Engineering Integrity Issue 49

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Journal of the Engineering Integrity Society


September 2020 | Issue No. 49

TECHNICAL PAPER: Long-Term Creep Life Prediction for Bainitic 2.25 Chromium Steels





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Contents: September 2020

Index to Advertisements.................................................................................... 5 Editorial..................................................................................................................... 7


Diary of Events........................................................................................................ 8 Peter Watson Prize 2020..................................................................................... 8 Technical Paper: Long-Term Creep Life Prediction for Bainitic 2.25

CaTs3 / Zwick........................ 4 Data Physics........................ 2

Chromium Steels ............................................................................................. 10

DJB Instruments...............20

News from the the Women’s Engineering Society.................................. 19

EIS............................................ 3

Fatigue 2021.......................................................................................................... 21

HEAD acoustics................43

University of Wolverhampton Racing.......................................................... 25

M&P International...........44

Young Engineers.................................................................................................. 26

Sensors UK........................... 9

Inspiring the Next Generation........................................................................ 27 Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition........................................ 36 News from the Tipper Group........................................................................... 29 Industry News....................................................................................................... 30 News from British Standards........................................................................... 33 Product News........................................................................................................ 34 News from Institution of Mechanical Engineers...................................... 36 Group News........................................................................................................... 37 Corporate Members........................................................................................... 38 Committee Members......................................................................................... 39 Corporate Member Profiles............................................................................. 41

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Engineering Integrity contains various items of information of interest to, or directly generated by, the Engineering Integrity Society. The items of information can be approximately subdivided into three general categories: technical papers, topical discussion pieces and news items. The items labelled in the journal as technical papers are peer reviewed by a minimum of two reviewers in the normal manner of academic journals, following a standard protocol. The items of information labelled as topical discussions and the news items have been reviewed by the journal editorial staff and found to conform to the legal and professional standards of the Engineering Integrity Society.


Copyright of the technical papers included in this issue is held by the Engineering Integrity Society unless otherwise stated. Photographic contributions for the front cover are welcomed. ISSN 1365-4101/2020

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PRINCIPAL ACTIVITY OF THE ENGINEERING INTEGRITY SOCIETY The principal activity of the Engineering Integrity Society is the arrangement of conferences, seminars, exhibitions and workshops to advance the education of persons working in the field of engineering. This is achieved by providing a forum for the interchange of ideas and information on engineering practice. The Society is particularly committed to promoting projects which support professional development and attract young people into the profession. ‘Engineering Integrity’, the Journal of the Engineering Integrity Society is published twice a year. ‘Engineering Integrity’ is lodged with the Agency for the Legal Deposit Libraries on behalf of the Bodleian Library Oxford University, the Cambridge University Library, National Library of Scotland, National Library of Wales and Trinity College Dublin.


Dr Spencer Jeffs, Honorary Editor produce PPE such as visors and gowns or in the design and fabrication of ventilators for intensive care units in hospitals. It is this rapid innovation and response that is going to be vital, particularly from the engineering community as we continue to live through the pandemic, adapt to the ever-changing picture and aim to recover out from economic recessions. As is often the case with distressing events, there are impacts and opportunities. Reduced travel and industry consumption saw daily CO2 emissions drop by 26% at their peak1, with levels now beginning to return to and exceed those prior to lockdown. This highlights the challenges being faced by industries and companies as they strive for net-zero carbon output to their committed deadlines, whether through greater uptake Welcome to the Engineering Integrity journal winter of renewables, electrification or greener processes. Each of which will require a great deal of investment 2020 issue. into research, development and innovation at a time when any available finance is being utilised to secure It is with pleasure that I write as the new Honorary Editor livelihoods and maintain businesses. of the EIS journal and welcome you to the September 2020 edition. Firstly, I would like to thank Famoosh This month’s issue features a technical paper from Farhad who has done a great job as the Honorary Editor Professor Mark Whittaker titled ‘Long-Term Creep Life Prediction for Bainitic 2.25 Chromium Steels’ dedicated to over the last couple of years. Professor Brian Wilshire. The ability to accurately predict Since the spring edition we have found ourselves long-term life of in-service components based upon immersed in a global pandemic due to COVID-19 shorter term results is vital to certification and extending that has, so far, tragically led to over three quarter of a their use, especially when destructive sampling is not a million deaths. People have been unable to see loved possibility. ones or attend their funerals, grandparents unable to visit grandchildren, weddings have been cancelled with As has been the case for many events this year, the the impact on mental health across nations yet to be international conference, Fatigue 2020, which was determined. It has crippled even the most advanced originally scheduled for 29 June – 1 July 2020 at Downing economies with restricted travel, closed industries, College in Cambridge has been rescheduled as Fatigue cancelled examinations and shutdown hospitality 2021 taking place from 29 March – 31 March 2021 at the sectors. The key message throughout lockdown being same location. Likewise, the Instrumentation, Analysis & to stay home and save lives, reducing the spread of the Testing Exhibition has been rescheduled to take place in virus and flattening the curve to ensure health services April 2021 at Silverstone Race Circuit with exact dates to be announced shortly. are not overrun. Furlough schemes have been introduced looking to support the economy and job retention throughout lockdown, nonetheless, as restrictions have begun to ease and with the scheme ending in October, a wave of job losses have been announced with parts of the engineering sector hit especially hard. Ford plan to cut 12,000 jobs across Europe, Airbus announced 15,000 job losses globally, Rolls-Royce 9,000, Dyson 900 to name a few, with these figures not accounting for supply chain businesses and local economy challenges that will inevitably follow as these large enterprises aim to survive the rapidly changing policies, advice and regulations being introduced by respective governments across the globe. Even with this terrible outlook, a multitude of companies have come forward to help in the fight against COVID-19, whether in adapting manufacturing processes to

We hope that many of you in the EIS community will be able to join us in person at these events and I am sure people are looking forward to taking part in non-virtual based events. I look forward to meeting you all. Spencer Jeffs 1

We are saddened to report that Robin Anderson died on 24 July 2020 after a long illness. Robin was a good friend of the EIS and will be missed by many in the Society. A full obituary will be included in the Spring 2021 issue of Engineering Integrity. 7

Diary of Events EIS Committee Meetings | Venue TBC | October 2020 Young Engineers Seminars | various dates throughout 2020 and 2021 Generation & Storage of Renewable Energy: Durability & Reliability | November 2020 Fatigue 2021 | Downing College, Cambridge | 29 – 31 March 2021 Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition Silverstone Race Circuit | April 2021

Peter Watson Prize

In October 2019, Alex O’Neill of the University of Surrey and Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) was awarded the Peter Watson Prize at Derby County Football Club. Alex’s presentation on Predicting Tyre Behaviour on Different Road Surfaces was praised for his meticulous approach and professional presentation. We caught up with Alex to find out more about his research and ambitions for the future.

Can you tell us a little bit about your work? I am aiming to improve JLR’s tyre modelling capabilities, by investigating the frictional interaction of tyre tread rubber and different surfaces. This is important because, across the entire industry, most tyre models that are used in full vehicle simulations – and, hence, during the vehicle design process – effectively represent driving on a sandpaper surface. While this is a good approximation for many driving conditions, the differences between driving on sandpaper and a real surface (e.g., asphalt) maximise for the most extreme manoeuvres, and simulations do deviate notably from reality under these conditions. This ultimately limits the effectiveness of using simulations during the vehicle design process. Why can’t we use tyre models based on real surfaces? Well, we can, but there are caveats. At JLR, we have Figure 1: The VBOTT rig. Wheel force transducers – alongside other an industry-leading vehicle test procedure: Vehicle- sensors – allow for the measurement of force and moment data during well-defined manoeuvres. Based Objective Tyre Testing (VBOTT; Figure 1). 8

conditions, using a state-of-the-art bespoke rubber friction test rig at the University of Surrey (Figure 2). These friction data were then integrated with a very simple physical tyre model (the brush model), first in order to replicate the tyre behaviour on the indoor (sandpaper) tests. To date, we have successfully replicated the tyre behaviour over a range of normal loads, for both longitudinal and lateral motions. What is the next stage of the work? We are conducting friction experiments on a ‘real’ (asphalt) road surface next. These data will then be integrated with the brush model in the same way as the ‘sandpaper’ friction data were, and the model results will be compared to the asphalt tyre data, acquired through VBOTT. We hope that, by changing the frictional data in the tyre model, we Figure 2: A close-up of a rubber sample inside the test rig. The sample replicate the data from the tyre driving on asphalt. is lowered onto the surface while a three-axis force sensor measures In this way, we can then look to identify scaling the normal, lateral, and frictional forces. parameters that will allow us to scale sandpaper tyre data to predict the tyre performance on real surfaces. It’s very difficult to measure enough data to create a full tyre model from vehicle-based tests, but we can do it, and that is quite the feat of engineering. However, with outdoor testing, you are ultimately at the mercy of the elements: changes in the temperature (air, track, and tyre), humidity, weather conditions, surface condition, or driver inputs, can all affect the repeatability of the results. Generally, we would like to test tyres under the same conditions, which is why we test inside on sandpaper. However, that has its own disadvantages!

This in turn will improve our full vehicle simulations, which are becoming increasingly vital for enabling vehicle development without the significant costs associated with physical prototypes and testing.

How is your work going to help solve this problem? The reason for the differences between asphalt and sandpaper tyre models is down to the differences in the local rubber friction levels at the surface. In addition, we unfortunately do not yet have a complete theoretical understanding of rubber friction. It is a complex physical phenomenon for which we do not yet have a complete mathematical model, despite some excellent work done by others including Bo Persson. On top of that, measuring rubber friction accurately is not trivial, since it is sensitive to a whole gamut of variables, including temperature, sliding velocity, pressure, and surface contamination. Thus, if we knew how the frictional interaction between tread rubber and the road changed depending on the surface, then we may be able to devise a way to accurately convert, for example, sandpaper test data, to be representative of driving on a real road surface. What have you accomplished so far? I have conducted experiments observing the frictional interaction between tread rubber and a sandpaper surface – the same sandpaper used for the full tyre tests – under highly controlled

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 49, SEPTEMBER 2020, pp.10–18. ISSN 1365-4101/2020

Technical Paper: Long-Term Creep Life Prediction for Bainitic 2.25 Chromium Steels M.T. Whittaker, Materials Research Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP Keywords: Grades 22, 23 and 24 steels, Creep fracture, Creep life prediction.

Abstract A new approach to analysis of creep rupture data allows rationalization, extrapolation and interpretation of creep life measurements reported for Grade 22 (2.25Cr1Mo), Grade 23 (2.25Cr-1.6W) and Grade 24 (2.25Cr1Mo-0.3V) steels. Specifically, accurate estimates of the stresses which cause creep fracture in 100,000h were predicted from results obtained in tests lasting up to 5000h. Moreover, the 100,000h strengths of Gr.23 and Gr.24 steels exceed the values for the widely used Gr.22 products, indicating that the wall thicknesses of large-scale components can be reduced considerably, lowering the construction costs of new electricity generating plant through replacement of Gr.22 steels by these more recently developed materials.

1. Introduction For over half a century, many large-scale components and structures in electricity generating plant operating at temperatures up to around 840K (565⁰C) have been manufactured from Grade 22 (2.25Cr-1Mo) steels. These bainitic steels are advantageous provided transformation product can be controlled through the

section and can offer increased creep lives over similar ferritic/bainitic steels for shorter lives, although this advantage may be lost over longer durations. However, more recently, two other 2.25Cr steels have been produced, seemingly with improved creep fracture resistance over grade 22 steel, namely (a) Grade 23 (2.25Cr-1.6W) steel, and (b) Grade 24 (2.25Cr-1Mo-0.3V) steel. If the high-temperature strengths of these recently developed products are greater than the values for Gr.22, then the wall thicknesses of large section components can be lowered, reducing the construction cost of new plant. The selection of alloy steels for power plant service is usually based on the requirement that creep failure should not occur under the prevailing operating conditions during planned lives of approximately 250,000h (> 30 years). Although complex stresses and temperatures are often encountered, design decisions are generally made on the basis of the ‘allowable tensile creep strengths’ of the chosen materials. These strengths are commonly determined [1] as 67% of the average stress (up to 815°C) or 80% of the minimum stress causing creep rupture in 100,000h (3.6 x 108s) or as the average stress producing a creep rate of

Figure 1: The stress dependence of the creep life at 450-650°C for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel tube (T22). The lines are drawn after analysing the results according to eqn (1), using the data in Table II. 10

Figure 2: The stress dependence of the creep life at 600°C for Gr.22, 23 and 24 steels.

