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P OU R G G , C. PER STIN O S IP TE G T N & I ER TEM, SIS S E R N : E S P 9 LY GI OM FR S EN c h E , A N A 2 0 1 R P A O e L , ' WS NE OMEN , IM T I O N A P R I L L F A . W .S.I ENTA , 2 & C B TRUM TIO N M E N T I S IN XHIB UN C E 2 0 ES E NNO 20 TICL R ST A UE 1 ATIG A L A W S F NIC NE H Y S C R EW TE UST N D IN DUC T O PR

45 EIS ENGINEERING INTEGRITY SEPTEMBER 2018

JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INTEGRITY SOCIETY

Papers on: Effect of the • Characterisation

Material Modeling and the Experimental Material on Fatigue Life Estimation within Strain-Based Fatigue Assessment Approaches

Fatigue and • The Alloys for Cost

Crack Growth Characteristics of Additive-Manufactured Efficient High Integrity Aero-Engine Components EIS Website: www.e-i-s.org.uk


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Tyre/Road Contact Seminar 15 November 2018, HORIBA-MIRA For further information or to book a place please contact Sara Atkin: info@e-i-s.org.uk or call 01623 884225

Engineering Integrity Society The Challenges of Structural Integrity at High Temperature - 4 October 2018 Phoenix Materials Testing, Brierley Hill This seminar is aimed at engineers with hands on involvement in the world of high temperature applications, either for the design, or validation and testing, of materials, components and models. This seminar will stimulate discussion and the sharing of information, techniques and challenges across a range of sectors. For more information contact the Secretariat, Sara Atkin, on 01623 884225 or email info@e-i-s.org.uk

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Contents Index to Advertisements........................................................................................................................................................ 2 Editorial................................................................................................................................................................................. 7 Technical Paper: Effect of the Material Modeling and the Experimental Material Characterisation on Fatigue Life Estimation within Strain-Based Fatigue Assessment Approaches................................................................................. 8 Technical Paper: The Fatigue and Crack Growth Characteristics of Additive-Manufactured Alloys for Cost Efficient High Integrity Aero-Engine Components............................................................................................................... 14 University of Wolverhampton Racing.................................................................................................................................. 20 How it Works....................................................................................................................................................................... 21 Membership......................................................................................................................................................................... 22 Fatigue 2020 Conference, Downing College,Cambridge - First Announcement & Call for Papers..................................... 23 Diary of Events.................................................................................................................................................................... 27 Industry News ..................................................................................................................................................................... 28 Product News...................................................................................................................................................................... 32 News from Women’s Enginering Society............................................................................................................................ 34 News from British Standards............................................................................................................................................... 34 New Personal EIS Members............................................................................................................................................... 34 News from Institution of Mechanical Engineers.................................................................................................................. 35 News from the Tipper Group............................................................................................................................................... 36 Inspring the Next Generation.............................................................................................................................................. 37 Corporate Members - Profiles............................................................................................................................................. 38 Group News........................................................................................................................................................................ 40 Committee Members .......................................................................................................................................................... 42 Corporate Members’ List..................................................................................................................................................... 44

INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS Advanced Engineering Show...........Inside back cover

Head Acoustics...........................................................4

CaTs3 / Zwick..............................................................2

M+P International.......................................Back cover

Data Physics.................................... Inside front cover

Micro-Epsilon............................................................13

DJB Instruments.........................................................4

Sensors UK..............................................................27

EIS....................................................................... 1 & 3

Team Corporation.....................................................44 Tcal...........................................................................27

Thank you to GOM UK for hosting the June committee meetings.

Front Cover: Courtesy of Phoenix Materials Testing. A Phoenix environmental chamber designed for high temperature corrosion fatigue testing.

5


HONORARY EDITOR Farnoosh Farhad

‘Engineering Integrity’ is published twice a year ADVERTISING RATES & DATA

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EDITORIAL POLICY Engineering Integrity contains various items of information of interest to, or directly generated by, the Engineering Integrity Society. The items of information can be approximately subdivided into three general categories: technical papers, topical discussion pieces and news items. The items labelled in the journal as technical papers are peer reviewed by a minimum of two reviewers in the normal manner of academic journals, following a standard protocol. The items of information labelled as topical discussions and the news items have been reviewed by the journal editorial staff and found to conform to the legal and professional standards of the Engineering Integrity Society.

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY SOCIETY

The principal activity of the Engineering Integrity Society, is the arrangement of conferences, seminars, exhibitions and workshops to advance the education of persons working in the field of engineering. This is achieved by providing a forum for the interchange of ideas and information on engineering practice. The Society is particularly committed to promoting projects which support professional development and attract young people into the profession. ‘Engineering Integrity’, the Journal of the Engineering Integrity Society is published twice a year.

‘Engineering Integrity’ is lodged with the Agency for the Legal Deposit Libraries.


Editorial As the new Honorary Editor of the EIS

including a joint seminar with FESI on “Engineering integrity

journal, I would like to welcome you to the

of structures & components subjected to degradation

September 2018 edition.

The previous

mechanisms” in September, a seminar about “Structural

Honorary Editor, Karen Perkins, kindly

Integrity at high temperature” in October, a “Young engineers

supported the EIS journal for the past 10

seminar” at Rolls Royce in October, where there will be an

years. The society greatly appreciated her

opportunity for young engineers to present their work and

efforts and hard work.

compete for the prestigious Peter Watson Prize and a seminar on “Tyre Road Contact” in November at HORIBA-

This issue contains two technical papers.

MIRA. Please visit our website for more information.

Highlighting the importance of numerical modelling methods in reducing the time and cost of fatigue

We hope you enjoy this month’s issue of the journal.

designs, the first technical paper talks about the mechanical size effect on the fatigue life and how to implement them

Farnoosh Farhad

into the fatigue life estimation approaches. It also presents a

Honorary Editor

strategy for transferring the cyclic material parameters to an inhomogeneous stress-strain state. The fatigue and crack propagation properties of additive-manufactured alloys are the subjects of study in this issue’s second technical paper. Experimental tests resulted in the high cycle fatigue and crack growth rate data for a type of titanium alloy produced via a blown-powder additive route. We welcome contributions

New people for Engineering Integrity

in the form of technical papers for future journal issues. You can contact Catharine Pinder, Managing Editor, to find out further information on the preparation and submission of papers. Changing workplace cultures and ensuring gender diversity is highlighted in News from the Tipper Group. We should encourage kids, especially girls, to participate more in the engineering field, by sharing the story of successful engineers. Industry News reports some examples of companies’ activities to encourage young generations in choosing engineering as the subject of their study and future career. In Product News, there is a range of new devices that help to obtain more accurate results and analysis, which might be of interest to readers. Since the ability to store excess renewable energy can overcome one of the barriers to increase the capacity of this significant kind of energy, storing energy is getting more attention than generating energy. IMechE calls for government support for using the gas grid to store excess electricity in the form of hydrogen. Their recommendations are reported in the News from IMechE. The EIS is organising five events for the rest of the year,

You may not yet have spotted that we have a new Honorary Editor. Karen Perkins filled this role for more than 10 years and we are immensely grateful to her for all the effort she put in. Karen has taken on some important new responsibilities at Swansea University and has stepped down as Honorary Editor. We wish her well in her new role. Farnoosh Farhad has kindly agreed to take on the post of our new Honorary Editor. Farnoosh has been an active member of the Durability and Fatigue Group after attending our Fatigue 2017 conference. She is currently part of the National Structural Integrity Research Centre at the TWI and is close to completing her PhD at Coventry University. Prior to this, Farnoosh worked at Jovein Cement plc and Barsoo Engineering in Iran before studying for an MSc at Newcastle University. We are delighted to welcome Farnoosh to the journal team and look forward to her contributions. Finally, we must thank Paul Armstrong who has collated and edited the Industry and Product News section of the journal for 24 years. Paul is stepping down from this role and we are looking for a volunteer to take on this important task. Peter Bailey has kindly agreed to provide temporary cover but if you would like to do it please contact Catherine for further details of what is involved. John Yates EIS Chairman

