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36 EIS ENGINEERING INTEGRITY MARCH 2014

JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INTEGRITY SOCIETY

papers on: • Variability in Fatigue Life Assessment • Cyclic Stress-Strain Behaviour of AM60B Cast Magnesium Alloy and its Impact on LCF Characterisation

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY SOCIETY

INSTRUMENTATION, ANALYSIS AND TESTING EXHIBITION Entrance to the exhibition & open forums is free to visitors along with complementary refreshments

THE SILVERSTONE WING, SILVERSTONE RACE TRACK 18 MARCH 2014 10AM - 4PM Over 50 exhibitors will present the latest advances in measurement analysis and testing technology in aerospace, automotive, motor-sport, rail, off-highway, mechanical handling, industrial and power generation industries. Visitors will be able to discuss these developments and their applications in an informal atmosphere with exhibitors. Open Forums include: • 3D Printed Components - use in Stress Analysis and as Structural Components • Successes and Future Challenges in Vehicle Dynamics • The Effect on Component Life and Performance of Manufacturing Induced Residual Strain • Gearbox Noise and Life Monitoring Guest panels comprising experts from industry and academia will expand on the technical developments & take questions from the floor. Visitors If you are interested in attending please pre-register by emailing info@e-i-s.org.uk or visit www.e-i-s.org.uk.

For full list of exhibitors see page 19

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Contents Index to Advertisements........................................................................................................................................................ 3 Editorial................................................................................................................................................................................. 5 Diary of Events...................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Technical Paper: Variability in Fatigue Life Assessment ....................................................................................................... 8 Technical Paper: Cyclic Stress-Strain Behaviour of AM60B Cast Magnesium Alloy and Its Impact on LCF Characterisation ...................... 12 Smarter Testing................................................................................................................................................................... 17 Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition, 18 March .................................................................................................. 18 Industry News ..................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Product News ..................................................................................................................................................................... 24 Report: Hydraulics in Testing .............................................................................................................................................. 26 News from Institution of Mechanical Engineers ................................................................................................................. 27 News from Advanced Manufacturing .................................................................................................................................. 28 News from Women's Engineering Society.......................................................................................................................... 30 News from British Standards............................................................................................................................................... 31 Group News........................................................................................................................................................................ 32 Corporate Members............................................................................................................................................................ 33 New Personal Members...................................................................................................................................................... 33 Membership......................................................................................................................................................................... 33 Committee Members .......................................................................................................................................................... 34 Profiles of Corporate Members........................................................................................................................................... 36

INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS AB Mechanical Design & Analysis............................40

M+P International.......................................Back cover

CPD Dynamics.........................................................16

Moog .........................................................................2

Data Physics.................................... Inside front cover

nPrime.............................................Inside Back Cover

Dewetron..................................................................39

Sensors UK..............................................................40

EIS..............................................................................1

Team Corporation.....................................................40

HBM UK....................................................................39

Techni Measure........................................................40

Kemo........................................................................16 Front cover photo: Courtesy of Swansea University

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HONORARY EDITOR Dr Karen Perkins

Engineering Integrity’ is published twice a year ADVERTISING RATES & DATA

MANAGING EDITOR Catherine Pinder Anchor House, Mill Road, Stokesby, Great Yarmouth, NR29 3EY Tel. 07979 270998 E-mail: catherine@cpinder.com

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EDITORIAL POLICY Engineering Integrity contains various items of information of interest to, or directly generated by, the Engineering Integrity Society. The items of information can be approximately subdivided into three general categories: technical papers, topical discussion pieces and news items. The items labelled in the journal as technical papers are peer reviewed by a minimum of two reviewers in the normal manner of academic journals, following a standard protocol. The items of information labelled as topical discussions and the news items have been reviewed by the journal editorial staff and found to conform to the legal and professional standards of the Engineering Integrity Society.

COPYRIGHT Copyright of the technical papers included in this issue is held by the Engineering Integrity Society unless otherwise stated. Photographic contributions for the front cover are welcomed. ISSN 1365-4101/2014

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PRINCIPAL ACTIVITY OF THE ENGINEERING INTEGRITY SOCIETY

The principal activity of the Engineering Integrity Society, is the arrangement of conferences, seminars, exhibitions and workshops to advance the education of persons working in the field of engineering. This is achieved by providing a forum for the interchange of ideas and information on engineering practice. The Society is particularly committed to promoting projects which support professional development and attract young people into the profession. ‘Engineering Integrity’, the Journal of the Engineering Integrity Society is published twice a year.

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Editorial Welcome

to

the

first

edition

of

seems to be an even more important driver for their

'Engineering Integrity' for 2014. I hope

parents – perhaps they are hopeful of some return on the

you are managing to stay dry in the

increasing investments they are making in their children's

current weather. The barrage of rain,

higher education.

wind and waves is taking its toll of people and structures, even the works of great

Also in Industry News we hear of a new EPSRC funded

Victorian Engineers are succumbing, with

project in robotics: 'Being There: Humans and Robots in

one of the show pieces of Brunel's Great

Public Spaces'. Is this a repeat of the sliding door, with

Western Railway dropping into the sea at

science fiction leading science? How closely will they be

Dawlish.

modelling their creations on the 'Shelbot' from The Big Bang Theory?

This issue features two new columns, one from the Women's Engineering Society and the other on Advanced

The self driving car edges closer both metaphorically and

Manufacturing. The inaugural WES column provides

literally with a feasibility study of vehicle platooning (see

an introduction to the Society, its history, its aims and

Industry News). Ricardo, who are leading the project,

achievements.

This will be a regular column, with

would have us imagine reading the paper or watching

subsequent editions keeping us up to date with their on-

TV whilst travelling in a close formation computer

going activities.

controlled convoy, possibly within the next decade. Having recently experienced a hire car's cruise control

The second new arrival is the Advanced Manufacturing

ability to automatically keep a safe distance away from

column, introduced in this edition with an article focussing

the car in front, I have no doubts as to the computers

on additive layer manufacture. Again, this will be a regular

capabilities and impressive response time, but I'm not so

column on advances in manufacturing and technologies

sure how easily the drivers will keep their hands and feet

contributed by a range of academic institutions and their

off the controls. Perhaps having a newspaper over the

industrial collaborators.

windscreen will help.

The two technical papers in this issue are " Variability

Karen Perkins

in Fatigue Life Assessment" and “Cyclic Stress-Strain

Honorary Editor

Behaviour of AM60B Cast Magnesium Alloy and Its Impact on LCF Characterisation�. The

article

on

'smarter

testing'

discusses

how

improvements in the reliability of data used to simulate service conditions could be readily achieved by people

Diary of Events

at the various points in the design process talking to each other. It's not always about more sophisticated test techniques, but utilizing the ones we have more effectively and the importance of understanding the whole process.

Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition 18 March 2014 Silverstone

Industry News provides some interesting figures: 40% of graduates now have a STEM degree but only 1 in 20 go into manufacturing. On a more positive note, the latest university application figures show an overall eleven percent increase in applications to Engineering

Sound Quality & Product Perception Workshop 10 April 2014 Human Centred Design Institute, Brunel University

degree schemes this year, with some institutions seeing a doubling in applications over the past two years. Job prospects after graduation are a common motivation according to the new students I've spoken to.

Basic Fatigue Analysis Course Spring 2014

This

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 36, MARCH 2014 pp.6-11.

ISSN 1365-4101/2014

Technical Paper Variability in Fatigue Life Assessment Darrell Socie, University of Illinois, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. dsocie@illinois.edu ABSTRACT Fatigue analysis software packages are widely available and range from the simplest to the most complex both in terms of fatigue theories and material properties required in the analysis. In this paper, several commercial packages are employed to reanalyze two benchmark datasets documented by the Society of Automotive Engineers in 1977 and 1989. Surprisingly, our calculations show that all of the software evaluated gives about the same results. Even more surprising, we found that the modern fatigue software was no better than the calculations done more than 30 years ago. But today, an inexperienced first year graduate student can use modern software to produce the same quality of fatigue assessment as an experienced PhD student did 30 years ago. INTRODUCTION The first International Symposium on Biaxial/Multiaxial fatigue was held in 1982. A few excerpts from the preface to the printed conference proceedings [1] from 30 years ago are worth noting. … Thus stresses should be taken into consideration by the designer, and it is important to note that material data generated in laboratories … cannot be used in practice without recourse to some multiaxial criterion … … this volume shows that significant progress has been achieved towards predicting finite fatigue life behavior, and it should provide a useful aid in interpreting failures and understanding the mechanics of fatigue … … Life prediction techniques have been broadly based on crack development concepts, and new methods are compared with the older criteria and current design codes, showing that the new methods have much potential … Has this potential been realized for the designer? Many software tools are readily available for the designer. For example, many finite element codes have a simple drop down menu for fatigue analysis. More complex, special purpose, commercial fatigue codes are also in widespread use. A fatigue estimate is only a few mouse clicks away. But how well do they work? Do these sophisticated tools provide better fatigue life estimates than 30 years ago? To answer these questions, we look at the results from two widely available benchmark data sets: Multiaxial Fatigue: Analysis and Experiments[2] and Fatigue Under Complex

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Loading: Analysis and Experiments[3]. The first benchmark dataset, sometimes referred to as the SAE notched shaft test program, was designed to provide a dataset to evaluate fatigue analysis under multiaxial loading and complex states of stress. In this paper, results of some modern software tools are compared with the original life calculations done more than 30 years ago. Five software packages, Pro/E, Solidworks, Ansys Workbench, eFatigue and DesignLife were used to compute the fatigue lives for 75 combined bending and torsion tests of the notched shaft. Calculations were done by a first year graduate student with limited experience in fatigue analysis. These results are compared with the results from an experienced designer from an automotive company. Results from the eFatigue website are also included. The second data set, often called the SAE Keyhole test program, was designed to provide a data set for evaluating fatigue analysis under variable amplitude loading. Unlike the notched shaft, the keyhole tests have been widely discussed in the literature over the years since they were first published in 1977. The purpose here is not to directly compare the results from one software package with another to conclude which one is better or more accurate. More advanced packages have a number of options that allow someone to fine tune the analysis for any dataset and an experienced user can sometimes make the estimates better than those presented here, particularly if the test results are already known. Rather the focus here is on how well someone would be expected to produce an accurate life estimate, without knowing the answer. NOTCHED SHAFT BENCHMARK DATA In 1982 the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Fatigue Design and Evaluation Committee established a testing program to provide experimental data for assessing the reliability of multiaxial design procedures and to stimulate the development of improved analytical methods. A simple notched shaft, Fig. 1, that simulated a spindle in a farm tractor was selected as the test specimen and was made from normalized SAE 1045 steel. Experiments were preformed by applying commbinations of cyclic bending and torsion loads to the shaft. Fatigue life was defined as the formation of a crack 1mm long on the surface which was detected ultrasonicly. Here, we only consider the fully reversed loading tests. In the figure, XR, YR and ZR are fixed combinations of equivalent distorsion energy stress used to identify the tests. Variable amplitude will be considered separately with the keyhole data set. Details of the notched shaft benchmark data set can be found in reference 2. A summary can also be found on the eFatigue website.


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 36, MARCH 2014 pp.6-11.

employed by the various software packages used to compute fatigue lives is given below. Notch rules such as the well known Neuber’s rule are needed to account for plastic deformation in determining the local stresses and strains. Damage models are needed to convert a complex state of stress and strain into an equivalent quantity to compare with uniaxial materials test data.

Figure 1. SAE notched shaft test program FATIGUE ANALYSIS A common form of presenting the results is to plot the analytical estimate and the experimental result. Results of the fatigue analysis done by Fash et.al. [4] in 1982 are shown in Fig. 2. Details of the analysis are described later in the paper. One conclusion that can be drawn from this plot is that most of the analytical results are within a factor of 3 of the test data. But what does “most� mean? And how does that relate to the reliability of the fatigue estimate?

Figure 3. Cumulative distribution of results

Fash et.al. 1. nonlinear ABAQUS model for stresses and strains 2. uniaxial strain life curve 3. Brown-Miller[5] damage model

Solidworks 1. elastic fea model for stresses 2. pseudo stress-life curve obtained by combining uniaxial Neubers rule[6] and uniaxial strain life curve Figure 2. Fatigue analysis results

A better way to display and interpret the data in Fig. 2 is to look at the cumulative probability distribution of the results as shown in Fig. 3. The horizontal axis is the ratio of the experimental life to the analytical life. Quantative assessments of variability are possible with such a diagram. For example there is a 10% chance that the experiment will be 3 times shorter than the computed fatigue life.

3. equivalent stress with uniaxial pseudo stress-life curve Pro Mechanica 1. elastic fea model for stresses 2. uniaxial strain-life curve derived from uniform material law[7]

A brief summary of the fatigue theories and strategies

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 36, MARCH 2014 pp.6-11.

