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E ch e : IM OM FR I . , P E R A . WS NE B.S A L P S C EW S NI N H W C TE DUCT Y N E O PR UST R D IN NT S E EV

35 EIS ENGINEERING INTEGRITY SEPTEMBER 2013

JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INTEGRITY SOCIETY

paper on: • High

speed imaging to investigate the failure and remnant life of composite

structure under impact

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Hydraulics in Testing Wednesday 25 September 2013 Star Hydraulics, Tewkesbury A one day event is being held at Star Hydraulics, Tewkesbury that will be of interest to all levels of engineers who are involved in the design, use or maintenance of servo-hydraulic testing systems. In the morning session the main elements of a servo-hydraulic system will be reviewed including high pressure pumps, oil filters, oil coolers, high pressure oil delivery systems, hydraulic actuators and servo valves. The importance of maintaining cleanliness in an oil system will be discussed, including a description of oil filtration systems, the need for oil filtration and best practice in the maintenance of oil systems. The importance and process involved of specifying the correct servo-hydraulic actuator for a specific test, both in terms of performance and energy consumption, will be reviewed including the determination of the mean and peak oil flow requirements and servo valve specification. Lunch will be provided after which there will be a tour of the servo-valve manufacturing facility. After the tour there will be a presentation describing servo-hydraulic actuator control systems, including adaptive control systems used for real-time simulation and gain control configuration. The importance and process involved in setting the actuator control feedback system for optimum response will be outlined. At the end of the presentations there will be a forum, comprising a panel of experts, where there will be the opportunity for attendees to raise questions on any aspects of the subjects covered during the day, or to ask questions in general about servo-hydraulic test systems for advice or that require a solution. For more information or to book your place please contact the secretariat at eis2013@e-i-s.org.uk or telephone 01572 811315.


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INSTRUMENTATION, ANALYSIS AND TESTING EXHIBITION Entrance to the exhibition & open forums is free to visitors along with complementary refreshments

THE SILVERSTONE WING, SILVERSTONE RACE TRACK 18 MARCH 2014 10AM - 4PM Over 50 exhibitors will present the latest advances in measurement analysis and testing technology in aerospace, automotive, motor-sport, rail, off-highway, mechanical handling, industrial and power generation industries. Visitors will be able to discuss these developments and their applications in an informal atmosphere with exhibitors. Open Forums include: • 3D Printed Components - use in Stress Analysis and as Structural Components • Successes and Future Challenges in Vehicle Dynamics • The Effect on Component Life and Performance of Manufacturing Induced Residual Strain • Gearbox Noise and Life Monitoring • Brake Squeal - how to avoid designing it in Guest panels comprising experts from industry and academia will expand on the technical developments & take questions from the floor. Visitors If you are interested in attending please pre-register by emailing eis2013@e-i-s.org.uk or visit www.e-i-s.org.uk.


Contents Index to Advertisements........................................................................................................................................................ 5 Editorial................................................................................................................................................................................. 7 Technical Paper: High speed imaging to investigate the failure and remnant life of composite structure under impact....... 8 How it Works - Photo elastic stress measurement.............................................................................................................. 12 Book Review - Oxford Dictionary of Mechanical Engineering ............................................................................................ 15 Diary of Events.................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Obituary - Professor Dr.-Ing. Erwin Eugen Haibach............................................................................................................ 16 Report: Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition 2013.............................................................................................. 18 Report: Understanding Vehicle Seating Dynamics and Ride Comfort Seminar & Exhibition ............................................. 21 Industry News...................................................................................................................................................................... 22 Product News ..................................................................................................................................................................... 27 News from the Institution of Mechanical Engineers............................................................................................................ 29 News from British Standards............................................................................................................................................... 30 Group News........................................................................................................................................................................ 32 Corporate Members............................................................................................................................................................ 33 New Personal Members...................................................................................................................................................... 33 Membership......................................................................................................................................................................... 33 Committee Members .......................................................................................................................................................... 34 Profile of Company Members.............................................................................................................................................. 36 INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS Advanced Engineering UK ........................................2

Kemo........................................................................38

Amber Instruments...................................................38

M+P International.............................Inside back cover

Bruel & Kjaer..............................................Back cover

Moog Industrial Group .............................................40

CPD Dynamics.........................................................38

Sensors UK .............................................................39

Data Physics.................................... Inside front cover

Team Corporation.......................................................3

Engineering Integrity Society .............................. 1 & 4

Techni Measure..........................................................3

HBM UK .....................................................................2

Yokogawa Measurement Technologies .....................3

Ixthus Instrumentation..............................................39 Front Cover: Courtesy of PCB Piezotronics Inc

5


HONORARY EDITOR Dr Karen Perkins

Engineering Integrity is published twice a year ADVERTISING RATES & DATA

MANAGING EDITOR Catherine Pinder Anchor House, Mill Road, Stokesby, Great Yarmouth, NR29 3EY Tel. 07979 270998 E-mail: catherine@cpinder.com

EDITORIAL BOARD Paul Armstrong Brian Griffiths

EIS SECRETARIAT: Sara Atkin Engineering Integrity Society 17 Harrier Close, Cottesmore, Rutland, LE15 7BT Tel: +44 (0)1572 811315 E-mail: eis2013@e-i-s.org.uk WWW: http://www.e-i-s.org.uk

EDITORIAL POLICY Engineering Integrity contains various items of information of interest to, or directly generated by, the Engineering Integrity Society. The items of information can be approximately subdivided into three general categories: technical papers, topical discussion pieces and news items. The items labelled in the journal as technical papers are peer reviewed by a minimum of two reviewers in the normal manner of academic journals, following a standard protocol. The items of information labelled as topical discussions and the news items have been reviewed by the journal editorial staff and found to conform to the legal and professional standards of the Engineering Integrity Society.

COPYRIGHT Copyright of the technical papers included in this issue is held by the Engineering Integrity Society unless otherwise stated. Photographic contributions for the front cover are welcomed. ISSN 1365-4101/2013

The Engineering Integrity Society (EIS) Incorporated under the Companies Act 1985. Registered No. 1959979 Registered Office: c/o Hollis & Co., 35 Wilkinson Street, Sheffield S10 2GB Charity No: 327121

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PRINCIPAL ACTIVITY OF THE ENGINEERING INTEGRITY SOCIETY

The principal activity of the Engineering Integrity Society, is the arrangement of conferences, seminars, exhibitions and workshops to advance the education of persons working in the field of engineering. This is achieved by providing a forum for the interchange of ideas and information on engineering practice. The Society is particularly committed to promoting projects which support professional development and attract young people into the profession. ‘Engineering Integrity’, the Journal of the Engineering Integrity Society is published twice a year.

‘Engineering Integrity’ is lodged with the Agency for the Legal Deposit Libraries on behalf of the Bodleian Library Oxford University, the Cambridge University Library, National Library of Scotland, National Library of Wales and Trinity College Dublin.


Editorial Welcome

to

the

Autumn

edition

of

teaching capability was overlooked! Most recently in a bid

Engineering Integrity. I hope everyone had

to bribe the students into saying the right thing, we have

a lovely summer, enjoying the prolonged

gone 100% paperless..provision of lecture notes will now

spell of fine weather that at least we in the

be provided online and the students for a minor deposit can

west have had...fingers crossed it will last a

borrow high end tablets for accessing notes during lectures.

little longer.

No one has considered yet what will happen when at ten minutes to the hour 11 thousand students all try and access

The recent tragic events off Shetland

the system at once!

have put mechanical integrity back in the headlines. While the investigation into this

Technical content in this edition features a paper titled ‘High

case is only just getting under way, the fact that it is one of

speed imaging to investigate the failure and remnant life of

a series of incidents involving Super Puma helicopters has

composite structure under impact’ and our ‘How it works’

not been overlooked by the media. With one of the earlier

column asks the question of photo elastic measurement.

incidents being blamed on a cracked shaft in the main gearbox, questions of mechanical integrity are to the fore.

We have also included in this edition a review of a new Oxford dictionary of mechanical engineering.

Whilst the

Another busy month has passed for us in Universities with

review is generally positive, it highlights the old adage of not

the rush to grab the better students. The good news is that

believing everything you read in a book! The particular case

recruitment numbers seem to be holding up in both science

that is mentioned is close to my own area, where I spend

and engineering. It appears that the upturn in undergraduate

great time explaining to students the differences between

STEM numbers has yet to make much of an impact on the

striations and beachmarks, and the caution of not getting the

shortage of qualified and motivated young people going into

two confused.

industry, with the Office of National Statistics saying that by 2020 over a third of people in employment will be over the

Industry News also reports a major first for renewable

age of 50. Executives Online discuss the potential for an

power generation, with an Alstom tidal turbine reaching a

ageing workforce to plug the skills gap. Not much of a silver

power output of 1MW in offshore conditions. Among other

lining for those of us seeing our retirement age drifting off

tidal power projects being proposed of local interest is a

into the distance, but possibly a relief for employers given

10MW tidal lagoon proposed for Swansea Bay. Perhaps

the report in Industry News that over a third of companies

not surprisingly, the lagoons 20m high wall does not feature

surveyed say young people lack the work ethic to succeed in

on the artist’s impressions of Swansea University’s new Bay

manufacturing. There is better news for the youngsters from

Campus.

IMechE though with a report of a new initiative to create 100,000 engineering technicians by 2018!!!

Karen Perkins Honorary Editor

Academics are about to enter rare REF-quiet phase – the outputs have been written, case studies are being polished and submissions will be going in over the next couple of months. Then for a glorious year we wait for the results, recriminations and reviews before the whole process starts again. The funding bodies may view research assessment as essential auditing of public expenditure, but many on the receiving end question the time and publicly funded effort that the exercise diverts from doing the actual research that is supposedly being assessed. With REF almost behind us, attention is now turned to teaching. Student experience now features very highly on our agenda and the quality of teaching is being scrutinized more and more. Gone are the days when all that mattered was research and provided you had some,

7


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 35, SEPTEMBER 2013 pp.8-11.

ISSN 1365-4101/2013

Technical Paper High speed imaging to investigate the failure and remnant life of composite structure under impact Duncan A. Crump, Janice M. Dulieu-Barton, Stephen W. Boyd, Gary P. Battams, George Crammond

Abstract Fibre reinforced polymer composites are often used in applications where the material behaviour must be understood for high velocity loading cases. Full-field optical techniques, in particular digital image correlation (DIC) and infra-red thermography (IRT) are the ideal means to measure strain and temperature evolutions respectively from complex composite materials. Beyond characterising the material for input into design models, it is also necessary to assess the failure modes and damage initiation and evolution when subjected to high velocity loading. Here DIC is used to identify failure in an adhesively bonded composite single-lap joint, and DIC and IRT are used to monitor the evolution of damage in a glass fibre epoxy tensile specimen. Introduction There is growing pressure on structural designers to produce vehicles that are lighter, and hence faster, more manoeuvrable, and importantly fuel efficient. The attractive specific properties of composite materials mean they are increasingly used, particularly in applications where there is a risk of impact type loading. For example, bird strike in aviation, slamming loads in the marine and explosions in close proximity in the military. Although the quasi-static behaviour of composites is generally well understood [1], there is a real need to extend this knowledge to the elevated strain rate range [2, 3]. In particular it is of interest to understand how the failure of such complex materials is affected by increasing strain rates. In the event of an impact that causes damage, but not total structural failure it is also of interest to know the remnant life. When analysing complex materials it is favourable to use optical measurement techniques that provide a non-contact means of capturing full-field data. Therefore a research project was initiated at University of Southampton in 2009, funded by EPSRC and DSTL, to investigate the synchronised use of optical techniques to capture full-field strain and temperature data at high framing rates during high strain rate events. Digital image correlation (DIC) [4] has been performed on images captured using high speed white light cameras, whilst infrared thermography [5] measures the temperature evolution using a commercial detector modified to increase framing rate. By using this approach in combination with a specialised servo-hydraulic test machine from Instron (VHS), capable of actuator speeds up to 20 m/s, it has been possible to gain a data-rich analysis of composite specimens and small structures tested up to 100 s-1 [6]. As an example some results are presented from a bonded composite joint that is representative of the type used in marine structures. The

