out coal-fired power by 2025 and the cut in renewable energy subsidies, the UK is on course to produce even less electricity than it does at the moment. “We cannot rely on CCGTs alone to plug this gap, as we have neither the time, resources nor enough people with the right skills to build sufficient power plants. Electricity imports will put the UK’s electricity supply at the mercy of the markets, weather and politics of other countries, making electricity less secure and less affordable. “Currently there are insufficient incentives for companies to invest in any sort of electricity infrastructure or innovation and worryingly even the Government’s own energy calculator does not allow for the scenarios that new energy policy points towards. Under current policy, it is almost impossible for UK electricity demand to be met by 2025. “Government needs to take urgent action to work with industry to create a clear pathway with timeframes and milestones for new electricity infrastructure to be built including fossil fuel plants, nuclear power, energy storage and combined heat and power. With CCS now out of the picture, new low carbon innovations must be supported over the course of the next 10 years.

right skills and knowledge in place to enable this key infrastructure to be built. The UK National Infrastructure Commission must also take urgent action to prioritise greater energy efficiency by industry and clarify financial incentives for research and development of renewables, energy storage and combined heat and power.” The Engineering the UK Electricity Gap report’s recommendations are: 1 The UK’s National Infrastructure Commission should assess the necessary incentives for industry and the public to reduce the demand on the electricity system through engineering efficiencies into processes and equipment, awareness raising and advocacy. 2 The UK’s National Infrastructure Commission must urgently implement the changes necessary across the industry and supply chain to deliver security of electricity supply with no coal-fired generation. These include investment in research and development activities for renewables, energy storage, combined heat and power and innovation in power station design and build. 3 Collaboratively the UK Government and its delivery bodies, along with industry, should review the capacity in the supply chains to deliver the construction of the ‘most likely’ new power infrastructure. This includes identifying timeframes and milestones for conventional and unconventional power generation build (fossil fuel, nuclear, energy storage, combined heat and power and off-grid options) along with growth in skills and knowledge within the UK to meet the potential increase in demand.

“We need to ensure we have the

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Group News Durability & Fatigue Group In the last journal I reported that we had moved the renewable energy seminar (WWT4) back to Filton and I am pleased to report that the event in January was well attended with good feedback. Although this was the 4th in the series, it is 6 years since the last one and a decade since we started. What has changed? Sadly both of the large wave energy device companies ran out of money, although they worked. The new challenge in the earlier days was tidal stream power and there are now two companies developing large devices, with a third just launching their first prototype the week of our seminar. Wind turbines get bigger and the focus is now on off-shore devices, and how deep can they go. Some are in shallow water, but as they head into deeper water their foundations and supporting structures will have to rely on the oil industry’s vast experience. Several of the presentations focussed on foundations and we had presentations from civil engineers.

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to the very end. We shall miss him.

committees and help to shape the future of the EIS.

Robert Cawte Chairman

Geoff Rowlands Chairman

Simulation, Test & Measurement Group Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group As you read this, we are planning

In November Instron hosted “Introduction to Practical Fatigue Testing” which was a successful event with some of the best feedback we have seen. Subjects included both the practical aspects of testing to turning raw data into useful engineering information. We also covered composite materials, which also featured in WWT4, which used to be a niche seminar and is increasingly common in many applications.

for our biggest event of the year – the Instrumentation Exhibition at Silverstone on 15th March. Once again this promises to be as successful and interesting as previous years. As usual, there are four forums through the day where visitors are invited to come along and join in with the discussions. Among this year’s topics, there are two of particular interest to the STMG group. One is on “Data Collection and analysis”, which is chaired by David Ensor. David has many years of experience in this field and has some unique insights in this topic. The other forum is titled “Accelerated Testing”; which is chaired by myself, with help from Dr. Andrew Halfpenny. Andrew is an acknowledged expert in the subject. We will be reviewing the ways testing time may be shortened while maintaining confidence in the integrity of the test. We hope to have some input from the floor, where you are encouraged to share your experience too.