Figure 3: Adopting eqn (1), the k1, u and Qc* values are determined by plotting of ln[tf.exp(-Qc*/RT)] against ln[-ln( / TS)], for Gr.22 tube.

Figure 4: Adopting eqn (1), plotting ln[tf .exp (–Qc*/RT)] against ln[-ln( Table III for P23 steel.


)] gives the k1, u and Qc* figures listed in



0.01%/1000h (3 x 10-11s-1). For Gr.22 steels, the allowable strengths are known precisely because tests lasting 100,000h and more have been completed for Gr.22 tube [2]. In contrast, for Gr.23 and 24 steels, the maximum test duration is less than 30,000h [3,4], so reliable extrapolation procedures are required to estimate their long-term strengths. In Europe, tests lasting up to 30,000h have been undertaken for several batches of many steel grades [5]. Unfortunately, even using these extensive property sets, the 100,000h strengths depend on the methods chosen to perform the data extrapolation, despite the international activities devoted to the assessment of different numerical, graphical and computational procedures [6]. Moreover, for a series of 9-12Cr steels, the allowable strengths have been reduced as the maximum test duration has increased above 30,000h towards 100,000h and more [7–9]. For this reason, it has been proposed [10,11] that short-term results should be excluded from the analyses, but no reasonable criteria have been agreed to decide on the test values, which should be discarded.

773K Larson–Miller method 117 Eqn (1) 119

823K 80 82

873K 28 28

Table I: The stresses (MPa) needed to cause creep failure in 100,000h for Grade 22 tube steel. These stresses were calculated (a) using the Larson–Miller method [19] and (b) now using eqn (1) with the k1, u and Qc* values in Table II.

Opposing the idea that short-term results should be ignored [10,11], a new methodology has demonstrated that the allowable creep rupture strengths can be computed precisely from measurements under stress/ temperature conditions giving creep lives up to 5000h (and, certainly, 30,000h). This concept, termed the Wilshire equations [12–16], quantifies the dependencies of the time to fracture (tf ) on stress ( ) and temperature (T) as (1)

where R=8.317Jmol-1 and Qc* is the activation energy determined from the temperature dependence of tf at constant ( / TS). In this case, TS is the ultimate tensile stress measured in high-strain-rate ( 10-3s-1) tensile tests carried out at the creep temperature for each batch of material investigated. Similar equations then define the minimum creep rate ( m) and the time to specific strains (t ), with the parameters (k1 and u) in eqn (1) easily determined from data sets collected over reasonable stress/temperature ranges [12–16]. Using the systematic long-term tf measurements obtained by the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Japan [2], eqn (1) should predict the known allowable creep rupture stresses for Gr.22 tube by analysing data for test durations of 5000h. If verified, eqn. (1) can then be adopted to predict the stresses causing rupture of the Gr.23 and Gr.24 products in 100,000h from NIMS results obtained in times less than 30,000h [3,4].

Figure 5: The stress dependence of the creep life at 500–650°C for 2.25Cr-1.6W steel pipe (P23). The lines are drawn after analysing the results according to eqn (1), using the data in Table III. 12

2. Experimental Observations

2.1 Traditional Approaches to Creep Fracture

The Gr.22 tube was heat treated by annealing at 930°C for 20 minutes before air cooling, then holding at 720°C for 130 minutes before further air cooling [2]. The Gr.23 and Gr.24 products were then processed in the following ways.

For over 50 years, the minimum creep rates and rupture lives have been described using power law equations as

The Gr.23 tube was heat treated after hot rolling at 1050°C for 10 minutes before air cooling and then at 770°C for 60 minutes also followed by air cooling. The Gr.23 pipe material was similarly processed, by heating at 1050°C for 30 minutes and air cooling, with a subsequent treatment at 770°C for 60 minutes before air cooling [3].

where Qc(≠Qc*) is the activation energy determined from the temperature dependence of m and tf at constant , not constant ( / TS), where TS is the ultimate tensile strength of the material, as with eqn (1). With eqn (2), the parameters (M and A), the stress exponent (n) and Qc vary depending on the stress/temperature ranges considered. With Gr.22 tube, these variations are evident from Fig. 1, where the standard log /log tf plot shows that n decreases from over 14 to about 3.5 with decreasing stress and increasing temperature, with Qc varying from 200 to 600kJmol-1.

After forging, the non stress-relieved Gr.24 samples were given 7h at 1020°C then water quenched, before 695°C for 1h and air cooling [4]. This heat treatment was also given to the stress-relieved Gr.24 product, which was then further processed at 625°C for 10h and air cooling, followed by 705°C for 30h before air cooling. The Gr.22 tube was shown to have a ferrite–bainite microstructure containing around 80% ferrite [17], while the Gr.23 and Gr.24 materials were fully bainitic [18].


With the variations in n and Qc shown in Fig. 1, power law relationships cannot be used to predict long-term properties from short-term tf measurements. Hence, the

Figure 6: The stress dependence of the creep life at 500–650°C for 2.25Cr-1.6W steel tube (T23). The lines are drawn after analysing the results according to eqn (1), using the data in Table III.

k1 u Qc* (kJmol-1)

<0.2 207 0.24 280


Gr.22 Tube 0.4 TS> >0.2 6.38 0.11 230


>0.4 1840 0.28 280


Table II: The best values of k1, u and Qc* in eqn.(1) and for Gr.22 steel tube.


NIMS results were processed using the Larson–Miller method [19], with the results for Gr.22 tube shown in Fig. 2, giving the stresses for fracture in 100,000h listed in Table I. With test measurements made to rupture times exceeding 100,000h, these results should be accurate.

2.2 New Data Analyses for Gr.22 Tube For the Gr.22 tube, using eqn. (1) with Qc*=280kJmol-1, the ln[tf .exp(-Qc*/RT)] against ln[-ln / TS)] plot in Fig. 3 showed three distinct straight line regions. This value was originally optimised using a least squares fit to maximise

Figure 7: The stress dependence of the creep life of Gr.24 steel in the non-stress relieved condition, tested at 450 to 600°C. The solid lines were predicted using eqn (1) with the k1, u and Qc* values for different ( / TS) ranges listed in Table V.

Figure 8: The stress dependence of the creep life of Gr.24 steel in the stress relieved condition, tested at 450 to 600°C. The solid lines were predicted using eqn. (1) with the k1, u and Qc* values for different ( / TS) ranges listed in Table V.

P23 <0.3

k1 u Qc* (kJmol-1)

97.5 0.21 280


0.5 TS> >0.3


7.6 0.13 230

T23 >0.5

153 0.2 280




0.5 TS> >0.3

103 0.21 280

2.7 0.08 230




119 0.2 280

Table III: The best values of k1, u and Qc* in eqn (1) for Gr.23 tube and pipe (T23 and P23) for different stress regimes.

P23 T23 14

773K 169.8 206.5

823K 112.1 136.7

873K 51.8 56.5

Table IV: The predicted stress (MPa) for creep lives of 100,000h at 773, 823 and 873K for Grade 23 pipe (P23) and Gr.23 tube (T23) using eqn (1) with the k1, u and Qc* values listed in Table III.

R-squared values and optimise the Qc*value, consistent with values for self-diffusion in the ferrite matrix [20]. However, there is no justification for assuming that Qc* is constant, as was decided in previous studies using the Wilshire equations [12–16]. Consequently, for each straight-line section in Fig. 3, the best value of Qc* was calculated to minimize the data scatter in each segment. This analysis showed that Qc*=280kJmol-1 for >0.4 TS, whereas Qc*=230kJmol-1 for 0.4 TS> >0.2 TS, with Qc* rising again towards 280kJmol-1 when <0.2 TS. Using these Qc* values, the best figures for k1 and u over each straight-line segment in Fig. 3 were determined as listed in Table II. From the results in Table II for each / TS range, the standard log /log tf plots were constructed, with the calculated lines in Fig.1 matching the measured NIMS tf properties. On this basis, the computed stresses to give creep lives of 100,000h at 500°C, 550°C and 600°C for Gr.22 tube are included in Table I, with these calculations based on tf measurements with lives less than 5000h matching the estimates obtained by applying the Larson–Miller method to data for tf>100,000h [5]. 2.3 New Data Analyses for Gr.23 Steels Using eqn (1), because the measured 100,000h strengths were predicted for Gr.22 tube using only data from tests with tf<5000h [3], the same procedures were used to estimate the long-term strengths of Gr.23 tube and pipe. The resulting ln[tf .exp(-Qc*/RT)] against ln[-ln( / TS)] plot for Gr.23 tube, constructed with Qc*=230kJmol-1, again shows three straight line segments (Fig. 4) with a similar plot observed for Gr.23 tube. Once again, for each straight line section, the best value of Qc* was computed to minimize the least squares error in fitting each set of results onto the best straight line. For both P23 and T23, the Qc* values were 280kJmol-1 above about 0.5 TS ( 0.55 PS) and 230kJmol-1 from 0.5 to 0.3 ( 0.55 to 0.35 PS), rising again towards 280kJmol-1 TS at stresses below about 0.3 TS ( 0.35 PS).

With the Qc* values over various stress ranges established, the best values of k1 and u were then calculated for P23 and T23, as listed in Table III. From this data, standard log /log tf plots were constructed (Figs 5 and 6), showing that the predicted solid lines accurately describe the measured NIMS property sets for lives up to 30,000h. Moreover, these results, with eqn (1), predict the 100,000h strengths listed in Table IV, demonstrating that the pipe has essentially the same strength as the tube product. The results in Table IV are similar to the strengths predicted earlier for Gr.23 pipe [21], when a constant Qc* value was used over the entire stress/temperature ranges covered. However, when this previous approach was adopted for T23, much lower 100,000h strengths were recorded. With no clear reason for the strengths of tube material being lower than those of the pipe, the present method of allowing for changes in Qc* appear to offer substantial advantages. 2.4 New Data Analyses for Gr.24 Steels The NIMS results for Gr.24 steels [4] in the non-stress relieved and stress relieved states do not exceed 20,000h. Even so, expressing these data sets in terms of eqn.(2), a decrease from n 22 to n 5 occurs as the stress is reduced and the test temperature is raised from 450°C to 700°C (Figs 7 and 8). Then, as n decreased, Qc increased from 300 to 550kJmol-1, clearly demonstrating the issues associated with variations obtained in calculating Qc based on eqn (2). In contrast to the power law descriptions using eqn (2) (Figs 7 and 8), adopting eqn (1) presents the tf measurements as three intersecting straight lines for both Gr.24 samples, as illustrated for the non-stress relieved material in Fig. 9. Once again, detailed analysis of each straight line section indicated that Qc* falls from around 280kJmol-1 to about 230kJmol-1 as the applied stress was reduced from above to below 0.7 TS ( 0.8 PS), with a further rise to approximately 280kJmol-1 when

Non-stress relieved <0.45

k1 u Qc* (kJmol-1)

184 0.21 280


0.7 TS> >0.45

5.44 0.12 230


Stress relieved >0.7

296 0.22 280




82 0.20 280


> >0.3



5.13 0.11 230



205 0.21 280

Table V: The best values of k1, u and Qc* in eqn (1) for Gr.24 steels in the non-stress relieved and stress relieved states over different stress ranges Table III: The best values of k1, u and Qc* in eqn (1) for Gr.23 tube and pipe (T23 and P23) for different stress regimes.