3. notch strains from Hoffman-Seeger[8] or Klann-TiptonCordes[9] whichever is greater

Results of the analysis are shown in Fig. 4 where all of the software gives about the same results. The dark symbols are the same data as in Fig. 3 from 30 years ago.

or

4. equivalent strain in Smith-Watson-Topper[10] Morrow[11] whichever is most damaging

or

Ansys Workbench 1. elastic fea model for stresses 2. pseudo stress-life curve obtained from uniaxial Neubers rule and uniaxial strain life curve 3. equivalent stress with uniaxial pseudo stress-life curve DesignLife 1. elastic ABAQUS model 2. uniaxial strain-life curve 3. uniaxial Neubers rule from equivalent stress

4. Smith-Watson-Topper with equivalent strain eFatigue 1. elastic Ansys model 2. uniaxial strain-life curve 3. Koettgen-Barkey-Socie[12] pseudo stress for 3D stress and strain tensors

ε i j  = [ K S ]  Si j 

σ i j  = [ K M ] ε i j 

4. critical distance for gradient effects 5. Fatemi-Socie[13] or Smith-Watson-Topper which ever is most damaging

8

Figure 4. Cumulative probability distribution for in-phase loading A common feature of all of the analysis is that they used what may be termed the strain-life method. Commonality ends there. They all used different combinations of notch rules and fatigue damage models. An inexperienced student used the default features available in Solidworks, Pro Mechanica, and Ansys Workbench with some reasonable choices such as using Mises rather than principal stress. The experienced industrial fatigue analyst used one of the most sophisticated software packages, nCode’s Design Life, with the guidelines for analysis that are used in their company. Finally, a fatigue researcher used the sophisticated algorithms in eFatigue. Although there is limited data, there is no substantial difference in the accuracy of the different software shown Fig. 4. One could easily argue that all of the data in Fig. 4 falls within the same scatter band and that everyone did equally well and none did better than the early work of Fash. There is one significant and important difference. The modern analysis took a few hours rather than the year Fash needed to do all the analysis. On average, Fig. 4 shows that the methods all work reasonably well. There is a 50% chance that the experiment will be longer than computed and a 50% chance that the experiment will be less than computed. From Fig. 4 we may also conclude that there is a 99% chance to be within a factor of 10 in fatigue life. Three standard deviations would be about a factor of 20 in fatigue life. This is surprising since most published papers claim accuracy within a factor of 2 or 3.


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 36, MARCH 2014 pp.6-11.

Why are all the datasets essentially the same and why is there so much scatter in the results? Finite element results for stresses varied by about 3% between all the different finite element models for all load cases. Although the details are not reported here, we found that the results could change by, at most, a factor of 2 when the element type and size were changed. This may explain why the results are similar but does not provide an explanation for the large amount of scatter observed.

Results for complex out-of-phase tests are shown in Fig. 6. Data from Fig. 3 is again added for comparison. Only eFatigue and Design Life were employed for these loadings because none of the other simplified analysis software has the capability to analyse nonproportional loading. The accuracy or variability is the same or slightly smaller than the simple constant amplitude in-phase tests. There is a 99% chance to be within a factor of 10 in fatigue life for the constant amplitude out-of-phase tests.

There is always some scatter in the material fatigue data. Reference 3 also contains a number of combined tension and torsion loading tests on tubular specimens. The baseline uniaxial material constants used to analyse the shaft were used to analyse the tubular specimen data. The Fatemi-Socie damage model was employed to compute the fatigue lives. Results are shown in Fig. 5. The amount of variability is related to the slope of the data. Note the substantial difference between the tubular specimens and notched shaft. For the tubular specimens, there is a 99% chance to be within a factor of 3 not 10 in fatigue life! We conclude that our ability to model real components with complex stress gradients and stress states is poor when compared to smooth laboratory specimens. Normal material scatter can not be the major source of variability shown in Fig. 4. Otherwise the tubular specimen data in Fig. 5 would have the same slope as the notched shaft data. Figure 6. Analytical results for 90 deg out-of-phase loading

There is not enough variable amplitude test data for the notched shaft to make a reasonable assessment about variability in fatigue analysis. Instead, we take data from the keyhole test program [4] illustrated in Fig. 7. KEYHOLE BENCHMARK DATA

Figure 5. Cumulative probability distribution for tubular specimens Here we make a bold statement based on our experience with many other datasets. It is relatively easy to make fatigue life estimates on a cylindrical tube, made from a common ductile material, with a ground surface finish, subjected to completely reversed constant amplitude sinusoidal loading. In this case, anything reasonable will work. Unfortunately, many researchers choose these test conditions to validate their models. New and improved models can and should be evaluated under more complicated geometries and loading conditions.

The keyhole specimens were taken from hot-rolled steel plates by production machining techniques which is typical of component design. The hole was drilled and reamed with no edge preparation and saw cut on one side to provide a notch with a KT = 3. Three loading histories were obtained from ground vehicles. The bracket history is a good example of vibration about a zero mean, suspension has random excitation superimposed on maneuvering forces and the transmission has a large tensile bias. Details of the keyhole benchmark data set can be found in reference 3. A summary can also be found on the eFatigue website. In Fig. 4 we showed that all of the fatigue analysis software gives about the same results. As a result only eFatigue was used for the results shown in Fig. 8. Neubers rule, linear damage rule and the Smith-Watson-Topper damage parameter were used in this analysis. Results are very similar to the results shown in previous figures - 99% of the time we are within a factor of 10.

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 36, MARCH 2014 pp.6-11.

ISSN 1365-4101/2014

Figure 7. SAE keyhole test program

Figure 9. Comparison of material and keyhole results obtained using the nominal stress approach. The tests included steel and aluminium, tension, torsion, bending and torsion loading and many specimen geomerties. Note that the data does not pass through 1 at a probability of 50%. This is attributed to errors in Miner’s linear damage rule and many engineers use a Minor summation of 0.3.

Figure 8. Results of keyhole fatigue analysis

Material variability was also assessed and shown in Fig. 9. The material constants were used to compute the lives of the individual specimens that went in to determining the constants. A mean value of 1 is expected and obtained for the material. The results are used only as a basis of comparison of the variability in smooth material specimens and the keyhole component like specimen. The data in Fig. 9 for the keyhole specimen is qualitatively and quantatively the same as Figure 5 for the notched specimen. The variability in smooth specimens is much smaller than the variability in components. Many software packages provide a means to include material variability. Unfortunately, many users think that including the material variability will result in an estimate of the component variability. Figures 5 and 9 show this not to be the case. Results similar to those in this investigation have also been found by Berger et.al [14] and are redrawn in Fig. 10 in the same format and scale as the figures in this paper. These results come from a large dataset of 964 tests and were

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Figure 10. Redrawn Figure 14 from reference 14

Figures 4, 8 and 10 all have the same slope indicating that they have the same variability, namely a COV ~ 1.0. Without testing and validation, how can an engineer with a totally new design, material or loading condition expect to have a better life estimation than that presented here - a 90% chance to be within a factor of 3 and a 99% chance to be within a factor of 10?


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 36, MARCH 2014 pp.6-11.

SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION Figure 4 shows that while the accuracy of fatigue analysis has not improved in the last 30 years, the ability of nonfatigue experts has dramatically improved. Now with just a little training, any engineer can do a reasonable fatigue analysis. Figures 5 and 9 show that our ability to estimate the fatigue lives of simple smooth specimens is good, a 99% probability of being within a factor of 3, while our ability to estimate the fatigue lives of component like specimens, and by implication real components, is much worse, a 99% probability of being within a factor of 10. This conclusion is supported by the extensive data set reported in Fig. 10. Why, then, are there so many papers that claim much better accuracy? Most of the data reported in the literature is for small datasets of just a few specimens for a single geometry, material, loading history where the model constants can be fine tuned to give better results. But what accuracy can you expect for a new design, material, and type of loading? On a positive note, on average, modern fatigue analysis gives a good result. Fifty percent probability passes through or near 1 in all of the figures. But for higher reliabilities, say 99%, testing will be required. It is suggested that the quality of life estimation techniques be presented in a format similar to Fig. 3 rather than the traditional way in Fig. 2 so that qualitative evaluations of variability can easily be made. Finally, perhaps someone has better methods than those used here and will present the results of their analysis of these benchmark datasets in a future issue of the journal. REFERENCES 1. Downing, S.D., Galliart, D.R. (1985) In: Multiaxial Fatigue, ASTM STP 853 pp.24-32. 2. Socie, D.F. , Leese, G.L. (1989) Multiaxial Fatigue: Analysis and Experiments, Society of Automotive Engineers, AE-14. 3. Wetzel, R.M. (1977) Fatigue Under Complex Loading: Analysis and Experiments, Society of Automotive Engineers, AE-6. 4. Fash, J.W, Socie, D.F., McDowell, D.L. (1985) In: Multiaxial Fatigue, ASTM STP 853 pp.497-514. 5. Brown M W, Miller K J (1973) Proc Inst Mech Eng 187, pp.745-755. 6. Neuber, H. (1961) J of Applied Mechanics 28, pp.544550. 7. Bäumel, A., Jr., and Seeger, T. (1990) Materials Data for Cyclic Loading, Supplement 1, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam.

8. Hoffmann, M., Seeger, T. (1985) J of Eng Materials and Technology 107, pp.250-260. 9. Klann, D.A., Tipton, S.M., Cordes, T.S. (1993) SAE paper 930401. 10. Smith K. N., Watson P., Topper T.H. (1970) J of Materials 5, pp.767-778. 11. Morrow, J. (1968) In: Fatigue Design Handbook Society of Automotive Engineers, AE 4, pp.21–29. 12. Kottgen, V.B., M.E. Barkey, Socie, D.F. (1995) Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures 18:4, pp.981-1006. 13. Fatemi, A., Socie, D.F. (1988) Fatigue and Fracture Engineering Materials and Structures, 11:3, pp.149-166. 14. Berger, C., Eulitz, K.-G, Heuler, P., Kotte, K.-L, Naundorf, H., Schuetz, W., Sonsino, C.M., Wimmer, A., and Zenner, H. (2002) International Journal of Fatigue, 24, pp.603625. NOMENCLATURE εeq equivalent strain εf’ fatigue ductility coefficient εij strain tensor εn normal strain on shear plane ε1,ε2,ε3 principal strain γ shear strain γf’ shear fatigue ductility coefficient σ local stress σeqmax maximum equivalent stress σeqmean mean equivalent stress σij stress tensor σn normal stress on shear plane σf’ fatigue strength coefficient σmean mean stress σuts tensile strength σ1,σ2,σ3 principal stress τf’ shear fatigue strength coefficient A elastic Poisson’s ratio constant for Brown Miller Model B plastic Poisson’s ratio constant for Brown Miller Model E elastic modulus Km material stiffness matrix Ks structural stiffness matrix nominal stress S Seq equivalent nominal stress Sij equivalent nominal stress tensor SBM Brown Miller model constant b fatigue strength exponent c fatigue ductility exponent kFS Fatemi Socie model constant 2Nf reversals to failure

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 36, MARCH 2014 pp.12-16.

Technical paper Cyclic Stress-Strain Behaviour of AM60B Cast Magnesium Alloy and Its Impact on LCF Characterisation Z. Lu and P. A. Blackmore, Materials Engineering, Jaguar Land Rover Ltd, Abbey Road, Coventry CV3 4LF, UK zlu5@jaguarlandrover.com Abstract Significant pseudo-elastic behaviour was found for the cast magnesium alloy AM60B. It was found that classical linear stress-strain behaviour applied to only a very small range of stress. This affected the LCF characterisation and subsequent fatigue analyses. It was revealed that the traditional Manson-Coffin and Ramberg-Osgood equations could not be used for magnesium alloys without considering their pseudo-elastic behaviour. It was also found that the 0.2% proof stress could be under-estimated significantly if the pseudo-elastic effect was neglected. The ISO 12106 (2003) standard for LCF data analysis breaks down when describing the behaviour of magnesium alloys. A secant elastic modulus was introduced to describe the pseudoelastic behaviour. The secant modulus decreased linearly with increasing applied stress amplitude. New parameters and equations for LCF characterisation and a new method for LCF analysis, including mean stress correction, are introduced for magnesium alloys. The pseudo-elastic behaviour must be incorporated in material parameter definitions for magnesium alloys otherwise any results from further analyses will be rendered invalid. Introduction Light weight alloys are widely used in the automotive industry in order to meet environmental requirements. Cast magnesium alloys are candidate materials due to their high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness and excellent castability. The Strain-life, or Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF), approach is one of the most widely used methods in modern fatigue durability design/analyses in the automotive industry. This method has been used predominantly to model steels and aluminium alloys which exhibit linear elastic behaviour under cyclic loading. It was revealed that cast magnesium alloys exhibit pseudo-elastic behaviour [1,2]. Generally, any nonlinearity in the unloading curve, in tension or compression, can be referred to as pseudo-elasticity. Upon reloading, the non-linearity creates a hysteresis loop. The development of a large pseudo-elastic strain when the material is plastically deformed results in a problem in any design/analysis where a constant value of the elastic modulus is assumed. If the pseudo-elastic effect is significant, conventional formulae relating stress and strain may become invalid. This is particularly important for low cycle fatigue (LCF) characterisation. Numbers of papers have been published within the last decade regarding the LCF behaviour of a range of cast and extruded magnesium alloys [3-10]. The general view is that the LCF behaviour of magnesium alloys can be described, like steel and aluminium alloys, by the

12

Manson-Coffin and Basquin equations. However, any detailed consideration of the effects of pseudo-elasticity on LCF data analysis is absent. Recent investigation on the LCF behaviour of AE44 cast magnesium alloy [11] revealed that pseudo-elastic effects could not be neglected in LCF characterisation and the equations including Manson-Coffin, Basquin and Ramberg-Osgood need to be modified in account for the pseudo-elastic behaviour. The main objective of this work was to investigate the cyclic loading-unloading behaviour of a high pressure die cast (HPDC) AM60B magnesium alloy under uniaxial tension and its effects on LCF behaviour. Materials and Experimental Procedures A commercial alloy, AM60B, produced by HPDC process was used for the work. The chemical composition of the material is listed in Table 1. Test specimens, which were flat dog bone shaped with 4x5 mm cross section and 12 mm gauge length as shown in Figure 1, were machined from a flat area (about 5 mm thick) on a vehicle front beam. Both loading-unloading and LCF tests were performed on an MTS 810 servo-hydraulic test machine at room temperature using a 10 mm gauge length extensometer. The loading-unloading tests were run under load control. The LCF tests were carried out under fully-reversed (RÎľ=-1), constant strain amplitude at a frequency of 0.5Hz. A 10% drop in the maximum stress was used to define the crack initiation life. Table 1. Chemical composition (wt%).

Al

Mn

Cu

Fe

Zn

Si

6.0 0.28 <0.002 0.003 0.08 0.02

Mg Rem

Figure 1. Specimen geometry Results and Discussions The loading-unloading results are shown in Figure 2.