It is sad to report the death of the group’s oldest member, Dr Frank Sherratt, who was a double life and founding member. His interest in vibration and fatigue inspired many PhDs and these methods are now common place. He was a great supporter of the society and this group in many ways and active

As you may remember, last year was the 30th anniversary of the EIS. As we move forward into the next 30 years, it is important to keep generating new ways for the society to promote interchange ideas in our industry. I would therefore encourage any members to get involved with the

Following the very successful SVPP seminar and exhibition held in June last year at MIRA, the committee are now planning for the next event which will take place on 16th June 2016 entitled Structural Dynamics – “Implications of Weight Reduction on Structural Modal Performance”. This will be held at at Coventry University Engineering Dept, which is a new venue for the SVPP. Our recent visit confimed that the conference facilities are outstanding and we are confident this is the start of a very fruitful relationship with Coventry University. During the last decade, like other areas within Computer Aided Engineering, Structural Analysis has been transformed with the rapidly advancing growth in computing power and it is now common to accurately calculate the modal parameters of a prototype design long before any physical parts are available. This has supported the current drive for designing light-weight structures to improve CO2 emissions without a significant reduction of structural integrity or reliability. However, the core techniques in modal testing are largely unchanged and many engineers can benefit from regularly reviewing this fundamental knowledge.


This one-day event, to be held at Coventry University will include: • Educational sessions to demonstrate the fundamentals of structural testing and analysis • Technical presentations on a theme of ‘Light-weight Structures’ and the issues that can be expected • Exhibition of leading Structural Dynamics measurement and analysis equipment This seminar aims to refresh these basic techniques in the morning session, coupled with formal presentations (with the theme of structural lightweighting) in the afternoon session. The morning session will take the form of three classroom style tutorials covering the fundamentals of modal

testing and analysis, through which three groups of delegates will rotate. The afternoon session will be a series of 30 minute presentations of research work, product test and development, and case studies related to lightweight structures. Refreshments and buffet lunch will be held in a room containing the exhibition, where some of the leading suppliers of Structural Dynamics measurement and analysis tools will be available for delegates to interact with. This event provides an opportunity for those involved in the field of structural test, analysis and modelling (both CAE and physical) to present their research / applications and contribute practical advice. It offers a unique occasion to network with participants drawn from industry, modal test equipment suppliers and

academia, all working to improve the modal performance of products from simple components to fully built structures. The call for papers has just been issued - the committee will be assessing and deciding the best submissions in late February and soon after we will be publishing the programme. If you or one of your colleagues have a need for some practical modal test/analysis training at low cost, please express your interest to the EIS Secretariat info@e-i-s.org.uk and you will be added (at no obligation) to our list of potential bookings, and you will be sent the programme as soon as it is finalised. John Wilkinson Chairman

EIS 30th Anniversary Event In November 2015 the EIS celebrated its 30th anniversary, a significant landmark for the charity. Founded in 1985 the society has made an important contribution to engineering science, holding major National and International Conferences, organising and co-ordinating specialist task groups and presenting technical seminars. To mark this important occasion an event was held at Hogarth’s Hotel in Solihull, Birmingham on 6 November. The afternoon started with the cutting of a celebratory cake by Chairman

Trevor Margereson, followed by a slideshow of the EIS’s 30 year history. The slideshow can be viewed on the website and includes many historic photos from the early days of the EIS. We are grateful to Dr Colin Dodds who presented ‘The Accidental Tourist’ and gave us a whirlwind trip across the globe looking at how testing has changed over the years and the many interesting and varied places he has visited in the course of his working life. The evening dinner was attended by 52 guests and we were particularly pleased to welcome those who made the journey

from the United States of America and Holland. We were fortunate to welcome Air Vice Marshal Alan Merriman as our after dinner speaker. Alan treated us to an insight into life as an RAF test pilot and the many aircraft he flew including Hawker Hunters and Hawks. Thank you to everyone who attended and helped mark the occasion. We look forward to the next 30 years of the EIS.

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Corporate Member Profiles AcSoft Ltd

ASDEC

8B Wingbury Courtyard Leighton Road, Wingrave Aylesbury, HP22 4LW

University of Leicester Control Centre Unit 5 MIRA Technology Park Nuneaton CV10 0TU

Tel: +44 1296 682686 Fax: +44 1296 682860 Email: prubens@acsoft.co.uk Website: www.acsoft.co.uk Contact: Paul Rubens At AcSoft we offer the best range of sound and vibration monitoring systems from the world’s leading suppliers. Our market leading application advice and technical support makes analysing and solving your noise & vibration problems so much easier. As applications constantly evolve and new solutions emerge, we keep abreast of instrumentation developments as they arise, while keeping a close eye on quality and support. We design and manufacturer sound level meters, microphones, accelerometers, conditioning amplifiers, calibrators, noise and vibration analysers and software. We run a variety of training courses, from basic introductions on noise to specialised training helping customers get the most from their equipment.