8

joint was tested first quasi-statically using conventional DIC to measure the evolution of strain and identify the location of failure initiation around the geometric discontinuity between adherends. A joint with the same structure was then tested in the VHS where high speed cameras were used to capture images for DIC to investigate changes in material behaviour due to the higher loading rate. Another important avenue of research is to investigate remnant life after impact; therefore a means of imparting a known high strain rate load into a specimen or structure must be established, which would enable the fatigue life of a damaged specimen to be established. The VHS machine works in an open loop mode so that once the actuator has accelerated to a constant velocity the specimen is clamped and loaded until the specimen fails. A methodology has been developed to allow the high strain rate test on the VHS to be interrupted at a prescribed load and also enabling the capture of images during the damaging event to establish strain and temperature evolutions. Optical techniques are also applied whilst the damaged specimen is fatigued to assess the evolution of damage to complete failure. Therefore strain and temperature are captured as damage is initiated, and then evolved to final failure. Structural failure at elevated strain rate The use of adhesively bonded joints within composite marine structures is increasing due to beneficial weight and part count reductions compared to mechanical fasteners. In small craft such joints are subjected to dynamic loading during operation due to heavy seaways and ship motions. These dynamic incidences result in rapidly changing stresses, increasing the potential for significant damage to the structure. Therefore it is essential to understand how they behave when subjected to high velocity loading. Of particular interest is the complex through-thickness strain evolution in the bonded joint due to the low strength of composite material normal to fibre direction. In this work a simple single lap joint was tested at a range of loading rates. Each side of the single lap adhesively bonded joint was infused from glass fibre chopped strand mat with a layup [CSM7 904 CSM7] to be 6 mm thick and bonded together

Figure 1: Geometry and dimensions of single-lap adhesively bonded joint


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 35, SEPTEMBER 2013 pp.8-11.

by fibre bridging of the CSM material. Although strengthening of the joint occurs, analysis of the strain fields identifies the strains prior to failure around the geometric discontinuity to be very similar for quasistatic and high rate incidences showing the damage initiation behaviour to be strain critical at the discontinuity between adherends. Damage initiation at elevated strain rate The Instron VHS allows standard tensile specimens to be tested at speeds up to 20 m/s. To achieve such high actuator move speeds it is necessary to run the machine Figure 2: Example of full-field strain data captured from a test on the single in an open-loop configuration with no lap joint at 2.5 m/s feedback. The speed is controlled by a using Araldite 2015, a toughened structural epoxy adhesive. pre-defined voltage profile that has been calibrated during Figure 1 shows the single lap joint geometry used in this machine installation. Therefore once the test has been work. The joints were tested at 2 mm/min, and 2.5 m/s using started the actuator moves the entire length of its travel until a Photron SA5 to capture images set to 1 kHz and 25 kHz the end buffer is reached. Hence a specimen tested always respectively. The images were processed using DaVis 8.0 fails. A significant package of work has been necessary to DIC software from LaVision. Figure 2 shows an example enable the use of the VHS to impart a high strain rate event of the full-field strain data captured during a test at 2.5 m/s. without causing specimen failure. A sacrificial link in the The failure load of the joints identified a significant change in load chain is used to allow some load to be applied to the behaviour between the two test speeds. Figure 3 plots load specimen, before the link fails and the specimen is safe from against time for joints tested at 2 mm/min (quasi-static) and the remaining travel. In this work a shear pin rig has been 2.5 m/s (high speed). There is a 100 % increase in the failure developed (Figure 5) that allows some load to be applied. load when the loading rate is increased. Further analysis After which the elastic energy of the specimen is captured by of the failure surface (Figure 4) can explain this dramatic a rebound damper. The load at which the shear pin fails is change in behaviour. Whilst at 2 mm/min (Figure 4a) the controlled by the geometry of the notch. A carbon fibre cross joint fails cleanly along the adherend/adhesive interface, ply specimen manufactured using unidirectional prepreg at 2.5 m/s (Figure 4b) damage propagates through the with 4 plies to be 1.1 mm thick was tested at 2 m/s in the adherend structure adjacent to the adhesive, strengthened VHS while the surface was monitored with IRT to measure the temperature evolution at 1 kHz. Figure 6 shows an example of the temperature evolution in specimen. By subtracting the image of the specimen at the end of the test from the image at the start it is possible to show the temperature change during the test. This identifies the initiation of several transverse cracks in the matrix dominated surface ply as damage is formed within the specimen.

Figure 3: Load to failure comparison for joints tested at 2 mm/min and 2.5 m/s

The second part to the work aims to monitor the propagation of this damage under fatigue loading to assess the remnant life of a specimen. Whilst the specimen is fatigued in a standard servo-hydraulic test machine, the infrared detector and white light camera are set to automatically capture data at regular intervals such that the strain and temperature fields can be measured as the damage evolves. The

9


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 35, SEPTEMBER 2013 pp.8-11.

(a)

been damaged there is a complete loss of stiffness resulting in a localised high strain.

(b)

Conclusions An approach has been developed to use optical techniques to measure strain and temperature during tests on simple structures, such as single lap joints, at elevated loading Figure 4: Assessment of the failure surface at (a) 2 mm/min and (b) 2.5 m/s speeds on a VHS instron machine. The approach identified failure initiation locations, and showed the behaviour of the CSM face sheet material to have a strongly beneficial effect on the strength of the joint exhibiting an increase of failure load of 100% between quasi-static and high velocity tests. A rig has been designed to allow tests on the VHS to be interrupted at a particular load, and hence impart damage into a specimen without causing total failure. Thus, through fatigue tests, it is possible to assess structural remnant life after being subjected to a high strain rate event. A methodology has been devised that enables the IR and white light cameras to be triggered by the test machine and capture images from both systems simultaneously. It has been shown that the approach can provide consistent material characterisations and failure mode information at a range of strain rates up to 100 s-1. Acknowledgements

Figure 5: Schematic of shear pin rig to interrupt loading on VHS infrared detector is used to apply the thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) [7] technique that can capture the stresses in the surface of specimen by measuring the temperature change during a cyclic load. A predamaged glass fibre cross ply specimen was cycled at 10 Hz to propagate the damage. Figure 7 shows a series of TSA images taken during the fatigue test and the extent of the damage in the specimen is clearly seen to grow before total specimen failure. Of interest are the apparent areas of low stress inside the damage zone, indicating that this material no longer carries load. Alongside the TSA measurement, DIC was performed on white lights images captured at the maximum and minimum of selected cycles. Figure 8 shows DIC from the specimen near failure, and demonstrates that where the material has

10

The research was funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) and the Defence and Science Technology Laboratories (DSTL). We would like to

Figure 6: Initiation of damage in an interrupted VHS test measured using IRT


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 35, SEPTEMBER 2013 pp.8-11.

Figure 7: Propagation of pre-damaged specimen subjected to fatigue loading using IRT methods

thank the continuing support of the numerous academic and industrial collaborators who formed the industrial advisory board during the project as follows; Aalborg University, Airbus, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, FLIR ATS, GE Aviation, LaVision, Lloyd’s Register. References 1. I. M. Daniel and O. Ishai. Engineering Mechanics of Composite Materials. Oxford University Press, 1994. 2. I. M. Daniel, et al. Strain-rate-dependent failure criteria for composites. Composites Science and Technology, vol. 71, p 357-364, 2011. 3. A. M. S. Hamouda, and M. S. J. Hashmi. Testing of composite materials at high rates of strain: advances and challenges. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, vol. 77, p 327-336, 1998.

4. M. A. Sutton, J. Orteu and H. W. Schreier. Image correlation for shape, motion and deformation measurements. Springer, 2009. 5. X. P. V. Maldague. Theory and practice of infrared technology for non-destructive testing. John Wiley and Sons, ed. K. Chang, 2001. 6. Crump, D.A., Dulieu-Barton, J.M., and Longana, M.L., Approaches to synchronise conventional measurements with optical techniques at high strain rates. Advances in Experimental Mechanics VIII, Edinburgh, UK, 2011. 7. Stanley, P., Chan, W.K. Quantitative stress analysis by means of the thermoelastic effect. The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, vol. 203, p 129-137, 1985.

What has been developed is a unique facility at the University of Southampton that can offer high quality research and characterisation of high speed testing of materials using high speed imaging to provide a rich vein of information to assist in structural modelling and failure investigations. The University of Southampton is forming a high speed imaging consortium to enable industry to access the unique facility where strain and temperature evolutions can be captured at high speed. The consortium will enable: • Regular discussion forums to share experience and results amongst consortium members. • 2 days fully supported testing on non-commercially sensitive subjects. • Preferential rates on any future testing using the facility. • Free training for members on test machine and optical techniques. • Access to the laboratory as a visitor to permit usage of the facility (at a charge depending on membership package and assuming training has been completed). Figure 8: Propagation of pre-damaged specimen subjected to fatigue loading using DIC

For further information contact Dr Duncan Crump dac400@ soton.ac.uk

11


How it Works - Photo Elastic Stress Measurement Photoelastic Stress Analysis Today Introduction In spite of the almost universal use of the latest computerised simulations and predictions of stress levels and load paths in engineering components or structures, there is still a need for experimental techniques to provide essential correlation and validation; especially where complex loading and boundary conditions are present. Photoelastic stress analysis is one of those techniques and although not so wide spread, is still in use today and can still provide the most comprehensive visual and qualitative information on how a component or structure behaves under load. This article brings the reader up to date on the latest technology employed to make photoelasticity more user friendly and shows some case studies on typical applications. What is Photoelasticity? The photoelastic technique utilises a phenomenon known as birefringence which is present in most transparent materials. Birefringence occurs when you pass polarised light through a transparent material and if that material is then stressed, the light is retarded and a series of coloured fringes are produced (see Fig1).

f = Material Fringe Coefficient (determined by calibration) t = Thickness of Birefringent material All very well for transparent objects you may say but how about non-transparent materials like steels, alloys etc? Well for this application, the technique is to apply a photoelastic coating of birefringent material to the solid non-transparent material under investigation. In the past this was a time consuming and difficult task as coatings had to be 4 to 5 mm thick (typical thickness for investigating stresses in metals) so the method was to pre-cast an epoxy resin sheet (approx 200mm sq) and then apply it to the surface of the structure or part under investigation before it had completely set. The coating was then allowed to harden and then carefully removed before being re-applied with a reflective adhesive which allowed the polarised light to pass through the coating and reflect off the adhesive, back through the coating and be viewed with an instrument known as a polariscope. The polariscope is an instrument consisting of a polarised light source, projecting light onto the coated part and another polarising filter allowing the operator to view and measure, the number of photoelastic fringes present and hence calculate the stresses at a selected point. Although a full field image of the fringes hence stress distribution could be obtained, taking point measurements was very time consuming so the whole process from start to finish could take several days depending upon the size of the component or structure under investigation. Modern Photoelasticity In the late ‘90’s Jon Lesniak from Stress Photonics Inc, WI, USA developed a Grey Field Polariscope (GFP) with funding support from NASA. This equipment instantly made photoelasticity a more user friendly technique in two ways.

Fig 1 Photoelastic fringes in a disc subjected to compressive loading If the material fringe coefficient is known then the fringes can be interpreted as lines of principal stress differences (σ1-σ2) as shown in the standard photoelastic formula below: σ1-σ2 = n f where: σ1 = Max Principal Stress t σ2 = Min Principal Stress n = Measured Fringe Order

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1) It provided a full field digital view of the photoelastic stress patterns and removed the need for expertise in using the old style manual polariscopes. 2) Because it operated in the “grey field” i.e sub photoelastic fringe order (less than 0.5 fringes) much thinner coatings could be used as the photoelastic output is dependent on the thickness of the coating. Not needing the highly visual coloured fringes for the eye to interpret meant that coating thickness could be reduced to less than 1mm so much easier to apply. The layout of the GFP is shown in Fig 2 and consists of a projector unit delivering circularly polarised light and a CCD camera with a constantly rotating analyser in front. For each revolution of the analyser a number of images are captured which allow the intensity of the reflected light to be measured. The returning polarised light, if there is stress causing birefringence to be present, is elliptical, and


in 10 mins so even vertical surfaces can be tackled and contouring around weld seams etc is not a problem. Also bigger areas can be coated and the author has coated a complete tractor gearbox on one occasion in less than 5 days, a task that would have taken weeks using the pre-cast technique. Typical applications are for looking at stress concentrations at changes in geometry or weld seams etc. and load paths through complex geometries or joints. Assembly stresses often invisible to other methods are a particular strong use of photoelastic analysis as they can be done either before or after assembly by tightening or releasing the assembly loads. Some examples of these applications are shown in Fig 4 and 5.

Fig 2 Diagram of operation of Grey Field Polariscope

Because of the sensitivity capability of the GFP technique (approx. ± 0.002 fringe) new coatings are being utilised and anodised parts can provide spectacular images of residual stress such as the one in fig 6, showing the stresses

from this intensity data it is possible to calculate the axes of the ellipse and its angle of retardation. From this the captured image can be expressed as defined by a Mohrs circle solution representing shear stresses in vertical and horizontal planes, together with the maximum shear stress. Typical output from the GFP is as shown in Fig 3 and takes the form of a shear stress colour contour map from which either point data or line plots of stresses can be obtained using the inbuilt software. Typical Applications The most popular coating technique today is to use a brush on epoxy resin which is then spread to an even thickness by means of a toothed comb (typically 0.5mm). The coating sets

Fig 4 Examples of assembly stresses generated during a self piercing rivet application. Dynamic photoelastcity is also available where short videos of stress distribution can be captured with a “real time” GFP and subsequently analysed to determine stress levels; particularly useful for structures undergoing fatigue testing etc.