Non-stress relieved Stress relieved

773K 265.4 189.4

823K 139.6 126.1

973K 56.3 52.6

Table VI: The stresses (MPa) to cause failure of Gr.24 in the non-stress relieved and stress relieved conditions, as calculated using eqn (1) and the k1, u and Qc* values in Table V. 15

the stress was lowered to below 0.45 TS ( 0.55 PS) with the non-stress relieved steel. Similarly, with the stress relieved Gr.24 steel, the same Qc* changes occurred on reducing the stress from above to below 0.65 TS ( 0.6 ) and then to less than 0.35 TS ( 0.3 PS). PS Accepting these Qc* values, the best values of k1 and u were then computed for each straight line segment obtained using eqn (1) to describe the creep fracture behaviour of the Gr.24 steel in the non-stress relieved and stress relieved conditions, giving the results listed in Table V. From this information, the standard log / log tf plots were constructed, with Figs 7 and 8 showing that the calculated estimates matched the NIMS tf measurements precisely. Hence, from eqn.(1) and the results in Table V, the 100,000h creep rupture strengths were calculated (Table VI), demonstrating that: (a) stress relieving treatment significantly reduced the strength of the Gr.24 steel, and (b) the allowable creep strengths were comparable with the results for Gr.23 tube and pipe (Table IV) and superior to the estimates for Gr.22 tube (Table II). 3. Discussion Using eqn (1) to analyse data for the Gr.22 tube, the ln[tf.exp(-Qc*/RT)] against ln[-ln( / TS)] plot allow straightforward calculation of the k1, u and Qc* values, with the resulting estimates for stresses causing rupture in 100,000h calculated from NIMS tf measurements for times up to 5000h [2] closely matching the 100,000h predictions derived by applying the Larson–Miller method to results with lives in excess of 100,000h [17] (Table I). The adoption of similar experimental procedures then gave sensible 100,000h stress rupture values for the Gr.23 pipe and tube (Table IV) and for

Gr.24 steel in the non-stress relieved and stress relieved states (Table VI). Moreover, the 100,000h strengths were significantly larger for Gr.23 and Gr.24 steels than for Gr.22 tube, indicating that the wall thicknesses of large-scale components and structures can be reduced substantially by the selection of these new product ranges instead of Gr.22 steels, so reducing the construction costs of new electricity generating plant. Even so, for all three of these 2.25Cr alloys (i.e. Gr.22, Gr.23 and Gr.24), the ln[tf.exp(-Qc*/RT)] against ln[-ln( / TS)] plots showed three straight-line segments, indicating that the detailed processes controlling creep and creep fracture change when the applied stress is reduced from above to below a value which is a relatively high fraction of PS (or TS), with a further change when is lowered to below a relatively low fraction of PS (or TS). Thus, for example, the Qc* value falls from around 280 to 230kJmol-1 when is reduced from above to below 0.4 ( 0.65 PS) with Qc* rising again towards 280kJmol-1 TS where <0.2 TS ( 0.35 PS) for the Gr.22 tube. Although the 100,000h rupture strengths calculated using eqn (1) seem very reasonable for all three steels (Tables I, IV and VI), confidence in these predictions is improved when the extrapolation method is based on a sound theoretical foundation. So, for all three steels, it is necessary to establish why the behaviour patterns change as the stress is reduced in tests of longer duration at the higher creep temperatures. For Gr.22 tube, the initial strain on loading at the creep temperature ( 0) increases elastically with increasing stress until =0.65 PS, but then increases more rapidly with larger plastic components of 0 when >0.65 PS [2] (Fig. 10). Clearly, when >0.65 PS, dislocations are generated within the grains during 0, suggesting that a stress of 0.65 PS is equal to the yield stress of Gr.22

Figure 9: The variations of ln[tf .exp (–Qc*/RT)] with ln[-ln( / TS)] for Gr.24 steel in the non-stress relieved condition for tests carried out at 450 to 600°C, giving the k1, u and Qc* values for eqn.(1) listed in Table V.


Figure 10: The variation of the initial strain on loading (

steel ( Y< PS). Creep is then controlled by movement of these newly created dislocations, so that Qc* is equal to the activation energy for lattice diffusion in the bainitic grains. In contrast, when <0.65 PS (< Y ), new dislocations are not created within the grains, so creep must occur by movement of dislocations present in the as-heat treated condition [22]. Specifically, creep when < Y must occur not within the grains but in the grain boundary zones (i.e by grain boundary sliding and associated dislocation movement in regions of the grains adjacent to grain boundaries). Consequently, < Y (<0.65 PS) , Qc*=230kJmol-1 which when coincides with the activation energy for diffusion along grain boundaries and related dislocations near to the grain boundaries. For all three 2.25Cr steels, it therefore appears that creep is controlled by the movement of newly created dislocations within the bainitic grains (as well as grain boundary zone deformation) when > Y, but only by grain boundary zone deformation when 0 is fully elastic when < Y. Thus, the minimum creep rate ( m) is slower and the creep life (tf ) is longer when > Y than the values expected by extrapolation of results obtained when > Y to lower stresses (Figs. 1, 5, 7, 8). However, a further change in creep behaviour occurs with all three 2.25Cr steels on lowering the stress to well below (or PS). Under these conditions of low stresses at the Y higher creep temperatures, in long-term tests with the Gr.22 tube, the bainite-ferrite microstructure is replaced by a fully ferrite structure with coarse carbides along the grain boundaries. With this much weaker microstructure, is substantially faster and tf significantly shorter than m the values expected by extrapolation of data from above this critical stress level (Fig. 1). Similarly, with P23 and T23, the original lath-like bainitic structure entirely disappears in the long-term tests at the higher temperatures [17]. Hence, for the three 2.25Cr steels, the Qc* value increases from the 230kJmol-1 value found when < Y towards

) with (



) for Gr.22 tube at 450–600°C.


280kJmol-1 when creep again occurs within the grains of these microstructurally degraded ferritic materials in long term tests under low stresses and high temperatures (Table II, III and V). 4. Conclusions 1. Although power law descriptions of creep and creep fracture properties have been adopted for over half a century, the present analysis of data obtained for bainitic Grades 22, 23 and 24 steels confirm that this approach should be seriously reconsidered. 2. With all three bainitic 2.25Cr steels after all heat treatments, three types of behaviour pattern are found depending on the stress/temperature test conditions imposed. Firstly, where > Y, the initial strain on loading ( 0) has elastic and plastic components so creep is thought to be controlled by the movement of dislocations newly created within the grains. has only an In contrast, when < Y, so that 0 elastic component, new dislocations are not created within the grains, so creep occurs within the grain boundary zones i.e. by grain boundary sliding and associated deformation in grain regions adjacent to the boundaries. Hence, the creep rates are slower and the creep lives are longer when < Y than the values expected by direct extrapolation of data obtained when > Y. Secondly, a further change in behaviour occurs when falls to low PS ( Y ) levels. This occurs when the bainitic microstructures transform to ferrite, with coarse carbides along grain boundaries in long term tests at the higher creep temperatures. In these cases, the creep rates are faster and the creep lives are much shorter in the low stress range than the values expected by extrapolation of results obtained when the bainitic microstructures exist in higher stress tests at lower temperatures. 3. Applying eqn (1) to NIMS stress rupture data for Gr.22, 23 17

and 24 steels allows 100,000h stress rupture properties to be predicted accurately from tf measurements from tests lasting less than 5000h (Tables I, IV and VI). These results indicate that the long-term strengths of Gr.23 and 24 are greater than for Gr.22, so replacement of Gr.22 by these newly developed products will allow component wall thicknesses to be reduced and the construction costs of new plant to be lowered substantially.

strength for the new martensitic 9% Cr steels E911 and T/P92. In: Shibli IA et al editors. Creep and fracture in high temperature components – design and life assessment issues, London, DEStech; 2005, p.406–418. 10:

Acknowledgements The paper is dedicated to Prof. Brian Wilshire, of Swansea University (1937–2015). Brian was a giant of the creep field and leaves behind many achievements, not least the equations in this paper that bear his name.

References 1:

‘Boiler and pressure vessel code’, 2004, New York, ASME.


NIMS Creep Data Sheet no.3B. Data sheets on the elevated-temeprature properties of 2.25Cr1Mo steel for boiler and heat exchanger seamless tubes (STBA 24). NIMS, Japan 1986.


NIMS Creep Data Sheet no.54. Data sheets on the elevated-temperature properties of 2.25Cr-1.6W steel tubes for power boilers and 2.25Cr-1.6W steel pipe for high-temperature service, NIMS, Japan, 2008.



NIMS Creep Data Sheet no.53, ‘Data Sheets on the elevated-temperature properties of 2.25Cr-1Mo0.3V high strength chromium-molybdenum alloy steel forgings for pressure vessels under high temperature service’, NIMS, Japan, 2007. Hald J, ‘Creep strength and ductility of 9 to 12% chromium steels’ Mater High Temp 2004; 41: 41– 46.


Holdsworth SR, Askins M, Baker A, Gariboldi E, Sandstrom R, Schwiersheer M, Spigarelli S. Factors influencing creep model equation selection. In: Shibli IA et al editors. Creep and fracture in high temperature components – design and life assessment issues, London, DEStech; 2005, p. 380–393.


Merckling G. Long term creep rupture strength assessment: The development of the European Collaborative Creep Committee post assessment tests. In: Shibli IA et al editors. Creep and fracture in high temperature components – design and life assessment issues, London, DEStech; 2005, p. 3–19.



Vailant JC, Vandenberghe R, Hahn B, Heuser H, Jochum C. T/P23, 24, 911 and 92: New grades for advanced coal-fired power plants – properties and experience. In: Shibli IA et al editors. Creep and fracture in high temperature components – design and life assessment issues, London, DEStech;2005, p. 87–96. Bendick W, Gabrel J. Assessment of creep rupture

Maruyama K and Lee JS. Causes of overestimation of creep rupture strength in 11Cr-2W-0.3MoCuVNb steel. In: Shibli IA et al editors. Creep and fracture in high temperature components – design and life assessment issues, London, DEStech;2005, p.372–379.

11: Kimura K. Review of allowable stress and new guideline of long-term creep strength assessment for high Cr ferritic creep resistant steels. In: Shibli IA et al editors. Creep and fracture in high temperature components – design and life assessment issues, London, DEStech;2005, p. 1009–1022. 12: Wilshire B, Battenbough A. Creep and creep fracture of polycrystalline copper. Mater Sci Eng A 2007; A443: p. 156–166. 13: Wilshire B, Scharning PJ. Extrapolation of creep life data for 1Cr-0.5Mo steel. Int J Press Vessels Pip 2008; 85: p. 739–743. 14:

Wilshire B, Scharning PJ. Prediction of long term creep data for forged 1Cr-1Mo-0.25V steel. Mater Sci Technol 2008; 24: p. 1–9.

15. Wilshire B, Scharning PJ. A new methodology for analysis of creep and creep fracture data for 9-12% chromium steels. Int Mater Rev 2008; 53: p. 91–104. 16:

Wilshire B, Scharning PJ. Creep and creep fracture of commercial aluminium alloys. J Mater Sci 2008; 43: p. 3992–4000.


NIMS Creep Data Sheet no. M-4. Metallographic atlas of long-term crept materials. 2005.


Sawada K et al. Effects of microstructural change and oxidation on creep behaviour of P23/T23 steels In: Shibli IA et al editors. Creep and fracture in high temperature components – design and life assessment issues, London, DEStech;2009, p. 79–92.

19. Larson FR, Miller J. A Time-Temperature Relationship for Rupture and Creep Stresses. Trans ASME 1952; 74: p. 765–775. 20:

Neumann G, Tuijn C. Self-Diffusion and impurity diffusion in pure metals, Amsterdam, Pergamon; 2009.