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 36, MARCH 2014 pp.12-16.

Generally, hysteresis loops were evident. The loop widths increased with the amount of total or plastic pre-strain. It is clear that linear elastic behaviour applies only up to about 50MPa where the Young’s modulus, E, is measured. With further loading, plastic deformation occurs. On unloading after some applied small plastic strain a quantity of anelastic strain εae (defined in Figure 2) is introduced. The total strain, εt, can therefore be separated into three parts: linear elastic strain εle, anelastic strain εae and plastic strain εp, i.e.

deformation [1-2,12-13]. Based on the hysteresis (anelastic) strain, a series of secant moduli, Esec, can be defined. With increasing pre-strain (or applied stress amplitudes up to 150MPa), the loop width increased and the Esec decreased to less than 40% of the Young’s modulus and then saturated. Fig.3 shows the relationship between the applied stress amplitude σa, Esec and normalised Esec (Esec/E). It is evident that there is little change in Esec up to 50MPa range, followed by a linear relationship until saturation at about 150MPa, i.e.

(1)

(2) α and β are material constants. Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) behaviour is often defined by seven parameters through the Manson-Coffin (3) and Ramberg-Osgood (4) relationships: (3)

(4) E: σf': b: εf': c: K': n': Fig.2. Loading-unloading result

Fig.3. Relationship between σa, Esec and normalised Esec

On reloading, a closed loop is formed. The closed loop means that some energy, in addition to the plastic strain energy, has been introduced into the material (closed loop area) when the external force has been removed. This is believed to be the stacking fault energy due to twinning during

Elastic Modulus Fatigue strength coefficient Fatigue strength exponent Fatigue ductility coefficient Fatigue ductility exponent Strain hardening coefficient Strain hardening exponent

The first and the second terms in the right side of the Equation (3) represent the elastic and the plastic components respectively. The parameters are derived by curve fitting based on a series of elastic and plastic strain components separated from the total strain amplitude from hysteresis loops obtained in strain controlled tests. Therefore, the procedure used to define the elastic and the plastic components from the total strain amplitude is crucial. Based on the method given in ISO 12106 (2003) for axial strain controlled fatigue tests [14], the Young’s Modulus, E, is determined from the initial (monotonic) load excursion (first quarter of cycle, defined as E1/4). Next, the elastic component is calculated by dividing the stress range by E, i.e. Δεe = Δσ/E, and, finally, the plastic component is obtained from the difference between total strain and elastic strain range (Δεp=Δεt-Δεe). This method applies only when there is no anelastic strain. In magnesium alloys, however, the loop analysis procedure needs to be re-evaluated due to the existence of anelastic strains, as described in Figure 4. The Young’s Modulus, E, is measured as specified in ISO 12106 (2003) [14]. Similar to Figure 2, the total strain amplitude Δεt/2 can be divided into three components: linear elastic strain amplitude Δεle/2, anelastic strain amplitude Δεae/2 and plastic strain amplitude Δεp/2; i.e: (5) Obviously, Δεle/2 is the elastic component defined in ISO

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Fig.6. Effect on cyclic stress-strain Fig.4. Hysteresis loop analysis (6) 12106. It is clear that the ISO 12106 method over-estimates the plastic strain amplitude and under-estimates the elastic strain amplitude which, consequently, results in the overestimation of the strain-life curve in the extrapolated regions (Figure 5) and the under-estimation of the strain hardening behaviour (Figure 6). It is more appropriate, therefore, to analyse the hysteresis loops by determining the plastic component first based on the loop width at the mean stress and taking the elastic component as the difference between the total strain amplitude and the plastic component.

(7)

with Equation (6) for the strain life curve and Equation (7) for the cyclic stress-strain curve: α and β are material constants. It is confirmed that the linear relationship for normalised Esec and σa also applies under the LCF test conditions as displayed Figure 7. The LCF new parameters are summarised in Table 2.

Fig.5. Effect on strain-life curve

This requires the Young’s Modulus E to be replaced by Esec in the Manson-Coffin and Ramberg-Osgood equations. Because Esec is dependent on the stress amplitude, if E is replaced by Esec, then σf' is not a constant either. However, σf'/Esec is a constant. Let ηf'=σf'/Esec (modified fatigue strength coefficient) with Esec=E(ασa+β), the LCF behaviour can be described by the equations:

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Figure 7. Relationship between stress amplitude and normalised secant modulus under LCF


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Table 2. LCF parameters b εf' c K' [MPa] n' α β E [MPa] ηf' 42017 0.0235 -0.233 0.1242 -0.597 783.9 0.2797 -0.0035 1.1887

In modern fatigue analysis, two equations are most widely used for mean stress correction. They are Smith-WatsonTopper (SWT) (8) and Morrow (9). (8)

(9) Consequently, with similar considerations, these equations, can be re-defined as (10)

(13) In modern fatigue design/analyses, LCF models assume that the fundamental relationships can be described by MansonCoffin, Ramberg-Osgood and SWT or Morrow equations. However, these break down for magnesium alloys where pseudo-elasticity is present. From the work described above, equations (6), (7), (10) or (11) and (13) are recommended for use in LCF analyses. It should be noted, however, that the two equations for mean stress correction (10) and (11) still need to be validated by experiment. The current ISO 12106 (2003) standard for LCF needs to be modified to account appropriately for the anomalous behaviour of Mg-alloys. Conclusions

(11) The pseudo-elastic behaviour will also affect the determination of cyclic 0.2% proof stress. It is apparent that the 0.2% proof stress is under-estimated if the pseudo-elastic effect is neglected as shown in Figure 8.

Investigation on the cyclic stress-strain behaviour of a high pressure die cast magnesium alloy, AM60B, has been carried out by loading-unloading-reloading and strain controlled (LCF) fatigue testing. The following conclusions may be drawn: Linear stress-strain behaviour only applies to a very small stress range (up to 50MPa) where the Young’s modulus can be measured. Beyond this range, significant pseudo-elastic behaviour, characterised by hysteresis loops under loading un-loading and re-loading, was observed. The hysteresis response appeared at very low plastic strain and the loop width increased with increasing plastic strain or stress amplitude. Secant moduli have been introduced to account for the pseudo-elastic behaviour. The secant modulus decreased linearly with increasing stress amplitude. This behaviour could affect the results of calculations where the elastic modulus constitutes a significant input parameter.

Figure 8. Effect of pseudo-elastic behaviour on cyclic 0.2% proof stress determination. It is clear that, based on Equation (7), that Esec rather than E should be used in material characterisation in magnesium alloys. The cyclic 0.2% proof stress is defined as the stress with 0.2% plasticity. Under zero elasticity, the Equation (7) becomes

The method defined in ISO 12106 (2003) for LCF data analysis over-estimates the plastic strain component but under-estimates the elastic strain component resulting in an incorrect description of the LCF behaviour of Mg-alloys. New parameters for LCF material characterisation and a new method for LCF analysis have been presented and are recommended for use with magnesium alloys.

(12)

Rearrange the above equation with plastic strain equals 0.002 (0.2%), the following equation can be used for 0.2% proof stress determination:

The material’s cyclic 0.2% proof stress can be underestimated significantly if the pseudo-elastic effect is neglected. A new calculation method for Mg-alloys is proposed.

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For magnesium alloys, the pseudo-elastic behaviour must be incorporated in material parameter definitions otherwise any results from further analyses will be rendered invalid. References [1] C.H. Cáceres, T. Sumitomo and M. Veidt. Acta Materalia Vol.51 (2003) pp.6211-6218. [2] C.E. Mann, T. Sumitomo, C.H. Cáceres and J.R. Griffiths. Mater. Sci. Eng. Vol. A456 (2007) pp.138-147. [3] C. Sonsino and K. Dieterich, J. Fatigue 28: pp.183-93, 2006. [4] S. Hasegawa, Y. Tsuchida, H. Yano and M. Matsui, Int. J. Fatigue 29: pp.1839-45, 2007. [5] L. Chen, C. Wang, W. Wu, Z. Liu, G.M. Stoica, L. Wu and P.K. Liaw, Met. Mat. Trans. 38A: pp.2235-41, 2007. [6] X, Lin and D. Chen, Mat. Sci. Eng. A 496: pp.106-13, 2008. [7] S. Begum, D. Chen, S. Xu and A. Luo, Met. Mat. Trans. 39A: pp.3014-26, 2008. [8] S. Kwon. K. Song, K. Shin and S. Kwun, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 20: pp.533-39, 2010. [9] F. Lv, F. Yang, Q.Q. Duan, Y.S. Yang, S.D. Wu, S.X. Li and Z.F. Zhang, Int. J. Fatigue 33: pp.672-82, 2011.

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[10] L. Bettberg, J. Jordon, M. Horstemeyer, and J. Jones, Met. Mat. Trans. 43A: pp.2260-74, 2012. [11] Z. Lu and P.A. Blackmore, Proc. of 14th NAFEM World Congress – A World of Engineering Simulation, 2013. [12] L. Wu, A. Jain, D.W. Brown, G.M, Stoica, S.R. Agnew, B. Clausen, D.E. Fielden and P.K. Liaw, Acta Materalia 56: pp.688-95, 2008. [13] A. Vinogradov, A. Danuyk and E. Pomponi, Proc. of 30th Euro Conf. on Acoustic Emission Testing & 7th Int. Conf on Acoustic Emission, 2012. [14] ISO 12106: 2003(E). Metallic materials – Fatigue testing – Axial-strain controlled method. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to express their appreciation to Jaguar Land Rover Limited for permission to publish this work. Thanks are due also to Andrew Haggie, Senior Manager - Department of Materials Engineering, and Stuart Tyler, Manager - Metallurgy Technical Services, for their support of this work.

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Smarter Testing A presentation on “Smarter Testing” by EIS at the recent Advanced Engineering UK 2013 event was very well received, and stimulated much discussion. The theme of the presentation was how to achieve improvements in the whole testing process. For the purposes of this article the testing process is considered to include the part where the test is defined, and also the part where the results of the test are interpreted. It was proposed that the failure to communicate, use the correct data, and employ mature proven technologies is limiting improvements to this process. This article outlines the fundamental points from some of the presentation slides. The initial slides promoted the use of proven technology, rather than any revolutionary technique. This was reinforced using a couple of quotations: * “Never mind all the clever stuff. If engineers correctly applied the tried and tested methods, there would be a major improvement in Durability.” Attributed to Dr. Peter Watson “Despite 150 years of research in fatigue we still get failures. We do not need more research, but we do need more education.” Professor Darrell Socie Learned people have been commenting on the need for change in the process for a long time. Smarter Testing does not mean adopting complicated new ideas, but the intelligent application of existing and mature techniques. Our idea is to challenge engineers to think more about what they are doing, and talk to each other. The need for communication between technologies is essential to confirm data, identify assumptions and iterate to improve. Three basic challenges were identified to question the validity of the process: Challenge #1 How much do you know about the material in the object that you are designing or testing?

Challenge #2 How well does the test setup represent real life conditions? Challenge #3 How well does the loading data used for design and testing represent real life? These seem to be pretty basic questions, but the answers will take the test engineer outside his comfort zone, because he will need to talk to a materials engineer, a manufacturing engineer, a design engineer, and the person who collected the test data. Challenge #1 reminds us that the correct material data is critical and should be representative of the material in the test part; not from some historic data base. Some tests showed that a material confirmed as “to spec” from different data bases and suppliers gave a difference in fatigue life of 5. Furthermore, even if the raw material properties are known, the material condition in the finished component after manufacture may be very different and not fully understood. Changes in manufacture are often made independently of the sign-off process, and are not integrated into the life prediction or assessment. An example was presented where one process change reduced the life by 50% whilst another process change increased life by 50%. Neither of these production changes was evaluated prior to introduction. Residual stresses/strains introduced by the manufacturing processes are rarely measured, and can be significant. Delivered material can have high residual stresses present which are modified by bending, forming and welding to create an unknown and potentially important life factor. The thermal gradients introduced across components during manufacture can have an effect on durability; and should be monitored and controlled if repeatable component life is to be maintained. It has been found that induced thermal gradients can significantly improve durability if

applied correctly. Challenge #2 is also fundamental to the outcome of the test. Complex tests are sometimes unavoidable; especially in multi axis loading conditions, but care must be taken to ensure the influence of all parameters is understood. Otherwise, interpretation of the result and correlation with the real world will be a problem. It may be possible before embarking on a long duration multi axis test, to set up a much simpler, short duration, high load test. This may give a very similar failure and will confirm some assumptions. The short duration tests do not replace the long running complex test, but also have the advantage that they can quickly provide a good comparison of the effect of design modifications. Test requirements usually specify a loading profile, but often do not provide the associated deflections. Without this information, the test rig cannot be assessed for performance, error and reliability. Test rigs most often give good results when they are operating within their reliable performance envelope. Neurotic rigs that struggle to achieve the required profile do not give a repeatable test. Techniques are available to allow the engineer to model the ideal performance of a test rig, and will enable an assessment of the likely behaviour of the rig in terms of reliability. Later on, feedback from the test rig showing actual load distributions achieved are essential to compare what was predicted with the test result. This feedback will aid in improving the predictive models. Challenge #3 brings up questions about the origin of the loading data. If the test engineer is involved with the discussion about how and where measurements are taken, it is likely that a better correlation with the real world will result. It is proposed to address the three stated Challenges with separate articles in subsequent journals. Copies of the PowerPoint presentation can with agreement be obtained from EIS.

*The boxes show text taken from presentation slides at the Advanced Engineering UK 2013 event held at the NEC.

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Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition The 2014 Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition will be held at Silverstone on 18 March in the prestigious exhibition and conference centre – the Silverstone Wing. The building also houses the racing car pits and garages underneath the exhibition hall and there is regular action on the race track which can be viewed from the gallery next to the exhibition hall.