Fig 3 Typical output from a GFP

13


How it Works

Fig 5 Examples of stress concentrations Summary Single point measurements such as strain gauges can often be positioned wrongly, just missing that all important stress concentration or even just aligned away from the principal direction of stress so giving a false reading. The great advantage in using photoelastic stress analysis is in that it gives a complete view of stress distribution over the whole of the area coated, including directions of maximum principal stresses.

often regarded as an old and out dated technique. However, with modern digital cameras and computer software this is no longer the case and it is in use today, principally providing valuable data to back up CAE techniques; surely an essential task in today’s modern world. Geoff Calvert Technical Director VisEng Limited

Other applications of photoelasticity are with measuring residual stresses in transparent materials such as plastics and glass. No coatings required here and its use within the glass industry is invaluable and can be used for both quality control and in service problem solving. Photoelasticity nowadays is

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Fig 6 Residual stresses after using self piercing rivets on anodised aluminium


Book Review Oxford Dictionary of Mechanical Engineering By: Tony Atkins & Marcel Escudier Oxford University Press, First Edition, 2013, Paperback, 448pp, ISBN 978-0-19-958743-8 £12.99 rrp (but can be purchased cheaper online) Tony Atkins is Emeritus Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Reading and Visiting Professor at Imperial College. He has authored over 150 journal articles and several books, including The Science & Engineering of Cutting (Elsevier, 2009). He is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering, a Fellow of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and a Fellow of the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining. Marcel Escudier is Emeritus Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Liverpool. He has written many journal articles and a book, including The Essence of Engineering Fluid Mechanics (Prentice Hall, 1998). He is a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering and a Fellow of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

This is not the type of volume that would be read from cover to cover – dictionaries don’t really work like that! It is a book that covers its subject, literally, from A to Z or, in reality, from ‘ablation cooling’ to ‘z-transform’ over more that 8500 entries and, allegedly, 448 pages; although the reader would be hard pressed to know this latter fact as none of the pages are numbered! It is a book that rewards the reader who enjoys ‘dipping into’ its contents; either to get the definition for a particular term or topic, or simply to satisfy one’s curiosity and, along the way, discover, or re-discover, the odd item of half-remembered or forgotten information. A number of the entries also include useful line diagrams to aid in the understanding of the definitions: for example, I now know what a “Bibby coupling” is and even how it works! The dictionary is supported via a set of online resources which are indicated throughout the book and accessed via the OUP website. Only a minority of entries have a web link, though, but following them gives access to a wealth of additional information; although somewhat limited in the areas covered, it is a useful adjunct to the dictionary itself.

Whilst the great majority of the entries appear accurate, at least to the reviewer who is a selfconfessed metallurgist, there is an error in entry for ‘fatigue’ which states that: “Fracture surfaces resulting from fatigue display characteristic striations or progression marks emanating from the crack initiation site…” and shows a line diagram of a fracture surface with ‘striations’ indicated. This definition is incorrect; the diagram shows ‘beach marks’ which indicate regions of differing crack growth rate; ‘striations’ are microscopic features, generally taken to show individual increments of crack growth, that can only be seen using an electron microscope. A relatively small error, perhaps, but a key purpose of dictionary definitions is that they are accurate: especially as the book is aimed both at mechanical engineering students and more experienced practitioners. Given the error mentioned above, and there may be a few others in there, too, this is, nonetheless, a useful reference to standard engineering terms and definitions. As such, it would serve as a useful addition to the bookshelf of any engineer. Dr Peter Blackmore

Diary of Events Hydraulics in Testing

Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition

25 September 2013 Star Hydraulics Tewkesbury

18 March 2014 10:00-16:00 The Silverstone Wing, Silverstone Rach Track

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Obituary - Professor Dr.-Ing. Erwin Eugen Haibach of Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability (LBF) Darmstadt and thereafter head of Seilprüfstelle und Institut für Fördertechnik und Werkstoffkunde (Rope Testing Centre and Institute for Materials Handling and Materials Testing) in Bochum.

The EIS is saddened to report that Prof. Erwin Haibach, one of the great names in fatigue, died earlier this year. It would be hard to summarise his long and illustrious career, so we are grateful to Dr Kloos for the obituary below, and to the various others who knew and speak highly of him. Prof. Haibach was a very gifted and intelligent man who did a lot for the fatigue community. He was a leading member of a German group that published guidelines on strength assessment and, in 2004, he approached the Society directly to let us know of an English version of the FKM-guideline “Analytical Strength Assessment of Components in Mechanical Engineering”. Needless to say he had translated the text for us, but preserved the German symbols and equations to avoid errors and to aid understanding. These guidelines are also included in some of the regulations for the design and certification of wind turbines, so they are in regular use a decade later. He was part of the old guard that contributed a lot to our current understanding of fatigue and helped provide the basis for the technology that we use nearly every day in our jobs. Such a dedicated and passionate person cannot be replaced. He will be missed. Robert Cawte, EIS Obituary for PROFESSOR. DR.-ING. ERWIN EUGEN HAIBACH By Professor Emeritus Dr.-Ing. KarlHeinz Kloos Professor Dr.-Ing. Erwin Eugen Haibach died on February 2nd, 2013, at the age of 80 years. He was a long time member of the management

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In particular, many of his university colleagues are mourning with the family at the loss of a kindhearted scientist and skillful teacher. Being a long-time companion of Erwin Haibach I want to give an appraisal of his scientific achievements in the field of Structural Durability: a subject which he first studied under Professor Ernst Gaßner, who was the founder of this branch of study. Erwin Haibach influenced this field decisively in its later development. Structural Durability means a concept for the dimensioning of components subjected to random cyclic loading, where the experimental and numerical methods for the lifetime assignment of components are significantly affected by the material, the production process and the design and geometry and their interaction. At the beginning of his scientific work in the Laboratory for Structural Durability in Darmstadt, Erwin Haibach initially worked on the lifetime and fatigue strength of welded joint problems; the results of which were published in his dissertation (1968): “The fatigue strength of welded joints from the perspective of a local strain measurement”. Welded joints are of special interest in fatigue research because, besides the design-related notch effects, the cast state of the weld seam and, above all, the residual stress distribution in the whole weld seam area, have a significant influence on the fatigue properties. The personal contact between Erwin

Haibach and myself deepened as a result of the close personal contacts between the management of Fraunhofer LBF and the Institute of Materials Science at Darmstadt University of Technology in the 1950s and ‘60s. Furthermore, we already knew each other from our joint schooldays at Limburg secondary school, and the time when Erwin Haibach did his thesis at the Institute for Materials Science. More contacts resulted from the many lectures given by Erwin Haibach at the annual meetings of the Association of German Engineers (VDI), the German Association for Materials Research and Testing (DVM) and the German Welding Society (DVS). Erwin Haibach continued his intensive lecture activities for the benefit of the scientific community during his time (1973 to 1981) as a manager at the Fraunhofer LBF and as head of the Seilprüfstelle (Rope Testing Centre, Bochum) from 1981 to 1992. The most important scientific achievement of Erwin Haibach is without doubt the publication: “Structural Durability – Methods and Data for Calculation” which was first published in 1989 and, again, in a third edition in 2006. As well as presenting an up-to-date statement of the knowledge about the different calculation methods according to the nominal stress approach, the notch stress concept and fracture mechanics principles, this book provides a wealth of information to readers who are likewise interested in the research base and practical engineering applications. In particular, Chapter 4, “Practical Implementation of the Structural Durability Concept”, presented a procedure demonstrating that considerations of fatigue strength that provided excellent and userfriendly methods for use by almost all branches of mechanical and civil engineering. Also, the critical review of the experimental and numerical


methods applied to structural durability, which is covered in several chapters, provides important suggestions for outstanding sub-problems to the whole fatigue research. In the period from 1983 to 1996 Erwin Haibach took over the lectureship in: “Structural Durability - Design of Components under Cyclic Service Loading” in the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Technical University of Darmstadt. His lectures were highly regarded by the students, including those from other disciplines. In particular, to meet the requirements of a modern design methodology, the component-related theory of structural durability was highly relevant to the concepts of “general mechanical engineering” education. Due to his distinguished scientific expertise and his excellent teaching skills, Erwin Haibach was appointed as Honorary Professor at the Technical University of Darmstadt in 1986. Also known as peer reviewer and a member of technical committees, Erwin Haibach made great contributions to the scientific community. For many years he served successfully as peer reviewer of the German Federation of Industrial Research Associations (AiF) in the expert group “Konstruktion”. I want to mention in particular his extensive experience as chairman for the development of a guideline issued by the “Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau (FKM)” ”Analytical Strength Assessment of Components in Mechanical Engineering”. To adjust these guidelines to new findings (up to the 5th edition), Erwin Haibach collaborated decisively during his years of retirement.

for Materials Research and Testing (DVM). In 1990, in recognition of his outstanding academic achievements, the DVM awarded him the “ErichSiebel-Medallion”: the highest honour in Germany in the field of materials research and testing. With the family, many colleagues and friends are mourning a meritorious

researcher, scientist, teacher and a congenial man whose dignity will continue to inspire and inform into the future: especially through his numerous publications. Professor Emeritus Dr.-Ing. Karl-Heinz Kloos Seeheim-Jugenheim

Annual General Meeting The 2013 AGM of the Engineering Integrity Society, together with council and various group committee meetings, were held on Wednesday 19 June 2013 at the impressive Control Centre facility at MIRA. The Society would like to thank both Serco and MIRA for their hospitality in February and June respectively, the use of their facilities, and for their considerable and valuable support of the Society over many years. We look forward to this relationship continuing. It is the provision of this support by companies like Serco and MIRA that enables the Society to continue to hold technical events that are of interest and value to engineers at all levels, and within a wide range of disciplines.

Dr Khaled Owais (shown left in the photograph below) retired as treasurer of the Society in June this year and was presented with an engraved pewter tray in appreciation of his services as treasurer of the Society since 2006, by the chairman Trevor Margereson. Khaled’s invaluable contribution to the EIS over many years has been much appreciated. As a result of Khaled’s retirement there have been a number of changes to the directors and responsibilities within the Society, which are reflected later in the journal.

In the period from 1974 to 1984 Erwin Haibach was the founding chairman of the working group of “Structural Durability” of the German Association

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Report Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition, 12 March 2013 The 28th annual Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition was held at the Silverstone Race Track on 12 March this year. The exhibition was again held in the prestigious new Silverstone Wing facility, now in its second year of operation. This is the new building which incorporates the international conference centre, exhibition halls, function rooms, and the race car garages and pits used by the race cars, including the F1 cars. Silverstone not only hosts the British F1 race, together with many other automotive events throughout the year, but also has an associated technology park, with some of the companies from the technology park participating in the EIS exhibition and forums. The exhibition remains an event aimed at providing practising engineers the opportunity to view and discuss the latest developments in software and hardware to assist them in their engineering roles, in the areas of analysis, design, test and the development of components and products. The exhibition, together with the accompanying forums, provides an informal atmosphere where the visitors can discuss the application of the products and services on display, and discuss with experts engineering problems they may be experiencing, with potential solutions to the problems they have encountered being available at the exhibition. Fifty three companies exhibited this year, the largest number of exhibitors attending the annual exhibition to date, exhibiting products and services ranging from instrumentation, transducers, software and hardware, to analysis and testing support. A number of forums were held at the exhibition, at which a brief presentation on a specific subject was made, followed by an open discussion session between a panel of experts from industry and academia, and

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Entrance to the exhibition forum attendees. The forums were well supported and informal, where the latest developments and technology were discussed, with questions raised by the attendees being answered by the panel of experts.

industries. Entrance to the exhibition and forums continues to remain free to visitors, with complementary refreshments provided throughout the day. The event was considered to be very successful by those who attended.

This is the third year that the open discussion style of forum has been held at the exhibition, which has proved more popular with attendees than presentations alone, with a brief question and answer session at the end.

Work has already commenced on the organisation of the 2014 exhibition, which will once again be held at the Silverstone Wing facility on Tuesday, 18 March 2014.

The forums held on the day were entitled:

Improving the Whole Testing and Predictive Process

Improving the Whole Testing and Predictive Process KERS – Standard and Hybrid Systems Residual Strain – Effects and Considerations RLD, how to/not to do it.

The discussion was well attended and centred mainly on improving the communication between the different technology groups such as the predictive model and the testing. The residual strain condition of all specimens was identified as an area of inadequate information when it was shown that the effect on component life is significant.