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Technical Paper Effect of the Material Modeling and the Experimental Material Characterisation on Fatigue Life Estimation within Strain-Based Fatigue Assessment Approaches Matthias Hell*, Rainer Wagener†, Heinz Kaufmann†, Tobias Melz *, † * Technische Universität Darmstadt, Research Group for System Reliability and Machine Acoustics † Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF, Darmstadt Efficient product design processes require fatigue design approaches, which provide methods to exploit the potential of materials regarding lightweight design, durability and sustainability already during draft design. Simultaneously, the reductions of time to market and overall product development expenses raise the need for accelerated numerical fatigue design and experimental testing periods, while the demands for accuracy of fatigue life estimation increase continuously. Particularly focusing on the cyclic material behaviour, the application of a suitable fatigue design approach, advanced testing methods and numerical simulations allow an assessment of the fatigue behaviour of new materials and the durability of components with a reduced numerical and experimental effort. As a comparison between numerical assessed and experimental fatigue life shows, a considerable influence may result from the different strategies to evaluate the cyclic elasto-plastic material behaviour and to derive the parameters for numerical assessment of the stress-strain state. ASSESSING FATIGUE LIFE FOR COMPONENTS WITH ARBITRARY GEOMETRY In order to avoid expensive experimental optimisation cycles during product design, fatigue design approaches are required, which allow the fatigue life estimation of components with arbitrary geometry under service load conditions in virtual product development environments on the basis of material parameters, being derived by fatigue tests on specimens with standardized geometry. Depending on the selected fatigue design approach, different transfer concepts for the consideration of the influence of the component size, inhomogeneous property distributions or inhomogeneous stress-strain states may have to be applied. In load based linear-elastic fatigue design approaches, e.g. the nominal stress approach, the influence of the component size has been widely discussed. A comprehensive overview was presented by Kloos [1], who defined a mechanical, a statistical, a technological and a surface modification related size effect. All the size effects have in common, that they are strongly related to inhomogeneous stress-strain states, inhomogeneous property distributions, including the mechanical properties as well as the defect density. The size effects on the fatigue life are implemented using transfer concepts, such as the stress gradient approach according to Siebel and Stieler [2], the approach of the highly stressed volume according to Kuguel [3] or with

modifications according to Sonsino [4] or the weakest link approach according to Weibull [5], which allow the transfer of material parameters from specimen to component geometry. The transfer concepts differ substantially regarding the interpretation of notch effects and size effects on fatigue life. Furthermore, because of the material model and the definition of the stress-strain state, it is not possible to clearly differentiate between concurring influences on fatigue life like for example the notch support effect, which results from locally limited cyclic plasticity, and the statistical size effect, which is related to the defect density and the extension of highly loaded regions [6]. Therefore it is not possible, either numerically or experimentally, to quantitatively assess singular effects separately. Strain-based fatigue design approaches feature an elastoplastic material behaviour and evaluate the fatigue life on the basis of the local stress-strain state, represented by the maximum total strain in the highly loaded region of a component. It is assumed, in this respect, that the stressstrain behaviour and the fatigue properties of the infinitesimal small volume at the stress-strain maximum is equal to the stress-strain behaviour and the fatigue behaviour of a homogeneously loaded specimen of finite dimensions. The parameters for the description of the cyclic material behaviour are derived, based on this assumption, by strain controlled fatigue testing on smooth specimens. Depending on the selected material model and the available material parameters for the description of the cyclic elastoplastic stress-strain and fatigue-life relations, it is generally possible to implement a time, temperature and strain-rate dependent material behaviour into the assessment of the local stress-strain state. In order to facilitate the numerical fatigue assessment within the high cycle fatigue (HCF) and the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) regime, often a cyclic stabilization of the stress-strain behaviour under constant and variable amplitude loading is assumed, neglecting transient and load sequence effects on the stabilization of the stress-strain behaviour due to the slip character of the material. The fatigue assessment with the elasto-plastic strain based approaches, such as the elasto-plastic notch base approach, depicted schematically in Figure 1, requires at least the description of the cyclic stress-strain curve, for example according to Ramberg and Osgood [7], and a strain-life relation, e.g. according to Basquin-Manson-CoffinMorrow [8,9,10,11] or a tri-linear formulation according to

The above paper was presentated at the Engineering Integrity Society, Fatigue 2017 Conference held at Downing College, Cambridge, UK on 3-5 July 2017.

8


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 45, SEPTEMBER 2018, pp.8-13.

and the size dependent property distributions on fatigue life may have to be considered, and how they may be implemented in the fatigue assessment. In this respect, the advantage of the local elasto-plastic approaches regarding a separate evaluation of size effects is the possibility to use a realistic material model in order to describe the interaction between the component geometry, the load situation, the location-dependent material behaviour and the fatigue properties. This allows an extended interpretation of size effects on the background of the material behaviour. Polycrystalline materials may exhibit, due to manufacturing processes, a microstructural size effect, which results from a scale dependency of the component related material behaviour, as for example the relation between the stressstrain behaviour and the grain size [18]. To analyze possible microstructural size effects, a metallurgical characterization has to accompany the experimental determination of the cyclic material behaviour.

Figure 1. Schematic overview of the fatigue life assessment with the elasto-plastic notch base approach Wagener [12]. The local stress-strain state, which results from the cyclic stress-strain behaviour, the external loading and the component geometry may be estimated, either using approximations like the Neuber rule [13] for components with simple geometry, or employing elasto-plastic finite element simulations for components with complex geometry. The influence of mean stresses on fatigue life is considered, using damage parameters, for example according to Smith, Watson and Topper [14] or Bergmann [15]. The cyclic stress strain path under variable amplitude loading comprises Memory as well as Masing [16] behaviour for many metallic materials. Regarding the load time history, a suitable counting method, for example the rainflow hystereses counting method [17], has therefore to be employed. Additionally, for inhomogeneous stress-strain distributions, the stress and strain amplitudes as well as the mean stresses and strains under variable amplitude loading depend on the load sequence, even if a cyclic stabilization is assumed. In those cases, a piecewise calculation of the stress-strain path within the component may be required, in order to correctly estimate the damage contribution of every single load cycle. As previous research indicates, the assumption of size effects on fatigue and material properties, may also be valid for strain-based approaches with elasto-plastic material behaviour. Figure 2 presents an overview, which effects of the component size

The correlation of the extension of highly loaded regions and the failure probability may be described as statistical size effect, similar to the nominal stress and comparable approaches [19]. In case of strain-based approaches, the fatigue criterion is defined by the initiation of cracks, mostly at the surface within highly loaded regions, therefore a correlation of the probability of failure with the highly loaded surface may be assumed. Three types of mechanical size effects may be distinguished. As the distribution of local material behavior may change with the component size, which in case of the nominal stress approach is denominated as technological size effect, the mechanical size effect I refers to the location and

Figure 2. Implementation of size effects within the elasto-plastic notch base approach

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 45, SEPTEMBER 2018, pp.8.13.

orientation dependency of the material behavior. The mechanical size effect II is related to the geometry and material dependent extension of the highly stressed volume. Both mechanical size effects have to be implied by the elastoplastic finite element analysis of the stressstrain state. The mechanical size effect III results from the Masing and Memory behaviour in conjunction with the inhomogeneous stressstrain state. Depending on the load sequence, the material behaviour and the component geometry, the relation between external load ratio and internal stress-strain ratio may change throughout elasto-plastic cyclic loading.

ISSN 1365-4101/2018

Figure 4. Miniaturized specimen and special electro-mechanical test system with strain gauge for the experimental assessment of local material properties

In local strain-based fatigue design approaches it can be assumed, that the assumptions regarding the cyclic material behaviour affect the evaluation of the stress-strain state and the assessment of the fatigue life and also the consideration of the effects of the component size on fatigue life. In the following sections of this paper, selected features of the cyclic material behaviour and strategies to derive cyclic material parameters will be presented with respect to their influence on the fatigue life assessment. CHARACTERISATION OF THE CYCLIC MATERIAL BEHAVIOUR The cyclic stress-train behaviour is estimated using straincontrolled test on un-notched specimens, see Figure 3. State of the art strain measurements for the control of the tests employ a clip-on strain guage, which detects the elongation over a defined measuring length, Figure 3. Thus, the experimentally derived material properties represent a homogenized integral mean value of the strain and the material properties over the measurement length. In order to assess material with local property distributions, also specimens with miniaturized geometry may be used, applying a strain guage for the measurement of the local strain, Figure 4. The strain measurement with strain guages is also applicable to components with discontinous cross sections or for bending and torsional loading.

cyclic softening, and depending on the boundary conditions, also mean stress relaxation or ratchetting [20]. After a certain number of cycles, most of the common engineering materials show a cyclic stabilisation within the stress-strain behaviour. The extent to which the stress-strain behaviour will stabilise depends on the load magnitude and, for variable amplitude loading also on the load sequence. For a huge number of engineering applications in the high cycle and very high cycle fatigue regime, when elasto-plastic load amplitudes with macroscopic plasticity do not dominate the fatigue mechanisms, it is admissible to neglect the transient material behaviour. Several guidelines for fatigue testing, as for example the SEP1240 [21], assume a cyclically stabilised state, when the material has undergone half of the cycles to crack initiation.