ASDEC’s advanced structural dynamics testing & analysis consultancy services and expertise support engineers in all industries. World leading vibration testing, modal analysis and engineering can be achieved quicker and with more detail using our state-of-the-art robot mounted non-contact 3D Laser Doppler Vibrometer compared with traditional methods. Our customers benefit from this by reducing development lifecycles and obtaining a greater insight into their products. ASDEC also has portable 3D vibrometers to provide the same capabilities and benefits to customers on site.

Airbus Defence and Space

DJB Instruments UK Ltd

Gunnels Wood Road Stevenage Hertfordshire SG1 2AS

Finchley Avenue Mildenhall Suffolk IP28 7BG

Tel: +44 (0) 1438 773386 Email: greg.richardson@airbus.com Website: http://www.airbus.com/ Contact: Greg Richardson

Tel: +44 1638 712288 Email: sales@djbinstruments.com Website: www.djbinstruments.com Contact: Sales

The Test Services department at Stevenage have been conducting Environmental and Structural testing for over 60 years.

DJB Instruments are the UK’s only accelerometer manufacturer in the Test & Measurement sector and have been in business for over 40 years. As a global supplier they lead the world in high temperature IEPE accelerometer design and still use their unique piezoelectric ceramic Konic Shear design originally patented by their founder Don Birchall. After recent expansion and growth they are now established as one of the world’s leading suppliers of accelerometers, cable assemblies, dynamic pressure transducers and associated instrumentation (charge/voltage amplifiers, filters and signal conditioning).

This heritage has enabled us to build one of the most well equipped and expertly staffed facilities of its kind. The Stevenage test facilities include structural, vibration, shock, thermal vacuum, climatic, static and high powered RF testing in vacuum which has enabled the qualification of high quality products. These skills and services are available to all fields of Engineering development and test.

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Tel: 02476 358780 Email: asdec@le.ac.uk Website: www.asdec.co Contact:Moira Cooper


Gantner Instrumentation

Systems Services

1 Lloyds Court Manor Royal Crawley West Sussex RH10 9QU

The Coach House 303 Willington Road Kirton End Boston PE20 1NR

Tel: +44 (0)1293 514488 .Email: gantner@mooreind.com Website: www.miinet.com/UK Contact: Rob Stockham

Tel: +44 1205 724242 Fax: +44 1296 682860 Email: stephen.barrett@systems-services.co.uk Website: www.systems-services.co.uk Contact: Stephen Barrett - Tel: +44 7836 607414

Gantner Instruments are leaders in the acquisition of electrical, thermal and mechanical measurement. You will find our know how in all of our products and services. While our products exhibit high performance and flexibility they remain simple to operate and easy to understand, even in complex applications. Every Gantner product is designed and built to provide high precision and reliable operation in the most extreme industrial environments. High temperatures and EMC conditions are no problem for us. Our products are manufactured to EN ISO 9001 standards and have an average MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) of over 20 years.

Since 1982, Systems Services have offered a complete service for fluid power motion control systems, ranging from a single channel to multi-axis, multi-channel, interactive, full scale systems. Our range of services includes consultancy, training, associated servicing and calibration, calibration management, commissioning, gas-loaded accumulator management & related technical procurement services. We offer a range of customised training courses for all users of fluid power systems and have trained over 720 delegates. Further information may be obtained at www.systemsservices.co.uk

Polytec Ltd

Transmission Dynamics (JR Dynamics Ltd)

Lambda House Batford Mill Harpenden AL5 5BZ

Unit 4 Arcot Court, Nelson Road, Cramlington, Northumberland, NE23 1BB

Tel: 01582 711 670 Fax: 01582 712 084 Email: info@polytec-ltd.co.uk Website: www.polytec-ltd.co.uk Contact: Ian Ramsey Non-Contact Vibration Measurements using Laser-Doppler Vibration Measurement equipment by Polytec provides optical measurement solutions for non-destructive testing (NDT). Our market leading non-contact vibration measurement technology is very sophisticated, with both 1D and 3D large area mapping options. Polytec offers many instrument types to improve vibration measurement, analysis and understanding. Instruments configure to aid FEA model correlation, reduce development time with fast no wire measurements for NDT, including; noise, vibration and harshness testing (NVH), failure analysis and research into complex structures.