The exhibition was well attended by, and proved popular with, visitors who came from a wide range of industries, including aerospace, defence, automotive, F1 teams, mechanical handling, motorcycle, power units, automotive suspension, design and research consultancies, and academia. The products and services on display, and the forums held throughout the day, were applicable to all of these

Summary of Forum Discussions

It was shown that discussion between test and modelling groups establishing modifications to the required test signal profile in line with the available rig performance could make big reductions in test time, resulting in improved repeatability and reduced


power consumption. An available technique for detecting the onset of failure before separation or dangerous cracks was debated. The non-contact MAPS total strain measuring system also provides information on Dislocation Density which appears to indicate crack onset location. The forum showed that the topic would support a one-day event, which is to be arranged in the future and all members of the audience will be advised of the date and venue. KERS - Standard & Hybrid Systems The forum at the exhibition was well attended and the speakers, each a specialist in their subject, gave a fascinating insight into the latest developments in Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems and hybrid technologies. Hybrid vehicles, for example the Toyota Prius etc, have been around for some years now but still suffer from excessive weight and limited range in battery mode due to limitations of battery technology available. KERS, while not a completely new technology, has come very much to the fore in recent years with the applications in F1 and sports car racing where weight and performance are critical. With the ever increasing costs of fuel, plus more stringent emission regulations and environmental (green) pressures, usage is now likely to expand to commercial vehicles, buses and train systems as well as private cars. The latest developments overcome the weight and range restrictions of earlier technologies and also provide benefits in fuel consumption, performance, emissions, reliability, vehicle handling and ultimately manufacturing costs.

Pete May Senior Engineer Motorsport Zytek Group Ltd Ian Foley Williams Hybrid Power Ltd Jon Hilton Managing Director Flybrid Automotive Ltd Ian Collins Senior Technologist Emerald Automotive Ltd. The Zytek system uses traction motor generators to generate electric power under vehicle braking which can then be used to help accelerate the vehicle again. Acting together with the prime IC engine, the electric motors can provide increased overall power or extended range, lower emissions, or increased traction if used as a 4WD system. In the Williams Hybrid Power system the electric power generated under braking is used to drive a mechanical flywheel system which can transfer its energy back when required to the vehicle driveline. This system avoids the weight and cost of heavy batteries. It is claimed the system can provide 15% fuel saving on a bus with a single flywheel system or up to 40% on an optimised system. The Flybrid system is a purely mechanical system where the flywheel is accelerated under braking by

a gearing system which can then be reversed to provide additional motivepower when required. The advantages are that the system is cheaper and lighter than a complex battery/electric motor hybrid. It is claimed that up to 70% of the braking energy can be recovered at about one third of the cost of a conventional hybrid. Again the technology is applicable to commercial vehicles including buses and locomotives. The challenge of flywheel systems is that the flywheel speed can currently run up to 60,000 revs/min, which requires a flywheel with a complex steel core and wrapped in a carbon fibre retaining system to prevent the potential danger of the flywheel bursting under centrifugal loading with the rim of the flywheel operating at Mach 2. It also has to be operated in a vacuum to avoid friction losses, so there is no shortage of technical challenges for the potential benefits gained. The Emerald Automotive system is a complete vehicle approach which specifies a van with a lightweight composite body and chassis powered by a relatively small IC engine supplemented by a battery powered electric motor generator charged under vehicle braking. Together the technologies provide low emissions,

The presentations at the Forum were given by: Exhibition hall

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low fuel consumption and much greater range than an equivalent electric vehicle with the IC engine providing sufficient power for optimum cruising, but able to be supplemented by electric power when needed for extra performance. On its own the batteries provide about 60 plus miles with zero emissions, but with the IC engine the range is long, and together fuel consumption and emissions are optimised. Residual Strain – Effects and Considerations The discussion was well attended and centred on the wide spread lack of real information on residual strain, what produced it and how to use it to benefit. Information was presented that showed the effect of material test specimen life by a factor of 3 which was found not to be unusual as a result of the presence of residual strain. The residual strains generated by the manufacturing process were generally unknown and not controlled. Changes to the manufacturing process could eliminate some failures and other changes could increase life. The effect on the dimensional stability of pressed, formed and welded parts was found to be an area that required more investigation. The forum showed that the topic would support a one-day event and all members of the audience will be advised of the date and venue of the event. RLD, how to/not to do it A presentation was made on the collection of RLD, how the tests are sometimes conducted, and which can produce inaccurate data or excessively large quantities of data that require subsequent analysis. Prior to starting the data collection

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Forum with attendees process the design, analysis and test engineers need to discuss and agree the objective of the exercise to ensure that the correct transducers are used, the correct location of the transducers determined, the sample rate determined etc. The level of ‘accuracy’ required has also to be determined as it is too easy to specify a level of accuracy that is in excess of that required, and which can result in considerable unnecessary time and expense in the collection of the data and the subsequent analysis. Many of the pitfalls that are encountered in the data collection process were discussed, and emphasis was placed on ensuring that the quality of data collected was verified before the transducers were removed from the vehicle as if there are problems it is often much easier to run the data collection exercise again, rather than trying to resolve the problems with the original data that was collected. This is even more important now with the volume of data that is collected as time taken for the analysis is a major factor. Verifying the calibration of the transducers and the analysis software is an essential first step,

but which is sometimes overlooked or assumed to be correct. It is also important to determine how many test runs are required to statistically provide confidence in the test and analysis results. During the forum a series of questions from the audience were submitted, such as ‘when cleaning data manually, how do you ensure repeatability and traceability?’ and ‘what are the key stats you would look at first after collecting data?’ The answers were provided at the forum, but the questions and answers may be of interest to a wider audience and are to be included in the next issue of the journal.


Report Understanding Vehicle Seating Dynamics and Ride Comfort Seminar and Exhibition 11 April, HFRU, ISVR, University of Southampton The Understanding Vehicle Seating Dynamics and Ride Comfort Seminar and Exhibition was held jointly with the University of Southampton’s Human Factors Research Unit, part of the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research. The Human Factors Research Unit conducts fundamental and applied research related to human responses to vibration. With research areas including effects of whole-body vibration, hand-transmitted vibration, postural stability and motion sickness this was the ideal venue for the seminar. The event was very successful and the seminar room was filled to capacity with delegates attending from a wide range of disciplines from both the UK and abroad. Focusing on presentations concerned with optimising seat dynamics and ride comfort and covering a wide range of industries and applications, the seminar provided a comprehensive look at the key

areas of topical interest regarding human interaction and perception of seating dynamics. The presentations

covered the areas of research, design, simulation and real-world application.

Good discussions were generated in the question and answer sessions following each of the 7 presentations which demonstrated that the audience engaged well with the technical level of the subject matter and the maths was kept to a manageable level! After lunch delegates were afforded the opportunity to view the research unit’s laboratories which have a unique range of human-rated test facilities for experimental studies. The guided tours were extremely informative and a highlight for delegates was viewing the 6-axis motion simulator. The seminar was also supported by an exhibition of suppliers of instrumentation and analysis equipment and software used for quantifying the dynamic behavior discussed. This was wellreceived by delegates who were able to visit the different stands at various points throughout the day. The SVPP committee is very pleased with the feedback from attendees 65% of delegates rated their overall experience as excellent and the remaining 35% as good. This indicates that people felt positive about the event and found attendance of benefit.

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Industry news Welcome to the Industry News section of the journal. Thank you to everyone for their submissions. The nominal limit for entry is 200 words, which should be sent to eis@amberinstruments.com or posted to EIS, c/o Amber Instruments Ltd, Dunston House, Dunston Road, Chesterfield, S41 9QD. We would appreciate you not sending entries by fax. Paul Armstrong Huddersfield University wins annual IMechE railway challenge powered and controlled by Rockwell Automation technology 25th July 2013 - The Railway Challenge is inspired by the wellestablished Formula Student Competition, which successfully bridges the gaps between theory, experience, industry and education for engineering undergraduates across Europe. It sets similarly competitive and rigorous challenges to final year undergraduate engineering students and industry apprentices – but on rails, designing a working locomotive. The Railway Challenge offers young engineers a glimpse of the engineering opportunities in the railway industry and a priceless chance for the railway industry to see the next generation of engineers and innovation at first hand. The winning locomotive was not only designed and built by students at Huddersfield University’s Computing and Engineering School, it was also judged to be the premier entry based on their combined sales, business and project management skills. Independent judges from the Institution of Mechanical Engineers judged Huddersfield’s narrow victory over entrants from the University of Birmingham, Interfleet’s graduate team and Manchester Metropolitan University, based on performance throughout five challenges during an action packed weekend at Stapleford Miniature Railway. There were three track-based challenges measuring energy

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reclaimed under braking, speed across a set distance and ride comfort, while two presentation based challenges assessed the design quality and the business case put forward by each of the teams for the locomotive they built. Huddersfield’s winning design was a four-axle machine with a three phase AC traction package. The power and control system aboard was specified and sourced by the students themselves directly from Milton Keynes-based Rockwell Automation. SCS wins contract for the provision of technical support to the UK Lightning II Project Team 23 July 2013, Theale UK - SCS, a Cohort plc company, has won a contract to deliver technical support including airworthiness to the UK MOD’s Lightning Project Team (LPT). Valued at over £4 million, the contract will run for two years from July 2013, with an option of two six-month extensions. SCS’s support work will ensure that F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (Lightning II) is delivered into service as a safe and effective aircraft. To demonstrate the F-35 Lightning II’s airworthiness to the UK authorities, the LPT requires independent expert technical support provided by Suitably Qualified and Experienced Persons (SQEP) to reinforce certification, acceptance and integration. This work will be delivered under the new contract, through the technical support of up to 25 SCS SQEP staff across a wide range of disciplines. Bill Bird, Managing Director of SCS, said: “This cements SCS’s reputation as a leading provider of airworthiness services to MOD.” “The emphasis on SQEP strengthens the recent introduction of our own Independent Technical Evaluation (ITE) Accreditation Scheme – an industry-leading approach to assuring the competency of individuals to undertake this safety- and missioncritical work. Additionally, it allows SCS

to further grow its pool of SQEP staff. These initiatives give us a best-inclass UK capability for a wide range of airworthiness and ITE tasks.” Fifteen-year relationship celebrated as Vulcan returns to RIAT At the Royal International Air Tattoo this year, Marshall Aerospace and Defence Group and the Vulcan to the Sky Trust are celebrating the fifteenth anniversary of their first joint working meeting, on 30th June 1998, which resulted in the return of Avro Vulcan XH558 to flight in October 2007 following its retirement from RAF service in 1993. The importance of Vulcan XH558 to British aviation and military history and the need to return this aircraft to flight was recognised in 2004 by the award of a major grant by the Heritage Lottery Fund towards the costs of her restoration to airworthiness. This highly costly restoration resulted in a major fundraising campaign and in addition to providing extensive technical support, Marshall stepped in with a significant financial commitment which allowed the project to continue to the successful first post-restoration flight on 18th October 2007. The credibility of the return-to-flight project relied on the reputation and proven capabilities of Marshall as the Engineering Authority, and the support of the British aerospace industry. XH558, the world’s last flying Avro Vulcan and the UK’s most popular heritage aircraft, is now expected to receive a vital airframe modification that will help to keep it airworthy until the end of 2015. More details: www.vulcantothesky.org where readers can also find out where to see XH558 fly this year and sign-up for the latest Vulcan news. There is also a popular Facebook community, Vulcan XH558 and a Twitter feed @ XH558


The Automotive Engineering Show, and co locating Auto Electronics Show

that may provide engineers with new ways to improve the control of robotic and prosthetic limbs.

The Shows on November 12-13 at the NEC, Birmingham, will host one of the largest gatherings of auto engineering professionals under one roof – with pre-registered visitors already booking their entry badge from companies including: Aston Martin; Bentley Motors; BMW; BP; Caterham; Caterpillar; Cosworth; Faurecia; Ford; GM; Hella; Honda Europe; Jaguar Land Rover; JCB; Liberty E-Tech; Lotus; McLaren; Mercedes Benz; MIRA; Nissan; Pilkington, Prodrive; Red Bull; Ricardo; Rolls-Royce; Siemens; Tata Motors; Toyota UK; Vauxhall Motors, Williams . . . and many more.

Their work helps to explain how insects control their movements using a close interplay of neuronal control and ‘clever biomechanical tricks,’ says lead researcher Dr Tom Matheson, a Reader in Neurobiology at the University of Leicester.

Contact us to exhibit and join companies like: MIRA, Rohde & Schwarz, Siemens, 3M, Autodesk, Vertech, Caterham Technologies, PCB Piezotronics, TRW Conekt, Stanford Marsh, Stanley Black & Decker, Dewetron, Strainsense, Kistler, GOM UK, Grove Design, Provertha, and many more . . .

The passive movements differ in limbs that have different behavioural roles and different musculature, suggesting that the joint structures are specifically adapted to complement muscle forces. The researchers propose a motor control scheme for insect limb joints in which not all movements are driven by muscles.

Some exhibit stands are also still available in co locating events

The study was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), The Royal Society, and the Heinrich HertzFoundation of the German State of North Rhine-Westphalia.