A number of open forums will be held throughout the day on a diverse range of topics. We are pleased to bring you highly experienced guest panels who will give short presentations expanding on the technical developments and take questions from the floor. 11.00-12.00 The Effect on Component Life and Performance of Manufacturing Induced Residual Strain Chair- Norman Thornton (Engineering Consultant) Panel - Angelo Fanourakis (GKN Autostructures), Andrew Blows (Jaguar Landrover), John McCarthy (Maps Technology), Rob Wood (GOM)

Summary: Residual stress/strain is rarely, if ever, measured and yet can be significant. Excessive residual stress in a finished component may cause premature failure so it is important that this is accurately measured and understood. Changes in manufacture are often made independently and not integrated into the life prediction or assessment. During production, bending, forming and welding can create an unknown and potentially important life factor and this forum will focus on how residual strain can be measured and controlled. For more information on residual strain please see the Smarter Testing article on page 17.

11.30–12.30 Gearbox Noise and Life Monitoring Chair – Geoff Rowlands (MIRA) Panel - Jarek Rosinski (Transmission Dynamics) and Barry James (Romax) Summary: This is a new forum for 2014 following a number of requests for discussion of the subject of gearbox noise and life monitoring. Guest speakers with specialist experience in this field will make short presentations and take questions from the floor. Discussion will include gear loading measurements, life estimation and the causes of gear noise. 14.00–15.00 3D Printed Components - use in Stress Analysis and as Structural Components Chair – Bernard Steeples (Engineering Consultant) Panel - Mark Tyrtania (Laser Lines), Tom Riley (Bentley Motors), Ian Jones (Airbus), Neil Hopkinson (University of Sheffield) and a representative from BAE Systems

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Summary: 3D printing is at the forefront of recent engineering advances and will have a significant commercial impact in future years. The panel will discuss current and future applications including processes known in various industries from rapid prototyping to additive manufacturing. This forum will also discuss high volume manufacturing including how and when the technology will displace today’s processes such as injection moulding.


14.15–15.15 Successes and Future Challenges in Vehicle Dynamics Chair – John Wilkinson (Millbrook Proving Ground) Panel - Richard Hurdwell (Richard Hurdwell Engineering) and Xiao-Dong Sun (TRW Conekt)

Summary: The forum will review the dynamics of traditional vehicle steering systems and the future of steer by wire technology.

The exhibition continues to expand each year and with over 50 exhibitors, visitors will find this an ideal opportunity to see the latest technical developments. Entrance to the exhibition and open forums is free and there will be complementary refreshments available. The following exhibiting:

companies

will

be

ABMech Design and Analysis Ltd AcSoft Ltd Adept Scientific Ltd Bose Ltd - ElectroForce SystemsGroup Bruel & Kjaer UK Ltd Caltest Instruments Campbell Associates Data Physics (UK) Ltd Datron Technology Ltd Data Acquisition & Testing Services Ltd Dewetron UK Ltd DJB Instruments FBGS International N.V. Form & Test Seidner & Co GmbH Fylde Electronic Laboratories Ltd GOM UK Ltd HBM UK Ltd HGL Dynamics Ltd IDT (UK) Ltd iMETRUM

Instron Interface Force Measurements Ltd KDPES Kemo Ltd Kistler Instruments Ltd LMS A Simens Business M&P International (UK) Ltd Meggitt Sensing Systems Micro-Epsilon Moog Mueller-BBM VAS Nprime Ltd PCB Piezotronics Ltd Photo-Sonics International Ltd

Photron Europe Ltd Polytec Ltd Racelogic RDP Electronics Ltd The Society of Environmental Engineers Sensorland Sensors UK Ltd Servotest Testing Systems Ltd Smart Fibres Stack Ltd Star Hydraulics Ltd Strainsense Ltd Techni Measure Thermal Vision Research Ltd THP Systems Ltd Tiab Ltd Transmission Dynamics Variohm Eurosensor Ltd Vishay Measurements Group UK Ltd Westmoreland Mechanical Testing & Research Ltd WIKA Instruments Ltd Yokogawa Measurement Technologies Ltd Zwick Roell For more information, or to pre-register, please contact the EIS Secretariat (Sara Atkin): info@e-i-s.org.uk, Telephone 01572 811315.

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Industry news Welcome to the Industry News section of the journal. Thank you to everyone for their submissions. The nominal limit for entry is 200 words, which should be sent to eis@amberinstruments.com or posted to EIS, c/o Amber Instruments Ltd, Dunston House, Dunston Road, Chesterfield, S41 9QD. We would appreciate you not sending entries by fax.

€3 Billion to be made available for SME new product development Largest amount of money ever assigned for SME NPD

its hybrid rocket technology for use in BLOODHOUND Supersonic Car, the 1,000 mph Land Speed racing car now being constructed in Bristol, UK.

One of the leading support organisations for UK SMEs seeking to access funding from the European Union has revealed that €3 billion will be made available from 1st January for SME new product development.

Ricardo to lead vehicle platooning study for UK Department for Transport

The Dedicated SME Instrument, part of the €82 billion research and innovation programme Horizon 2020, will allow individual British businesses to claim up to €3 million to spend on new product development.

NAMMO rockets are used by the European Space Agency to separate the stages of Ariane 5, the world’s most reliable & commercially successful satellite launch vehicle. The company is also developing a new family of powerful yet compact hybrid rockets at its test facility in Raufoss, Norway. A combination of these motors will be used in BLOODHOUND SSC to provide circa 27,500 lbs (123.75 kN) of thrust which, when combined with 20,200 lbs (90 kN) thrust from the car’s EJ200 jet, will generate the equivalent of 135,000 ‘thrust' horse power (thp) – eight times more power than all the cars on a Formula 1 starting grid combined. Aerodynamic drag increases four-fold for every doubling of speed, so this level of motive force is required to push the car to its 1,050 mph (1,690 kmh, Mach 1.4) maximum design speed, where the air pressure will be 11 tonnes per square metre.

The UK Department for Transport has commissioned research to understand how platooning technology, which enables road vehicles to move as a group, might benefit UK business, the transport network, road safety and the environment. Ricardo plc will lead a consortium comprising, TRL (Transport Research Laboratory), Ricardo AEA and Transport & Travel Research Ltd (TTR). The feasibility study will investigate the issues faced by legislators, haulage companies, drivers of the vehicles in the platoon, trunk road network operators and other road users, to establish whether a road trial of a heavy goods vehicle platoon should be considered.

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As opposed to previous budgets, Horizon 2020 does not require SME businesses to join larger consortiums, the application process has been made simpler and the European Commission will be obliged to provide a response to funding applications within six months of submission. In order to be applicable for the larger research and development fund businesses must demonstrate market demand and there is a further €50,000 lump sum available to business for this purpose. SMEs can also claim for up to 15 days free of charge coaching to help drive their product to market.

“Ricardo is extremely pleased to be leading this feasibility study for the Department for Transport,” commented Michael Baker, chief engineer, technology and innovation. “We have been actively engaged in platooning research over a number of years with multiple international partners and see this emerging technology as offering significant benefits in both economic and environmental terms. We look forward to working with TRL and TTR on this important UK focused feasibility study.”

“In order for businesses to benefit they need to prepare now. Pera Technology can work with SMEs whether they are ready to apply for full research, development and funding in January or looking to develop ideas and apply for funding up to 2020.”

It is expected that the feasibility study will report back by the end of the financial year with a view to conducting a road trial in 2014.

The project is proud to announce a new partnership with NAMMO, the rocket propulsion specialists. The company, headquatered in Norway, will supply

Horizon 2020 will become live as of 1st January 2014 and will run for the next seven years. To find out more visit www.peratechnology.com/ The BLOODHOUND Project

The BLOODHOUND Project previously employed a UK - US based rocket research firm, Falcon Project Ltd, to validate the concept of using a hybrid rocket in the car. Given the demands of producing the most complex land vehicle ever created, a unique prototype capable of outrunning a $250m jet fighter, the decision was taken to redirect the rocket development programme towards Nammo’s propulsion system. Testing on revolutionary marine energy device begins A ground-breaking renewable energy device which will harvest energy from the motion of the sea is about to be tested at A&P Falmouth. The Whatever Input to Torsion Transfer (WITT) transmission system collects chaotic movement in water, wind, human, animal or vehicle motion and turns it into useable power.


A&P Falmouth is leading a project with consortium of partners WITT, Supacat, University of Exeter and Plymouth University to demonstrate the capability of the WITT transmission system to supplement ship power generation systems. The Technology Strategy Board funded project will aid the understanding to which extent the power generated will reduce the amount of fuel used, saving money and contributing to the elimination of carbon gases. The revolutionary WITT device, which has been designed and built by Supacat over a period of five months, will be tested by the University of Exeter on their novel Dynamic Marine Component Test facility (DMac), generating a performance look-up table. From these tabulated results, it will be possible to identify the type of size of WITT device which will suit a type of ship in a varying sea state. The device which was invented by civil engineer Martin Wickett looks like a standard gearbox transmission and has two pendulums on either side driving a set of gearwheels through to a shaft output. The device weighs approximately 100 kilograms, is made from precision engineered components and cast aluminium and is the size of a desk top computer. Micro-Epsilon supports STEM event to attract young people into engineering Merseyside-based precision sensor manufacturer Micro-Epsilon UK Ltd is engaging in local school and college activities to support the STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics) initiative and to help encourage more young people into science and engineering professions. On 29th November 2013, MicroEpsilon attended a STEM careers event held at Our Lady’s Queen of Peace Catholic Engineering College in Skelmersdale together with other engineering employers such as BAE

Systems and Pepsico. Also supporting the event were leading institutions such as the Institute of Physics, technical organisations, colleges and universities. More than 200 pupils and students aged between 15 and 18 were able to see technology in action, find out about the participating companies and ask questions about the qualifications they would need to enter an engineering profession. Micro-Epsilon also demonstrated the European and global aspects of working for an engineering company, the growth of women in engineering, as well as highlighting Micro-Epsilon’s involvement in the Bloodhound SSC project. The aim of the nationwide STEM initiative is to help enlighten young people about the challenges and opportunities presented by STEM subjects. The aim is to encourage these young adults to study STEM courses in further or higher education and to take an interest in a career in engineering. Industry’s need for graduates in STEM subjects is high. Since 2009, on average, only 40% of those who graduate in the UK do so with a degree in a STEM subject – with just one in twenty of these going on to work in manufacturing. Sea leads cutting edge research into augmented reality Beckington, 9 January 2014: SEA, a Cohort plc company, is leading research into Augmented Reality (AR), working with the Ministry of Defence’s Defence Science & Technology Laboratory (Dstl) under a project called Joint Focus Experimentation series 3 (JFX3). In early September 2013, the JFX3 technologies field evaluation programme was completed. During this phase SEA developed a ‘seethrough’ vehicle concept, whereby passengers in the rear of a Land Rover were provided an augmented view of

the outside world via a 360° camera system linked to a number of displays using standard, commercially available tablet computers. In the course of the field evaluation programme, the performance of each of the AR technologies was assessed against the current baseline for each task, such as testing whether AR provided any navigation advantages over the use of a map, compass and GPS locator. The operator workload and usability of the technologies was also assessed. The project team has now analysed the results of the field evaluation and initial insights were presented to stakeholders at a presentation day at the Defence Academy, Shrivenham, in early October 2013. Superconductors revolutionize bulk power transmission in cities RWE, Germany’s second largest energy supplier, has presented Nexans with a prestigious supplier award for innovation. The award resulted from the current ground breaking AmpaCity project to deploy an HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) power cable in the Ruhr city of Essen, where it will demonstrate the capability of superconductors to transmit electricity with low losses. The 1 kilometre, 10 kV HTS cable is setting two world records as both the longest superconductor power cable in the world, and the first to be installed in a city centre. The HTS cable features three concentric conductor layers manufactured from High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) tapes, cooled by liquid nitrogen. In combination with a Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (another Nexans breakthrough) the new 40 MW link will replace a conventional 110 kV installation, to show how HV transformer stations could be eliminated in urban areas. "This supplier award for innovation recognises the long and productive relationship between RWE and Nexans

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Industry news as well as our world leading position regarding superconducting power equipment", says Frank Schmidt, Business Line Manager of Nexans’ Superconductor Activity. "Nexans has previously installed several fault current limiters and we are delighted to extend this experience through the AmpaCity project. Essen can now be seen as a leading city in energy transmission". Superconductor technology has the potential to revolutionize bulk power transmission in dense innercity environments. It saves space, eliminates transformer stations, reduces losses, and greatly increases ampacity for AmpaCity, the codename for the RWE pilot project. The installation of a superconductor cable in its grid makes Essen a model city, and it serves as a lighthouse and incentive for other cities and megacities facing similar problems. Winning RWE's innovation award underlines the leading role Nexans is playing in this exciting new field. No need to feel left out if there’s a robot about Bristol Robotics Laboratory (BRL) is joining other leading research institutions in a new project looking at how remotely operated robots could enable people to take part in public spaces – without actually being there. Along with the Universities of Bath, Exeter, Oxford and Queen Mary University of London, BRL researchers will look at how using remotely operated robots might enable people to participate in public spaces – a key aspect of developing successful citizenship and public cohesion – if accessibility or geography prevents them from being physically present in the space. BRL is a collaborative partnership between the University of the West of England (UWE Bristol) and the University of Bristol. The £2 million three-year project, Being There: Humans and Robots in Public Spaces, funded by the EPSRC and