Figure 5 shows the load magnitude dependency of the cyclic softening on the example of the cyclic deformation curves up to 5∙104 cycles and the stress-strain path for the first 10 cycles, for strain controlled fatigue tests with constant amplitude loading on smooth specimens made of 42CrMo4+QT quenched and tempered heat treatable steel. As is obvious, the assumption of a cyclical stabilization of the material behaviour will lead to a misinterpretation of the actual stress-strain state. The opposite is true for the cyclic stress-strain behaviour of the precipitation hardened ferritic-pearlitic steel 30MnVS6+Ti, depicted in Figure 6. The 30MnVS6+Ti steel exhibits a slight cyclic hardening and enters a phase of steady-state stress-strain behaviour with The cyclic stress-strain behaviour exhibits an initial phase, a negligible softening for strain amplitudes up to the highest which is marked by transient effects like cyclic hardening, magnitudes. The cyclic stress-strain behaviour, as well as the fatigue behaviour, is determined by the generation and the annihilation of dislocations, the formation of dislocation structures and strain localizations within the microstructure of the material. The changes in the dislocation structure, being induced by Figure 3. Standardized specimen geometry and test environment for the cyclic straining, depend strain-controlled tests

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The wavy slip character is marked by the formation of three dimensional, cyclically stable dislocation structures. At low load magnitudes, dislocation pile ups and dipoles, as well as persistent slip bands, are the dominating dislocation substructures. With rising load magnitude, the dislocations emerge from the planar configurations and form cell like structures. In case of the wavy slip character, the load sequence has a pronounced influence on the stabilization of the stress-strain behaviour [12, 22]. Figure 5. Cyclic deformation curves up to 5∙104 cycles and stress-strain paths for the first 10 cycles for strain controlled tests on smooth specimen made of a quenched and tempered 42CrMo4+QT heat treatable steel

Figure 7 illustrates, schematically, how the slip character will influence the stress-strain behaviour, comparing the stress-strain curve for constant amplitude loading with the stress-strain curve from incremental step tests [24]. Figure 8 and Figure 9 show a comparison of the cyclic stress-strain curves being derived by constant amplitude testing and incremental step tests for the precipitation hardening ferritic-pearlitic steel 18MnVS5, which exhibits planar slip, and the quenched and tempered heat treatable steel 42CrMo4+QT, which shows a tendency towards a wavy slip character.

The aforementioned effects within the stress-strain behaviour are usually investigated using smooth specimens and strain-controlled testing methods, which implies that the boundary conditions of the cyclic deformation do not change throughout the cyclic loading. Within components with complex geometry or under inhomogeneous loading situations, the boundary conditions of the cyclic deformation, which result from a interaction between external boundary conditions, loading and internal stress-strain distribution, may not be clearly identified as either stress- or strain controlled. In order to describe the stress-strain state properly, it is necessary to use incremental iterative methods like the finite element

Figure 6. Cyclic deformation curves up to 5∙104 cycles and stress-strain paths for the first 10 cycles for strain controlled tests on smooth specimen made of a precipitation hardening ferritic-pearlitic steel 30MnVS6+TI on the microstructural properties, such as the stacking fault energy, the presence of dislocation obstacles as for example precipitations or the dislocation density [22, 23]. The slip character in this respect describes the tendency towards the formation of three dimensional dislocation structures. In the case of a planar slip character, the dislocations are bound to single slip planes. Up to highest load magnitudes, no cross slip occurs and the dislocation substructures stay in a planar configuration, which is considered to be unstable towards cyclic deformations. In case of the planar slip character, the cyclic stress-strain relation depends mainly on the load magnitude and only marginally on the load sequence [22].

Figure 7. Evaluation of the slip character (schematically)

Figure 8. Evaluation of the slip character by a comparison of the stress-strain curve from constant amplitude and incremental step testing for a precipitation hardening ferritic pearlitic steel 18MnVS5

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 45, SEPTEMBER 2018, pp.8-13.

dependent stress-strain relation on the other hand, both times employing a simple isotropic hardening model. For a round specimen with a circumferential notch and a stress concentration factor of Kt ≈ 2.08 made from the quenched and tempered heat treatable steel 42CrMo4+QT, using the cycle dependent stress-strain behaviour may improve the fatigue assessment regarding the slope of the numerically assessed S-N curve. CONCLUSIONS

Figure 9. Evaluation of the slip character by a comparison of the stress-strain curve from constant amplitude and incremental step testing for a quenched and tempered heat treatable steel 42CrMo4+QT method, which allow the usage of load magnitude and load sequence dependent stress-strain relations in order to consider the material and geometry related boundary conditions of the local cyclic deformation. IMPLEMENTATION BEHAVIOUR

OF

THE

CYCLIC

MATERIAL

The cyclic material behaviour has to be carefully assessed regarding transient effects, the effects of the load magnitude and the effects of the load sequence on the stabilization of the stress-strain relation. The evaluation of the slip character allows the estimation of the influence of variable amplitude loading on the stress-strain relation. Assuming a constant steady-state stress-strain relation may result in a misinterpretation of the actual stress-strain state and may result in an insufficient fatigue assessment. A discretized derivation of the stress-strain state for a simultaneous number of deformation cycles may enhance the fatigue life assessment for materials without noticeable stabilization of the stress-strain relation for load magnitudes, which cause considerable plastic strain.

A possible strategy for transferring the material parameters to an inhomogeneous stress-strain state, without having to employ a complicated multi-parameter material model for the mathematical description of cyclic hardening or softening, is to derive the stress-strain relation from the test results for simultaneous numbers of cycles, see Figure 10, instead of extracting the stress-strain values at the half of the number of cycles to crack initiation for each strain amplitude and using a stabilized stress-strain curve, although the stressstrain behaviour remains transient. Figure 11 shows a comparison between the numerical fatigue assessments on the basis of the cyclically stabilized stressstrain relation on the one hand and on basis of the cycle

Figure 11. Comparison between numerically and experimentally assessed fatigue life for round specimen with circumferential notch made of quenched and tempered 42CrMo4+QT heat treatable steel REFERENCE LIST

Figure 10. Fatigue life estimation with cycle dependent material behaviour (schematically)

12

(1) Kloos, K.-H., VDI-Berichte, Vol. 286, 1976, pp. 63-76. (2) Siebel, E., Stieler, M., VDI-Zeitschrift, Vol. 97, 5, 1955, pp. 121-126. (3) Kuguel, R., Proc. ASTM, Vol. 61, 1961, pp. 732-744. (4) Sonsino, C.M., Konstruktion, Vol. 45, 1993, pp. 25-33. (5) Weibull, W., Ing. Hand., 151, 1939. (6) Gumbel, E. J., Mitteilungsbl. f. math. Stat. u. i. Anwendungsgeb. Jahrg. 8, 1956, pp 97-130. (7) Freudenthal, A.M., Gumbel, E.J., Proc. Royal Soc., Vol. A 126, 1953, pp. 309-332.


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 45, SEPTEMBER 2018, pp.8-13.

(8)

Basquin. H.O., Proc. ASTM, Vol. 10, 1910, pp.625630. (9) Manson, S.S., NACA Tech. Note, 2933, 1953. (10) Coffin, L.F. jr., Trans. ASME, Vol. 76, 1954. (11) Morrow, J.D., ASTM STP, Vol. 278, 1965, pp. 45-87. (12) Wagener, R., Zyklisches Werkstoffverhalten bei konstanter und variabler Beanspruchungsamplitude. TU Clausthal, 2007. (13) Neuber, H., Konstruktion, Vol. 20, 1968, pp. 245-251. (14) Smith, K.N., Watson, P., Topper, T.H., J. Mat., Vol. 5, 4, 1961, pp. 767-778. (15) Bergmann, J.W., Zur Betriebsfestigkeitsbemessung gekerbter Bauteile auf der Grundlage der örtlichen Beanspruchung. TU Darmstadt, 1983. (16) Masing, G., Proc. Cong. Appl. Mech, 1926, pp. 332335. (17) Clormann, U.H., Seeger, T., Stahlbau, Vol. 55, 3, 1986, pp. 65-72. (18) Thompson, A.W., Backofen, W.A., Act. Metall., Vol. 19, 1971, pp. 597-606. (19) Böhm, J., Heckel, K, Z. f. Werkstofftechnik, Vol. 13, 1982, pp.120-128. (20) Tomasella, A., Description of transient material

behaviour under constant and variable amplitude loading for cold formed steels by linear flow splitting. TU Darmstadt, 2016. (21) SEP1240, Testing and Documentation Guideline for the Experimental Determination of Mechanical Properties of Steel Sheets for CAE-Calculations. Beuth Verlag GmbH, 2006. (22) Christ, H.J., Wechselverformungsverhalten von Metallen, 1991. (23) Murakami, M., Mura, T., Kobayashi, M., ASTM STP, Vol. 924, 1988, pp. 39-63. (24) Landgraf, R.W., Morrow, J.D., Endo, T., J. Mat, No. 4, 1961.