The Automotive Engineering Show, and co locating Auto Electronics Show are two of the 5 shows forming The Advanced Engineering UK group of events, comprising: • • • • •

Automotive Engineering Show Auto Electronics Show The Composites Engineering Show Aero Engineering Show Printable Electronics for Industry

See more information at: www.advancedengineeringuk.com

In a study published today in the journal Current Biology, the researchers show that the structure of some insect leg joints causes the legs to move even in the absence of muscles. So-called ‘passive joint forces’ serve to return the limb back towards a preferred resting position.

For more information contact: Dr Tom Matheson on +44 (0)116 2231263 or tm75@le.ac.uk CPD Dynamics have announced their fifth annual programme of short training courses in environmental test engineering

Movement without muscles study in insects could inspire robot and prosthetic limb developments

The courses are aimed at those who require a practical introduction to Vibration Testing, Climatic Testing, Mechanical Shock Testing and Practical Signal Processing.

Neurobiologists from the University of Leicester have shown that insect limbs can move without muscles – a finding

Andy Tomlinson, director of CPD Dynamics, considers that practical training is critical to commercial

success. “With a more mobile workforce and increasingly sophisticated instrumentation, there is a potential for untrained staff to generate measurement errors, damage expensive facilities or produce meaningless results.” Andy, who has been running short courses in these subjects for over 25 years, is well aware of the commercial pressures and tight timescales which can hinder staff training. “In engineering, the skill base is often assumed to extend over a wider area than is realistic. Staff may be moved from one job function to another with little thought for the particular expertise required. Lack of clear understanding can lead to avoidable mistakes being made. The result can be expensive.” For further information about the short course programme from January to April 2014 visit www.cpd-dynamics. co.uk. The Office of National Statistics The Office of National Statistics projects that, by 2020, people aged 50 and over will comprise almost a third (32 per cent) of the working age population. With the rise in the state pension age, many more will work well into their late sixties and seventies, either by choice or necessity. Many started their working lives in a completely different environment to today. Globalisation wasn’t such an issue, jobs weren’t so scarce and employers were not so risk averse when it came to hiring staff, so were more willing to train on the job rather than insist on certain qualifications. This generation also learnt about new technologies as they were introduced into the working place, often teaching themselves and evolving their skills alongside the solutions themselves. Their experience still makes them valuable assets to the workplace – so much so that when training programmes are developed, they

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Industry news aren’t included or employees feel that they are too integral to operations and don’t want to spare them. However, an employee in their early 50s now could have up to another 20 years of work ahead of them. Training them how to get the best of the latest technologies and working methods could be an important investment, harnessing best practice skills to their experience and authority.

product design • Software providers offering tools and methods in the field • Any academics interested in developing and providing enhanced methods for real world applications • Engineering managers responsible for robust and optimal product performance NAFEMS members with sufficient seminar credits may be able to attend this one-day event free of charge.

With particular reference to engineering, manufacturing, architecture and design, this article looks at the importance of encouraging lifelong learning for more experienced employees and the benefits for individuals and employers alike.

For more information, visit: www.amrc. co.uk NAFEMS Confirms ‘Understand Variation to Realize Robust and Optimal Design and Production’ Symposium

Alstom’s tidal turbine reaches 1MW in offshore conditions

www.whiteoaks.co.uk

NAFEMS, the international association for the engineering analysis, modelling and simulation community, aims to help delegates understand variation to realize robust optimal design and production with its upcoming one-day stochastics symposium to take place in Los Angeles, CA on October 17th 2013.

From its immersion in January 2013, at the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) in Orkney, Scotland, Alstom’s full-scale tidal device has reached the full nominal power of 1MW after a series of gradual increases in power. The turbine connected to the grid has now generated over 10MWh of electricity, in actual operating conditions. Both are major milestones in the development of the tidal stream energy.

University AMRC expands castings technology

into

The University of Sheffield AMRC has today (1 August 2013) announced plans to expand its research capabilities to include castings technology, after acquiring internationally renowned company Castings Technology International (CTI) at the Advanced Manufacturing Park in Catcliffe, Rotherham. The University of Sheffield has acquired the buildings and assets of CTI and Titanium Castings UK Ltd (TCUK) including the ongoing research work, commercial contracts and consultancy. As part of the agreement, staff at CTI and TCUK are transferring to the employment of a University of Sheffield subsidiary company. The new addition to their portfolio will allow the AMRC to offer state-of-the-art castings technologies to its industrial partners, adding breadth and depth to the University’s collaborative research capabilities. Professor Keith Ridgway CBE who founded the AMRC, said: “The AMRC

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plays a major role in supporting the UK’s advanced manufacturing industry and with it the economic growth and skills which are so vital to our economy. Our aim is to work with our industrial partners to be at the forefront of advanced manufacturing research, helping companies to address real manufacturing challenges with an understanding of the full manufacturing process from design and prototyping through to materials and manufacture.

Organized by NAFEMS Americas and the Stochastics Working Group the symposium will include a selection of presentations from Boeing, GM, MIT, Rolls Royce and others. Symposium participants will hear and learn about: • the importance of incorporating variation to reduce uncertainty in your delivered designs and products • advanced simulation and analysis methods to optimize your design and products during development • proven Robust Design processes, tools and methods used to achieve customer satisfaction Who should attend? • Any product development engineer interested in the practices of using simulation and analysis to improve

Find out more and register at www. nafems.org/stochastics.

The tidal turbine has been tested in different operational conditions through the ReDAPT[1] testing program. It has shown a reliability and performance in line with its design models. The next step of the testing program will be to demonstrate the full range of autonomous running capabilities of the turbine (its ability to efficiently operate independently), continue with the planned maintenance and gather evidence for certification. The endurance and reliability will also be tested until 2014. Tests in pilot farms will follow prior to the start of full commercial production. Alstom’s tidal turbine has a twenty-two metres long nacelle and weighs 150 tonnes. Its rotor has three pitchable blades and a diameter of 18m. The tidal turbine is capable of floating. Buoyancy enables the turbine nacelle to be easily towed to and from the point


of operation and attached to its preinstalled foundation. Avoiding the need for specialist vessels and divers, this particular technical feature minimises installation and maintenance costs and reduces the timeframe to install or retrieve the turbine. The unit operates fully submerged with no surface piercing part, in a water depth of about 40 meters. The nacelle can rotate around vertical axis to face the incoming tide at an optimal angle, and thus extract the maximum energy Website www.alstom.com Introduce Apprenticeship grades, the IAC tells BIS The IAC, launched and funded by EAL, the specialist awarding organisation for industry qualifications, met with representatives from the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) following an invitation from Skills Minister Matthew Hancock MP. At the meeting, to discuss the future of Apprenticeships and proposals in the Richard Review, the IAC put forward their views on how the vocational pathway should be altered to better compete with the academic pathway but still meet employer and learner needs. The IAC outlined their vision for continuous assessment throughout an Apprenticeship, as opposed to an “end of point” assessment, a grading scale similar to that used in Higher Education, and the need to retain individual qualifications (Technical Certificates, NVQs, etc) that make up the vocational pathway. However, despite calling for grading, the IAC was staunchly opposed to Apprenticeships being reduced to a single qualification. For further information or to get in touch with the IAC visit the official Facebook page at www.facebook.com/ IndustryApprenticeCouncil.

Ricardo low carbon, clean technology facility clears planning and starts construction Ricardo has announced that following a meeting of the planning committee of Adur District Council, approval has been formally granted for the company’s advanced new low carbon and low emissions vehicle research centre. The project to create this state-of-the-art low carbon, low emissions vehicle research and development facility at Ricardo’s Shoreham Technical Centre benefits from financial support provided under the UK Government’s Regional Growth Fund (RGF) in recognition of the jobs created and secured in this important area of clean technology. With planning approval now granted, RGF funding is confirmed and the project is entering the construction phase on a 2000 square metre footprint within the Ricardo site. To this end Ricardo has also announced today that a contract has been placed with HORIBA UK covering the detailed design, construction and completion of the centre using HORIBA’s next generation of world leading vehicle testing equipment. The new Ricardo VERC will comprise a brand new building incorporating two vehicle test cells incorporating fourwheel drive chassis dynamometers and advanced emissions testing equipment. The vehicle test cells will be capable of testing passenger cars and light trucks of up to 3 tonnes, including advanced technology hybrid electric vehicles and their associated energy regeneration systems. The Ricardo VERC is scheduled to be completed and open for business in the second half of 2014. Institution and British Airways agree to work together to train and develop engineers

The Letter of Intent, signed on Thursday 1 August, agrees for both organisation to co-operate to ensure the sustainable growth and technological advancement of the aviation industry. This Letter of Intent outlines how the Learning and Development unit of the Institution and British Airways can work together to fulfil their joint aims. Particular focus will be given to the provision of quality, industry leading learning and development for aviation technicians and engineers in the commercial airline industry. The Letter of Intent was signed by Isobel Pollock, Past President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, and Andy Kerswill, Director of Engineering from BA plc, at a special ceremony at the BA Headquarters in Heathrow. Prof Isobel Pollock said: “This Letter of Intent helps ensure that British Airways, and the UK more generally, remains at the very forefront of aircraft engineering. It is through developing engineering skills that we will see sustainable growth in the aviation industry and the benefit of innovation.’ Keith Rose, General Manager of Quality and Training Services, commented: “This clearly shows our commitment to the growth of talent within this sector and builds upon our accredited apprenticeship programme, which is now in its third successful year. The Letter of Intent will broaden the relationship between British Airways and the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and we can now look forward to developing world class learning frameworks for engineers, both from BA and from the wider aviation industry.’

The Institution of Mechanical Engineers and British Airways have agreed to work together to support the development and training of engineers.

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Industry news Ageing workforce can help plug skills gap The baby boomer generation could help to fix the shortfall of skills that will be affecting the UK workplace, according to interim management and executive recruitment company Executives Online. Figures from the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, say that over the next 10 years there will be 13.5 million job vacancies but only 7 million school and college leavers – that leaves a shortfall of 6.5 million people. Joint managing director at Executives Online James O’Brien said: “Experienced interim managers are usually taken on to plug a gap in skills in management teams and the baby boomer generation could provide the perfect skills bridge in overcoming this shortfall. The fact that people are able and willing to work longer is also contributing to the growth of this larger pool of talent.” “With government records showing that by 2020, 36% of the working population will be over 50, it stands to reason that older, more experienced professionals will become more widespread within the employment landscape.” Executives Online’s Interim Report – Research and Analysis on the UK Interim Management Market revealed that interim managers tend to be seasoned executives. More than 70% of 934 survey respondents were over 50 and 18.7% were over 60. From the client side, reasons for hiring an interim manager show that more than a quarter (28%) undertook this approach as they were seeking skills not present in the existing management team. 16% of clients responded that they needed extra management capacity for a fixed-term project. A further 16% said they were recruiting for a permanent employee but couldn’t find the right person fast enough. www.executivesonline.com

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Over a third of UK companies say young people lack the work ethic to succeed in manufacturing Almost 40% of manufacturing firms say apprentices, graduates and new recruits don’t have the work ethic to succeed in industry. In a survey released by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 1,000 British manufacturers – part of the Institution’s Manufacturing a Successful Economy 2013 report – manufacturers also said that as many as 57% of apprentices, graduates and new recruits lack practical skills, while 42% said they lacked communication skills. 45% of the manufacturers polled said that design skills posed an issue with young recruits, while 36% said good maths and science. The poll reveals manufacturing firms are still finding it hard to recruit at all levels, despite high unemployment figures. Of the manufacturers polled, 60% said that they were finding it difficult to recruit design engineers, 39% said they have difficulty recruiting people with skills in production and 36% said they were struggling to find new product specialists. Additionally, 28% are sending manufacturing work abroad – compared to the 20% which are ‘reshoring’ it to UK. Of these companies, 49% cited maintaining unit costs, 33% blamed shipping costs and 21% said energy costs were behind their decisions. And more than 60% of manufacturers say uncertainty surrounding the UK’s EU future is negatively impacting manufacturing – up from 53% in 2012. The independent poll, commissioned by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, was completed in March 2013. MSS Research surveyed 1,000 members of the Institution currently working in the manufacturing sector. The report also includes a survey of over 1,000 members of the public conducted by ICM Research on behalf of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

The EIS is co-sponsoring following events:

the

British Society for Strain Measurement 3-5 September 2013 9th International Conference – Advances in Experimental Mechanics University of Cardiff The conference will offer industry and academia the opportunity to discuss advances in experimental mechanics. www.bssm.org Institution of Mechanical Engineers 20-21 October 2013 International Rail Accident Conference IMechE, London www.imeche.org/events/C1377 30 October 2013 Advances in Modelling Manufacturing Processes IMechE, Nottingham www.imeche.org/events/S1798 3 December 2013 Future Automotive Body Structures Heritage Motor Centre, Gaydon www.imeche.org/events/S1797 The Advanced Engineering UK 12-13 November 2013 Advanced Engineering Group of Events, Birmingham NEC www.advancedengineeringuk.com/ hub/ British Society for Strain Measurement and the European Society for Experimental Mechanics 7-11 July 2014 Cambridge 16th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (Icem 16) The 16th in a series of conferences, starting in Delft in 1959, this is the premier event to showcase novel and innovative research in Experimental Mechanics. The conference brings together internationally leading researchers across a wide range of disciplines in both academia and industry to interchange ideas and discuss new research. http://www.icem16.org/