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led by Exeter University, will examine how robotics can help to bridge the gap between the way we communicate in person and online. It will look at the social and technological aspects of being able to appear in public in proxy forms, via a range of advanced robotics platforms. The robots will be controlled remotely, a method called tele-operation, and a tele-operator will be able to see through the robot’s eyes and speak through its mouth, while directing where it looks and how it moves. They will be taking the robots and the tele-operation control stations to public spaces around Bristol and Bath in the later stages of the research to measure human interaction with robots in the real world. Modern Engineering marvels fight for ‘Immortality’ Contemporaries to Rub Shoulders with Historic Greats The Best of British Engineers nominated to join their illustrious predecessors in Semta’s Engineering Hall of Fame have been announced. Five contemporary achievers making their mark on the world are vying to take their place in history alongside, among others, Isambard Kingdom Brunel, George Stephenson and Barnes Wallace. They are inventor and entrepreneur Sir James Dyson, mechanical engineer David Gow, electrical generation engineer Sam Etherington, inventor and entrepreneur Tim Morgan and Jonathan Ive, Apple’s senior vice president of design. Semta’s Engineering Hall of Fame is designed to ensure that great British engineers of the 21st Century are recognised to be just as important and influential as their illustrious predecessors. Ten Nineteenth and Twentieth Century

engineers will be invested in to the Semta Hall of Fame having been selected by a panel of engineers. They will be joined by one of the contemporary nominees who will achieve ‘immortality’ alongside them at a ceremony in London on February 12th – during the inaugural Semta Skills Awards. Ann Watson, Chief Operating Officer of Semta, the employer-led body engineering skills for the future, said: “Britain’s engineers are still the best in the World – and we will be putting them on the World stage to take a bow alongside their illustrious predecessors." “We are blowing away the myth that the best days of British engineering are behind us - we say not so – ensuring that one of our five nominees achieves engineering ‘immortality’." For further information about Semta’s Engineering Hall of Fame, including details of the first ten members, please visit www.semta.org.uk/hall-of-fame PD&I 2014 22-23 May 2014 Gunman Tower, St Katherine's Way, London Now in its fourth year, the leading annual event for industrial designers is back with new branding, a new location near to the iconic Design Museum and a new line-up of design experts. Kevin McCullagh, Founding Director of Plan and Core 77 columnist is “..... delighted to return as Chair of PD+I for 2014. This year’s conference will provide a fantastic opportunity for delegates to arm themselves with knowledge of all the latest trends, technologies, materials and processes on the market." Hosting heads of design and innovation, in-house business designers, design consultancies and academics the 2014 programme will provide lively debate and in depth analysis of current and future trends from brands, thought


leaders and heads of industry. Already confirmed are speakers from Toyota, Philips, 3M, Seymourpowell, Orange and Bartle Bogle Hegarty, who will be covering themes including management, entrepreneurship, ethics, automotive, FMCG and education. To be notified when the full programme is available, please email jlamb@crain. com. For more information visit the website http://dmtrk.net/1L5O-2164Y8WOWDA-UBM5E-1/c.aspxor contact us on + 44 208 253 9631. Accelerating the Future of CAE NAFEMS UK Conference 2014 Oxford, UK 10-11 June The UK's largest and most respected independent gathering of simulation and engineering analysis professionals. NAFEMS, the independent association for the engineering analysis community, is holding its UK conference on the 10th and 11th of June at the Oxford Belfry Hotel, with the primary aim of helping attendees answer these questions. The 2014 NAFEMS UK Conference will explore the extent to which the potential of CAE has been realised, and, more importantly, what more there is to be achieved. This two-day conference will focus on existing best practices as well as stateof-the-art in FEA, CFD and associated technologies ensuring delegates receive a fully comprehensive overview of the technology available to them. The conference will increase awareness and provide a discussion forum for topics that are vital to engineering industrialists and academics, offering attendees an unrivalled combination of industrial knowledge, expertise and forward-thinking to aid their deployment of CAE over the next few years. You are invited to share you and your company's simulation experiences during the only independent conference

dedicated to analysis and simulation in the UK.

The Institution of Mechanical Engineers Prestige Awards

www.nafems.org/2014/uk/

Call for nominations for inspiring people or groups of people working in engineering to be put forward for this year’s Prestige Awards. The Prestige Awards have a proud place in the history of the Institution and have marked the contribution of many ground-breaking achievements over the years. They cover original research that improves our understanding through to innovations or initiatives that contribute to the applications of engineering for the benefit of others.

Spitfires in final stand to save last British post Spitfire Heritage Trust launches crowd funding campaign. The future for Britain’s last pristine Spitfire station continues to hang in the balance as the organisation striving to save it launches a new funding appeal. Put up for sale with a price tag of over £1.5 million, Perranporth Airfield on the Cornish cliff, home to original Spitfire runways, hangars and bunkers, began a new battle in the fight for survival today with the launch of a crowd funding campaign. The airfield was awarded National Heritage status in 2000 with two areas protected as Scheduled Monuments by English Heritage - but it remains at risk. Perranporth is currently under threat of being sold off in parcels. The Spitfire Heritage Trust is campaigning to secure Perranporth airfield, keep it wholly intact, and bring it back to life as a viable airfield and a living museum for Spitfires. “We are already almost half way to the £1,650,000 needed for an outright purchase. Our friends and supporters have risen to the challenge with pledges and loans. If we can raise the remainder the airfield will be saved and we can begin work on making it accessible to the public." "We are sure that the public will be as enthusiastic as we are to bring this Spitfire airfield back to life,” said chairman and co-founder David Spencer Evans. “We are asking them to get behind a crowd funding effort to save something of huge international value for heritage and relevant to us all. To find out more please visit our web site www.spitrireheritagetrust.com and click on the “support us” button.”

The awards will be presented to the winners at a special ceremony in London in November. This year’s awards are: The James Clayton Prize Worth up to £10,000, this prize is for one or several members of the Institution who have made a significant achievement to modern engineering science in recent years. The Verena Winifred Holmes Award This award, named after the Institution’s first female member, is awarded to a person who can demonstrate how they have furthered equality and diversity in their place of employment or wider society. The award is worth £1,500. The James Watt International Award This award is awarded every two years to an eminent engineer from all countries in the world, including the UK, who has attained worldwide recognition in mechanical engineering. The Award for Risk Reduction in Mechanical Engineering Worth £1,000, this award recognises any engineer who has contributed to the understanding or reduction of risk in any area of mechanical engineering. For more information or to nominate a group or individual: www.imeche.org/prestigeawards

23


Product news New paper reveals temperature control

future

of

West Control Solutions has released a new technical white paper that examines the changing face of industrial temperature control technology. The paper looks at how the development of controller technology has reacted to the changing demands of users to create powerful new solutions and predicts how future developments will further boost process performance and efficiency. Industrial temperature controllers have changed considerably over the last fifty years. The introduction of digital controllers in the 1980's, for example, represented a major step change in temperature control technology. The guesswork that had previously been involved with setting controllers was eliminated as dials were replaced by pushbuttons and digital displays. As well as examining the historical development of temperature control technology, the new white paper outlines influencing trends of today and how temperature control might change in the future. With the development of increasingly smart technology, modern temperature controllers are highly sophisticated, automated and allow for customisation. When used effectively, temperature controllers will improve efficiency and quality for a diverse range of applications. To read the full white paper visit: http:// www.west-cs.com/lp/whitepaper-thechanging-face-of-temperature-control/ For more information please contact: Chloë Garrett-Dyke, Tel: +44 (0) 1273 810116, Email: chloe.garrett-dyke@ west-cs.com Web: www.West-CS.co.uk Theory into Practice Sound and vibration expert, Bruel & Kjaer UK has launched its 2014 training calendar, offering a range of theoretical and practical classes. Courses for the New Year includes

24

Vibration Testing for Engineers and Technicians course, which provides a practical introduction explaining how to interpret vibration test specifications and apply them to a vibration test system. It’s designed for engineers new to the field of vibration testing, but it is also a useful refresher for more experienced users. There’s also an optional third day of training called Vibration Hands on Practical, which covers the LDS Laser usb Controller for sine, random, shock and mixed mode testing. It is mainly practical, putting into practice the lessons learnt on the first two days. For environmental practitioners and consultants unfamiliar with the basics of acoustic measurement, there is the Theory and Practice of Noise Measurement course. The two day session provides a basic understanding of acoustic and measurement principles, encompassing many applications such as noise abatement, product labelling and building acoustics. Attendees with Bruel & Kjaer UK maintenance contracts will receive a 10% discount, which is applicable for anyone with a current M1 and multi-year (3 to 5 years) agreement, registering for any course this year. Brüel & Kjær also has a full calendar of free, online training sessions throughout 2014. More information is available on the training section of Bruel & Kjaer UK’s website: www.bksv. co.uk Pipeline welds: seen, measured, quantified and approved One of the limiting factors in the lifespan of a pipeline is corrosion. Corrosion Resistant Alloy (CRA) clad pipe is becoming increasingly important in preventing corrosion. The welding process is critical to the successful fabrication of CRA clad pipes and consequently the ability for the pipeline owner to extend the life of their pipeline. However, the welding process itself is very challenging.

The OMS WeldChecker™ system comprises a high-resolution digital video camera for video inspection, and a laser scanner to gather pipe geometry across both pipe inner walls near to the weld, and across the entire weld. This is critical during the PreQualification Tests (PQT) in order to qualify the welding process, equipment and staff for the project. This not only allows the client to develop its process and to fully understand the welding parameters, but also enables them to demonstrate to their customer an unrivalled level of weld information and to show full compliance with stringent pipeline specifications. The ability to give closure on tough decisions regularly encountered by the welding inspector could prove invaluable in saving time, while also ensuring only the highest quality welds are accepted, leading to longer lifespan. When to use WeldChecker™ is also an important factor – timing is critical in order to maximise the benefits of the system. Video-only inspection tends to raise as many questions as it answers, often meaning that pipe joints need to be cut out to mitigate any risks, even if they turn out to be acceptable upon closer inspection later. For more information on OMS WeldChecker™, please visit the website at www.omsmeasure.com or telephone 01279 656038 or email hugh.davies@omsmeasure.com Yuken Europe invests thousands in UK leading valve test facility Hydraulics technology firm Yuken Europe has expanded its operations by making a significant investment in one of the UK's most advanced valve testing facilities. The on-site lab, at its base in Speke, Liverpool, specialises in the test and repair of servo and proportional valves, as well as other components including hydraulic pumps and actuators. Japanese-owned Yuken Europe is a world leader in hydraulic technology. It


manufactures and distributes a broad range of high quality, durable and low energy hydraulic systems, pumps and valves for use across many different sectors and applications. Mr Broom said the recent investment is a sign of the company's continued evolution to broaden the services it can offer clients. "This multi-thousand pound investment is a key component of our growth as a company as we are now able to offer a complete test and repair service, not just on behalf of the global Yuken group, but to any organisation using servo valves," he said.

to boost its capacity to allow assembly of 5000 engines per year. The near clean-room facility was designed to encompass the very latest thinking in high quality manufacture and operates within a strict ‘no faults forward’ culture. Configured from the very outset against the requirements of current family of McLaren engines – the first of which, the M838T 90 degree V8 twin-turbo, was designed in collaboration between the two companies – Ricardo’s highly advanced engine facility already supplies engines for the McLaren P1™, 12C and 12C Spider road cars as well as the track-focused models developed and produced by McLaren GT.

"Sectors we are targeting include food, steel, simulators, crash test, vibration testing, plastics to name but a few. We are one of the very few companies in the UK which has the capacity and skill to provide this service. Servo valves are highly specialised and sensitive pieces of equipment which are pivotal to the speed and efficiency of modern day manufacturing operations."

Metalysis’ Titanium Powder used to 3D print automotive parts

Ricardo and McLaren Automotive sign multi-year engine supply agreement

Rotherham based company Metalysis have developed a new way of producing low-lost titanium powder, which heralds a new era in additive layer manufacture, and will see greater use of titanium in components across the automotive, aerospace and defence industries.

The contract representing revenue in the order of £40m per annum for Ricardo from 2016 onwards – is the largest new order in almost a century of Ricardo history and the most substantial single procurement ever made by McLaren Automotive. Ricardo has manufactured McLaren Automotive’s entire engine requirements at its purpose-built engine assembly facility at Shoreham, UK. The agreement signed today will see the two companies continue to build upon this very successful collaboration to 2020 and beyond, on a range of inspiring new McLaren products. All of the engines produced by Ricardo for McLaren Automotive are assembled at the Ricardo High Performance Assembly Facility, an advanced, qualityfocused lean production facility, which will be extended under this Agreement

To date, the 3D printing revolution has focused on the use of plastics – cheap printers' feedstock and high throughput. Until now 3D printing with metal has been prohibitively expensive because of the cost of titanium powders which currently sell for $200-$400 per kg.

The Renishaw 3D printer, which is based at the Mercury Centre within the Department of Materials at the University of Sheffield, made the parts, demonstrating the feasibility of producing titanium components using additive layer manufacturing. The Metalysis process is radically cheaper and environmentally benign compared with existing titanium production methods, such as the energy-intensive and toxic Kroll process. Currently, the manufacture of titanium powder involves taking the metal sponge produced by the Kroll process, which is then processed into ingot billets, melted into bar form and finally atomised into powder – a costly and labour-intensive four-step process.

Metalysis takes rutile and transforms it directly into powdered titanium using electrolysis, which is cost-effective and thus essential to the supply chain; the low-cost titanium powder can be used in a variety of new applications whereas previously the metal has been excessively expensive for use in mass production of lower value items. New programmable servo drives from Moog with integrated safety functionality Moog's family of programmable singleand multi-axis modular servo drives has been extended to include optional safety functions compliant with the EN 61800-5-2 safety standard. The new programmable servo drive also features Safety PLC capability that allows a complete safety solution to be implemented using the drive. This eliminates the need for external safety PLCs and their associated complexity, and provides shorter reaction times. The Moog Servo Drive Software with Safety PLC functions includes preprogrammed modules for all commonly used sensors, each available as a logic element. Similarly, the safety functions (SLS, SLI, etc.) can be easily selected. Where a machine requires multiple safe inputs and outputs the scalable nature of the product allows distribution across several drives. The drive contains the master PLC which allows communication across all via the safe cross communication (SCC) channel. The drives can be programed using a functional block diagram language similar to that described in the IEC 61131-3 standard for PLCs. This visual approach gives the user an intuitive environment in which to create their safety applications. Currently available in frame size 1 to 4, in configurations from 4 to 32 amps, the drive is designed for motion control for target applications such as metal forming, plastics processing, textile production, packaging, machine tools, test and simulation equipment.