Whittaker MT, Wilshire B. Creep and creep fracture of 2.25Cr-1.6W steels (Grade 23). Mat Sci Eng A; 2010. 527 p. 4932–4938.

22: Deen C, Whittaker MT, Harrison W, Rae CMF, Williams SJ. Relating fundamental creep mechanisms in Waspaloy to the Wilshire equations. Euro superalloys 2014; MATEC Web of Conferences; 14, p 15001 p1–6.

News from the Women's Engineering Society

The world has completely changed since my last article, and it is likely that some of this change may be permanent. Though we knew of the existence of a new coronavirus emerging from China, few anticipated that it would bring such wholesale transformation to our lives and the economy.

We are now working where we live and in cases such as National Grid, living where we work. We have seen the rise of tech firms such as Zoom and Amazon in response to the new way of working; and the rise of much older activities such as retail commerce. The demise of social activities has been a shock both to the economy and to individuals who thrive on routine communication in person with others, or on the structure of regular exercise. Our mental health is deteriorating without the pastimes we once took for granted. I have been impressed and amazed by the response of engineering companies and engineers in the last few months. The Nightingale Hospitals were built and equipped in a matter of days; firms have repurposed their manufacturing from widgets to facemasks, PPE and ventilators; perfumiers have turned their skills to providing medical grade sanitiser. In India the Indian Railway’s workshops quickly converted 5,000 air-conditioned sleeper coaches into care units for hospital overflows and Spanish engineers also stepped up to share infrastructure data and develop guides for COVID-19 testing stations in car parks. Other examples from the UK include converting snorkelling equipment into emergency ventilator masks; injection moulding cassettes for testing kits and parts for the CPAP system to support patients’ breathing. 'Engineering a resilient future'1 is a paper from the National Engineering Policy Centre (NEPC), which brings together 43 engineering organisations representing 450,000 engineers. The paper presents three stages of the engineering response to the pandemic: Lessening the impact, Easing the lockdown

and Building a resilient future, and together they form a blueprint for response now and in the future. This collaboration is one of four ways that engineering can change in the future. Even competitors and rivals have come together in response to the pandemic, forging new connections and changing the way networks are built. The need for speed was demonstrated by the creation of prototypes in days and devices in weeks, when regulation has often hampered innovation in the past. Online meeting and working at home have shown that productivity need not suffer. My own experience in the Women’s Engineering Society is that we have been able to reach out to more people via our webinars. We have saved money – our Trustees do not have to spend hours getting to and from our meetings from across the UK when we can meet online, and we have developed virtual ways of sharing documents making bulky email attachments a thing of the past. There have also been devastating stories of job losses and company closures. Big names like Rolls-Royce, Kier, Travis Perkins and BP have all announced reductions in capacity as they adjust to a drastic reduction in revenues. As life continues in this state of semi-lockdown, we cannot know exactly what the future or, as many people are now calling it, the “new normal” will look like. However, as the lockdown eases, there must be a focus on innovation to prevent further outbreaks, both of COVID-19 and future unknown diseases. Antibacterial surfaces and temperature controls could be standard in public buildings. We must also remember that other crises may not be in the news at the moment, but must still be 19

addressed. The world continues to heat up. The new clear and clean skies revealed during the lockdown indicate that high levels of pollution can be reduced with a reduction in travel and manufacturing; and we must urgently find better solutions to this than keeping everyone inside. As part of the Women’s Engineering Society’s International Women in Engineering Day2, we celebrated the Top 50 Women in Engineering. This year we focused on sustainability, including climate change, net-zero carbon, and the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. We received around 300 nominations and our esteemed panel of eight judges had a tough job. The submissions of the Top 50 winners were simply inspirational and the final 50 are remarkable role models. When we choose to act together to unite to face a global threat, it is incredible what can be achieved. Engineers have proved that in their rapid and effective

response to COVID-19 and we can do it with the climate emergency too. We know that bringing more women into the workplace helps businesses thrive. Greater diversity can help overcome the difficulties that can arise when all-male teams throw blame around rather than fix the issue. Even women’s lesser physical strength forces the rethink of processes that can often make them quicker and easier for everyone. The engineering sector is already closing the gender pay gap faster than the rest of the UK, and eliminating it entirely by paying men and women equally could soon be a badge of pride. Elizabeth Donnelly Chief Executive Officer covid-19-engineering-a-resilient-future 2 1

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Training •

For dates please visit our website


Downing College, Cambridge, UK 29 - 31 March 2021 Foreword The Fatigue 2021 conference will bring the international fatigue and durability community together to share knowledge and understand the challenges in using sophisticated engineering simulation and modelling tools to complement sound test programmes and develop reliable and cost effective products for modern usage. As engineering modelling and simulation tools become ever more powerful and sophisticated there still remains the challenge of correlating the virtual world with both idealised laboratory testing and the wide, and potentially unexpected, range of service conditions experienced by machines and structures. These challenges are compounded by the advent of new materials, new ways of manufacturing components, new applications and new test and measurement techniques.

measurement techniques, innovations in manufacturing, and developments in materials science, but also the complex interrelations between all these topics that give rise to improvements in fatigue performance, durability and structural integrity. The 3 day conference builds on the long established philosophy of the Engineering Integrity Society to provide a forum for practising engineers and researchers to exchange ideas and experiences in all aspects of structural integrity. Contributions will be welcome from all disciplines, industries and research organisations. As well as giving practitioners an opportunity to keep up-to-date in the latest developments in durability of materials and structural analysis techniques, the conference will provide an excellent forum for researchers to promote their work and enhance its transfer to, and impact on, industrial applications.

We will seek to explore not only the latest developments in engineering modelling and simulation, advances in test and

Sponsored by:

Rolls Royce PLC is pleased to support the Fatigue 2021 conference


En-suite accommodation is available at Downing College subject to availability. Please select the accommodation option on the booking form. Prices include bed and breakfast.


Travelling Information

The nearest airports are Stansted and Luton. Cambridge is easily reached by train. Downing College is located about ¾ mile from the railway station and is served by regular buses and taxis.


EIS as organiser is not liable for any changes in the programme due to circumstances beyond their control. The organisers are not liable for any losses, accidents or injuries to persons or damage to property of any kind. Participants must arrange their own insurance if considered necessary.


Visa applications must be applied for in your country of origin.


Downing College, Cambridge, UK


29 - 31 March 2021

The booking form available at should be completed and emailed to the conference secretariat, Sara Atkin:


Provisional Programme

Downing College was founded in 1800 through a bequest made by Sir George Downing. The College’s beautiful neoclassical buildings are set in spacious and peaceful gardens in the centre of Cambridge.

Keynote Lectures

The conference will take place at Downing College, University of Cambridge. Cambridge is one of the most important and picturesque cities in East Anglia. It is the county town of Cambridgeshire and the seat of one of the oldest universities in the British Isles.


There will be an accompanying exhibition of material testing systems, durability software tools and engineering services where delegates will have the opportunity to discuss the latest developments in the field of fatigue and durability.

With over 65 presenters from across the globe the conference will offer a full programme across the three days. The full provisional programme including list of speakers will be available at:

Very-high-cycle fatigue of additive manufactured materials Professor Youshi Hong, Chinese Academy of Sciences Fatigue-crack propagation in high-entropy alloys at ambient to cryogenic temperatures – Professor Robert Ritchie, University of California 50 years of Fatigue Research: Progress and Perspectives – Professor Roderick Smith, Imperial College Overview of fatigue design in aerospace electrification Mukesh Patel, Safran

+44 (0)1

Provisional Programme Monday 29 March Keynote: Mukesh Patel - Safran Session 1: Additive Manufactured Materials Session 2: Manufacturing

Session 3: Experimental Methods

Session 4: Additive Manufactured Materials II

Session 5: Modelling

1623 884225

Conference Dinner Address

Dame Julia King, The Baroness Brown of Cambridge DBE FREng FRS.

Registration Fees 3 Day £485+VAT

Presenting Authors EIS Members £535+VAT Non Members £650+VAT Students & £350+VAT Retired Members

2 Day -

1 Day -

£410+VAT £520+VAT -

£235+VAT £280+VAT -

Tuesday 30 March Keynote: Professor Youshi Hong - Chinese Academy of Sciences Session 6: Materials Session 7: Experimental Methods

Session 8: Thermomechanical Fatigue

Please find all the latest information relating to the conference and details of how to book your place on the Fatigue 2021 website. We look forward to welcoming you to Cambridge.

Keynote: Professor Roderick Smith - Imperial College Session 9: Welds - hosted by TWI

Session 10: Assessment

Session 11: Environmental Fatigue

Session 12: Crack Propagation I

Wednesday 31 March Keynote: Professor Robert Ritchie - University of California Session 13: Crack Propagation

Session 14: Random Loading

Session 15: Composites

Session 16: Experimental Methods

Session 17: High Temperature

Session 18: Modelling II

INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE André Galtier (France) Andrea Carpinteri (Italy) Martin Bache (UK) Christophe Pinna (UK) Filippo Berto (Norway) Francesco Iacoviello (Italy) Hossein Farrahi (Iran) Youshi Hong (China) Jie Tong (UK) Johan Moverare (Sweden) Luca Susmel (UK) Liviu Marsavina – (Romania) Marc Geers (The Netherlands) Matteo Luca Facchinetti (France) Muhsin J Jweeg (Iraq) Alfredo Navarro (Spain) Phil Irving (UK) Robert Akid (UK) Michael Sangid (USA) Shahrum Abdullah (Malaysia) Thierry Palin-Luc (France) Yee Han Tai (UK)


LOCAL TECHNICAL COMMITTEE Dr Hayder Ahmad Andrew Blows Dr Peter Bailey Prof Mohamed Bennebach Dr Filippo Berto Robert Cawte Dr Amir Chahardehi Hollie Cockings Sandra Craig Oscar De Souza Prof Francisco Diaz Dr Farnoosh Farhad Prof Yi Gao Dr Hassan Ghadbeigi Prof Philip Irving Dr Pablo Lopez Crespo Chris Magazzeni Paul Roberts Yee Han Tai Vicki Wilkes Prof Mark Whittaker Dr John Yates

Sara Atkin Engineering Integrity Society 6 Brickyard Lane, Farnsfield Nottinghamshire, NG22 8JS, UK Tel. +44 (0)1623 884225 Email: Website:

Registered Address: Engineering Integrity Society, c/o Hollis & Co., 35 Wilkinson Street, Sheffield S10 2GB Business Registration No. 1959979. VAT Registration No. GB 443 7696 18. Registered Charity No. 327121

University of Wolverhampton Racing

Sponsored by the EIS

Student Engineers Set Their Sights on 2021 Like most racing teams around the world, 2020 brought uncertainty and ultimately disappointment to the student racing team in Wolverhampton’s School of Engineering. and FS team leader elaborates: 'Since turning our attention to the 2021 competition, solid progress has been made on our existing designs to build on what was predicted to be a competitive car in 2020. Having focused mainly on suspension geometry and improved handling for 2020, the focus has now turned to improving the overall performance of the car, in both static and dynamic events.' The most notable upgrade will be the inclusion of a full aerodynamics package featuring front and rear wings, as well as an aerodynamic floor. This will be the first time such a package has been featured on a UWR Formula Student car and we are confident that it will bring a solid performance upgrade. Currently there are several significant areas causing drag on the car, including the engine bay which is open at the bottom, allowing air to get caught between the engine and rear bulkhead. Implementing a new floor will eliminate this issue and also create large amounts of downforce with very little drag. The 2021 car will feature an all new telemetry package that will allow us to analyse data from the car in real time, meaning changes can be made quickly to improve the performance of the car in dynamic events.

Figure 1: The Wolf VI chassis, derived from the chassis originally built in 2019 for Wolf V.