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Technical Paper The Fatigue and Crack Growth Characteristics of Additive-Manufactured Alloys for Cost Efficient High Integrity Aero-Engine Components N.C. Barnard*, R.J. Lancaster*, M. Jones†, C.P. Heason†, I. Mitchell† & M.R. Bache* * Institute of Structural Materials, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea, SA1 8EN, United Kingdom. † Rolls-Royce plc, PO Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ, United Kingdom. A series of fatigue experiments has been performed on the near alpha titanium alloy Ti-6242 produced via a blownpowder additive route. The high cycle fatigue behaviour of additive repair deposits is investigated in the re-machined condition. Damage tolerance characteristics are also reported through the derivation of Stage II crack growth and fatigue crack threshold data. The optimisation of additive materials for fatigue performance is discussed. INTRODUCTION Since the move towards “fly by the hour” aero-engine lease arrangements the long term cost of ownership has shifted away from the airline operators towards the original equipment manufacturer (OEM). Consequently, the requirement for cost efficient repair technologies has increased from the OEM perspective. Recent manufacturing advances have been made that permits the repair of damaged aero-engine components through the rebuilding of the original geometry by means of blown powder directed powder deposition (DLD). Recent fatigue characterisation of material addition (MA) processed materials has concentrated on two specific aerospace alloys produced via a blown-powder route; the near α titanium alloy Ti-6242 and the nickel-based superalloy IN718. These two established aerospace alloys are both employed for high integrity components in current engine designs with their utilisation predicted to increase in future generations. Under a scenario where damage or processing artefacts may lead to the growth of fatigue cracks confined within the region of MA deposited material, damage tolerance must be considered as part of component lifing strategies. To this end, fatigue crack growth and threshold characteristics are required, over a range of temperature and load ratio representative of service conditions. When considering mechanical properties in general and under fatigue loading in particular, an equivalent if not a superior performance from the MA material when compared to the original forged alloy is the goal. Such relative comparisons were embedded within the current experimental matrix. Clearly, mechanical properties will be controlled by the local microstructure and micro-textures developed during the deposition and subsequent heat treatment stages and great efforts are always taken to ensure that

laboratory assessments employ specimens containing the service representative material condition. Supplementary information gained from our studies of IN718 MA materials will be employed to highlight the continued need for process optimisation in the control of mechanical properties. The fatigue performance of additive manufactured components and component sub-elements is of much current interest. The importance of the fatigue behaviour of such alloys in high integrity components has been contextualised by Gorelik [1], highlighting a need for appropriate application of fracture mechanics-based damage tolerance approaches to minimise risks associated with inherent material defects. Wan et al. [2] have proposed a multi-scale damage mechanics method to predict the fatigue life of additive manufactured structures, including build orientation and porosity with apparent success. The importance of processing parameters in the integrity of components produced via direct laser deposition (DLD) is given by Qiu et al. [3] for Ti-6Al-4V, describing tensile properties and variation of microstructure throughout the build, in addition to the microstructural control during DLD [4] and also of a β-titanium alloy [5]. A review of DLD for additive manufacturing is given by Shamsaei et al. [6] for a wide range of alloys with particular focus on the process parameter optimisation and mechanical behaviour. Beretta and Romano [7] discussed the sensitivity of fatigue behaviour to defects present in two additive manufactured alloys – including Ti-6Al-4V – produced by various techniques, collating results from over 20 sources. It was seen that the scatter of the fatigue properties was reduced when correlated to the defect size at the failure origin. It was concluded in [7] that the fatigue strength of additively manufactured alloys are similar and in some cases better than alloys produced using conventional processes. This is further supported by Wycisk et al. [8] where good fatigue performance was observed and with minimal scatter over defect size, although the endurance limit was seen to diminish owing to the surface roughness in the as-built condition. Fatemi et al. [9] further examined the torsional fatigue behaviour of wrought and additive Ti-6Al-4V produced by powder bed fusion and observed that the fatigue cracks in as-built specimens initiated from porosity and/or unmelted powder particles. In addition, the strength and low cycle fatigue (LCF) life of direct metal laser sintered Inconel 718 alloy was investigated by Gribben et al. [10], including the effect of build orientation. The strength and fatigue properties were seen to be

The above paper was presented at the Engineering Integrity Society, Fatigue 2017 Conference held at Downing College, Cambridge, UK on 3-5 July 2017. Copyright: Rolls-Royce plc.

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comparable at low strain amplitudes, however, a reduction in fatigue performance was observed with an applied HIP treatment owing to the presence of an increased amount of annealing twins, overshadowing the effect of porosity at high strain levels. Further work on the effect of microstructure and directional fatigue behaviour of Inconel 718 is given in [11] for an alloy produced by selective layer melting (SLM), where fatigue loading in the direction of the build is seen to provide the weakest response.

a)

MATERIALS AND METHODS The fatigue behaviour of Ti-6242 additive material was investigated in the final, re-machined condition. MA builds were deposited onto a forged substrate of equivalent material chemistry. In the present publication, greatest emphasis will be placed upon the Ti-6242 MA alloy assessed using axial high cycle fatigue (HCF) tests and fatigue crack growth (FCG) evaluation under 3-point bend conditions. A smaller matrix of mechanical testing was also performed on conventional forged Ti-6242 material to compare the relative performance of the MA test specimens. The developmental MA material described here was produced by Rolls-Royce plc. The blown-powder deposits of Ti-6242 were produced using experimental deposition strategies and laser parameters and should not be considered as fully optimised at this stage. The details are, however, considered proprietary. Nevertheless, an evaluation of these DLD structures remains pertinent when compared to their forged counterparts. The axial HCF tests were performed on a “scallop” specimen design of rectilinear cross section (2.5 x 5.4mm) with a radius applied to the edges. Specimens were extracted from a block of forged Ti-6242 material from which a near tri-angular section was machined out through the thickness and rebuilt using the blown powder based DLD technique, Figure 1a. Ultimately, the majority of the volume of the parallel sided gauge section of the axial specimen was constituted from DLD material, but pertinent to the eventual results also contained regions of the substrate forged material. Micrographs prepared from one scallop specimen are presented in Figure 2, from the forged and MA-deposited regions respectively.

b)

Figure 1. Specimen extraction for (a) axial HCF testing, and (b) fatigue crack growth

a)

b) Figure 2. Optical micrographs of Ti-6242; (a) forged substrate containing primary α and transformed α/β grains, and (b) MA deposit showing continuous grain boundary α.

post weld heat treatment (PWHT) of 595oC for 4 hours prior to specimen manufacture. Identical axial HCF and FCG specimens were also produced from conventional Ti-6242 forged disc material.

A similar philosophy was employed to generate rectilinear specimens (70 x 10 x 9mm) intended for FCG experiments under a 3-point bend configuration, Figure 1b. A starter slit was introduced via electro-discharge machining (EDM) across the width of the specimen at the central location on the intended tensile surface (0.3mm wide, 1.8mm deep). Hence, the subsequent fatigue crack exclusively sampled MA deposited material.

All axial HCF testing was performed to BS EN 6072:2010 on an Amsler vibrophore at a test frequency of 100Hz under high mean stress R=0.7 conditions. For elevated temperature tests a conventional radiant furnace was used. Specimens tested at 480°C were heated at 5°C/min and soaked at the test temperature for 30 minutes under zero stress prior to the application of loading. Throughout the HCF tests a maximum thermal gradient of 3°C was permitted, which was monitored using 3 N-type thermocouples equispaced along the uniform gauge section. The run-out condition for the axial HCF experiments was set at 107 cycles.

Notably, all MA processed materials were subjected to a

FCG and threshold experiments were carried-out to

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BS ISO 12108:2012 using a 3-point bend jig, mounted to a servo hydraulic mechanical test frame. Crack growth was monitored using an automated pulsed DC potential drop system, with probe wires diametrically spot welded across the starter slit. During constant load amplitude testing, a trapezoidal waveform was applied at a rate of 15 cycles per minute, with 1 second hold time at peak and valley loads and 1 second linear rise and fall ramps. A constant load ratio of R=0.1 was also used throughout and all testing was performed at ambient temperature. During threshold testing, a sinusoidal load waveform was employed between 5 and 10Hz. FCG threshold values were determined under constant Kmax and constant R=0.1 conditions. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Axial HCF Response As previously described, ‘scallop’ specimens were used to assess the integrity of Ti-6242 MA deposits. The axial HCF data from testing this composite arrangement at R=0.7 are presented in Figure 3 and compared to the results of tests performed on the conventional forged variant. The applied stress data has been normalised with respect to the 0.2% proof stress at the relevant temperatures. Notably, the fatigue performance of the Ti-6242 MA scallop specimens was equivalent or even stronger than the forged material at ambient temperature. A similar relationship was noted at 480°C, although on this occasion the MA scallop specimens actually exhibited a definite improvement in fatigue performance over the forged material.

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b)

Figure 4. SEM images from typical fracture surfaces of axial HCF Ti-6242 scallop test specimens; (a) 20°C, and (b) 480°C. individual facets, lying perpendicular to the tensile stress axis, were taken using electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) directly from the fracture surface and all were determined to be near basal in orientation. In contrast, the influence of oxidation became prevalent at 480°C, where surface initiation and fully transgranular fracture was common.