25


Report Hydraulics in Testing 25 September 2013, Star Hydraulics, Tewkesbury The Hydraulics in Testing seminar was held at Star Hydraulics and attended by engineers interested or involved in the design, use or maintenance of servohydraulic testing systems. The event proved to be extremely popular and places were sold out in record time. With engineers attending from a wide range of disciplines and varying levels of understanding the seminar room was filled to capacity. The day focused on providing engineers with a good grounding in the topic, and afforded the opportunity to session and there was the opportunity to spend more time focusing on specific queries from the presentations earlier in the day. The STMG committee is very pleased with the feedback from attendees - 61% of delegates rated their overall experience as excellent and the remaining 39% as good, indicating that people felt positive about the event and found attendance to be worthwhile. Unfortunately, we were unable to accommodate all those wishing to attend the day and it is hoped to run a follow-on seminar early in 2014. develop understanding of the key factors affecting the performance of hydraulics in the testing environment. The morning presentations covered the areas of oil filtration, actuator performance and oil flow requirements. After lunch delegates were given the chance to take a tour of the factory and see how servovalves are manufactured. The guided tours were extremely informative and gave delegates the opportunity to understand more about the processes involved, and the need for extreme accuracy. The afternoon session focused on actuator control and simulation, which proved to be very informative. Good discussions were generated in the final forum

26


Institution of Mechanical Engineers the Shard in London could be covered

spent so long developing.”

in glass which is fully transparent but

The

UK

is

failing

to

harness

commercial potential of graphene

capable of collecting energy for heating

The Institution of Mechanical Engineers

and lighting.

calls upon industry to:

Graphene could also help create

Establish

batteries which charge in seconds, or

enable innovation and application to

used to ‘print’ electronic devices like

develop simultaneously, while creating

mobile phones onto material.

a taskforce to focus on mass production

collaborative

groups

to

methods.

A new policy statement from the Institution of Mechanical Engineers

Graphene

is

the

thinnest

and

-

warns that despite leading research

purportedly - the strongest material

Develop the graphene supply chain

into this miracle material, UK industry

ever created. It is just 0.33nm thick,

along with a coherent strategy for SMEs

is falling behind global competitors.

almost a million times thinner than a

to get graphene-based technology

human hair, harder than diamond and

to market and protect UK intellectual

The UK could miss out on the huge

about 300 times harder than steel. To

property.

potential of graphene unless more

put this into context, it will take the

practical uses are developed for the

weight of an elephant balanced on a

Create a robust strategy for identifying

‘miracle material’.

needle point to break it.

viable

A new policy statement from the

Dr Helen Meese, Head of Materials at the

Institution of Mechanical Engineers

Institution of Mechanical Engineers, said:

applications

and

engage

investors in education and training programmes to reduce investment risk. Additionally, Government must:

warns that despite UK universities graphene

“At the moment, there’s a very real

country’s

possibility that this incredible British

Address the potential skills shortage

commercialisation of the material has

material could one day be best

and urge the Catapults to continue to

been woeful.

known for never fulfilling its enormous

assist SMEs in developing technical

potential. UK industry, with the help of

demonstrators to show graphene’s

Government, needs to take a lead.

viability.

however, only 54 are from the UK,

“The UK is at the very forefront of

Establish a robust public engagement

or less than 1%. In comparison, over

graphene research, but academics

strategy for ‘emerging technologies’.

2,200 are held by China and 1,754

are increasingly concerned that little

by South Korea (Korean company

is being done to encourage industry

While the name ‘graphene’ was first

Samsung alone hold 407 patents).

to develop practical uses. This must

cited in 1962 to describe a single

change.

carbon layer, it was not until 2004

leading

the

world

development,

in

the

By 2013, over 7,500 graphene-based patents had been filed worldwide -

Biomedicine, composites

electronics are

where

“The graphene community has to agree

uncovered by Professors Geim and

graphene is expected to have a great

on a timescale for commercialisation

Novoselov from Manchester University,

impact. But the UK government and

now and develop a clear road map for

when they demonstrated that graphite

industry

collaboratively

ongoing research and development.

could be separated into single layers

with academia to develop a coherent

The UK must also establish how it

using sticky tape.

strategy if the country is to reap the

intends to compete in terms of market

benefits.

share and mass production.

must

all

work

fields

that the material’s true potential was

and

In just under a decade since then it has been proposed that graphene could

One future use of graphene could be

“If these issues are not addressed

enhance existing technologies as well

to replace ordinary glass windows with

soon, the UK could miss out on the

as having the potential to develop new

photovoltaic, meaning buildings like

limitless potential of the material it has

fields of engineering and science.

27


Advanced Manufacturing Putting perspective on the role of Additive Manufacturing in Advanced Manufacturing The terms 3D printing, Additive Layer Manufacturing, Additive Laser Manufacturing, Freeform Fabrication, Selective Laser Melting/Sintering, are often cross-associated with each other, as they have the common purpose to transform a three dimensional (3D) Computer Aided Design (CAD) directly into real 3D parts using a variety of materials such as polymers, ceramics and metals. As is often the case with emerging technologies (think of the development of betamax and VHS in the early eighties, or the competition between different DVD recordable formats in the nineties), there are often a multiplicity of names and competing manufacturing methods ultimately striving to achieve similar functions. It is hard not to have heard something in the news about Additive Manufacturing (AM) always associated with Advanced Manufacturing. So, why the excitement from industry? It has been possible for almost two decades to make 3D parts from CAD, under the designation of Rapid Prototyping, whether this is by CNC machining, laser melting of powders or laser welding fabrication. Indeed, Rapid Prototyping machines have formed the basis of some of the current AM processes, either powderbed based processes using electron beams or CO2/optical lasers, wirefeeding processes which use lasers to additively weld wire in layers, or another process uses metal powder

28

which is melted and blown down the laser to be deposited in layers. The excitement is in the potential of a manufacturing process which not only allows the formation of netshape parts with a minimum waste of material, but which can be scaled to production volumes and made fast enough to make real parts which are cost-competitive, and additionally, and most importantly, that the properties of the as-built parts allow them to be assembled directly, or with minimal post-build operations into a functional working part. Imagine a product which can be designed virtually, does not require a dedicated spare part factory and with digitally updated components which can be emailed to the distribution centres as upgrades.

As evidenced by a direct reference by Barack Obama to Additive Manufacturing in the February 2013 “State of the Union” speech stating that the USA would be investing 1 Billion dollars in advanced manufacturing, a direct result was that a number of US Additive Manufacturing research centres and industries received approximately $30M in the first year, followed by $9M this year. Almost following suit, Singapore announced a $403M 5-years, and China $240M to be invested in AM over 3-years [1]. Prior to this Europe had already

been investing steadily in AM, with the European Commission funding a number of FP6 and FP7 projects in AM areas, such as AMAZE (2017 - €18M), OXIGEN (2017 - €5.6M), M&Ms+ (2016 - €1.4M), HYPROLINE (2015 - €2.5M), AMCOR (2015 - €3M), SASAM (2014 - €0.5M), AEROBEAM (2013 - €0.1M), NANOMASTER (2015 - €.2M), and MERLIN (2014 - €4.9M). This funding in AM is expected to continue into the Horizon 2020 mechanism. Within Europe, countries have also independently been funding research such as the UK (2013 - £7M) and Germany (2013 €11M over 5 years) with fundamental (EPSRC-UK, DMRCDE) and applied research (TSB) initiatives, building supply chains and supporting home-grown globally important companies, such as Renishaw, Concept Laser and Trumpf, themselves instrumental in generating the high level of attention the AM process is attracting. The growth of sales of machines for manufacturing (as opposed to rapid manufacturing) has grown by 28% in 10 years, and is forecast [1] to carry on growing at a similar rate over the foreseeable future. At various levels, recent news reporting, academic publications and platform position documents, there is a concerted effort to try to calm the excitement, [1] and manage the expectations. In June 2013 a strategic research agenda was released by the AM Platform [2], in which the need was clearly felt to state that AM, 1) does not give unlimited design freedom, but there is great design freedom 2) is not rapid, but is agile and adaptable 3) does not have 100% material usage, but is getting closer 4) will not be suitable for all applications


other projects, the AMAZE project places emphasis on being able to:

From the perspective of metalsbased applications, one can expand on these provisos in slightly greater technical depth, adding that there is a requirement to control levels of porosity and residual stresses, but this is no different to established manufacturing routes such as net-shape hot isostatic pressing, powder compaction and investment casting. Porosity and rapid cooling rates lead to larger scatter in elastic, plastic and fatigue properties, which, similar to other processes, can be controlled through appropriate heat treatments â&#x20AC;&#x201C; but these need to be determined, and balanced against the cost of the overall production process. In terms of applications which are receiving the most attention, medical/ dental and aerospace with relatively low volumes of production or be-spoke parts have been seeing the most activity. By activity, it is meant that in some cases real components such as hip replacements and cranial implants have been used. However, the author is not aware of any metal parts having been used within a commercial aircraft as yet, although various projects are getting close to raising the technology readiness levels. Once the expectations of the process have been managed, then it is up to the R&D projects to take the process through achievable steps of improvement, and in common with

1) I n c r e a s e the size of builds and speed of the process 2) D e c r e a s e the requirements for support structures 3) I m p r o v e the material properties of the asfabricated parts by considering the entire process chain 4) Increase computational modelling and CAD software capabilities to take full advantage of the great freedom of design Only with successful outcomes to this type of research will 3D printing or AM be able to live up to the potentials which are driving the excitement, such as reduction of material wasted and the potential for designing new components which are lightweight and with enhanced, multi-functional performance, themselves with great potential for environmental benefits such as reduced emissions of aircraft and automotive vehicles, but also in need of rigorous proof.

individual partner organisations. Swansea University ALM Research Group, also includes Professors Steve G.R. Brown, J. Sienz, D. T. Gethin, Drs J Cherry1, H. D. Davies1, D. Bould1,2, E. Sackett1, S. Mehmood1, D. James1 1

ASTUTE (www.astutewales.com) M A C H 1 ( w w w. s w a n s e a . a c . u k / engineering/mach10

2

Bibliography [1] T. Wohlers and T. Caffrey, "Additive Manufacturing: Going Mainstream," Manufacturing Engineering, pp. 6772, June 2013. [2] AM Platform (Amanda Allison), "Additive Manufacturing: Strategic Research Agenda," AM SRA Consultation Document, 2013.

Dr Nicholas P Lavery Senior Lecturer within the Materials Research Centre at Swansea University

The authors wish to acknowledge support from the AMAZE Project, which is co-funded by the European Commission in the 7th Framework Programme (Contract #FoF. NMP.2012-4-313781), by the European Space Agency and by the

29


News from Women' s Engineering Society Engineering is vital to the UK economy, employing 8% of the population, accounting for 24% of the turnover of all UK enterprises and 46% of all UK exports. Increasing the UK’s engineering sector is vital to the recovery of our economy; however, fewer people are entering the engineering sector resulting in a predicted shortage of 600,000 by 2020. For this reason engineering and the lack of women in engineering has become a hot topic and most of the shortfall can be covered by doubling the number of women in engineering. It has also been proven that companies which embrace diversity increase their revenue, partly due to the skills females bring to engineering such as creativity, good communication, empathy and attention to detail. This is where the Women’s Engineering Society (WES) comes in.

engineering has remained constant at 8% with only 27% of students studying Science, Engineering or Technology (SET) entering a SET occupation.

During World War I women working in engineering made a huge contribution to the war; however when the war ended, faced with opposition from government, industry and unions, the women were expected to give up engineering. Pioneering women like Lady Katherine Parsons and her daughter Rachel campaigned to retain these roles and since they were not allowed to join engineering institutions in 1919 they created their own: The Women’s Engineering Society (WES) with the aim of promoting the study and practice of engineering among women and providing a forum for women to publish their research.

WES’ mission is to inspire women to achieve their potential as engineers, scientists and technical leaders and assist educators, managers and employers in making this happen. WES aims to keep women’s careers on track, to speak out about issues of concern to women scientists and engineers, to help engineering companies promote gender diversity and equality in the workplace, to celebrate women’s successes and to connect women across different levels.

Fast forward 95 years, women are not only allowed to be members of engineering institutions, but are now chartered, fellows and even Presidents of them. However, WES is still required because despite many campaigns over the decades, the number of females entering

30

Reasons include: Engineering is not seen as a key profession, in part due to the title not being protected, but also due to lack of self-promotion; the general public don’t know what an engineer is and we’re not good at telling the public what we do. Pupils and especially girls are dissuaded from pursuing mathematics and physics which are essential for engineering courses. Lack of role models, poor careers advice and the perception that Engineering companies don’t have family friendly policies (many do offer flexible working hours and enhanced leave but they don’t promote this). In other countries, especially Asian countries, the percentage of women entering engineering is much higher so there is no reason that the numbers in the UK can’t be increased.