UWR has a track record of using innovative, cutting edge technologies, materials and designs in the Formula Student competition. Wolf V, the 2019 car, featured rear uprights that were 3D printed in a titanium & aluminium composite.

COVID-19 ensured the workshops were closed to students and staff just as the 2020 racing season was about to begin, and work halted on the Formula Student build, as well as the preparations on the F3 Cup Dallara and the Morgan Plus Four Club Sports. As the lockdown progressed, and students had no time to practice their skills in the workshop, UWR made the unilateral decision to suspend all competition in 2020 to keep our students safe and to concentrate on being as prepared as possible for the 2021 season. This was particularly important for the IMechE Formula Student team, who are able to focus on tweaking Wolf VI, and in some cases completely re-designing the structure. Reuben Inganni, MEng Motorsport Engineering student

Figure 2: Deformation test on the front bulkhead to analyse how much energy the Impact attenuator must absorb to prevent deflection.


Figure 3: Section view of the rear wing aerofoils.

This innovation will continue in Wolf VI with a new impact attenuator design proposed using an auxetic structure to help reduce stress concentration in the event of a collision. The whole team is confident that 2021 has the potential to be one of the most competitive years to date for UWR. It is now key to our success to keep the momentum going as the rest of the team return to the campus and take their rightful place in the workshops. On behalf of the UWR team, I’d like to thank the

Figure 4: CFD analysis on the new rear wing for Wolf VI.

Engineering Integrity Society for their ongoing support of the Formula Student team. To be kept up to date on all things UWR, you can follow our social media channels: LinkedIn: Twitter: Instagram: YouTube: Twitter: Instagram:

Young Engineers Latest News

Since its launch in 2016 our Young Engineers Forum has gone from strength to strength. Over 60 engineers have benefitted from being part of the group and have attended free seminars on a variety of topics.

Since its launch in 2016 our Young Engineers Forum has gone from strength to strength. Over 60 engineers have benefitted from being part of the group and have attended free seminars on a variety of topics. We are grateful for the support from companies such as JCB, Rolls Royce and HORIBA-MIRA, enabling us to run the events at their sites and provide delegates with unique opportunities that they would not normally have the chance to experience. The comments we have received from attendees and their employers has been extremely positive and endorses our efforts to support those at the start of their engineering careers. Our aim is to continue this important charitable 26

activity and due to the current requirements for social distancing we plan to focus on delivering webinars for the remainder of the year. Our first webinar was held on 23 July on the subject of “RLD Collection & Analysis – are you forgetting the basics?”. This was a new venture for the society and we were delighted to welcome over 50 attendees from a variety of sectors across the UK. The presentation, delivered by David Ensor, generated many questions and discussions continued well beyond the allotted hour, demonstrating the appetite to fully engage with the topic. We plan to run further sessions in the coming months and would welcome suggestions of subjects or presenters.

Inspiring the Next Generation STEM and COVID-19 What a different outlook 2020 has turned out to be. When I wrote about all my plans for this year, like everybody else, I did not realise what was to come. Luckily I had already undertaken my first STEM event in January at Take pArt, Llandudno. As I have reported before, the event is focused on Science Technology Engineering Art and Maths (STEAM) attempting to showcase the sometimes unlikely overlap between art and technical subjects. There is a strong focus on creativity and families are encouraged to get hands on with the activities available. This year saw the 12th iteration of the event with a Space and Interplanetary Science theme.

I had developed a 3D printing pen activity similar to one trialled at Take pArt, using the ACCEL logo to create a traceable outline. Big Bang was meant to be held during the middle of March and with just 7 days to go, the event was stopped. Whilst at the time we were all devastated, the idea of having at least 70, 000 visitors over the course of 4 days would, in hindsight, likely have added to the spike in COVID-19 cases.

Over the Christmas period I decided to build a 4ft x 3ft Mars scape using papier mache, to be used with the Lego Boost robots that Rolls-Royce own. With my best Blue Peter hat on, I sourced some cardboard, stones from my garden, builders red sand, lots of newspapers and PVA glue and spray paint. As any reader justifiably might be thinking at this point, yes I do have too much time on my hands ! I designed the layout with two mountainous regions and a small narrow valley between them. The Lego Boost is a kit that can be built into many different robots and then programmed via an app, which runs on a phone or tablet. The Rolls-Royce version is built into “Verney” who looks very similar to Disney’s “Wall-E” or for those who are old enough to remember “Johnny 5”. The app has a simple to use layout with blocks, that can be dragged and dropped to form a series of commands. The sequence can then be sent to the robots via Bluetooth. The robots come with their own fold out navigation mats that have a grid printed on them but the children really enjoyed trying to navigate the Mars landscape complete with a hidden Lego alien. As January became a distant memory, plans were underway to support the Big Bang Science and Careers Fair at the NEC. I had been in discussions with an internal team called “ACCEL” who were aiming to break the electric aircraft speed record this year, just in time for Farnborough 2020. All of Rolls-Royce’s STEM outreach work at Big Bang and Farnborough would have been focussed on the move to electrification.

Rolls-Royce STEM ambassadors (top) ready for the arrival of the families and Lego Boost Verney robot on the Mars landscape (bottom).

As a STEM ambassador, we are often described as providing a wider remit of community outreach work. In that spirit I spent most of my time in April and May helping the local NHS Trust, by producing 3D printed visors. Later in the year I will provide more details of the voluntary work and also what the new world of virtual STEM support looks like. As ever if anyone is interested in knowing more about how they can get involved in STEM please do not hesitate to contact me or your local STEMnet contract holder. Grant Gibson EngD BEng (Hons) Materials Technologist, Surface Engineering Rolls-Royce Plc. 07469375700 27



The Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition attracts visitors from all over the UK and is seen by many as the go-to event for testing and analysis technologies.

+44 (0)1623 884225


News from the Tipper Group Lockdown Working – Love It or Loathe It? What a difference half a year makes! By now we are all established into novel working routines which are becoming all too quickly ‘the new normal’. Lockdown has meant that schools have been closed, and everyone who could work from home, had to. For many of us, this new way of working lost its appeal many weeks ago. But why, given that being able to work from home was the flexibility that many of us had previously sought from our employers? Lockdown has forced all employers to carry out a massive experiment in working efficiency and staff morale. It’s not a controlled experiment of course, since working from home with children present, the need to provide home-schooling, caring for vulnerable loved-ones, and the risk of losing your job in the financial climate, all increase the anxiety and stress involved in working from home immeasurably. Everyone has found it tough at times. But ironically, the productivity for those working from home is probably higher than when we all went to work in the office! Does that mean it’s time to forget office working for good? The Tipper Group held a discussion on what we had been enjoying, and not liking, about working from home during our Zoom meeting to mark International Women in Engineering Day. The reduced time spent commuting, and the ability to spend that time with family were recurring aspects that had been a positive outcome of lockdown life. We also appreciated the more relaxed nature of video calls where people are in their home environments rather than showing their more formal work personas. However, it becomes too easy to stop separating your work time from home time, and under the pressure of job uncertainty working longer hours meant that those benefits lessened somewhat. Not everyone has a place that they (and their partner) can use for working full-time in their home, or suitable desks and chairs.

will mean that truly flexible working is no longer seen as a huge favour to those who request it. But it’s all about choice, and having the ability to understand ourselves about how we work most effectively. Enforced working from home does not feel any more liberating than enforced presenteeism in the office. Will we see a more diverse and flexible pattern to working going forward? Will it be imposed by companies wishing to reduce their office rental bill, or led by staff trusted to put together working practises that allow individuals to optimise their working and home lives? Engineering has always been about teams, and humans have always been social beings. I, for one, look forward to being able to meet with a group of colleagues in person to share ideas and find optimum solutions, without needing to worry about social distancing and remote video discussions. This may not be possible to do safely for many months yet – how much we took for granted just six months ago! Dr Philippa Moore Contact Us: The Tipper Group, TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge CB21 6AL Email: Twitter: @TheTipperGroup

Working in isolation like this for week after week can lead to poor mental health. Not to mention that during lockdown the burden of housework and childcare has fallen much more heavily on women than men, even if they are working full-time. This does not really feel like a sustainable working model for a ‘new normal’ of working life, and few workers would choose to work from home full-time based on their lockdown experience. We miss our colleagues, and the ability to talk with them in the workplace. We miss the structure and support of colleagues in the office. It’s great that the ability for many engineers to work a productive day from home has been demonstrated so clearly. It’s to be hoped that in future removing the stigma that working from home is not considered as real working

The Tipper Group Zoom meeting for INWED 2020.


Industry News

Work to begin on £4.1m world-leading composite test centre FASTBLADE The first major engineering works on FASTBLADE, a stateof-the-art composite structures research facility will begin in July as part of an industry–academic partnership between Babcock International Group (Babcock) and the University of Edinburgh. A team of Babcock engineers will begin construction of FASTBLADE’s 75 tonne structural reaction frame early next month, and will begin fit out of the new facility, based at Babcock’s Rosyth site near Edinburgh. It will initially be used for lifetime fatigue testing of renewable energy tidal turbine blades, using pioneering technology which will be the first of its kind in the world. The facility is funded to a value of £4.1 million by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and the University of Edinburgh, with Babcock appointed as the principal engineering designer. With its novel technology it will be an international centre of innovation in the research and testing of composite materials and structures for a variety of industries such as tidal energy, marine, transport, nuclear and aerospace. Cutting-edge digital and hydraulic technology systems developed by the university are more energy efficient than existing processes and will simulate real testing environments. Advanced analytics will assess structural performance in real time. Engineers, working within COVID guidelines, will build and assemble the reaction frame which will span 16.2m long, 2.5m wide and 7.1m high and is expected to be complete by December. The frame will withstand huge forces cycled millions of times over its lifespan as it tests composite structures and has been designed for future needs as structures such as tidal turbine blades become bigger and materials continue to develop. The process will also create immediate benefits for product developers with savings on time and costs, reducing risk and improving safety. FASTBLADE is expected to be fully operational in 2021.

Tim Thomas, Make UK Director of Labour Market and Skills Policy, comments on A-level results 13 August 2020: “Importantly for manufacturers, even under this year’s difficult circumstances, STEM subjects overall saw an increase in A*/A grades when compared to 2019 which is encouraging for manufacturers who desperately need digital and tech skills to continue to compete on the global stage. 30

Maths students saw an increase to all grades across the board, which will be welcome news but STEM entries in Biology, Chemistry and Physics collectively fell by 4.9% since 2019, with girls only making up a quarter of Physics entries. There is clearly more to do to support STEM uptake in schools with employers having a major part to play in this push. Regional grade discrepancies need to be dealt with swiftly and fairly to ensure those planning to go to university, HE or employment are not adversely impacted in the longer term. Government must make sure that all appeals and re-sits are fully supported and treated fairly across the board.”

Jaguar Land Rover accelerates electrification 5 July 2020: Jaguar Land Rover today revealed plans to manufacture a range of new electrified vehicles at its manufacturing plant in Castle Bromwich, UK. The announcement is the next significant step in delivering on the company’s commitment to offer customers electrified options for all new Jaguar and Land Rover models from 2020. The first new electric car to be produced at the plant will be Jaguar’s flagship luxury saloon, the XJ. The choice of business leaders, celebrities, politicians and royalty for over five decades and through eight generations of production, the XJ is designed, engineered and manufactured in the UK and has been exported to more than 120 countries. The news was confirmed to workers at Castle Bromwich as production of the current XJ came to an end. Credited with pioneering a range of industry-first innovations during its 50 years of production, the new XJ will build on the characteristics synonymous with its predecessors - beautiful design, intelligent performance and revered luxury. The new all-electric model will be created by the same expert team of designers and product development specialists responsible for delivering the world’s first premium electric SUV, and 2019 World Car of the Year, the Jaguar I-PACE. Today’s announcement, which safeguards several thousand jobs in the UK, is the next stage in execution of Jaguar Land Rover’s electrification strategy. In January the company confirmed plans to bring battery and Electric Drive Unit (EDU) assembly to the Midlands with investment in new and existing facilities. These investments have been anticipated in the company’s previously communicated capital investment plans.