Tel: +44 (0) 191 580 0058. Email: wsupport@jrdltd.com Website: www.jrdltd.com Contact: Prof. Jarek Rosinski Transmission Dynamics is a rapid response consultancy organisation specialising in troubleshooting problems in rotating machinery. Our areas of expertise are: failure investigation, noise and vibration research, in-service load measurements, component fatigue life evaluation, bespoke instrumentation, evaluation of gear alignment to ISO-6336 (Method A) Transmission Dynamics provides services to blue-chip technology companies across the globe, including clients in the renewable energy, mining, marine, defence, automotive and rail sectors. We also design and manufacture our own range of wireless telemetry and data acquisition systems, focusing on low power consumption, exceptionally low noise and unbeatable performance, for recovering in-service load information from the most demanding of environments. We deal with: Complex drive systems, Gears and Gearboxes Chains, Belts, Couplings, Shafts & Bearings

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Corporate Member Profiles ....continued Vibration Research Corporation

Yokogawa Measurement Technologies Ltd

1294 Chicago Drive Jenison Michigan 49428 United States of America

Stuart Road Manor Park Runcorn Cheshire WA7 1TR

Tel: +1 616.669.3028 Fax: +1 616.669.5337 Email: pvrsales@vibrationresearch.com Website: www.vibrationresearch.com Contact: Mark Chomiczewski

Tel: +44 (0) 1928 597200 Fax: +44 (0) 1928 597201 Email: TM.Sales@uk.yokogawa.com Website: www.tmi.yokogawa.com/gb Contact: Andy Barnes

Celebrating 20 years in business, U.S.-based Vibration Research (VR) is the leading innovator in vibration control. We listen to our customers’ needs and offer testing products, software and support that deliver unrivalled value. Our VR9500 Revolution Vibration Controller and VibrationVIEW software are used by testing labs and engineers throughout the world. iDOF™, FDS, FDR, and Kurtosion® are a few of VR’s leading-edge testing applications that enable customers to quickly and accurately bridge the gap between lab and reality.

Since its founding in 1915, Yokogawa has grown into a multibillion $ company and is recognised as “the world’s largest maker of electronic measuring tools”. Yokogawa is engaged in cutting-edge research and innovation, securing over 7,200 patents and registrations. Test & Measurement is one of the core businesses of the company. This division plays a major role in the test & measurement market worldwide with products that include oscilloscopes, power meters, optical communications test equipment, portable test instruments, recorders and data-acquisition systems.

Corporate Members The following companies are corporate members of the Engineering Integrity Society. We thank them for their continued support which helps the Society to run its wide-ranging events throughout the year. AcSoft Airbus Defence & Space ANV Measurement Systems ASDEC Bruel and Kjaer CaTs3 Dassault Systemes Data Physics Datron Technology DJB INSTRUMENTS Gantner Instrumentation GOM HBM Head Acoustics HGL Dynamics HORIBA MIRA

Instron Interface Force Measurements IXTHUS Kemo Kistler M&P International Meggitt Sensing Systems Micro-Epsilon Millbrook MOOG MTS Systems Muller BBM Nprime PCB Piezotronics PDS Projects Polytec

Rutherford Appleton Lab Sensors UK Servotest Siemens Smart Fibres Star Hydraulics Systems Services Techni Measure THP Systems Tiab TRaC Transmission Dynamics Vibration Research Yokogawa Zwick Testing Machines

New Personal Members Mr Andrew Thorn Mr Luc Templier Mr James Pack Mr Bill Mortel

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University of Wales Trinity St David GE Renewable Energy GE Renewable Energy Trelleborg

Mr Nicholas Sargent Mr Peter Lavelle Mr Fabrice Helenon Mr Michael Hadley

Atlantis Resources HBM nCode HBM nCode James Walker Rotabolt Ltd


Committee Members President: Professor Roderick A Smith, FREng. ScD Directors Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom................................................................................................................ 0121 7331837 Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant.................................................................................................... 0121 5203838 Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services............................................................................................... 01332 263534 Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant .................................................................................................... 07881 802410 Geoff Rowlands, HORIBA MIRA ....................................................................................................................... 02476 355517 Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant....................................................................................................... 07866 815200 John Wilkinson, Engineering Consultant .......................................................................................................... 07747 006475 Chairman Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant .................................................................................................... 07881 802410 Vice Chairman Richard Hobson, Serco Technical & Assurance Services................................................................................. 01332 263534 Treasurer Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant.................................................................................................... 0121 5203838 Company Secretary Geoff Rowlands, HORIBA MIRA ....................................................................................................................... 02476 355517 EIS Secretariat Sara Atkin...........................................................................................................................................................01572 811315 Communications Sub Committee – ‘Engineering Integrity’ Journal of the EIS Honorary Editor Karen Perkins, Swansea University ................................................................................................................. 01792 513029 Managing Editor Catherine Pinder .............................................................................................................................................. 07979 270998