Product news Invotec Group develop PCBs for Europe’s most sophisticated communications satellite Invotec Group took a keen interest in the launch of Inmarsat’s latest satellite - Alphasat - from French Guiana on 25 July. The most sophisticated commercial communications satellite ever launched; Alphasat features an advanced Digital Integrated Processor system built by Astrium in the UK and incorporating PCBs manufactured by Invotec Group. Allied to the platform’s smart 11m by 13m antenna system, the processor system can channel significant bandwidth and power, enabling a wide range of high data, mobile user applications for aeronautical, land and maritime markets. For Invotec Group, this launch represents the successful culmination of a 4 year development phase with Astrium. There are 8 integrated processors within the satellite. The highly complex suite of PCBs are all advanced material, backplane sized, high layer count, multiple bonded, mixed finish, flex rigid HDI structures which are proven technologies for Invotec Group. Tel: +44 (0)844 822 1658, Mobile: +44 (0)7739 461 061 Email: abigail@singletonpr.com Putting A Test Case For Integrity Management Widely-publicised catastrophic failures of forged materials in deepwater applications have called into question the structural integrity of such products and focused industry attention on the need for carefully-managed ‘integrity management’ of key components. Errors in material selection at the design stage, the use of incorrect heat treatment techniques and inconsistent mechanical testing regimes, often involving test pieces not taken from the actual components, can lead to product failures during operation, typically

resulting in significant environmental, safety and financial costs. Keighley Laboratories is perfectly placed to offer independent metallurgical testing, on a sub-contract basis. Its long-established Test House boasts a full array of physical and mechanical testing resources, including room and sub-zero temperature assessment down to -196°C, Charpy impact test and sample preparation provisions, all the main hardness and micro-hardness testing methods, and specialist equipment for tensile and compression loading and determining other key mechanical properties. Accelerated salt spray techniques, humidity chambers, solvent/chemical resistance and other corrosion-related testing are also among its specialised facilities. A new optical suite houses advanced metallurgical microscopes complete with image capture software, a fullyequipped CNC machine shop, a highly-respected chemical analysis department and a dedicated team of NDT inspectors qualified to PCN Level 2/3, further extending Keighley Labs’ in-house technical resources. Added to which is its expertise in the heat treatment of metals, including expert consultancy on thermal and quenching processes and the selection of suitable materials at the design stage. Further enquiries: Tel. 01535 664211, Email: lstott@keighleylabs.co.uk Photovoltaic filter to 1500V offers big cost savings - CD Automation’s new line filters reduce energy losses CD Automation, a UK manufacturer and supplier of industrial automation controllers and drives has launched the UK photovoltaic industry’s first family of DC power line filter solutions supporting 1500V panels. The new filters maximise the operating DC voltage to the limit of the European Union’s Low Voltage Directive (LVD). The inverter filters allows for both

single- and multi-stage performance options, to mitigate electromagnetic interference (EMI) scenarios. Their high voltage means they have lower current, thereby minimising cost by decreasing losses from heat dissipation. The products are ideal for inverter manufacturers seeking field-proven power line filters designed specifically for this task. The two types of EMI Inverter filters - the RP300 series of AC Inverter filters suitable for wind turbines, and the RP600 series of DC filters – are designed for the photovoltaic inverter industry. The DC filter is installed between the solar photovoltaic panel and the inverter, thus helping to control conducted emissions on the panel side of the system and therefore significantly reducing the potential for high-frequency (HF) interference radiation off the panel. The filter also protects the solar panel from HF stray and leakage currents which can cause premature aging in the photovoltaic modules. For further information: Tel: +44 (0) 1323 811 100. www.cdautomation. co.uk e-mail: jez.w@cdautomation.co.uk Omni-directional Vibration Switches for All Situations, Applications and Regulations FFE’s next generation range of omnidirectional vibration switches is the only choice available for reliable machine protection for unknown or unpredicted angles of vibration. Easy to install correctly and suitable for use at a wide range of operational temperatures, it uses technology proven in the field to detect even small changes in vibration in any and all directions. Designed to be the lightest and smallest on the market, the full suite of weatherproof and explosion proof variants comply with the latest Regulations, Standards and Directives (available in full at www.ffeuk.com/ product-vib-sw-intro.html). Weighing

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Product news around 1.5kg and measuring only 170mm x 136mm x 44mm, the switches have been made more resilient and rugged than ever before, whilst retaining their simple reliability and ease of installation and use. Where the directionality of vibration cannot be completely controlled or known in advance, FFE’s switches are believed to be the only ones available on the market to work effectively as they are responsive to vibration in all planes and angles of motion. The switches feature a modern design that offers maximum benefits to both the installer and user, and are supported by excellent instructions, guidance and after sales support. Improved documentation is also available on FFE’s website, to help users in selecting the right product. For further information: Tel: +44 (0)1462 444 740, E-mail: sales@ffeuk. com, www.ffeuk.com

Energy Beam processing is emerging as a key set of technologies for the manufacture of high-value components and products for use in industries ranging from aerospace to jewellery and medicine. It involves removing controlled depths of materials via abrasive waterjet, pulsed laser, or focus ion beam. The University of Nottingham is a world leader in the use of High Energy Fluid Jets and is currently at the demonstration stage of another European project called ConforM2-Jet which investigates the development of complex parts using the technology.

New Micro Waterjet Centre gives University the cutting edge

For more information about the STEEP project: www.steep.itn.eu and services for businesses: www.nottingham.ac.uk/ servicesforbusiness

The University of Nottingham has launched a unique Microwaterjet® machine which enables it to cut almost any material to a micron level of accuracy.

New LMS 3D simulation solutions offer more real-world technology Superior acoustics solutions for driving dynamics and a 3D-based real-time solver for HiL applications

Micro waterjets work by mixing a very fine abrasive with accelerated water at incredibly high speeds. They can cut everything from felt to precious stones and hard alloys at very high speeds and also provide a unique method of fast and flexible prototype production.

Leuven, Belgium, 8 July 2013 – LMS, which was recently acquired by Siemens and is now a business segment within Siemens PLM Software, announced the latest release of its LMS 3D solutions for real world simulation, LMS Virtual.Lab Rev 12 and SAMCEF Rev 15. Both software releases use innovative technology to simulate real-world behaviour for faster, more realistic and easier product design.

At the heart of the new centre at the University is a new state-of-the-art £250k waterjet machine, the only one of its kind in the UK, which has been donated to the University by the Swiss based company WATERjet AG. The machine will be an integral part of a major new pan-European industrial and academic training project which The University of Nottingham is co-

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ordinating, known as STEEP. Funded by the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), the STEEP project, which focuses on Energy Beam processing, includes 10 main partners and 18 associate partners from 12 European countries.

The current releases are another testimony to the company’s commitment to realistic 3D simulation solutions. They are easier-to-use, feature faster performance, and incorporate several innovative solutions for non-linear

analysis of acoustics and mechanisms, including composite materials. The software introduces several dedicated solutions for the automotive, aerospace and wind energy industry. The LMS 3D simulation solutions are an excellent way to handle the ever-increasing complexity of products today. For more information: www.lmsintl.com Fatigue of Composite Structures: New and Unique Tool for Fatigue Life Prediction of Woven Fibres Safe Technology Ltd announces a new and unique capability for the fatigue analysis of woven fibres from Finite Element models. The tool is included in the latest release of fe-safe/ Composites™, the add-on module to the Safe Technology’s advanced suite of fatigue analysis software for Finite Element models, fe-safe®. This release extends the fatigue of composites module’s capabilities from unidirectional laminae, to include plain woven architectures. This new capability was developed by a consortium of companies led by Safe Technology and Firehole Composites (recently acquired by Autodesk, Inc). The methodology was refined using materials and test data from three leading engineering companies: DSO National Laboratories, Singapore, Royal National Lifeboat Institute (RNLI), UK, and Daimler AG, Germany. These companies represent key industries for whom the new woven fibre fatigue life capability has particular relevance; namely the defence, aerospace, marine and automotive/ground vehicle sectors. Wind turbine blade manufacturers will be another obvious sector to benefit; the unidirectional materials capability has already been successfully tested and verified with turbine blade applications. The new release is now supported on Linux and Windows 64 bit. For further information: wendy. vaughan@safetechnology.com


News from the Institution of Mechanical Engineers which could inhibit the growth of these vital UK sectors.

Prime Minister announces initiative to create 100,000 Engineering Technicians The Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon David Cameron MP, has today announced a new initiative which will help create 100,000 registered Engineering Technicians by 2018. Working through new and established apprentice schemes, the initiative aims to create 100,000 Engineering Technicians by giving them structured on-the-job experience built upon a recognised academic qualification. On successful completion of their apprenticeships, and by ensuring the appropriate skills and competencies are reached, each apprentice will be able to attain the globally recognised professional registration designation of Engineering Technician (EngTech). The initiative has been created by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Institution of Civil Engineers, Institution of Engineering and Technology and the Gatsby Foundation in response to the emerging skills gap in the engineering and construction sectors. Today’s announcement of the new apprenticeship initiative was made alongside the full-size replica of the British Bloodhound Super Sonic Car on its first visit to Downing Street. The 13m jet-and-rocket propelled car aims not only to beat the current land speed record of 763mph in 2014, but also to be the first land vehicle to exceed 1,000mph by 2015. Current estimates suggest that the UK needs to double the pipeline of new recruits into engineering, construction and manufacturing professions by 2020 to avoid a severe skills shortage,

Mr Cameron said: “British engineering and innovation are a part of our history that we are rightly very proud of and our engineering excellence continues to change the world that we live in for the better. Bloodhound is a fantastic example of what our engineers can achieve.” “Apprenticeships are at the heart of our mission to rebuild the economy, giving young people the chance to learn a trade and to build their careers, creating a truly world-class, high-skilled workforce that can compete and thrive in the global race.” Stephen Tetlow, Chief Executive of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, said of the apprenticeship initiative: “The Institution and its partners are concerned that the number of people pursuing engineering careers is just not enough to meet the current and future demands of the engineering, manufacturing and construction sectors.” “To help UK companies succeed in this ever-growing competitive global marketplace, we need people with the highest professional skills and abilities.“ “This initiative will ensure that the UK has a growing stream of Engineering Technicians being developed to a level that is recognised and respected around the world.” “We are pleased that Mr Cameron recognises the importance of Engineering Technicians to the UK’s engineering, manufacturing and construction sectors.” Professor Barry Clarke, President of the Institution of Civil Engineers said: “If we want world class infrastructure, fit for the 21st Century, we must have a world class engineering workforce to deliver it.” “Engineering

Technicians

-

exercise very specialist skills and techniques and solve complex problems - form a vital part of the skills mix and ultimately help to deliver projects efficiently and on time.” “Our work to boost the number of Technicians, and ensure they are recognised in society, is crucial if we are to have the right skills to meet the challenges ahead. The much welcomed backing by the Prime Minister today is testimony to its importance.” Dr Tony Whitehead, Director of Policy at the Institution of Engineering and Technology, said: “Increasing the pool of home grown technical skills in the UK is good for our economy and good for individuals. The pace of technological development in the modern workplace is creating an urgent and growing demand for higher levels of technical skill and professionalism.” “This initiative will help to meet the need to up-skill and increase the pool of home grown talent. More Engineering Technicians in the workforce will help us to maintain a competitive edge and boost growth in the UK economy through innovation and creativity.” The Prime Minister also met apprentices from a number of leading manufacturing and construction companies, including Perkins Engines, Caterpillar, Rolls-Royce, MBDA, Halcrow, BBMV, NG Bailey and Mott MacDonald. In addition, Year 10 pupils from Barclay School in Stevenage, who all hope to become engineers and scientists, will meet with the Prime Minister. The Bloodhound SSC project was launched in 2008 to help inspire the next generation of British engineers and scientists. The record attempts will be undertaken in South Africa by Wing Commander Andy Green, the current world land speed and supersonic speed record holder.

who

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News from British Standards BS8888:2013 Technical

World War, it has been developing

system, so that it became much more

Product

and producing international technical

straightforward to find the relevant

and

standards, including standards for

ISO standard that dealt with the issue

Product

engineering specification. As one of

of interest. A fair amount of additional

the founding members of ISO, BSI has

material was also included, to provide

a long history of involvement in the

users with further guidance on working

creation of ISO standards in this field.

with the ISO system.