Figure 5. EBSD map from an orthogonal section taken beneath a subsurface crack initiation site of Ti-6242 scallop specimen tested at 20°C

It was noted during post-test inspection that the plane of fatigue failure in the scallop specimens was in fact exclusively located within the forged material (i.e. crack initiation and growth did not sample the MA scallop). A metallographic section was prepared orthogonal to one such failure, with the EBSD map shown in Figure 5 sampling the area immediately beneath the crack initiation site. Whilst the overall micro-texture in this region was relatively weak, i.e. grains were randomly a) b) orientated, a band of grains with common Figure 3. S/N curves for Ti-6242 (R=0.7, 100Hz): Maximum stress orientation (i.e. basal planes orthogonal to normalized against temperature dependent proof stress; (a) 20°C, and (b) the tensile stress axis) was noted running 480°C vertically and central to the field of view. It would appear that this collection of grains may have acted as a “macrozone” The fatigue failures observed were consistent within each temperature regime. At ambient temperatures, fatigue crack to influence the location of crack initiation. Such behaviour initiation was dominated by highly crystallographic facets is common for this specific alloy, reported previously by with α/β interfacial fracture in the early stage regions, as seen Woodfield et al. [12]. Failures in specimens tested at 480°C in Figure 4. Crystallographic orientation measurements of the also occurred in the forged parent material, although under

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this elevated test temperature consistently closer to the substrate/MA interface. Fatigue Crack Growth and Threshold Measurements Fatigue crack growth rates in forged and MA-deposited Ti-6242 were determined under constant load amplitude tests, under constant R=0.1 and ambient temperature. Qiu et al. [13] have reported the effects of microstructure, colony size and stress ratio on the crack growth behaviour of Ti-6242 under ambient temperatures. Previously, a) b) Sansoz and Ghonem [14] have investigated Figure 7. FCG rates (da/dN) as a function of applied stress intensity the fatigue crack growth mechanisms in Tirange (ΔK) for forged and MA deposited Ti-6242 under FCG threshold 6242 lamellar microstructures, examining testing imposing: (a) constant Kmax=12MPa.m½ conditions, and (b) the influence of loading frequency, including constant load ratio conditions, R=0.1 dwell, and elevated temperatures. The growth rates (da/dN) measured during the present study are shown in Figure 6, as a function of as expected from the high mean stress conditions imposed applied stress intensity range (ΔK) in the Stage II or Paris during the test, as described by Doker [16]. regime. Comparison is made to conventionally forged Ti6242 material characterized by Shen et al. [15]. Excellent Despite the agreement between the FCG and threshold agreement is noted between all these data. The crack growth behaviour of the two alloy variants (MA and forged) rates measured in the MA deposited and forged variants of from the quantitative perspective, marked differences in Ti-6242 are remarkably consistent across the range of ∆K the appearance of the fracture surface were observed, assessed. represented through optical inspection in Figure 8. The as-built MA structure is clear in Figure 8b and can be seen to influence the progression of the crack front at different points across the width of the specimen. As a reminder, the direction of through crack growth in this specimen was essentially parallel to the MA build direction. Columnar grains are evident vertical to the image following the axis of epitaxy during the build. The local fatigue crack growth is clearly affected by these microstructural features despite the “long crack” scale of measurement.

Figure 6. FCG rates (da/dN) as a function of applied stress intensity range (ΔK) for forged and MA-deposited Ti-6242, carried out under constant load amplitude testing and R=0.1. The dashed line is constructed from Paris coefficients reported by Shen et al [15] for conventional Ti6242 at a stress ratio of 0.1 and frequency of 10 Hz Fatigue crack threshold behavior was also consistent, with Figures 7a and 7b illustrating the values of ΔKth obtained when the alloy variants were tested under constant Kmax and constant R conditions respectively. The ΔKth measured for the MA deposited variant was consistently slightly lower than the equivalent forged counterpart, observed under both the constant Kmax and constant R conditions. The constant Kmax technique provides lower bound threshold properties

a) b) Figure 8. Optical images of FCG 3-point bend specimens tested under threshold conditions; (a) conventionally forged Ti-6242, and (b) MA-deposited Ti-6242.

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DISCUSSION The fatigue and crack growth characteristics demonstrated here for a MA variant of Ti-6242 must be considered to be highly promising when compared to the forged counterpart. Equivalence to the conventional forged alloy properties offers confidence to the employment of blown powder for a wide range of repair strategies. Whilst still at the developmental stage, the process optimisation relating to Ti-6242 appears to have eliminated potential artefacts that can limit the performance of DLD structures, especially under fatigue loading. None of the current Ti-6242 MA HCF specimens provided evidence of crack initiation from features such as entrapped gas pores or inclusions. Rather, initiation was dominated by sub-surface quasi-cleavage facet mechanisms at room temperature or oxidation induced surface initiation at elevated temperature. Even more promising was the fact that all HCF failures in the scallop style specimens were initiated in the substrate material rather than the MA build itself. It should be emphasised that the Ti-6242 DLD deposits only received a post weld heat treatment prior to testing (i.e. no subsequent solution heat treatment), leaving distinct differences in build and substrate microstructures as illustrated in Figure 2. The elastic constraint imposed on the AM material during deposition and solidification by the surrounding substrate will certainly affect local residual stress fields. It was notable how the location of crack initiation moved closer to the deposition interface with increasing test temperature, suggesting an additional but minor effect on the post MA process residual stress fields during elevated temperature exposure. Alternatively, the relative differences between the microstructure, microtexture and local stiffness of the substrate and MA scallop could all contribute to a redistribution of stress, forcing cracks to be initiated in the substrate rather than MA scallop. Notably, no failures were initiated from within the volume of the MA scallop in any specimen.

a)

b) Figure 9. Subsurface failures in axial HCF IN718 MA specimens; (a) initiation from a microscopic pore, and (b) fatigue initiation from a small non-metallic inclusion

a) b) Figure 10. High magnification views of initiating inclusion for Figure 9b inclusions forming in nickel based materials during MA is relatively high, together with undesirable constituent phases such as acicular δ which has been reported to be detrimental to fatigue properties by previous authors [18,19]. Examples of fatigue initiation in IN718 MA specimens from such features have been generated in our laboratory, Figure 9. What may appear to be a crack initiated through a highly crystallographic, faceted mechanism can often be traced back to a sub-surface inclusion when inspected under high magnification, Figure 10. Instances of localised microtexture have also been identified in IN718 MA materials, Figure 11. The formation of such texture and coarsening of microstructure in the build direction has been shown in this alloy previously by Lancaster et al. [20]. AydinÜz et al. [21] also described a strong texture in the as-built condition in IN718, albeit produced by selective layer melting (SLM). Clearly, the optimisation of nickel based MA structures is more demanding compared to titanium alloys and may explain why numerous research groups have reported significant reductions in fatigue strength compared to the equivalent substrate variant [22-24]

The near equivalent HCF performance of the Ti-6242 MA specimens compared to the forged counterparts in part reflects the absence of processing artefacts inherent in this class of alloy. Once deposition parameters have been optimised to avoid gas entrapment there remains relatively less concern over the presence of inclusions. Contrast this with the MA of nickel based superalloys which by their nature rely greatly on the evolution of complex microstructures containing a high volume fraction of precipitates and nonmetallic particles to ultimately control mechanical behaviour. The formation of such phases is sensitive to either solidification cooling rates and/or time of exposure at high temperature [17]. Figure 11. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) IPF map showing regions of preferential orientation within an IN718 MA microstructure Therefore, the probability of adverse

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CONCLUSIONS High cycle fatigue tests and crack growth data are reported for an MA variant of Ti-6242 produced via a blown powder additive manufacturing route. The following high level conclusions can be drawn:

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The degree of process optimisation appears to be well advanced for Ti-6242 with mechanical properties equivalent to forged products achieved.

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Scallop repairs to the edges of thin section structures show great promise, with fatigue crack initiation and growth restricted under fatigue loading to the substrate material.

Should damage be induced in the MA repair structure, the Ti-6242 MA variant demonstrated Stage II Paris performance comparable to conventional forged product, despite a marginally lower fatigue crack growth threshold.

(14) (15)

(16) (17) (18)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was funded by Innovate UK under SAMULET II WP11.2. The provision of materials and supporting information from Rolls-Royce plc is gratefully acknowledged. Mechanical tests were performed at Swansea Materials Research and Testing Ltd. (SMaRT).

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REFERENCE LIST (1) (2)

Gorelik, M., Int. J. Fatigue, Vol. 94, 2017, pp.168-177. Wan, H., Wang, Q., Jia, C., and Zhang, Z., Mater. Sci. Eng., A, Vol. 669, 2016, pp. 269-278. (3) Qiu, C., Ravi, G., Dance, C., Ranson, A., Dilworth, S., and Attallah, M.M., J. Alloy Compd., Vol. 629, 2015, pp. 351-361. (4) Ravi, G.A., Qiu, C., and Attallah, M.M., Mater. Lett., Vol. 179, 2016, pp. 104-108. (5) Qiu, C., Ravi, G.A., and Attallah, M.M., Mater. Des., Vol. 81, 2015, pp.21-30. (6) Shamsaei, N., Yadollahi, A., Bian, L., and Thompson, S.M., Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 8, 2015, pp. 12-35. (7) Beretta, S., and Romano, S., Int. J. Fatigue, Vol. 94, 2017, pp.178-191. (8) Wycisk, E., Solbach, A., Siddique, S., Herzog, D., Walther, F., and Emmelmann, C., Physics Procedia, Vol. 56, 2014, pp. 371-378. (9) Fatemi, A., Molaei, R., Sharifimehr, S., Shamsaei, N., and Phan, N., Int. J. Fatigue, Vol. 99, 2017, pp.187201. (10) Gribbin, S., Bicknell, J., Jorgensen, L., Tsukrov, I., and Knezevic, M., Int. J. Fatigue, Vol. 93, 2016, pp.156167. (11) Konečná, R., Nicoletto, G., Kunz, L., and Baca, A.,