Many of WES’ members are STEM Ambassadors, reaching out to schools to promote engineering and acting as role models. The younger the age group we can reach the more chance there is of them considering engineering as a career. Annually WES runs a female engineering student conference which attracts over 100 students from more than 30 universities

across the UK with sponsorship from major engineering companies. These conferences are vital to connect students with industry and to create networks. In many cases students who attend are the only females on their engineering course and they feel isolated. Students are inspired by the number of women studying engineering and companies amazed by the enthusiastic students. Previous attendees have stayed in engineering after attending the conference and been recruited by sponsoring companies. WES also assists universities wishing to set up student groups. WES provides several awards, including the Karen Burt award for a recently chartered female engineer, the WES award presented at the Young Engineer of the Year Award in association with the Institution of Engineering (IET), the Doris Gray award which provides scholarships for females studying engineering in Scotland and grants to societies which promote engineering to females. Getting females to enter engineering is the first problem, the next problem is keeping them in engineering with many leaving the industry after career breaks. Again WES can help by providing mentors through MentorSET, advice and support from experienced women engineers and networking events such as the annual technical conference and local cluster events including lectures, company visits and technical dinners. This year WES is celebrating its 95th year by launching the National Women in Engineering Day on the 23rd June. Hopefully by our 100th year the number of women in engineering will have improved. Dr Carol Marsh ElectronicsTechnical Manager and President of WES

http://www.wes.org.uk/


News from British Standards BSI's TDW/4 committee area, Technical product realization, had another hugely active and successful year in 2013. As well as publishing the latest new edition of the flagship national technical product specification standard BS 8888:2013 in December, the committee recorded a number of other successes and achievements over the course of the year. As TDW/4/8 subcommittee chairman Iain Macleod highlighted in the previous issue of this journal, the latest edition of BS 8888 has introduced a number of important changes all of which are aimed at helping UK industry move over more fully to the ISO GPS system of international standards for specification and the ISO/TC 10 international standards for technical product documentation. Structurally BS 8888:2013 has been re-ordered in order to make it more user friendly. In addition, more of the basic requirements for dimensioning have been included. Finally, a number of sections have been rewritten in order to make them more useable, in particular the datums section based on BS EN ISO 5459. In addition to all of this great (and ongoing) work on BS 8888, TDW/4 covers a whole lot more. The committee spans the three broad subject areas of design, specification and verification with subcommittees dedicated to digital product definition 3D (TDW/4/3), gauging and measurement equipment (TDW/4/4), documentation management (TDW/4/5), education and training strategy (TDW/4/6), design for manufacture, assembly, disassembly and end-of-life processing, MADE (TDW/4/7), technical product verification (TDW/4/9), technical product documentation (TDW/4/10), and diagrams and symbols (TDW/4/11). The committee area also includes

a panel covering the safety of pens (TDW/4/-/2). The verification area is particularly buoyant at the moment. 2013 saw the creation of a brand new TDW/4 panel for X-ray computed tomography (XCT). The new group was set up in order to allow UK experts on the subject to feed into new standards work being developed within the international working group for coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) ISO/TC 213 WG10. In cooperation with the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), BSI hosted an initial meeting of the XCT group in September 2013. A number of experts from the new panel will be attending the forthcoming plenary meeting series of ISO/TC 213 in Stockholm in February 2014. 2013 also saw the launch of new UKled work to convert TDW/4/7's key standard on design for manufacture, assembly, disassembly and end-oflife processing, BS 8887-1, into an international standard (ISO 8887-1). Led by the UK's Prof Brian Griffiths, chairman of TDW/4/7 and Convenor of ISO/TC 10 WG20, the new working group met three times in 2013 in order to agree changes to the document. The draft will shortly be released for an internal committee voting stage before progressing on to its public comment stage. All standards released for public comment in the UK can be viewed on BSI’s “draft review system” (http:// drafts.bsigroup.com/). You can search for standards by keywords or browse by subject and submit comments on any of the documents on the site. TDW/4 held a total of 17 national committee meetings throughout 2013. Most of the meetings took place at BSI's headquarters in Chiswick, West London. However, the technical committee's second meeting of the year was hosted by NPL in the tranquil surroundings of Bushy House, Teddington. Previously the technical committee has also held meetings outside London at the University of Huddersfield's Centre

for Precision Technologies which is home to the EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology. TDW/4 is lucky to have within its committee ranks some of the world's leading experts in metrology and surface texture who are based at Huddersfield and who provide valuable input to national and international standards in those areas. In addition to national committee meetings, TDW/4 also appointed UK experts to 54 international standards meetings in 2013. The meetings took place across the world in locations such as Berlin, Hangzhou, Helsinki and Brussels. In 2014 the UK will be hosting the next round of ISO/TC 10 international standards meetings which are scheduled to take place in May at BSI's London offices. World experts on technical product documentation standards, covering technical drawings, 3D models, and mechanical engineering documentation will convene for a week of meetings in the capital. In February 2015 the UK will be hosting the ISO/TC 213 international standards meetings. The world's leading experts on geometrical product specification, geometrical tolerancing, surface texture and verification will descend on London for two weeks of debate and discussions to agree changes to the ISO GPS series of standards. With all of this work and activity, TDW/4 is always looking for new committee members. Anyone interested in getting involved, please contact Sarah Kelly, Lead Programme Manager – Committee Secretary to TDW/4, at BSI on sarah.kelly@bsigroup.com. Sarah Kelly

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Group news Simulation, Test & Measurement Group Now that Christmas is out of the way, it has brought the date of the 2014 EIS Instrumentation Exhibition closer. The date for this years event is March 18th (which is my birthday coincidentally). It promises to be bigger than ever, with more exhibitors than last years total of 57. Once again, there will be discussion forums taking place during the day. These are completely free to attend and have proved to be very popular over the last few years. This years topics are: • The Effect on Component Life and Performance of Manufacturing Induced Residual Strain • Gearbox Noise and Life Monitoring • 3D Printed Components - use in Stress Analysis and as Structural Components • Successes and Future Challenges in Vehicle Dynamics There will be an expert panel in each forum, and the relaxed format means that audience participation is encouraged. The “Hydraulics in Testing” event went ahead at Star Hydraulics on September 25th 2013 and was very well attended. Servo hydraulics in the testing process was the theme and all attendees found something of interest in the presentations and the tour of the facilities. As this event was such a success, we are planning to hold similar events this year. A follow-up to the hydraulics event is proposed, and also other topics that have shown to be interesting from our previous Silverstone forums. Please keep an eye on the website for the latest news on future events. Another new communication channel that we are starting is a discussion

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forum on the EIS website. This has just been launched and will hopefully grow to be a useful resource for EIS members. If you wish to register, please see the website. You will then be able to comment on topics or start a new one. The idea is that members will have the opportunity to enter into discussions with each other on topics of interest. Please feel free to ask questions – I’m sure someone will be able to answer. Geoff Rowlands, Chairman

Sound, & Vibration Product Perception Group Following the very successful SVPP seminar and exhibition held in April last year at the University of Southampton’s Human Factors Research Unit, the committee are now finalizing planning for the next event, which will take place on 10 April 2014 at Brunel University. Rather than the usual presentations from various guest speakers, the day will be structured as a training workshop in various areas of acoustics engineering. We feel that there is a strong demand for high value, ‘hands-on’ training in a classroom environment, so each session will be led by a subject matter expert. There will be participation from those members representing the equipment and software suppliers within the group, who will provide the working tools for the training workshop as well as adding their expertise in practical acoustic measurement techniques and problem solving to the other committee members who will participate. We will soon be publishing the programme, so if you or one of your colleagues have a need for some practical sound quality training at low

cost, please express your interest to the EIS Secretariat info@e-i-s. org.uk and you will be added (at no obligation) to our list of potential attendees, and you will be sent the programme as soon as it is finalised. There will be a maximum of 40 places so do not wait until you see the adverts – all the places may have gone! John Wilkinson, Chairman

Durability & Fatigue Group It is good to see signs of growth in the economy although we have already seen many of our member companies recruiting over the last year or so. With this comes the need for training and we have received requests for some “back to basics” topics. These have already proved popular in the testing domain and now it is time for some calculations. There are several well known fatigue solvers available from software companies – but how do they work, and what effects do you need to consider for your application? This EIS group includes members from both the supplier and user sides, not to mention research, so we are well placed to present this ourselves. We are planning a 1-day course on the basics of fatigue analysis, equally applicable to analysis and test, that should help understand the basic physics driving fatigue, how to account for effects such as mean stress or surface finish and answer questions such as: what is Rainflow or a Miner’s summation and should I use SN or crack initiation methods. The course will not be linked to any particular software package and will be clearly aimed at practising engineers and materials specialists without any prerequisite knowledge of fatigue analysis. Robert Cawte Chairman


Corporate Members The following companies are corporate members of the Engineering Integrity Society. We thank them for their continued support which helps the Society to run its wide-ranging events throughout the year. AcSoft Ltd Bruel and Kjaer Data Physics Datron Technology GOM HBM HGL Dynamics Instron Kemo Kistler LMS UK M&P International

Micro-Epsilon Millbrook MIRA MOOG MTS Systems Muller BBM National Instruments Nprime PDS Projects Ltd Polytec Rutherford Appleton Lab Safe Technology

Sensors UK Servotest Stack Star Hydraulics Techni Measure THP Systems Tiab TRaC Transmission Dynamics Yokogawa Zwick

New Personal Members Niklas Jarvstrat - Rolls Royce Stephen Jones - FEV UK The society was saddened to learn of the death of Raymond Farnell of Perkins Engines. Ray had been an active member of the EIS since joining in 1995. He was part of the original Noise, Vibration and Harshness Group and we greatly appreciated his support on a number of events we ran at Perkins. We extend our condolences to his family.

MEMBERSHIP The Engineering Integrity Society is an independent charitable organisation, supported and sponsored by industry. The Society is committed to promoting events and publications, providing a forum for experienced engineers and new graduates to discuss current issues and new technologies. We aim for both company and personal development and to inspire newly qualified engineers to develop their chosen profession. Events run provide an ideal opportunity for engineers to meet others who operate in similar fields of activity over coffee and lunch. All of our events enable engineers to establish and renew an excellent ‘contact’ base while keeping up to date with new technology and developments in their field of interest. We are involved in a wide range of Industrial sectors including Automotive, Aerospace, Civil, Petrochemical etc and continue to be interested in new members from all sectors. Benefits: • • •

EIS members receive a subscription to ‘Engineering Integrity’, mailed direct to their office or private address. Discounts to EIS events. Access to Task Groups, to take part, or to receive information and recommendations.

Fees:

Personal Membership (UK) Personal Overseas Membership Corporate Membership (1 April - 31 March)

£25 a year £30 a year £400+VAT a year (pro rata)

Application forms can be downloaded from the membership page at www.e-i-s.org.uk If your membership has expired or you are unsure if your membership is current, contact: info@e-i-s.org.uk

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Committee Members President: Peter Watson O.B.E. Directors Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom................................................................................................................ 0121 7331837 Richard Hobson, Serco Technical & Assurance Services................................................................................. 01332 263534 Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant .................................................................................................... 07881 802410 Geoff Rowlands, MIRA ..................................................................................................................................... 02476 355517 Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant....................................................................................................... 07866 815200 John Wilkinson, Millbrook Proving Ground ....................................................................................................... 01525 842526 Chairman Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant .................................................................................................... 07881 802410 Vice Chairman Richard Hobson, Serco Technical & Assurance Services................................................................................. 01332 263534 Treasurer Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom................................................................................................................ 0121 7331837 Company Secretary Geoff Rowlands, MIRA ..................................................................................................................................... 02476 355517 EIS Secretariat Sara Atkin...........................................................................................................................................................01572 811315 Communications Sub Committee – ‘Engineering Integrity’ Journal of the EIS Honorary Editor Karen Perkins, Swansea University ................................................................................................................. 01792 513029 Managing Editor Catherine Pinder .............................................................................................................................................. 07979 270998

Durability & Fatigue Group Chairman Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom................................................................................................................ 0121 7331837 Members John Atkinson, Sheffield Hallam University .......................................................................................................01142 252014 Martin Bache, Swansea University ................................................................................................................... 01792 295287 Peter Blackmore, Jaguar Land Rover............................................................................................................... 01926 923715 Feargal Brennan, Cranfield University ............................................................................................................. 01234 758249 Amirebrahim Chahardehi, Cranfield University................................................................................................. 01234 754631 John Draper, Safe Technology..........................................................................................................................0114 268 6444 Lee Gilbert, TRaC Global.................................................................................................................................. 01926 478478 Karl Johnson, Zwick Roell Group...................................................................................................................... 0777957 8913 Karen Perkins, University of Swansea ............................................................................................................. 01792 513029 Davood Sarchamy, British Aerospace Airbus.......................................................................................................0117 936861 Giora Shatil, Gamesa Wind UK................................................................................................................................................. Andy Stiles, Aero Engine Controls.................................................................................................................... 0121 6276600 James Trainor, Jaguar Land Rover................................................................................................................... 01926 646424 John Yates, University of Manchester............................................................................................................... 0161 2754331

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Simulation, Test & Measurement Group Chairman Geoff Rowlands, MIRA ..................................................................................................................................... 02476 355517 Members Paul Armstrong, Amber Instruments.................................................................................................................. 01246 260250 Ian Bell, National Instruments .......................................................................................................................... 01635 572409 Steve Coe, Data Physics (UK).......................................................................................................................... 01323 846464 Colin Dodds, Dodds & Associates..................................................................................................................... 07880 554590 Dave Ensor, MIRA............................................................................................................................................. 02476 355295 Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant.................................................................................................... 0121 5203838 Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services............................................................................................... 01332 263534 Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant..................................................................................................... 07881 802410 Andrew McQueen, LMS International............................................................................................................... 02476 408120 Ray Pountney, Engineering Consultant............................................................................................................. 01245 320751 Tim Powell, Bruel & Kjaer VTS.......................................................................................................................... 01763 255780 Nick Richardson, Servotest............................................................................................................................... 01784 274428 Paul Roberts, HBM United Kingdom ................................................................................................................ 0785 2945988 Jarek Rosinski, Transmission Dynamics........................................................................................................... 0191 5800058 Bernard Steeples, Engineering Consultant....................................................................................................... 01621 828312 Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant....................................................................................................... 07866 815200 Jeremy Yarnall, Consultant Engineer................................................................................................................ 01332 875450 Conway Young, Tiab ......................................................................................................................................... 01295 714046

Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group Chairman John Wilkinson, Millbrook Proving Ground ....................................................................................................... 01525 842526 Members Marco Ajovalasit, Brunel University................................................................................................................... 01895 267134 Joe Armstrong, Polytec .....................................................................................................................................01582 711670 Alan Bennetts, Bay Systems............................................................................................................................. 01458 860393 Dave Boast, D B Engineering Solutions ........................................................................................................... 01225 743592 Mark Burnett, MIRA .......................................................................................................................................... 02476 355329 Gary Dunne, Jaguar Land Rover ..................................................................................................................... 02476 206573 Andrew Hillis, University of Bath....................................................................................................................... 01225 384977 David Fish, JoTech ........................................................................................................................................... 01827 830606 Henrietta Howarth, Southampton University.......................................................................................... 023 8059 4963/2277 Paul Jennings, Warwick University ................................................................................................................... 02476 523646 Richard Johnson, Sound & Vibration Technology ............................................................................................ 01525 408502 Chris Knowles, JCB .......................................................................................................................................... 01889 593900 Jon Richards, Honda UK .................................................................................................................................. 01793 417238 Ian Strath, LMS International ............................................................................................................................ 02476 408120 Keith Vickers, Bruel & Kjaer UK ....................................................................................................................... 01223 389800

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Profiles of Corporate Members AcSoft Ltd

Kistler Instruments Ltd

8B Wingbury Courtyard, Leighton Road Wingrave, Aylesbury, HP22 4LW

13 Murrell Green Business Park London Road Hook Hants RG27 9GR

Tel: +44 1296 682686 Fax: +44 1296 682860 Email: prubens@acsoft.co.uk Website: www.acsoft.co.uk Contact: Paul Rubens At AcSoft we offer the best range of sound and vibration monitoring systems from the world’s leading suppliers. Our market leading application advice and technical support makes analysing and solving your noise & vibration problems so much easier. As applications constantly evolve and new solutions emerge, we keep abreast of instrumentation developments as they arise, while keeping a close eye on quality and support. We design and manufacturer sound level meters, microphones, accelerometers, conditioning amplifiers, calibrators, noise and vibration analysers and software.