The new Battery Assembly Centre at Hams Hall, operational in 2020, will be the most innovative and technologically advanced in the UK with an installed capacity of 150,000 units. Together with the Wolverhampton Engine Manufacturing Centre (EMC), home of Jaguar Land Rover’s global EDU production, these facilities will power the next generation of Jaguar and Land Rover models. The extensive transformation of Castle Bromwich to become the UK’s first premium electrified vehicle plant will be the most significant in the plant’s history. Later this month, work will begin to commence the installation of all-new facilities and technologies required to support Jaguar Land Rover’s next-generation Modular Longitudinal Architecture (MLA). Designed and engineered in-house, MLA enables flexible production of clean efficient diesel and petrol vehicles alongside full electric and hybrid models. The expansion of Jaguar Land Rover’s electrified vehicle line up will see customers offered a greater choice of vehicles to suit their lifestyles. However increased consumer take-up remains a challenge.

Bentley Systems’ Acceleration Fund announces launch of The Cohesive Companies, advancing infrastructure digital twins to improve asset performance EXTON, Pa. July 16, 2020: Bentley Systems, Incorporated, a leading global provider of comprehensive software and digital twins services for advancing the design, construction, and operations of infrastructure, today announced that its Acceleration Fund has launched The Cohesive Companies, a wholly owned subsidiary, anchored by the acquisition of Atlanta-based Cohesive Solutions. The new business venture will include the services team from Bentley’s AssetWise business and the offerings of Bentley, Cohesive, and IBM’s Maximo to support the digital transformation of infrastructure owner-operators. The Cohesive Companies will act as a digital integrator to help infrastructure asset owners upgrade their enterprise environments to leverage digital twins— digital representations and simulations of a physical asset, synchronizing digital context (current existing conditions), digital components (engineering content), and digital chronology (lifecycle change management). Cohesive Solutions is the largest North American reseller of IBM’s Maximo enterprise asset management (EAM) software. With a successful track record of delivering integrated EAM solutions for owner-operators in utilities, energy, and facilities sectors, Cohesive Solutions’ domain expertise and consulting capabilities can now be extended to advance EAM to infrastructure digital twins. As digital integrators for infrastructure asset performance, The Cohesive Companies’ unique charter is the convergence, through digital twin cloud services, of digital engineering models (ET), with IT and OT, for infrastructure and facilities assets. Asset performance digital twins can provide continuous operational insights, enhanced

through machine learning, for reliability, efficiency, compliance, safety, resilience and decision support to adaptively sustain and advance fitness for purpose.

Motorsport inspired technology to aid future combat aircraft development BAE Systems and Williams Advanced Engineering (WAE) have joined forces to explore how battery management and cooling technologies from the motorsport industry could be exploited to deliver efficiency and performance gains in the design of future combat aircraft. An Oxfordshire-based specialist team from WAE is working closely with BAE Systems engineers in Lancashire to inform and guide thinking about how future aircraft could fly faster and more efficiently than anything before. The project is part of a wider research effort to develop technologies that could be used to develop the most advanced combat air system for the UK. Next generation combat air technologies will need high-power at low weight in order to provide long range endurance and mission success. Future systems will also need to generate enough energy to power a small town, which can be managed safely and efficiently throughout the aircraft and its subsystems, with pilots depending on high-performance ‘power when you need it’ combat air capability. WAE is a world leader in the design and delivery of advanced battery technologies that provide durable, fast charging power capability and was recently appointed as the Gen3 exclusive battery system supplier of the ABB FIA Formula E World Championship. Combined with technical expertise from Rolls Royce in the development of power and thermal management systems and BAE Systems’ experience in integrating complex systems, this collaboration is an example of how the UK combat air sector is leveraging the best of wider industry, sustaining critical skills across the country.

Keeping the space industry at the cutting edge Composite engineers at the University of Sheffield AMRC were singled out for praise by Airbus Defence and Space bosses for the speed, efficiency and accuracy of their work on critical satellite components which helped ‘keep UK industry moving’ during the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown. Kevin Clynes, who heads up Research and Process Technology Engineering for the Airbus division, said the complex machining operation on the base cone for its new satellite was done ‘during a very difficult time with speed, efficiency and accuracy’ by engineers from the Composite Centre at the University of Sheffield Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC). “Despite the restrictions and challenges of the Covid-19 lockdown, it was crucial to Airbus Defence and Space


to continue with operations,” says Kevin. “This was not only about keeping our business going but also about keeping our customers, partners and suppliers operating as well. “When we contacted the AMRC, it was clear they wanted to assist us with this project to keep our business plan on schedule. This was very much appreciated and successfully demonstrated how we could work together, communicating remotely, to achieve this. The AMRC showed great effort and commitment to keep UK industry going during this challenging time.” This work forms the latter stages of two years of research collaborations between Airbus Defence and Space and the AMRC that initiated the establishment of a method to machine aluminium honeycomb with composite skins with zero defects. Dr Kevin Kerrigan, who heads up composite machining research at the AMRC, said: “It was an honour for the AMRC to be able to support the team at Airbus Defence and Space during these challenging times and to witness translational research deliver value back to UK manufacturing.” The cone is a key component of the Eurostar Neo, a new high performance communication satellite developed by Airbus Defence and Space that combines increased payload capacity, more efficient power and thermal control systems with faster production time and reduced cost. Due for launch in 2021, the cone forms the central structure and base of the service module of the satellite, which houses the propulsion tank. It is made from aluminium honeycomb, which is sandwiched between an inner and outer skin made of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP).

logistics companies that perform batch processes a more cost-effective solution. Rather than having to purchase multiple robots for individual tasks, the modular design means its cobot can be easily adapted to optimise the balance between reach and payload. Moreover, its simple and easy-to-use software allows even a nonspecialist user to re-program the cobot quickly for a new task. Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, the cobot market was growing rapidly. Social distancing directives will likely dominate the workplace for the foreseeable future and automation will play an increasingly important role in the post-pandemic workplace. Inovo, with its adaptable cobot, is well-placed to help companies begin to recover, performing manual tasks typically undertaken by humans, resulting in fewer human interactions and safe working conditions for employees in the post-COVID-19 workplace. Commenting on the investment, Andrew Bloxam, Senior Investment Manager at Foresight, said: “It has been a pleasure to see Inovo bring its product to market since our initial investment in late 2018. Now, with strong interest from customers and the need for automation solutions like cobots growing rapidly, we are delighted to invest again and support the company as it scales up.”

Major HORIBA launch as virtualisation of RDE development shown to offer up to £14m savings

With the automotive industry facing unprecedented pressures, HORIBA has launched a new virtual-based solution to Real Driving Emissions (RDE) development – which could save businesses up to £14m in prototype vehicle requirements alone.

Foresight Williams doubles up with additional investment of £1.45 million into collaborative robotics developer Inovo

Launched globally on 20 July 2020, RDE+ is a ‘road to rig’ solution which brings the real-world into the laboratory which, when combined with virtual-domain simulation and validation, enables RDE development to be completed more quickly and accurately than before.

London, 28 July 2020: Foresight Group (“Foresight”), a leading independent infrastructure and private equity investment manager, and Williams Advanced Engineering (“WAE”) are pleased to announce a £1.45 million follow-on investment from Foresight Williams Technology EIS Fund into Inovo Robotics (“Inovo”, “the Company”). This investment will allow the Company to grow sales internationally and brings the total invested by the Fund to £2.95 million, having originally invested £1.5 million in October 2018 to support the company’s first product to market. Inovo was founded in 2016 by Henry Wood and Jonathan Cheung, both former senior engineers at defence technology company, Northrup Grumman. The company is developing a competitively priced “cobot”, a collaborative robot designed to operate safely within a human work environment and intended to assist people with repetitive tasks. It offers manufacturing and 32

The launch coincides with a new white paper commissioned by HORIBA which reveals the growing business case for the virtualisation of RDE powertrain development. According to the study conducted by Frost & Sullivan, virtualising RDE testing could help automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) reduce their prototype vehicle requirements up to 75% by replacing on-road testing with more efficient development in the laboratory, resulting in savings of up to £14m per vehicle programme. This is in addition to huge potential savings in reduced testing and development times.

Contributions to Industry News may be emailed to The nominal limit for entry is 200 words.

News from British Standards BSI’s standards committee area for design, specification and verification, TPR/1 (Technical product realization) – which includes the subcommittee on Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly and End-of-life processing (MADE), chaired by Professor Brian Griffiths – has been keeping itself busy despite the COVID-19 restrictions on face-to-face meetings.

All standards meetings in the area since the middle of March have switched online with various tools such as Webex, Zoom, Teams, Skype for Business, etc. coming to the fore and enabling our technical experts to review and discuss documents and proposals at virtual meetings almost as normal. Both national and international committee meetings are being held online with higher than normal attendance rates being reported and strong engagement from across industry across the world. One area of the national committee that has been particularly active this year relates to 3D modelling and digital product definition also known as model-based definition (MBD), model-based enterprise (MBE) or product and manufacturing information (PMI). Two of TPR/1’s subcommittees, TPR/1/3 (Digital product definition) and TPR/1/8 (BS 8888, Technical product specification), have been holding joint online meetings to discuss some of the issues around what the UK should be considering in terms of potential new standards in this space. It has been encouraging to see a large number of new members taking part in the meetings reflecting the growing industry interest in the subject in the UK. A wide range of industry sectors are now represented on the national committee area, including automotive, aerospace, defence, rail, medical devices, and nuclear. This is in addition to representation from universities and other academic and training institutions, industry trade bodies and professional institutions, as well as experts from the fields of metrology and quality control. The traditional areas for this committee of design and manufacturing also continue to be well represented in the discussions. A number of different international standards working groups are already starting to explore some of the issues that would need to be addressed in order to allow organizations to move away more fully from the traditional 2D drawings approach to 3D-only for their design and specification needs.

The interface between different companies in supply chains as well as file formats, future proofing, and the categorization of data, are just some of the barriers that still need to be overcome – and standardized. The UK’s BS 8888 standard, technical product documentation and specification, has started to introduce more information and requirements on 3D-related issues in recent editions, including the latest version which was released at the end of 2019 as BS 8888:2020. TPR/1/8 is planning to include further information in the next edition of the standard which is currently scheduled for publication in 2025. Bringing the two parts of the committee together will enable a more meaningful set of requirements to be drawn up and potentially a new standard – or set of standards – to be developed. With all of this work and activity, the committee is always looking for new committee members and experts to join its standards drafting groups, national committees, and international working groups. In particular we are keen to reach out to the CAD vendor community to contribute to the work and discussions on 3D modelling. Further general information on taking part in BSI’s standards work can be found at : If you would like more information on any of the TPR/1area projects or work programme or if you would like to get involved in any way in the committee, please contact Sarah Kelly, Lead Standards Development Manager – Committee Manager for TPR/1, at BSI on sarah.kelly@ Sarah Kelly Lead Standards Development Manager 33

Product News Instron launch new fracture toughness software This year Instron launched a brand new software package for fracture mechanics testing, maintaining and building on their long involvement in standardised fracture mechanics applications. Moving to a modern interface, with workflows which are user friendly and customisable, Bluehill Fracture software embodies all the current best practices in ASTM and ISO standards for fracture mechanics testing and analysis. It is designed to offer easy updates for the latest revisions (there is often more than one each year!), as well as providing interface features to help manage data exchange with digital laboratory data management systems.