Simulation, Test & Measurement Group Chairman Geoff Rowlands, HORIBA MIRA ....................................................................................................................... 02476 355517 Members Paul Armstrong, Amber Instruments.................................................................................................................. 01246 260250 Steve Coe, Data Physics (UK).......................................................................................................................... 01323 846464 Colin Dodds, Dodds & Associates..................................................................................................................... 07880 554590 Dave Ensor, Engineering Consultant................................................................................................................ 07966 757625 Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant.................................................................................................... 0121 5203838 Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services............................................................................................... 01332 263534 Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant..................................................................................................... 07881 802410 Steve Payne, HORIBA MIRA............................................................................................................................. 02476 355526 Ray Pountney, Engineering Consultant............................................................................................................. 01245 320751 Tim Powell, Bruel & Kjaer VTS.......................................................................................................................... 01763 255780 Anton Raath, CaTs3........................................................................................................................................... 02476 546159 Nick Richardson, Servotest............................................................................................................................... 01784 274428 Paul Roberts, HBM United Kingdom ................................................................................................................ 0785 2945988 Jarek Rosinski, Transmission Dynamics........................................................................................................... 0191 5800058 Bernard Steeples, Engineering Consultant....................................................................................................... 01621 828312 Ian Strath, Siemens PLM Software .................................................................................................................. 01276 413200

39


Committee Members ... continued Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant....................................................................................................... 07866 815200 Darren Williams, Millbrook Proving Ground...................................................................................................... 01525 404242 Jeremy Yarnall, Consultant Engineer................................................................................................................ 01332 875450 Conway Young, Tiab ......................................................................................................................................... 01295 714046

Durability & Fatigue Group Chairman Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom................................................................................................................ 0121 7331837 Secretary Peter Bailey, Instron.......................................................................................................................................... 01494 456512 Members John Atkinson, Sheffield Hallam University .......................................................................................................01142 252014 Martin Bache, Swansea University ................................................................................................................... 01792 295287 Peter Blackmore, Jaguar Land Rover............................................................................................................... 01926 923715 Amirebrahim Chahardehi, Cranfield University................................................................................................. 01234 754631 Giovanni De Morais, Safe Technology...............................................................................................................0114 2686444 Lee Gilbert, TRaC Global.................................................................................................................................. 01926 478478 Karl Johnson, Zwick Roell Group...................................................................................................................... 0777957 8913 Angelo Maligno, IISA, University of Derby........................................................................................................ 01332 592516 Ali Mehmanparast, Cranfield University ........................................................................................................... 01234 758331 Karen Perkins, Swansea University ................................................................................................................. 01792 513029 Davood Sarchamy, British Aerospace Airbus.......................................................................................................0117 936861 Giora Shatil, Gamesa Wind UK................................................................................................................................................. Andy Stiles, Aero Engine Controls.................................................................................................................... 0121 6276600 James Trainor, 3T RPD Ltd .............................................................................................................................. 01635 580284 John Yates, Engineering Consultant................................................................................................................. 01246 410758

Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group Chairman John Wilkinson, Engineering Consultant .......................................................................................................... 07747 006475 Members Marco Ajovalasit, Brunel University................................................................................................................... 01895 267134 Joe Armstrong, Polytec .....................................................................................................................................01582 711670 Emiel Barten, Muller BBM ............................................................................................................................ +31 627 287 251 Alan Bennetts, Bay Systems............................................................................................................................. 01458 860393 Dave Boast, D B Engineering Solutions ........................................................................................................... 01225 743592 Mark Burnett, HORIBA MIRA ........................................................................................................................... 02476 355329 Gary Dunne, Jaguar Land Rover ..................................................................................................................... 02476 206573 David Fish, JoTech ........................................................................................................................................... 01827 830606 Henrietta Howarth, Southampton University.......................................................................................... 023 8059 4963/2277 Peter Jackson, European Acoustical Products.................................................................................................. 01986 897082 Paul Jennings, Warwick University ................................................................................................................... 02476 523646 Richard Johnson, Sound & Vibration Technology ............................................................................................ 01525 408502 Chris Knowles, JCB .......................................................................................................................................... 01889 593900 Andrew McQueen, Siemens PLM Software...................................................................................................... 02476 408120 Jon Richards, Honda UK .................................................................................................................................. 01793 417238 Keith Vickers, Bruel & Kjaer UK ....................................................................................................................... 01223 389800

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Engineering Integrity Journal 40 for web  

Engineering Integrity Journal 40 for web  

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