Specification Technical

Documentation BS 8888 is the British standard which defines the

requirements

been up-dated or revised every two Almost

all

ISO

standards

for

technical

engineering specification are adopted

specification of products and their

by the European Union (so an ISO

component parts.

for

the

years or so, to keep abreast of changes and up-dates to the ISO system.

Amongst other

standard like ISO 1101 becomes a

BS 8888 became a very useful

things, it defines the way in which

European standard known as EN

document, and a number of other

engineering

drawings

define

and

ISO 1101 – EN stands for ‘European

countries, such as Germany and

present these specifications. Technical

Normative’).

Once an ISO standard

Austria, are now following the UK’s

Committee TDW/4/8 at the British

has been adopted by the European

lead and are publishing similar national

Standards Institution (BSI), is currently

Union in this manner, all members

standards to help their industries work

putting the finishing touches to the next

of the European Union are legally

with the ISO system.

revision of BS 8888. A draft version was

obliged to adopt it at a national level.

recently released for public comment,

Thus EN ISO 1101 becomes a British

with the aim of publishing the finished

standard known as BS EN ISO 1101.

standard towards the end of 2013.

In this way, almost all ISO standards for

Many people still find the ISO system

technical specification have become

difficult to work with, even with BS

British Standards.

8888 to help guide them through it.

It seems an appropriate time to review the purpose of this standard, and to

A new direction

In total, there are now somewhere

explain the aims and ambitions that

The adoption of ISO standards as

between 200 and 250 ISO standards

TDW/4/8 have for the new revision.

British standards has been going on for

defining the ISO system for technical

decades, but in the process, the role of

specification, and these standards

our national standard, BS 308, became

are all being revised and updated at

Why BS 8888 exists

compromised. If it differed from any

different times. Many engineers long

rightly

of the ISO standards, we would end

for the ‘good old days’ of BS 308, when

be proud of the fact that it was the

up with two British standards which

everything they needed to know could

first nation to publish a standard for

contradicted each other.

be found within a single standard.

engineering drawing.

The

United

Kingdom

can

If it did not

This was a

differ from ISO standards, we would

standard known as BS 308, which first

end up with different standards which

In TDW/4/8, we have been very

appeared in 1927.

duplicated each other.

As the standard

For these

concerned to try and make BS 8888,

evolved and developed over the years,

reasons, BS 308 was withdrawn in

and in fact the whole ISO system, much

it became an essential reference in

2000.

more accessible and user friendly. In

the design and drawing offices of very

2010, we decided to take a radically

organisations.

BS 8888 was first published in the

different approach to BS 8888, and

Nor was its influence restricted to the

same year that BS 308 was withdrawn.

provide industry with a standard,

UK; the standard was in widespread

It was conceived as a kind of roadmap

perhaps not the same as BS 308, but

use throughout much of the British

to the ISO system, to assist users

certainly much closer to it.

Commonwealth and even further afield.

in industry to find their way around

many

Ever

30

BS 8888 has

manufacturing

since

the

International

the large number of ISO standards

Our vision was to develop a document

which define the ISO system for

that would serve two purposes:

Organisation for Standardization (ISO)

technical specification.

It did this in

was formed, shortly after the Second

large part simply by indexing the ISO

• make the material that engineers


need on a regular basis, the

the ISO system is documented, and the

The primary aim of the technical

‘nuts and bolts’ of engineering

increasing levels of complexity which

committee is to make the standard as

specification, available in the body

are being introduced, could otherwise

accessible and as useful as possible

of BS 8888 so that it is all in one

result in companies ignoring these

for users in industry. There is no doubt

place.

standards altogether.

much further to go with this aim, but the

• continue to provide an index to the

new revision of BS 8888 will be better The first version of BS 8888 to

organised and contain more technical

be written in this way was as the

content than any previous version. It

To do this, we took a lot of the core

2011 version.

In that revision, we

will be a useable technical reference

material of the ISO system, the kind of

reproduced large sections of some of

document in its own right, as well as

content that engineers need routinely,

the key standards, such as ISO 1101

continuing to provide an index to the

and reproduced it directly in BS 8888,

and ISO 5459, directly in the body of

full ISO system.

so that users would no longer need to

BS 8888. In order to avoid the risk of

trawl through a large number of ISO

any contradiction between BS 8888

In seeking to further develop and

standards in order to find it.

and the ISO standards it references,

improve this standard, the technical

care was taken to avoid changing any

committee welcomes any kind of

At the same time, more esoteric

of the wording except where it was

feedback and constructive comment.

elements of technical specification were

unavoidable.

The

ISO system.

omitted. This was to avoid confusing users with technical detail that they

welcomes

who would be willing to participate in its work, and help with the on-going

keep the document to a manageable

With the latest revision of BS 8888,

size. However, BS 8888 continues to

there have been several significant

provide an index to the ISO system,

developments.

evolution of BS 8888. Iain Macleod

so users requiring those more esoteric

Technical Committee TDW/4/8 at BSI. • Firstly, the standard has been completely restructured, to try and

For example, if a designer wants

also

expressions of interest from anyone BS 8888:2013

would not normally require, and to

specification elements can find them.

committee

make it easier to find information.

Senior Partner, Iain Macleod Associates Tel: 0161 969 6939

to know how to define a system of

• Secondly, the committee felt that

Email: iain@g-tol.co.uk

datums for a component, and apply a

the requirements for dimensioning

Web: www.g-tol.co.uk

geometrical tolerance to the position of

had been under-represented in

a hole, BS 8888 will tell them how to

the 2011 version of the standard,

do this. If the designer wants to use

so there is now a great deal more

moving datum targets, or modify the

detail on this.

association method used to define a

• Thirdly, after much soul-searching,

datum, BS 8888 will refer them to BS

the committee decided that it

EN ISO 5459.

would no longer stick with the original wording of ISO standards

This approach does result in BS 8888

in all cases. In certain sections,

duplicating some of the content of ISO

particularly the datum section, it was

standards (the kind of duplication of

deemed necessary to completely

standards which led to the withdrawal

re-write the content in order to

of BS 308). However, the committee

make it easier to understand and

are convinced that this is not only

use.

justifiable, but absolutely necessary,

rather

in order to make the ISO system

standards, BS 8888 is providing

accessible and usable for British

a commentary and explanation of

industry. The fragmented way in which

the ISO requirements.

Thus in certain sections, than

reproducing

ISO

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Group news Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group Following the very successful SVPP seminar and exhibition held earlier this year at the University of Southampton’s Human Factors Research Unit entitled, ‘Understanding Vehicle Seating Dynamics and Ride Comfort’, the committee are now in the process of planning the next event. This will take place in April 2014 at a venue to be soon confirmed and will be structured as a training workshop in various areas of acoustics engineering. We feel that there is a strong demand for high value, ‘hands-on’ training in a classroom environment, led by a group of experienced mentors from within the committee. There will also be good participation from those members representing the equipment and software suppliers within the group, who will provide the working tools for the training workshop as well as adding their expertise in practical acoustic measurement techniques and problem solving to the other team members who will participate. John Wilkinson Chairman

Simulation, Test & Measurement Group At the EIS meeting in February, I agreed to take over the Chair of the SMTG group from Richard Hobson, who had been caretaking the role. Due to work commitments, and an injured wrist, due to a fall, Richard felt unable to continue, and our thanks go to him for his efforts and continuing support.

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Since the last Journal was issued, the 2013 Instrumentation Exhibition has taken place at Silverstone. Once again the event was extremely successful with 57 exhibitors and over 150 visitors. The organisation on the day was excellent and feedback from attendees was very positive. There were 4 discussion forums arranged through the day, and these were well attended and found to be interesting. The topics were: ‘Improvements in the Whole Testing and Predictive Process’ Chaired by Norman Thornton. A knowledgeable panel included Andrew Blows (Jaguar Landrover), Andrew Halfpenny (HBM nCode), Angelo Fanourakis (GKN Autostructures), John McCarthy (Maps Technology), and Simon Quinn (University of Southampton & Chairman of BSSM) ‘KERS - Standard and Hybrid Systems’ Chaired by Bernard Steeples (Engineering Consultant) ‘Residual Strain – Effects and Considerations’ Chaired by Norman Thornton and including the same panel as the first forum. The final forum was planned to be ‘Past Successes and Future Challenges in Vehicle Dynamics’ but a last minute problem prevented the organisers from going ahead, and so a substitute forum was arranged. This was ‘RLD, how to/ not to do it’, chaired by David Ensor (MIRA). Many thanks to David for stepping in. Planning for the 2014 exhibition is already underway, and the date is fixed for March 18th. The facilities were reviewed by the organising panel, and it is proposed to stay with the current arrangements at Silverstone. Some minor improvements to catering will be done, in response to the feedback received from visitors and exhibitors. Silverstone is a poular venue, and enjoys a good location with access by main roads.

The four Forum titles will be settled as soon as possible, but proposed subjects so far include: • New Testing Challenges provided by Hybrids • F1 – new engine • Improving the Testing Process • 3D printing – what can you do? • Short Fibre Composites • Residual Strain • Unmanned Vehicles Other events planned for the coming year are a one-day event entitiled “Hydraulics in Testing” which will take place on September 25th. This will be a basic review of the use of servo hydraulics in the testing process, and is aimed at anyone wishing to know more about how hydraulic systems are used. The venue is Star Hydraulics in Tewkesbury, which means that attendees will be able to see how Servovalves are made and maintained. Other possible future events include ‘Improvements in the Whole Testing Process’ and ‘Residual Strain’. Both of these subjects have featured in Silverstone forums, and it is felt that there is sufficient interest and scope to widen these to a full day. It is particularly hoped that these one-day events will attract younger engineers to come along and share the experience offered. Geoff Rowlands Chairman


Corporate Members The following companies are CORPORATE MEMBERS of the Engineering Integrity Society. We thank them for their continued support which helps the Society to run its wide-ranging events throughout the year.

AcSoft Bruel & Kjaer Data Physics Datron Technology GOM HBM United Kingdom Instron Kemo Kistler LMS UK

Millbrook Proving Ground MIRA MOOG MTS Systems Müller-BBM National Instruments PDS Projects Polytec RAL Space, Rutherford Laboratory Safe Technology

Sensors UK Servotest Stack Techni Measure Tiab TRaC Global Transmissions Dynamics Yokogawa Zwick

New Personal Members Malcolm Sharp – Xodus Group George Winney – TaTa Motors Alan Montague – Helipebs John Fitzpatrick-Ellis – JF Consultants William Betram – Huxley Bertram

MEMBERSHIP The Engineering Integrity Society is an independent charitable organisation, supported and sponsored by industry. The Society is committed to promoting events and publications, providing a forum for experienced engineers and new graduates to discuss current issues and new technologies. We aim for both company and personal development and to inspire newly qualified engineers to develop their chosen profession. Events run provide an ideal opportunity for engineers to meet others who operate in similar fields of activity over coffee and lunch. All of our events enable engineers to establish and renew an excellent ‘contact’ base while keeping up to date with new technology and developments in their field of interest. We are involved in a wide range of Industrial sectors including Automotive, Aerospace, Civil, Petrochemical etc and continue to be interested in new members from all sectors. Benefits: • • •

EIS members receive a subscription to ‘Engineering Integrity’, mailed direct to their office or private address. Discounts to EIS events. Access to Task Groups, to take part, or to receive information and recommendations.