G-Series launch Interface is pleased to announce the launch of the G-Series – a new, fully metric line of load cells and load buttons for industrial applications. The demand for Interface products designed and manufactured in the International System of Units (SI), has been evident for several years. Interface’s new Global Standard product line, known as the G Series, is designed for an international buyer and user. Starting small, the series includes three load cell types – the load button, mini S-beam & threaded In-Line. With capacities ranging from 200 Newtons to 50kN. They are all fully stainless steel with an environmental protection rating of IP64 or better. Each sensor is supplied with individual calibration certificates. So, even with their highly competitive price, you can be sure that like all Interface products, the G-Series are built to the exacting standards that Interface are world-renowned for.

temperatures up to 1000°C. The chamber is also able to carry out testing in a range of harsh environments, including corrosive gas, vacuum, oxygen enriched, and inert gas. There is also an option to add steam to the test environment to replicate the conditions that aircraft engines experience in flight, or to replicate environmental conditions for new materials. For more information, please visit www.phoenix-mt.

NPL lead European project “ComTraForce” on force measurement Dynamic Force measurement has many applications in industry, yet only static calibration services are generally available: no metrological services or traceability chain exists for measuring continuous, dynamic forces. The UK National Physical Laboratory and PTB (their equivalent in Germany) are leading a joint project of 9 European measurement institutes, aiming to establish comprehensive traceable force calibration methods for force measurement applications in material and mechanical testing. New methods and transfer standards will be developed for static, continuous and dynamic force calibrations, traceable to the SI. Force measuring devices will be investigated, improved, developed and described by theoretical models in line with the ‘digital twin’ concept, simulating causes of uncertainty in force measurement. Broad adoption of uniform traceable calibration procedures would help harmonise global calibrations and testing results for superior quality, safety and innovation processes. The project was officially funded and has been running for one year already (although with some delays through the impact of COVID-19), but the project team are still happy to welcome more industry stakeholders to join their advisory group.

Coming Soon: High Pressure Testing Dytran approved accelerometer calibration Capabilities with Optional Steam to Replicate laboratory in UK Environmental Conditions for Materials and Techni Measure are in the final stages of commissioning a calibration laboratory for accelerometers in our Doncaster Components As the global leader in enterprise low-code, Phoenix is currently developing the next generation of environmental chambers, capable of carrying out high pressure testing up to 100bar, to support the testing of new materials for a variety of industries including Aerospace and Nuclear R&D. The complex system designed and manufactured by Phoenix can test at up to 100bar and withstand 34

office, which will operate in accordance with ISO17025 and be approved by manufacturer Dytran Instruments. The new laboratory will allow a fast turnaround on accelerometer recalibration services as well as local UK stocking of accelerometers, to provide next day delivery for a range of general purpose single axis and triaxial accelerometers from Dytran. The laboratory will have calibration capability from 5Hz through to 10kHz, with the ability to measure transverse sensitivity, for sensor payloads up to 500gr. If you have any requirement

for accelerometers or vibration instrumentation & accessories, our application engineers will be happy to help you with a solution, please contact Techni Measure at or 03300101490.

Smart Blackbody IRS Calilux: Automation Technology develops precision masterpiece Providing imaging temperature measurement technology that is user-friendly, highly precise, flexible and fail-safe: this has always been the mission of AT – Automation Technology. The company from Bad Oldesloe has therefore added a new decisive component to its IRS product family, namely the AT Smart Blackbody IRS Calilux. This recent development is the perfect complement for infrared cameras, enabling them to increase temperature measurement accuracy to the limits of what is technically achievable and ensure fail-safe operation. For non-contact temperature measurement, the IRS Calilux provides a highly precise temperature reference value which is used to correct the measured temperature values of the infrared camera. The measuring accuracy of such cameras can thus be improved to a previously unknown value of +/0.3 degrees. Especially in times of corona, this has made the decisive difference to the competition in body temperature measurement with the mobile access control "FebriScan" developed by AT.

Something to shout about as hush quiet electric mini wins award JCB is today celebrating the news that its electric mini excavator has scooped one of the world’s most prestigious prizes for engineering innovation. The UK’s Royal Academy of Engineering has today announced that JCB’s ultra-quiet and zero emissions 19C-1E electric digger has won the 2020 MacRobert Award. The MacRobert Award is a prize for innovation that has been presented since 1969 to honour a wide variety of engineering feats, including the CT scanner and Rolls-Royce’s Pegasus engine used in the Harrier jump jet. JCB faced strong competition for this year’s award from two other shortlisted finalists: the all-electric I-PACE sports utility vehicle from Jaguar Land Rover and ecoSMRT® liquid natural gas reliquification technology from Babcock’s LGE business. Professor Sir Richard Friend FREng FRS, Chair of the Royal Academy of Engineering MacRobert Award judging panel, said: “JCB’s electric digger is a huge engineering achievement. The team has developed all parts of the electric propulsion system to deliver system performance that matches real customer requirements. This is a huge achievement in itself, but the additional benefits of zero exhaust emissions and much lower noise has lifted the 19C-1E excavator to a new level.”

Millbrook unlocks new battery testing potential with altitude test chamber All lithium batteries must meet UN38.3 criteria before they are transported by land, sea or air. Millbrook’s new Battery Altitude Test Chamber has the ability to simulate unpressurised aeroplane space at altitudes up to 15,000m. This adds to Millbrook’s extensive offering of UN38.3 tests at its Bedfordshire proving ground. During a UN38.3 altitude test, the battery is stored in the chamber at 11.6kPa for an extended period (>6 hours) to simulate the product shipping process. Following this, it is inspected against a set list of criteria. This includes checking for any mass loss, leaking, rupture or venting. The chamber is 3.2m x 2m x 1m, meaning it can test some of the largest battery packs on the market at a variety of altitudes, including negative ones. The ability to set specific positive and negative altitudes means that the chamber can simulate air pressures such as those found in mountain ranges or mines, ideal for testing electric and autonomous mountain or mining machinery batteries.

New Tabletop HATS Type 5128-B Accurate high-frequency testing on desktop or small anechoic chambers. Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement A/S, the world’s leading supplier of advanced technology for sound and vibration, has released its HATS for speech and sound testing, ideal for use in confined areas. Building on the success of its High-frequency Head and Torso Simulator Type 5128 – and responding to popular demand – Brüel & Kjær’s new tabletop version has been developed to support customers testing headphones on their work desk or in small anechoic chambers. Tabletop HATS (Type 5128-B) is a torso-less head, which comes with a small desk stand. Its adjustable neck makes it suitable for testing all types of headphones and it can be also be fitted on a tripod or a turntable using a tripod mounting adapter. The head geometry of Type 5128B complies with ITU-T Rec. P.58, IEC 60318-7 and ANSI S3.36-1985. Existing High-frequency HATS Type 5128 owners can purchase just the tabletop support, in order to add new versatility to their HATS investment. Find out more about High-frequency HATS Type 5128 and the new tabletop version at en/products/transducers/ear-simulators/head-andtorso/hats-type-5128.

Contributions to Product News may be emailed to The nominal limit for entry is 200 words. 35

News from the Institution of Mechanical Engineers

Cloud manufacturing promises to reduce costs and increase flexibility

Digital and online technologies are transforming manufacturing, or so we are told.

It can sometimes seem like there are a dizzying array of new buzzwords with little tangible benefit. This isn’t helped by a lack of clarity in just what differentiates the various models and technologies. Although the technologies all have a different emphasis, they all involve cooperation and sharing of resources using a digital network. This overarching trend is often referred to as Industry 4.0 and its key enabling technologies include the internet of things (IoT), cloud computing and artificial intelligence. Cloud manufacturing (CMfg) is a model of how Industry 4.0 can improve resource utilisation, reduce overhead costs and increase flexibility by enabling resources to be efficiently shared between facilities and organisations. This can mean reducing capital expense by switching to pay-as-you-go manufacturing services. Ultimately, it could improve the optimisation of industry, enabling operations to be carried out where they will be most efficient in terms of cost, resource, energy, waste management and so forth. It will enable greater specialisation and division of manufacturing, with firms being more able to concentrate on their core business when they can easily access whatever manufacturing services they need. The core aim of cloud manufacturing is to enable resources and capabilities to be available for ondemand use, resulting in sharing and high utilisation. This is realised by intelligently sensing and connecting resources into the internet. IoT technologies will allow the resources, such as machines, software and systems, to be automatically managed and controlled. One overall solution The resources and capabilities are effectively virtualised, so they can be accessed as a manufacturing cloud service (MCS). It then becomes possible for users to search for a service based on their precise requirements 36

which may include cost, quality and delivery time. Users can combine various manufacturing services. There are three types of users who can benefit from cloud manufacturing: 1. Providers who own and operate manufacturing resources and capabilities. They benefit from increased utilisation and may operate at any scale, from an individual professional to a multinational. 2, Consumers who purchase resources and capabilities, using the cloud manufacturing platform to quickly and efficiently find the best providers. 3. Operators who provide the online cloud manufacturing platform which connects the consumers with the providers. From the consumer’s perspective, cloud manufacturing means instant quotes and hassle-free supply of parts. A CAD model can be uploaded to a website and the price to manufacture it will be available in seconds. One exciting aspect of cloud computing is that it will dedicate much more of the manufacturing resource to prototyping and small batches. This will allow designers and entrepreneurs to iterate, improve and try out new ideas. This can only be a good thing for creativity and choice. It will also mean that small businesses won’t have an economy of scale disadvantage, which should drive a much more efficient industrial economy. Cloud manufacturing is still an emerging technology. Although some companies such as Protolabs offer highly virtualised manufacturing services, we are still a very long way from being able to access the shared resources of global industry. Dr Jody Muelaner University of Bath

Group News across industries and universities. Your commitment would involve contributions at meetings (3 times a year for a morning) either in person or over the phone and providing your ideas and inspiration in support of our activities. If you would be interested in joining our committee then please contact Sara Atkin (

Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group It is the EIS SVPP group's primary objective to organise and support seminars, exhibitions and training programmes with the aim of promoting the exchange of knowledge and information particularly for young engineers. Of course, this has been substantially curtailed during 2020 in terms of seminars and exhibitions. However, the SVPP group will be supporting the Young Engineers Forum planned programme of online webinars through the second half of 2020, to help improve the knowledge and awareness of young engineers in the field of NVH. We do rely on the support and initiatives of our committee members within the group to promote NVH product development with young engineers, and so we are always keen to have new members to the committee who wish to make a difference in this field. Whether from an industrial or academic background, we welcome the participation and contribution of NVH engineers from around the world. As a committee member, we would value your knowledge, experience and ideas. Committee membership also provides an opportunity to make contact with a wide range of technical experts from

Dave Fish Chairman

Durability & Fatigue Group I’m fairly sure that a recurrent theme, in this and other journals, will be the fact that 2020 has certainly been a strange year. In the context of collaboration and knowledge sharing, there have been many disappointments where events which have been in planning for a long time have to be cancelled. On this topic, we quickly concluded that our conference would not be able to go ahead as planned, but thanks to great work from our Marketing & Events Manager and sensible, helpful policy by the venue, Fatigue 2020 has merely been postponed until next year, to become Fatigue 2021. The Fatigue conferences have been a core part of D&FG activities, providing the

opportunity for an unusual crosssection of academic and industrial researchers to interact (you can read more about Fatigue 2021 in its own article within this issue). Seminars are another aspect of EIS activities which have obviously been impacted. Like many other organisations, we have tried to support our members through lockdown and ongoing reduced movement, and the society has piloted it’s first webinar. Looking on the bright side, some new ways of working may have ongoing practical benefits. For example, we have historically arranged seminars as oneday events, at interesting venues, with a series of presentations. This used to work as just a day trip for most delegates; low cost and not too big to ask of your manager. By the same measure, there is a cost attached to physical meetings, resources are scrutinised carefully, and when are times not tight for professional development? Moving to webinars can make personal/professional development activities much more achievable, by the combination of making bite-sized chunks available free, with no more interference for your work than a normal meeting. With that in mind, D&FG is seeking to put together a webinar series for autumn 2020, on the theme of Durability Challenges for Renewable Power Systems. We anticipate that this will take the form of a series of free 1-hour webinars, presented across several weeks, by a selection of experts from industry and academia. Our intention is to build on the past success of three “Wind – Wave – Tidal” events, which looked at the structural technologies for renewable power generation, but shifting the focus to evolving challenges in fatigue and durability downstream of generation. Today a number of our members 37

(and the world in general) are at the sharp end of delivering electric vehicle technologies and energy infrastructure, where commercial implementation has novel problems especially around energy storage.