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Procedia Structural Integrity, Vol. 2, 2016, pp. 23812388. Woodfield, A.P. , Gorman, M.D., Corderman, R.R., Sutliff, J.A., and Yamrom, B., Titanium ’95 Science and Technology, Vol. 2, Edited by P.A. Blenkinshop, W.J. Evans, H.M. Flower, The University Press, The Institute of Materials, UK, 1995, p. 116. Qiu, J., Feng, X., Maa, Y., Lei, J., Liu, Y., Huan, A., Rugg, D., and Yang, R., Int. J. Fatigue, Vol. 83, 2016, pp.150-160. Sansoz, F., and Ghonem, H., Metall. and Mat. Trans. A, Vol. 34(11), 2003, pp.2565-2577. Shen, W., Soboyejo, A.B.O., and Soboyejo, W.O., Metall. and Mat. Trans. A, Vol. 35(1), 2004, pp. 246258. Döker, H., Int. J. Fatigue, Vol. 19, 1997, pp. S145– S149, 1997. Reed, R., The Superalloys: Fundamental and Applications, Cambridge University Press, 2006. Pieraggi, B., and Uginet, J.F., Superalloys 718, 625 and Various Derivatives, Edited by E.A. Loria, The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, USA, 1994, pp. 535-544. Desvallées, Y., Bouzidi, M., Bois, F., and Beaude, N., Superalloys 718, 625 and Various Derivatives, Edited by E.A. Loria, The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, USA, 1994, pp. 281-291. Lancaster, R.J., Banik, R., Hurst, R.C., Bache, M.R., and Baxter G., Application of small punch test methods to advanced manufactured structures, 3rd Int. SSTT Conf. Determ. Mech. Prop. Mater. by Small Punch Other Miniat. Test. Tech., Schloss Seggau Seggauberg (2014), pp. 170–178. Aydinöz, M.E., Brenne, F., Schaper, M., Schaak, C., Tillmann, W., Nellesen, J., and Niendorf, T., Mater. Sci. Eng. A, Vol. 669, 2016, pp. 246-258. Huynh, L., Rotella, J., and Sangid, M.D., Materials & Design, Vol. 105, 2016, pp. 278-289. Yadollahi, A., and Shamsaei, N., Int. J. Fatigue, Vol. 98, 2017, pp. 14-31. Johnson, A.S., Shuai, S., Shamsaei, N., Thompson, S.M., and Bian, L., Solid Freeform Fabrication 2016 Science and Technology, Proceedings of the 27th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, University of Texas, USA, 2016, pp. 499511.

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University of Wolverhampton Racing The Engineering Integrity Society continues to support Wolverhampton University’s Formula Student Racing Team. It was a busy weekend in June for the University of Wolverhampton Racing Team, with both the F3 and the Morgan teams in action at Silverstone and Spa respectively.

Formula Student - After months of designing, testing, building, redesigning, re-testing and re-building, Wolf 4 was ready to go to Silverstone in July to compete against over 80 other University teams from around the world. UWR currently competes only in the petrol powered section and the car is evaluated and awarded points by a panel of judges.

UWR took the two Morgan Plus 4 Clubsport cars to the legendary circuit in Belgium, with Craig HamiltonSmith’s car sporting new UWR colours for the journey. The team took part in two races in the Spa Ardennes Challenge, both lasting around 40 minutes. In Race 1, Tony Hirst’s Clubsport narrowly beat Craig Hamilton-Smith in the sister car to take 1st in class (20th and 21st out of 49 drivers respectively). Race 2 saw even better fortunes for Hirst with another strong performance on the track seeing him home again as 1st in class (18th of 44). Craig Hamilton-Smith took 2nd in class (22nd out of 44) and the weekend finished with both drivers and teams pleased with an improving performance and a job well done. The F3 team had a weekend of mixed fortunes at the Silverstone National, the home of British racing. Starting from 2nd place on the grid, Kelly took second place. But every podium finish is vital in F3 and the team were bouyant after a warm but overcast Saturday.

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their second win of the season. As the dust settled and the points from the day were calculated, UWR were delighted to see that they were in 2nd place in the championship, and just 10 points behind the leader. AR Morgan Challenge - Another busy weekend in August with Race 1 at Silverstone with Hirst taking the 1st in class (12th overall) while HamiltonSmith took 2nd in class (15th overall). Race 2 the Techniques Trophy, saw Hirst finishing 1st in class (11th overall) to Hamilton-Smith’s 2nd in class (12th overall) by just eight tenths of a second. Hamilton-Smith set the fastest lap in class by 0.01 of a second!

FS Photo Courtesy of Lucy Bond

At Mallory Park Hirst held on to take 1st in class (8th overall), fractionally ahead of Hamilton-Smith’s 2nd in class (9th overall.

Scrutineering brought up a variety of issues which the team toiled to fix, and sadly an irreparable mechanical issue with the braking system brought the weekend to a close. In the end, UWR finished 54th out of 81 competing teams (32nd of UK Universities) and left Silverstone with their heads held high, knowing they’d given the competition everything they could.

British Hillclimb - Graham Wynn and his 700bhp Gould were in action at Shelsey Walsh supported by the students and staff of UWR and over two days of action, Graham took 1st in Class on Saturday and Sunday, setting the fastest time of the weekend in the process.

Race 2 placed Kelly 3rd on the grid sealing 3rd place by a comfortable margin.

AR Morgan Challenge - Both of the Morgan Plus 4 Club Sports were in action at Donington Park on Sunday 15 July, and both teams performed well. In the first race of the day Hirst and Hamilton-Smith finished 11th and 13th respectively (1st and 2nd in class), and in race 2 Tony Hirst took 1st in class once more, with a very respectable 6th overall, and Craig Hamilton-Smith 2nd in class and 9th overall.

Race 3 suffering a mechanical failure on the formation lap, Kelly never even started the race. The team were disappointed, but on investigation discovered that the Mugen Honda engine, which was due to be replaced after Silverstone, had failed. It’s an important part of professional sport to bounce back from disappointments quickly and UWR watched the rest of the race with interest.

MSVR F3 Cup - The racing wolves went to Oulton Park with a freshly rebuilt Mugen Honda engine in the back of the F308. With one eye on saving his tyres for the second race, UWR’s Kelly eased off the pace and finished a respectable 3rd.The UWR team made adjustments for the longer, hotter race that would get underway at 6pm and with good tyres was able to pull out a strong lead and the team took

F3 Cup - Snetterton – Kelly finished in 5th place for the first two races and 4th place for the final race slipping into 3rd place in the drivers championship, but only by 5 points, and the racing wolves are only 32 points behind the leader, Cian Carey. With some luck and some hard work (and an extra testing session at Rockingham!) there’s still time for our students to claim the championship.

FS Photo Courtesy of James Small


How it Works - Tyre/Road Contact Patch Information TARMAC to the contact patch TARMAC is a word used around the world to describe the roads we use to get around, the runways used to fly off on holidays or by F1 TV commentators talking about tyre selection. The public think of pot-holes and traffic jams. Pilots are concerned about getting aircraft stopped in wet conditions due to rubber building up on the runway. In contrast, F1 commentators frequently refer to the tarmac being green until race teams see the benefit of laying down rubber to improve lap times. Whilst the black stuff used to build roads, runways and tracks looks the same to most people, calling it TARMAC is wrong. TARMAC is an abbreviation of two words – tar and macadam - and dates from the start of the 19th century when coal was burnt to produce gas for electricity and heating created TAR as a waste. As quantities increased it was used to bind together the macadam stone layers used to build roads. MACADAM comes from John Loudon Macadam, a Scottish engineer who gave his name back in the early 19th century to the principle of building roads using layers of stone of different sizes. This was the basis of modern road design where a binder is used to hold aggregate particles together and give the road specific engineering characteristics. The availability of tar and Macadam’s design principles led to the widespread use of TARMAC in road construction. However, TAR has not been used to

build roads for many years and is now considered a contaminated waste and if found during road works needs to be carefully managed. TAR as a road binder was replaced by BITUMEN which was created as a by-product in the distillation of crude oil with the advent of the internal combustion engine. TARMAC was replaced by BITMAC as a generic descriptive term. More recently, European harmonisation of standards and terms used to describe construction products has seen the word ASPHALT adopted to describe any combination of stone and bitumen used to construct roads and other paved areas such as runways and tracks. ASPHALT is typically black and is laid and compacted in layers to build a road. This layered, composite structure is typically designed to last at least 50 years. The different layers have specific engineering properties to dissipate applied trafficking loads down through its structure. The surface layer is what people see. It is designed to have additional properties such as wet grip; and address issues such as noise, rolling resistance and spray. Aggregate with good skid resistance for roads may be transported considerable distances. There are no suitable rocks in the SE of England that have the required properties and has prompted the widespread importation of aggregate from other parts of the UK. It has also prompted the widespread recycling of many road surface materials. Suitable aggregate may even be shipped from England to create the surface of race tracks such as Yas Marina.