Fees:

Personal Membership (UK) Personal Overseas Membership Corporate Membership (1 April - 31 March)

£25 a year £30 a year £400+VAT a year (pro rata)

Application forms can be downloaded from the membership page at www.e-i-s.org.uk If your membership has expired or you are unsure if your membership is current, contact: eis2013@e-i-s.org.uk

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Committee Members President: Peter Watson O.B.E. Directors Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom................................................................................................................ 0121 7331837 Richard Hobson, Serco Technical & Assurance Services................................................................................. 01332 263534 Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant .................................................................................................... 07881 802410 Geoff Rowlands, MIRA ..................................................................................................................................... 02476 355517 Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant....................................................................................................... 07866 815200 John Wilkinson, Millbrook Proving Ground ....................................................................................................... 01525 842526 Chairman Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant .................................................................................................... 07881 802410 Vice Chairman Richard Hobson, Serco Technical & Assurance Services................................................................................. 01332 263534 Treasurer Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom................................................................................................................ 0121 7331837 Company Secretary Geoff Rowlands, MIRA ..................................................................................................................................... 02476 355517 EIS Secretariat Sara Atkin...........................................................................................................................................................01572 811315 Communications Sub Committee – ‘Engineering Integrity’ Journal of the EIS Honorary Editor Karen Perkins, Swansea University ................................................................................................................. 01792 513029 Managing Editor Catherine Pinder .............................................................................................................................................. 07979 270998

Durability & Fatigue Group Chairman Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom................................................................................................................ 0121 7331837 Members John Atkinson, Sheffield Hallam University .......................................................................................................01142 252014 Martin Bache, Swansea University ................................................................................................................... 01792 295287 Peter Blackmore, Jaguar Land Rover............................................................................................................... 01926 923715 Feargal Brennan, Cranfield University ............................................................................................................. 01234 758249 Amirebrahim Chahardehi, Cranfield University................................................................................................. 01234 754631 John Draper, Safe Technology..........................................................................................................................0114 268 6444 Lee Gilbert, TRaC Global.................................................................................................................................. 01926 478478 Karl Johnson, Zwick Roell Group...................................................................................................................... 0777957 8913 Karen Perkins, University of Swansea ............................................................................................................. 01792 513029 Davood Sarchamy, British Aerospace Airbus.......................................................................................................0117 936861 Giora Shatil, Gamesa Wind UK................................................................................................................................................. Andy Stiles, Aero Engine Controls.................................................................................................................... 0121 6276600 James Trainor, Jaguar Land Rover................................................................................................................... 01926 646424 John Yates, University of Manchester............................................................................................................... 0161 2754331

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Simulation, Test & Measurement Group Chairman Geoff Rowlands, MIRA ..................................................................................................................................... 02476 355517 Members Paul Armstrong, Amber Instruments.................................................................................................................. 01246 260250 Ian Bell, National Instruments .......................................................................................................................... 01635 572409 Steve Coe, Data Physics (UK).......................................................................................................................... 01323 846464 Colin Dodds, Dodds & Associates..................................................................................................................... 07880 554590 Dave Ensor, MIRA............................................................................................................................................. 02476 355295 Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant.................................................................................................... 0121 5203838 Richard Hobson, Serco Technical & Assurance Services................................................................................. 01332 263534 Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant..................................................................................................... 07881 802410 Ray Pountney, Engineering Consultant............................................................................................................. 01245 320751 Tim Powell, Bruel & Kjaer VTS.......................................................................................................................... 01763 255780 Nick Richardson, Servotest............................................................................................................................... 01784 274428 Paul Roberts, HBM United Kingdom ................................................................................................................ 0785 2945988 Jarek Rosinski, Transmission Dynamics........................................................................................................... 0191 5800058 Bernard Steeples, Engineering Consultant....................................................................................................... 01621 828312 Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant....................................................................................................... 07866 815200 Jeremy Yarnall, Consultant Engineer................................................................................................................ 01332 875450 Conway Young, Tiab ......................................................................................................................................... 01295 714046

Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group Chairman John Wilkinson, Millbrook Proving Ground ....................................................................................................... 01525 842526 Members Marco Ajovalasit, Brunel University................................................................................................................... 01895 267134 Joe Armstrong, Polytec .....................................................................................................................................01582 711670 Alan Bennetts, Bay Systems............................................................................................................................. 01458 860393 Dave Boast, D B Engineering Solutions ........................................................................................................... 01225 743592 Mark Burnett, MIRA .......................................................................................................................................... 02476 355329 Gary Dunne, Jaguar Land Rover ..................................................................................................................... 02476 206573 Andrew Hillis, University of Bath....................................................................................................................... 01225 384977 David Fish, JoTech ........................................................................................................................................... 01827 830606 Henrietta Howarth, Southampton University.......................................................................................... 023 8059 4963/2277 Paul Jennings, Warwick University ................................................................................................................... 02476 523646 Richard Johnson, Sound & Vibration Technology ............................................................................................ 01525 408502 Chris Knowles, JCB .......................................................................................................................................... 01889 593900 Jon Richards, Honda UK .................................................................................................................................. 01793 417238 Ian Strath, LMS International ............................................................................................................................ 02476 408120 Keith Vickers, Bruel & Kjaer UK ....................................................................................................................... 01223 389800

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Profiles of Company Members Bruel & Kjaer UK

GOM UK

Jarman Way Royston Herts SG8 5BQ

14 The Cobalt Centre Siskin Parkway East Coventry CV3 4PE

Tel: 01223 389 800 Fax: 01223 389 919 Email: ukinfo@bksv.com Website: www.bksv.co.uk Contact: Heather Wilkins

Tel: +44 (0) 2476 639920 Email: Info-uk@gom.com Website: www.gom.com Contact: Rob Wood

Brüel & Kjær is a world-leading manufacturer of sound and vibration solutions for use in a wide range of applications including: environmental noise measurements, building acoustics, vibration measurements and quality control, for use in automotive, aerospace and consumer industries.

GOM – Professional 3D optical measurement.

We design and manufacturer sound level meters, microphones, accelerometers, conditioning amplifiers, calibrators, noise and vibration analysers and software.

36

For material and component testing GOM Deformation products include Digital Image Correlation (DIC), point tracking and forming analysis. All systems are 3D and noncontact, DIC using a speckle pattern to give full field strain results, ideal for FEA comparison.

We run a variety of training courses, from basic introductions on noise to specialised training helping customers get the most from their equipment.

The GOM ATOS 3D scanner is developed for reverse engineering and dimensional control of components. Fast, accurate scans are now an established way of reducing product development times and ensuring highest quality components.

Data Physics (UK) Ltd

Kemo Limited

South Road Hailsham East Sussex BN27 3JJ

Unit 1, Dene Yard Green Street Green Road Dartford Kent DA2 8DH

Tel: +44 (0) 1323 846464 Fax: +44 (0) 1323 847550 Email: geoffrey.murphy@dataphysics.com Website: www.dataphysics.com Contact: Geoff Murphy

Tel: +44(0)1474 705168 Fax: +44(0)1474 705366 Email: technical@kemo.com Website: www.kemo.com Contact: Robert Owens

Data Physics is a total solution supplier of Dynamic Test equipment for Noise, Vibration and Structural Dynamics. With a wide range of Analysers, Vibration Controllers, Electrodynamic shakers and High Energy Acoustic Noise Generators, Data Physics has a solution for virtually every form of dynamic testing requirement.

Kemo manufacture a wide range of signal filters. From single channel fixed frequency through to multi-channel computer controlled filter/amplifier systems. For over 40 years we have solved small noisy signal problems for a wide range of applications.


LMS UK Ltd

Sensors UK Ltd

Unit 3 Rye Hill Office Park Birmingham Road Coventry CV5 9AB

135a Hatfield Road St.Albans Hertfordshire AL1 3AL

Tel: 02476 408 120 Fax: 02476 408 135 Email: Leonie.upton@lmsintl.com Website: www.lmsintl.com Contact: Leonie Upton

Tel: 01727 861110 Fax: 01727 844272 Email: sales@sensorsuk.com Website: www.sensorsuk.com Contact: David White

LMS, the leading partner in test and mechatronic simulation in the automotive, aerospace and other advanced manufacturing industries, helps customers get better products to market faster.

Established in 1964, Sensors UK Ltd has earned a reputation as a leading distributor and supplier of a broad range of primary sensors, measuring instruments and systems to the manufacturing and process industries.

With a unique combination of mechatronic simulation software, testing systems and engineering services, LMS tunes into mission critical engineering attributes, ranging from system dynamics, structural integrity and sound quality to durability, safety and power consumption. With multi-domain and mechatronic simulation solutions, LMS addresses complex engineering challenges associated with intelligent system design and model-based systems engineering. More than 1200 LMS professionals serve over 5000 manufacturing companies worldwide.

National Instruments

TRaC Global Limited

Measurement House Newbury Business Park London Road Newbury Berkshire RG14 2PZ

100 Frobisher Business Park Leigh Sinton Road Malvern Worcestershire WR14 1BX

Tel: 01635 523545 Email: info.uk@ni.com Website: uk.ni.com Contact: Anthony Sims Since 1976, National Instruments has equipped engineers and scientists with tools that accelerate productivity, innovation and discovery. NI’s graphical system design approach to engineering provides an integrated software and hardware platform that speeds the development of any system needing measurement and control. The company’s long-term vision and focus on improving society through its technology supports the success of its customers, employees, suppliers and shareholders.

Tel: +44 (0) 1684 571700 Fax: +44 (0) 1684 571701 Email: test@tracglobal.com Website: www.tracglobal.com Contact: Brendan Wall TRaC Global is a leading testing and certification group for companies needing to achieve product compliance. Every year TRaC tests over 2,500 products and helps companies take their products to market. TRaC is a UKAS accredited test laboratory for EMC, Safety, Radio, Environmental and Telecoms as well as National Certification Body and Certified Body Test Laboratory for international products and approvals.

37


Clevis Pin, Miniature Loadcell, Pancake Loadcell, Bolt or Stud Straingauged, Load Washer, Tension Link

Force Measurement IXTHUS have the solution!!! Production and Assembly Machinery... Aerospace...Automotive...Autosport... Military...Mining...Food...Medical...

Tel: 01327 353437 E: sales@ixthus.co.uk Web: www.ixthus.co.uk

• • • • • • • • •

1N to 20,000KN Custom Designs (Undertaken) C t D i (U d t k ) Full Calibration Fatigue Rated Down Hole Straingauged Proof Load Testing Amplier and Interfaces Excellent Environmental Protection Subsea to Space

EDX-10A LOW COST COMPACT DATA RECORDER • Strain and Voltage inputs • USB Interface • NEW – Stacked Configuration • Easy-to-use software included • Maximum 20 kHz sampling rate • Simultaneous all-channel sampling • Standard KS2 file format

To advertise in this space Email: catherine@cpinder.com 1/4 page full colour £160 1/4 page black and white £92 Discounts available for yearly bookings

SENSORS UK LTD 135A HATFIELD ROAD, ST ALBANS AL1 4JX UNITED KINGDOM TEL: + 44 (0)1727 85 93 73 EMAIL: sales[at]sensorsuk.com

For more information please visit: www.sensorsuk.com


©2013 Moog Inc. All rights reserved. Top automotive manufacturers listed in Automotive News Data Book, Global Sales Rankings.

85% OF TOP AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURERS RELY ON A MOOG ADVANCED TEST SOLUTION. Leading-edge automotive testing solutions allow test professionals to market new designs faster, manage increased regulatory pressures and maintain cost efficiencies through rapid, reliable and versatile testing. Our unsurpassed expertise—combined with close customer collaboration—make Moog a leader in providing both simple and complex structural and performance test solutions.

Ready to master the automotive test solutions that put you in the driver’s seat? Contact us at test@moog.com or download our free white paper on the automotive tests of the future at http://info.moog.com/h2il

WHAT MOVES YOUR WORLD

www.moog.com/test


www.mpihome.com

Noise and Vibration Solutions for Experimental Dynamics m+p international supplies advanced test solutions for mobile and test bench applications. They allow you to acquire, analyse and report the most complex of noise and vibration data in a matter of minutes. Our software products support the widest range of instrumentation from National Instruments, VTI VXI, and m+p international.

         

Dynamic Signal Analysis Modal Analysis Rotational Dynamics Acoustics and Sound Quality Pass-by Noise Testing Machinery Condition Monitoring Vibration Control Continuous Data Acquisition Shock Testing Road Load Simulation

m+p international (UK) Ltd Mead House Bentley, Hampshire GU10 5HY, United Kingdom

Phone: (+44) (0)1420 521222 Fax: (+44) (0)1420 521223 sales.uk@mpihome.com www.mpihome.com


PULSE array acoustics for noise source identification

Locate, quantify and rank noise sources accurately and rapidly

ALL FRoM oNE PARTNER

85,5 84 82,5 81 79,5 78 76,5 75 90 88,5 75 87 76,5 85,5 84 78 82,5 79,5 81 79,5 81 78 76,5 82,5 75 75 84 76,5 85,5 78 79,5 87 81 88,5 82,5 84 90 85,5 87 88,5 90

Brüel & Kjær has the world’s most comprehensive range of sound and vibration test and measurement systems

Noise source identification solutions for high-speed trains Whether you deal with the aerodynamic noise generated by pantographs or rail/wheel interaction, Brüel & Kjær can provide you with the optimal acoustical array for your task, together with all the tools necessary for accurate, rapid and reliable noise source identification both outdoors and in wind tunnels. Our array acoustics suite offers all the main noise source identification applications such as acoustical holography (STSF, SONAH*, ESM*), beamforming and spherical beamforming, together with a broad range of options (refined beamforming, transient, conformal and sound quality metrics calculations). BN 1305 – 11

* patent pending

United Kingdom: Bruel & Kjaer UK Ltd. · Jarman Way · Royston · Herts · SG8 5BQ Telephone: +44 (0) 1223 389 800 · Fax: +44 (0) 1223 389 919 · www.bksv.co.uk · ukinfo@bksv.com HEADQUARTERS: Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S · DK-2850 Nærum · Denmark Telephone: +45 77 41 20 00 · Fax: +45 45 80 14 05 · www.bksv.com · info@bksv.com Local representatives and service organisations worldwide

Engineering Integrity Issue 35 September 2013  

Engineering Integrity Issue 35 September 2013. Journal of the Engineering Integrity Society

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