Peter Bailey Chairman

Simulation, Test & Measurement Group For obvious reasons 2020 has been a very difficult year in a variety of ways and we have all had to adapt the way we work and communicate with our

friends and colleagues. EIS events have had to be held by webinar and valuable meetings that would usually take place have been held virtually. However, life must go on both socially and within the workplace. To that extent in June the Simulation Testing and Measurement Group (STMG) held their first virtual committee meeting. This was extremely well-attended, probably boosted by the fact it was much easier, not to mention more environmentally friendly, to join from home or the workplace. On the agenda was of course how we would continue to promote and share knowledge and skills along with the need to switch our focus to webinars and the pros and cons of proprietary web conferencing tools. Attending a full day of virtual presentations could be somewhat arduous, so we felt it was therefore necessary to create a series of 2-hour sessions spread over a few days or weeks in order not to fatigue the listener and maintain the interest of our members and the wider engineering community. I’m happy to say we are once again looking at running the Effective Data Collection for Simulation seminar that ran successfully last November and was so well-received. This year we will introduce some new speakers and several of the committee

members have already volunteered some great topics. More will be communicated in the coming weeks. The Young Engineers Forum is also gathering momentum led by Jonathon Joy, Alex O’Neill & Jamie Shenton. David Ensor hosted a free Webinar in July on RLD Collection & Analysis – 'Are you forgetting the basics?' Although I no longer fall into the category of ‘young engineer’ I would have like to have joined in for old times’ sake to be reminded of the useful basics that I once knew and David tried so hard to hammer home as a Consultant at MIRA. I have not seen any official feedback, but I’m told from a colleague who was able to join that it was as interesting, factual and entertaining as you always come to expect from David. We are now looking forward to November’s webinars with the bar raised high by David. We intend to record some of the webinars to post on the EIS website which will hopefully generate more interest in our future events. Our intention is to use this year’s difficult situation to our advantage and our new foray into the world of webinars will enable us to share our wealth of knowledge with a greater audience than ever before.

Steve Payne Chairman

Corporate Members The following companies are corporate members of the Engineering Integrity Society. We thank them for their continued support which helps the Society to run its wide-ranging events throughout the year.


AcSoft ANV Measurement Systems Bruel and Kjaer CaTs3 CentraTEQ Correlated Solutions Dassault Systemes Data Acquisition and Testing Services Ltd Data Physics Datron Technology Dewesoft Flintec Gantner Instruments GOM HBM HEAD acoustics

HORIBA-MIRA Instron Interface Force Measurements imc Test and Measurement GmbH iPetronik Kistler M&P International Mecmesin Micro Measurements Micro-Epsilon Millbrook MOOG Nprime PCB Piezotronics PDS Hitech Phoenix Materials Testing Ltd

Polytec Prosig Rutherford Appleton Lab Sensors UK Serco Servotest Severn Thermal Solutions Siemens Star Hydraulics Strainsense StressMap Ltd Systems Services Techni Measure Torquemeters THP Systems Transmission Dynamics Zwick/Roell

Committee Members

President: Professor Roderick A Smith, FREng. ScD Directors Peter Bailey, Instron Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services Nick Richardson, Servotest Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant John Yates, Engineering Consultant

Chairman John Yates, Engineering Consultant

Vice Chairman Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services

Treasurer Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant

Company Secretary Nick Richardson, Servotest

Marketing & Events Manager Sara Atkin

Communications Sub Committee – ‘Engineering Integrity’ Journal of the EIS Honorary Editor Spencer Jeffs

Managing Editor Rochelle Stanley

Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group Chairman David Fish, JoTech

Deputy Chairman Keith Vickers, Bruel & Kjaer UK

Members Dave Boast, DB Engineering Solutions Mark Burnett, HORIBA-MIRA Martin Cockrill, Polytec Paul Francis, JCB James Herbert, Bruel & Kjaer UK Peter Jackson, European Acoustical Products Paul Jennings, Warwick University Chris Knowles, Consultant Andrew McQueen, Siemens Jon Richards, Engineering Consultant Tony Shepperson, HEAD acoustics

Simulation, Test & Measurement Group Chairman Steve Payne, HORIBA-MIRA

Deputy Chairman Alex O'Neill, Jaguar Land Rover/University of Surrey

Members Jack Allcock, Tata Steel Carl Barcock, Data Acquisition & Testing Services Ltd Dan Bailey, Instron Gian Matteo Bianchi, Jaguar Land Rover


Connor Bligh, JCB Marc Brown, Vibration Research Darren Burke, Servotest Lloyd Butler, DTR VMS Steve Coe, Data Physics (UK) David Copley, Consultant David Ensor, Enginerring Consultant Robin Garvie, Airbus Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services Jerry Hughes, Moog Ben Huxham, Prosig Jonathan Joy, Millbrook Virrinder Kumar, HBM United Kingdom Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant Tim Powell, MTS Systems Anton Raath, CaTs3 Gary Rands, Siemens Nick Richardson, Servotest Paul Roberts, HBM Prenscia Raul Rodriguez, Hyster Yale Jarek Rosinski, Transmission Dynamics Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant John Wilkinson, Engineering Consultant Darren Williams, Millbrook Proving Ground Scott Williams, Williams F1 Rob Wood, GOM Jeremy Yarnall, Data Acquisition and Testing Services Ltd

Durability & Fatigue Group Chairman Peter Bailey, Instron

Secretary Jamie Shenton, JCB

Members Hayder Ahmad, Safran Martin Bache, Swansea University Andrew Blows, Jaguar Land Rover Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom Amir Chahardehi, Atkins Energy Richard Cornish, Birmingham City University Farnoosh Farhad, Northumbria University Hassan Ghadbeigi, Sheffield University Lee Gilbert, Element Oliver Greenwood, Rolls Royce Phil Irving, Engineering Consultant Karl Johnson, Zwick Roell Group Chris Magazzeni, Oxford University Angelo Maligno, IISE, University of Derby Ali Mehmanparast, Cranfield University Andrew Mills, Siemens Giovanni De Morais, Dassault Systèmes Simulia Davood Sarchamy, Airbus Giora Shatil, Darwind Niall Smyth, Coventry University Andy Stiles, Aero Engine Controls John Yates, Engineering Consultant 40

Committee members can be contacted via the Marketing & Events Manager, Tel: 01623 884225.

Corporate Member Profiles AcSoft Ltd Building 115, Bedford Technology Park Thurleigh, Bedford, MK44 2YA Tel: +44 (0)1234 639550 Email: Website: Contact: Paul Rubens At AcSoft we offer the best range of sound and vibration monitoring systems from the world’s leading suppliers. Our market leading application advice and technical support makes analysing and solving your noise & vibration problems so much easier. As applications constantly evolve and new solutions emerge, we keep abreast of instrumentation developments as they arise, while keeping a close eye on quality and support.


13 Murrell Green Business Park London Road Hook, Hants RG27 9GR Tel: +44 (0)1256 741550 Email: Website: Contact: Jim Vaughan, Managing Director Kistler is a leading manufacturer of sensors for pressure, force, torque and acceleration, as well as the related electronics and software. Technology from Kistler is used to analyse physical processes, and to control and optimise industrial processes.

We design and manufacturer sound level meters, microphones, accelerometers, conditioning amplifiers, calibrators, noise and vibration analysers and software. We run a variety of training courses, from basic introductions on noise to specialised training helping customers get the most from their equipment.

Kistler is headquartered in Winterthur, Switzerland and has production facilities in Germany, Switzerland and the US and employs over 1200 people in 28 locations worldwide.



No 1 Shorelines Building Shore Road Birkenhead, CH41 1AU Tel: +44 (0)151 3556070 Email: Website: Contact: Glenn Wedgbrow Micro-Epsilon develops and manufactures market leading precision sensors to measure displacement, temperature and colour, as well as systems for dimensional measurement and defect detection. Using both contact and non-contact measurement techniques, Micro-Epsilon boasts one of the largest selections of sensor technologies including 1D/2D/3D laser optical, confocal chromatic, eddy current, capacitive, inductive, draw-wire, time-offlight technologies, IR temperature sensors, thermal imaging cameras and colour recognition systems. With over 45 years’ experience and over 10,000 customers worldwide, Micro-Epsilon can solve tomorrow’s measurement problems today.

Stroudley Road, Basingstoke Hampshire, RG24 8FW Tel: +44 (0)1256 462131 Email: Website: micro-measurements/ Contact: MM Customer Services Micro-Measurements has been dedicated to the development and manufacture of products for high-precision strain and stress measurement since 1962. For purposes of experimental stress analysis — whether preproduction prototype evaluation, field-service testing, failure analysis, or pure research — we offer a full complement of sensors, instrumentation, and installation accessories necessary to obtain accurate, reliable strain and stress data. Micro-Measurements strain gauges and accessories also fulfil manufacturers’ requirements for a wide variety of transducers for measuring physical variables (weight, force, torque, pressure).


Moog Industrial Group Ashchurch Parkway, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire GL20 8TU

Tel: + 44(0)1684 858000 Email: Website: Contact: Kevin Cherrett Moog is a designer, manufacturer and integrator of high performance, high integrity control systems and equipment (electro-hydraulic and electromechanical) satisfying a broad range of applications in aerospace, defence and Industrial markets. Moog is able to offer expertise in varied fields of engineering and has a proven track record in the successful implementation of major multidisciplinary projects. Moog Test Division provides a broad range of products and services for mechanical test & simulation.

Unit 8 The Wallows Industrial Estate Fens Pool Avenue Brierley Hill West Midlands DY5 1QA Tel: +44 (0)1384 480545 Email: Website: Contact: Sam Shevyn

Phoenix turns concepts into reality and challenges into solutions, offering a complete end to end service from full in-house design, manufacturing and installation of bespoke test machines and control systems, to ongoing support and UKAS accredited sub contract testing.

Sensors UK

Siemens PLM Software

Tel: +44 (0)1727 861110 Email: Website: Contact: David White

Tel: +44 (0)2476 408 120 Email: Website: Contact: Leonie Upton

135a Hatfield Road St Albans Hertfordshire AL1 3AL

Established in 1964, Sensors UK Ltd has earned a reputation as a leading distributor and supplier of a broad range of primary sensors, measuring instruments and systems to the manufacturing and process industries.


Phoenix Materials Testing Ltd

Unit 3 Rye Hill Office Park Birmingham Road Coventry, CV5 9AB

LMS Simulation and Test Solutions from Siemens PLM Software help manufacturing companies manage the complexities of tomorrow’s product development by incorporating model-based mechatronic simulation and advanced testing solutions in the product development process. Our products and services tune into mission-critical engineering attributes, ranging from system dynamics, structural integrity and sound quality to durability, safety and power consumption. LMS products also address the complex engineering challenges associated with intelligent systems in the automotive and aerospace industries as well as in other advanced manufacturing industries.

Analyze Operating Deflection Shapes with ArtemiS SUITE 11.0 Enjoy the clearly structured interface. Benefit from the intuitive workflow. Get in-depth knowledge of the dynamic behavior.

Experts in Vibration m+p international supplies high-performance software and instrumentation for vibration control on a shaker, noise and vibration analysis, data acquisition and monitoring. Our products combine efficiency, accuracy, flexibility and test safety. Above this, we also offer consultancy and support to ensure successful outcomes for all of your applications.

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