Laboratory prediction of wet skid resistance increasing due to bitumen removal exposing the aggregate

Bitumen can be modified to make it stick better to the road surface aggregate particles. Exposure to the sun, heat, cold, water and oxygen will change its

An ASTM friction measuring tyre resting on a cut section of asphalt. properties. Varying the combination of aggregate particle sizes and amount of bitumen gives the road surface different types of texture. It may be porous and allow rainwater to disperse through it when it rains so improving wet grip and driving conditions by reducing spray. It may be dense and impervious with a very smooth compacted surface. Many types of asphalt mix are possible between these two extremes. In the UK and Europe the main types are referred to as Asphalt Concrete, Hot Rolled Asphalt, Stone Mastic Asphalt and Thin Surface Course Systems. Whilst they all provide the same functional characteristics i.e. a smooth uniform surface to drive on, they are distinctly different with respect to their contact patch and how they interact with tyre rubber. The road, runway or track user interacts with this asphalt surface in what is termed a CONTACT PATCH. The tyre and surface texture envelope one another to form a complex, rapidly changing 3D interface. Fundamentally important, what happens in the CONTACT PATCH is not really well understood. If the driver is excluded, it is a combination of vehicle, tyre and road surface working through this CONTACT PATCH that helps reduce the risk of accidents causing serious injury or death. It’s what generates noise making people complain about noisy roads. It’s what causes unexpected tyre wear should the wrong tyres be selected for a F1 race. Driving along in the fast lane on the

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How it Works with water in the CONTACT PATCH becomes increasingly important as the consequences can be very serious.

The tyre road surface contact patch shown using a paint removal technique

New ASPHALT surfaces will have a layer of bitumen between the rubber and aggregate which takes time to wear away. This can happen quite quickly in the channelised lanes of a busy motorway. However, the use of heavily modified bitumen in ASPHALT mixes used on track tracks can take much longer to wear away as a racing line starts to develop around the track due to how the tyres interact with the ASPHALT.

motorway contact times between the tyre and aggregate particles are in milliseconds – much faster than the blink of an eye. If it has been raining a wedge of water may build up in front of each tyre lifting it off the surface effectively causing the vehicle to float on a layer of water. As speed increases the need to deal

Whether termed TARMAC, BITMAC or ASPHALT; many years of practical experience, fundamental research and product development has improved and optimised the mixtures of aggregate and binders used in road construction. Surely everything is known about this black stuff we use every day. If all the answers are known then why are there

still noisy roads and pot-holes? Why do F1 tyres blister or wear away after just a few laps? In truth all the answers are not known. What happens in the contact patch is not really understood or appreciated. The world of ASPHALT and the CONTACT PATCH is now going into a period of tremendous speculation and probable change due to autonomous vehicles, changing types of aircraft and ever-increasing development of race cars and bikes. More will be expected by the road, runway or track user making knowledge of what’s happening in the CONTACT PATCH much more important. Dr David Woodward Ulster University Readers may be interested in attending the EIS seminar ‘‘Tyre Road Contact’ at HORIBA-MIRA on 15 November 2018 when this topic will be discussed further.

MEMBERSHIP The Engineering Integrity Society is an independent charitable organisation, supported and sponsored by industry. The Society is committed to promoting events and publications, providing a forum for experienced engineers and new graduates to discuss current issues and new technologies. We aim for both company and personal development and to inspire newly qualified engineers to develop their chosen profession. Events run provide an ideal opportunity for engineers to meet others who operate in similar fields of activity over coffee and lunch. All of our events enable engineers to establish and renew an excellent ‘contact’ base while keeping up to date with new technology and developments in their field of interest. We are involved in a wide range of Industrial sectors including Automotive, Aerospace, Civil, Petrochemical etc and continue to be interested in new members from all sectors. Benefits: • • •

EIS members receive a subscription to ‘Engineering Integrity’, mailed direct to their office or private address. Discounts to EIS events. Access to Task Groups, to take part, or to receive information and recommendations.

Fees:

Personal Membership (UK) Personal Overseas Membership Corporate Membership (1 April - 31 March)

£25 a year £30 a year £400+VAT a year (pro rata)

Application forms can be downloaded from the membership page at www.e-i-s.org.uk If your membership has expired or you are unsure if your membership is current, contact: info@e-i-s.org.uk

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The Engineering Integrity Society

Fatigue 2020

Downing College Cambridge, UK 29 June -1 July 2020

FIRST ANNOUNCEMENT AND CALL FOR PAPERS www.fatigue2020.com


FOREWORD The Fatigue 2020 conference will bring the international fatigue and durability community together to share knowledge and understand the challenges in using sophisticated engineering simulation and modelling tools to complement sound test programmes and develop reliable and cost effective products for modern usage. As engineering modelling and simulation tools become ever more powerful and sophisticated there still remains the challenge of correlating the virtual world with both idealised laboratory testing and the wide, and potentially unexpected, range of service conditions experienced by machines and structures. These challenges are compounded by the advent of new materials, new ways of manufacturing components, new applications and new test and measurement techniques. We will seek to explore not only the latest developments in engineering modelling and simulation, advances in test and measurement techniques, innovations in manufacturing, and developments in materials science, but also the complex interrelations between all these topics that give rise to improvements in fatigue performance, durability and structural integrity. The 3 day conference builds on the long established philosophy of the Engineering Integrity Society to provide a forum for practising engineers and researchers to exchange ideas and experiences in all aspects of structural integrity. Contributions will be welcome from all disciplines, industries and research organisations. As well as giving practitioners an opportunity to keep up-to-date in the latest developments in durability of materials and structural analysis techniques, the conference will provide an excellent forum for researchers to promote their work and enhance its transfer to, and impact on, industrial applications.

LOCATION The conference will take place at Downing College, University of Cambridge. Cambridge is one of the most important and picturesque cities in East Anglia. It is the county town of Cambridgeshire and the seat of one of the oldest universities in the British Isles. Downing College was founded in 1800 through a bequest made by Sir George Downing. The College’s beautiful neo-classical buildings are set in spacious and peaceful gardens in the centre of Cambridge.

KEYNOTE SPEAKERS We are pleased to welcome Professor Youshi Hong (Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) and Dr Tommaso Ghidini (European Space Agency) who will be keynote speakers at the conference.

CALL FOR PAPERS As with previous conferences we shall be preparing a special issue of selected papers for a prestigious international journal. We also have other exciting opportunities including working with the Italian Group of Fracture to publish a large number of papers in Frattura ed Integrita Structurale. A selection of conference papers, including those of the Peter Watson Prize winners, will be published in Engineering Integrity, the Journal of the EIS.


We are particularly interested in papers that address the questions: • Durability of advanced materials; • Novel manufacturing techniques for improved component durability; Integrity of recycled and reprocessed materials; • Joining technologies: bolts, welds, adhesives, joining dissimilar materials, correlation of testing and in-service durability; • Surface engineering and durability; • Innovations in 3D imaging for structural integrity;

PETER WATSON PRIZE The Peter Watson Prize will be awarded to the best presentation given by a young engineer Entrants should meet at least one of the following criteria: • A person working in industry below the age of 28 on submission (potential entrants please provide date of birth with abstract) • A post-doctoral worker with a maximum of 3 years’ experience since completing a PhD/EngD • Any currently registered undergraduate or postgraduate student

SUBMISSION OF PAPERS You are kindly requested to submit an abstract (one A4 page maximum, only in pdf format, size lower than 1MB) to the Conference Secretariat by 28 February 2019. The abstract should contain: • Title of the paper • Authors (full address of the company, email, personal titles of the corresponding author and co-authors) • Statement of contents and main points The abstract should clearly emphasise the main scientific, technical, economic or practical aspects of the paper.

KEY DATES Deadline for receipt of abstract - 28 February 2019 Notification of abstract acceptance - 12 April 2019 Full papers to be received - 30 September 2019

PROCEEDINGS AND EXHIBITION All accepted papers will be included in the conference proceedings. The proceedings containing the full texts will be distributed to delegates at the registration desk. An exhibition of material testing equipment and other fatigue related services is planned. Interested companies should contact the Conference Secretariat.


HOTEL ACCOMMODATION Rooms have been reserved in Halls of Residence at Downing College. These are en-suite and of a high standard. The number of rooms available is limited and early reservation, through the Conference Secretariat, is recommended.

INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE Shahrum Abdullah (Malaysia) Robert Akid (UK) Martin Bache (UK) Filippo Berto (Norway) Matteo Luca Facchinetti (France) Hossein Farrahi (Iran) André Galtier (France) Marc Geers (The Netherlands) Francesco Iacoviello (Italy) Muhsin J Jweeg (Iraq) Liviu Marsavina (Romania) Johan Moverare (Sweden) Alfredo Navarro (Spain) Thierry Palin-Luc (France) Christophe Pinna (UK) Michael Sangid (USA) Luca Susmel (UK) Yee Han Tai (UK) Jie Tong (UK) Youshi Hong (China)

LOCAL TECHNICAL COMMITTEE John Yates Filippo Berto Yee Han Tai Peter Bailey Chris Magazzeni Hayder Ahmad Hassan Ghadbeigi Robert Cawte Farnoosh Farhad Vicki Wilkes Paul Roberts Mark Whittaker Andy Blows Francisco A Diaz Pablo Lopez-Crespo Sandra Craig Oscar De Souza Yi Gao Mohamed Bennebach

CONFERENCE SECRETARIAT Sara Atkin Engineering Integrity Society, 6 Brickyard Lane, Farnsfield, Nottinghamshire, NG22 8JS, UK Tel. +44 (0)1623 884225 | Email: info@e-i-s.org.uk | Website: www.fatigue2020.com