Tel: 01256 741550 Fax: 01256 741551 Email: sales.uk@kistler.com Website: www.kistler.com Contact: Jim Vaughan, Managing Director Kistler is a leading manufacturer of sensors for pressure, force, torque and acceleration, as well as the related electronics and software. Technology from Kistler is used to analyse physical processes, and to control and optimise industrial processes. Kistler is headquartered in Winterthur, Switzerland and has production facilities in Germany, Switzerland and the US and employs over 1200 people in 28 locations worldwide.

We run a variety of training courses, from basic introductions on noise to specialised training helping customers get the most from their equipment.

Micro-Epsilon Instron Coronation Road, High Wycombe Buckinghamshire, HP12 3SY Tel: +44 (0) 1494 456815 Email: info_news@instron.com Website: www.instron.co.uk Instron is a leading provider of testing equipment for the material testing and structural testing markets. Instron’s products test the mechanical properties and performance of various materials, components and structures in a wide array of environments. A global company providing singlesource convenience, Instron is a full-service materials testing company that manufactures and services testing instruments, systems, software and accessories. Instron’s proficiency in designing and building testing systems to evaluate materials ranging from the most fragile filament to advanced alloys, affords Instron’s customers a comprehensive resource for all their research, quality and service-life testing requirements. Information is also available on the company’s enhanced website at www.instron.com.

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No 1 Shorelines Building Shore Road, Birkenhead, CH41 1AU Tel: +44 (0) 151 3556070 Fax: +44 (0) 151 3556075 Email: amanda.byrne@micro-epsilon.co.uk Website: www.micro-epsilon.co.uk Contact: Amanda Byrne Micro-Epsilon develops and manufactures market leading precision sensors to measure displacement, temperature and colour, as well as systems for dimensional measurement and defect detection. Using both contact and non-contact measurement techniques, Micro-Epsilon boasts one of the largest selections of sensor technologies including 1D/2D/3D laser optical, confocal chromatic, eddy current, capacitive, inductive, draw-wire, time-of-flight technologies, IR temperature sensors, thermal imaging cameras and colour recognition systems. With over 45 years experience and over 10,000 customers worldwide, Micro-Epsilon can solve tomorrow’s measurement problems today.


Moog Industrial Group

Muller-BBM VAS

Ashchurch Tewkesbury Gloucestershire GL20 8NA

Robert-Koch Str. 13 82152 Planegg Germany

Tel: +44 (0)1564 784777 or +44 (0)1684 296600 Fax: +44 (0)1564 785846 Email: test.uk@moog.com Website: www.moog.co.uk Contact: Stuart Bibb Moog is a designer, manufacturer and integrator of high performance, high integrity control systems and equipment (electro-hydraulic and electro-mechanical) satisfying a broad range of applications in aerospace, defence and Industrial markets.

Tel: +49-89-85602-400 Fax: +49-89-85602-444 Email: info.de@muellerbbm-vas.com Website: www.muellerbbm-vas.de Contact: Dennis de Klerk MĂźller-BBM VibroAkustik Systeme offers high-performance tools for any acoustic and vibration-technological application. In multi-channel measurement technology we rank among the global market leaders.

Moog is able to offer expertise in varied fields of engineering and has a proven track record in the successful implementation of major multi-disciplinary projects. Moog Test Division provides a broad range of products and services for mechanical test & simulation.

MTS Systems Ltd

Nprime

Brook House Somerford Court Cirencester Glos GL7 1TW

3 Kelham Square Kelham Island Sheffield S3 8SD

Tel: +44 (0) 1285 648800 Fax: +44 (0) 1285 658052 Email: mtsuksales@mts.com Website: www.mts.com Contact: Robert Palmer Leading Manufacturers and suppliers worldwide turn to MTS for the relevant testing expertise, innovative technology and responsive, local support they need to design and develop more efficient, higher performing products. Whether you test materials, components, subsystems or products, engaging with MTS offers the advanced mechanical testing and simulation tools required to accelerate development, decrease warranty costs and accurately validate product performance. MTS covers a wide range of industries including automotive, aerospace, energy, medical, civil and materials.

Tel: 0114 2727 868 Fax: 08704 299 258 Email: info@nprime.co.uk Website: www.nprime.co.uk Contact: Turqui Kharchi Nprime are an engineering test services consultancy. We provide engineering teams to our customers to deliver instrumentation and sensors, strain gauging, telemetry and multi-channel data acquisition. Nprime perform testing, qualification and analysis of structural and vibration engineering data; typically as part of a customerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s product development process. Our customers operate in the aerospace, automotive, rail, off-highway, oil & gas and power generation industries. We also sell and rent sensors, remote telemetry, rotational torque telemetry and data acquisition hardware.

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Profiles of Corporate Members Polytec Ltd

Transmission Dynamics (JR Dynamics Ltd)

Lambda House Batford Mill Harpenden AL5 5BZ

Unit 4 Arcot Court Nelson Road Cramlington Northumberland NE23 1BB

Tel: 01582 711 670 Fax: 01582 712 084 Email: info@polytec-ltd.co.uk Website: www.polytec-ltd.co.uk Contact: Joe Armstrong Non-Contact Vibration Measurements using Laser-Doppler Vibration Measurement equipment by Polytec provides optical measurement solutions for non-destructive testing (NDT). Our market leading non-contact vibration measurement technology is very sophisticated, with both 1D and 3D large area mapping options. Polytec offers many instrument types to improve vibration measurement, analysis and understanding. Instruments configure to aid FEA model correlation, reduce development time with fast no wire measurements for NDT, including; noise, vibration and harshness testing (NVH), failure analysis and research into complex structures.

Yokogawa Measurement Technologies Ltd Stuart Road Manor Park Runcorn Cheshire WA7 1TR Tel: +44 (0) 1928 597200 Fax: +44 (0) 1928 597201 Email: TM.Sales@uk.yokogawa.com Website: www.tmi.yokogawa.com/gb Contact: Andy Barnes Since its founding in 1915, Yokogawa has grown into a multi billion $ company and is recognised as “the world’s largest maker of electronic measuring tools”. Yokogawa is engaged in cutting-edge research and innovation, securing over 7,200 patents and registrations. Test & Measurement is one of the core businesses of the company. This division plays a major role in the test & measurement market worldwide with products that include oscilloscopes, power meters, optical communications test equipment, portable test instruments, recorders and data-acquisition systems.

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Tel: +44 (0) 191 58 000 58 Email: wsupport@jrdltd.com Website: www.jrdltd.com Contact: Prof. Jarek Rosinski (C.E.O.) Transmission Dynamics is a rapid response consultancy organisation specialising in troubleshooting problems in rotating machinery. Our areas of expertise are: • failure investigation • noise and vibration research • in-service load measurements • component fatigue life evaluation • bespoke instrumentation • evaluation of gear alignment to ISO-6336 (Method A) Transmission Dynamics provides services to blue-chip technology companies across the globe, including clients in the renewable energy, mining, marine, defence, automotive and rail sectors. We also design and manufacture our own range of wireless telemetry and data acquisition systems, focusing on low power consumption, exceptionally low noise and unbeatable performance, for recovering in-service load information from the most demanding of environments. We deal with: Complex drive systems Gears and Gearboxes Chains, Belts, Couplings Shafts & Bearings

BMTA - Measurements in Advanced Manufacturing (2) Innovations in Materials Measurement & Testing The Nuclear Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre, Sheffield, 12 March 2014 The event will appeal to all concerned with advanced manufacturing processes and materials testing and will provide an opportunity to see the superb facilities at Nuclear AMRC and The University of Sheffield Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC). For more information visit www.bmta.co.uk


Our customers helped us develop SIRIUS - Thank you !! SIRIUS Data Acquisition System 200KS/s - 24bit - dual core A/D + 1000V galvanic isolation + High Speed Counters & Digital I/O + Video & GPS support + CAN BUS + DEWESoft software included

" See you at Silverstone on 18th March 2014 " Tel. 01367 871000 email. sales@dewetron.co.uk www.dewesoft.com

HBM data acquisition systems Precise, reliable and meeting your requirements.

Every application has its own challenges for the test and measurement equipment used. HBM Test and Measurement provides you with the right data acquisition systems that meet your requirements. ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Test bench measurements Structural tests, stress analysis and laboratory measurements Mobile measurement technology High-speed measurement Calibration and high-precision measurement

Benefit from unique accuracy and reliability made by HBM. We also offer a wide range of data acquisition and analysis software. HBM data acquisition systems can also be easily integrated into third-party software or customized applications.

tation, rumen t s rIn e th n, Silve BM at hibitio x e – V isit H g h in c st Mar is & Te n 18th Analys t r ac k o e c a R s tone 9 & 60

5 stands

HBM United Kingdom Ltd

Tel. 0208 515 6000

info@uk.hbm.com

www.hbm.com


EDX-10A LOW COST COMPACT DATA RECORDER • Strain and Voltage inputs • USB Interface • NEW – Stacked Configuration • Easy-to-use software included • Maximum 20 kHz sampling rate • Simultaneous all-channel sampling • Standard KS2 file format

SENSORS UK LTD 135A HATFIELD ROAD, ST ALBANS AL1 4JX UNITED KINGDOM TEL: + 44 (0)1727 85 93 73 EMAIL: sales[at]sensorsuk.com

NAFEMS

Engineering solutions in CAD design, analysis, consultancy & testing

Experienced engineers Problem solving Linear & non-linear finite element stress analysis Dynamic & thermal analysis Fatigue life assessment Testing programmes

email:info@abmech.co.uk

Tel: +44 (0)1827 897200 www.abmech.co.uk

Courtesy of D.A.T.S. Ltd

For more information please visit: www.sensorsuk.com


Automotive and Vehicle Engineering DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS      

Ruggedised, modular and reliable Multi-channel for strain, temperature, speed, pressure, etc.. High frequency channels GPS and digital I/O Vehicle CAN bus, J1850 VPW, J1708 Rainflow cycle counting

TELEMETRY SYSTEMS

DATA MEASUREMENT & ANALYSIS  Multi-channel data and file formats processing & analysis  Fast Viewing and Reporting of Data  Noise & Vibration Data Analysis  Fatigue and Test Data Analysis

 ATI telemetry system for rotational and linear measurement  Collars for drive shaft, half shaft and prop-shaft  Engine output torque  Torsional vibration monitoring system  Wireless collar systems  Shaft Calibration Service incl. telemetry and strain gauge

CONDITION MONITORING & HUMS  Condition monitoring of machinery and mechanical systems  Remote web-based data access & management  Optimise mechanical efficiency, reduce maintenance and repair costs  CAN management data access  Automotive health monitoring and usage (HUMS)  SCADA data control access

VEHICLE ENGINEERING

From strain gauging and instrument hire to full trial on proving ground test facilities, Nprime offers turnkey services for automotive test equipment with design and project management. Nprime test and development engineers and technicians provide our customers with expertise in testing to regulatory standards, to customer specific requirements and in the development of appropriate test procedures and methods. Nprime Ltd, 3 Kelham Square, Kelham Island, Sheffield S3 8SD, United Kingdom Tel: +44(0)114 2727 868, Fax: +44(0)8704 299 258, Email: info@nprime.co.uk NB: GlyphWorks® and nCode Automation® are Registered Trade Marks of HBM nCode Ltd


www.mpihome.com

Your Partner for all Noise and Vibration Testing Fully integrated solution for measurement, analysis and reporting. m+p international supplies advanced measurement and analysis software supporting high-performance instrumentation (including National Instruments). Our products combine convenience and ďŹ&#x201A;exibility with training, consultancy and support to ensure successful outcomes for all your applications.        

Measurement and Signal Analysis Modal Analysis Structural Testing including GVT Acoustics including Sound Quality Rotational Dynamics Machinery Condition Monitoring Standalone Data Acquisition Vibration Control for Shaker Testing

m+p international (UK) Ltd Mead House Bentley, Hampshire GU10 5HY, United Kingdom

Support of NI DAQ hardware

Phone: (+44) (0)1420 521222 Fax: (+44) (0)1420 521223 sales.uk@mpihome.com www.mpihome.com

Dynamic testing solutions for 4 to 512 channels

EIS Engineering Integrity Issue 36  
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