Registered Address: Engineering Integrity Society, c/o Hollis & Co., 35 Wilkinson Street, Sheffield S10 2GB Business Registration No. 1959979. VAT Registration No. GB 443 7696 18. Registered Charity No. 327121


Diary of Events The Challenges of Structural Integrity at High Temperature 4 October Phoenix Materials Testing, Brierley Hill

Peter Watson Prize Final 2018 23 October Derby County Football Club

Other Events supported by the EIS

IET Vitalscan, Detecting Heart Attacks Using Artificial Intelligence 20 September 2018 Coventry, UK

Advanced Engineering 2018 31 October - 1 November 2018 NEC, Birmingham

Tyre Road Contact 15 November 2018 HORIBA-MIRA, Nuneaton

Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition 2 April 2019 Silverstone

IoT Tech Expo North America 28-29 November Silicon Valley, USA

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Industry News Welcome to the Industry/Product News section of the journal. The nominal limit for submissions is 200 words. Please forward press releases to catherine@cpinder.com

Amey encourages school girls from underprivileged areas into STEM A team of school girls from Staffordshire has won Amey’s first ever regional Challenge Cup, a competition aimed at inspiring girls from underprivileged areas into STEM (science, technology, engineering and maths) careers. The Challenge Cup involves teams of six girls aged 13 – 15, looking at all aspects of an engineering project including planning, budgeting and managing risk. It was designed to show how many different roles are available within the technology and engineering sectors, as well as influence underprivileged and working class school girls to break the status quo and consider alternative careers. Only 23 per cent of the UK STEM workforce is female, which is significantly lower compared to the rest of Europe. Created four years ago as a careers involvement day by Birminghambased Amey staff, the competition has grown to include a number of schools in various areas in the West Midlands, all of which had to go through a number of heats to reach the final in June. Led by Amey Finance Manager Nuraniyah Khokar, a team of Amey staff developed two extremely difficult activities for the students who completed a range of tasks, including designing and building a scale model replacement for a real-life bridge collapse in Worcestershire. The final required the three teams to design a section of Smart Motorway after a briefing from Ian FaddyWidmann, Amey’s Principal ITS Engineer who is currently working on real life Smart Motorways projects.

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EOWDC turbine exports power to National Grid as commissioning continues Scotland’s largest offshore wind test site generates first power The ground-breaking European Offshore Wind Deployment Centre (EOWDC) generated power for the first time on Sunday, July 1. Clean power from the pioneering offshore wind farm, developed by Swedish energy group Vattenfall, is being successfully exported to the National Grid from the first of the 11 turbines to go live. The power was exported via the scheme’s innovative 66 kilovolt (kV) subsea cabling – the first time that cabling of this capacity has been installed on a commercial offshore wind project in Scotland. Power from the turbines at the EOWDC is being exported through, two ‘strings’ of 4km export cable with a capacity of 66kV. Compared with conventional cabling of 33kV less inter-array cabling is required leading to reduced construction cost. Overall, just over 21km of cabling has been installed from the EOWDC to Blackdog substation - similar to the distance from Aberdeen to Stonehaven. For further information, please contact: Karen Grant, BIG Partnership – +44 (0)131 557 5252 or + 44 (0)7805 436 957 or karen.grant@bigpartnership. co.uk

trial a range of intelligent connected features such as emergency electronic brake light warning (EEBL), emergency vehicle warning (EVW), and in-vehicle signage (IVS) for road works warning (RWW) and traffic condition warning (TCW). The UK CITE project will create the UK’s first fully connected infrastructure, using a globally unique combination of wireless technologies, which can enable real-world testing in a safe and managed way. The project is funded by the Government’s £100m Connected and Autonomous Vehicle fund, delivered by Innovate UK. The project is worth a total of £7.1m including investment from the Government and Highways England. The UK CITE consortium comprises leading industry, academic and local and national governmental organisations. It is jointly led by Visteon Engineering Services Limited and Jaguar Land Rover and includes Coventry City Council, Coventry University, Highways England Company Ltd, HORIBA MIRA, Huawei Technologies (UK) Ltd, Siemens, TfWM, Vodafone Group Services Ltd, and WMG at University of Warwick. For further information, please contact Bethany Haller or Sam Gavin at Grayling on 0121 265 2760 or email ukcite@grayling.com.

Barrett Steel Offer STEM Support to Schools Connected car testing goes live in Coventry as part of UK CITE Consortium A project to create one of the world’s most advanced environments for connected and autonomous driving has entered its second phase of testing, with connected cars going on trial on public roads to prepare the UK’s road networks for self-driving cars. The second phase of the UK CITE consortium will see Jaguar Land Rover

Encouraging children to study STEM subjects (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) is something that Barrett Steel Ltd feel extremely strongly about. Following an approach from a secondary school asking for steel to use in lessons, Barrett Steel were honoured to be asked to get involved and are keen to support the education of young people nationwide, where they can.


Donating excess product to help with the education of the future engineers seemed like an excellent idea, and a way in which this long-established family company could have a positive impact on their local communities.

The Istanbul Team also won the Safety and Airworthiness Prize for which they displayed good organisation skills and a very positive air safety culture. A really professional outfit flying a really capable UAS.

in September 2018 Sir John Nelthorpe School in Brigg, North Lincolnshire introduced a new Engineering course for GCSE students and reached out to local companies to support the faculty with charitable donations of steel, copper, brass or aluminium offcuts.

This year’s event featured a number of innovations. These included hybrid drones from Swansea University and Team Horus at Southampton University, which both combined a helicopter’s vertical lift before converting into planemode for more efficient flight.

Barrett Steel’s depot in Scunthorpe, Kass Steel Stockholders were put in touch and invited school staff to visit and examine some suitable pieces for their project needs.

Team Nova from University College London designed a micro-jet engine for their drone, the first time a jet engine had been seen in the competition.

Tom Barrett, Commerical Director of Barrett Steel, said, “STEM subjects are the core of our business and our customers. Anything we can do to assist the skillset of our local communities is fundamental to the industry’s advancement.”

MIRA Technology Institute outlines innovative suite of automotive apprenticeships

Istanbul Technical University wins UAS Challenge drone competition 21 June 2018 - Engineering students from Istanbul Technical University beat 20 other teams to be crowned the winners of the “fly-off” final of the UAS Challenge 2018 drone design competition, which is organised by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. The runner up was Team Athena from the Southampton University and third place was awarded to Team Hawk from the Huddersfield University. This year’s challenge was to design, build and operate a drone for a humanitarian aid mission. Alongside participants from the UK – including last year’s champions Bath University – the competition included entrants from Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The event was held at the Snowdonia Aerospace Centre in north Wales.

• New Institute to provide a range of apprenticeships and courses from Level 2 to Level 7 • Curriculum designed to help meet the demand for specialist skills in the automotive sector MIRA Technology Institute, a unique partnership between North Warwickshire and South Leicestershire College, HORIBA MIRA, Coventry University, Loughborough University and the University of Leicester has detailed a suite of apprenticeships that will underpin their ambition to help the UK develop the next generation of skilled engineers. The Institute, opening later this year, has been created to help satisfy an ever-increasing demand for specialist skills in the automotive sector. The curriculum will include new and innovative automotive apprenticeship training from Intermediate through to Masters Level apprenticeships in Automotive Engineering, as well as professional development courses and qualifications in project management and quality management.

The accredited include:

courses

available

• Intermediate, Advanced & Higher Automotive Engineering Apprenticeships • Level 3 Practitioner Certificate in Quality Management • HNC in Engineering - Operations • Level 5 Professional Certificate in Quality Management • Higher Apprenticeship in Project Management • Level 6 Product Design and Development Engineer – under development for 2019 • Masters Level Apprenticeship – Post Graduate Design Engineer – under development for 2019 Students will have access to a range of new, disruptive technologies as part of their courses including Rapid Prototype, 3D Printing, Robotics, Fluid Power, Mechatronics and Electronic Circuit Design. The unique and specialised courses offered by MIRA Technology Institute will be vital to ensuring the UK automotive industry continues to prosper by training the next generation, and upskilling the current automotive workforce.

World First: Bin lorry recycled with electric power • Silent running, zero emissions, electric Refuse Collection Vehicle (eRCV) being trialled for the first time in Greenwich • Repowering an end-of-life vehicle doubles lifespan, whilst bringing a wide range of environmental and social benefits • £300,000 per vehicle cost saving over non-compliant ULEZ diesel alternative • New Ultra Low Emissions regulations will affect 60,000 commercial vehicles Greenwich, London, 21 June 2018 – A refuse collection vehicle at the end of its normal working life has been

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Industry News repowered with an electric motor and is due to shortly begin ‘real world’ trials in Greenwich. It is hoped that ‘repowering’ will greatly extend the working life of high value commercial and local authority vehicles, and cut air and noise pollution in residential areas. The Greenwich trials will test the viability of the technology and make the economic case for repowering heavy commercial vehicles. The prototype will be tested alongside the existing refuse fleet, managed by the Royal Borough of Greenwich. It is estimated that the repowering modification will double the vehicle’s operational life, extending it to 14 years, and generate a lifetime cost saving of up to £300,000 compared to a Euro 5 or older diesel powered model. The trial marks the culmination of a year long technical development by a consortium comprised of Magtec, a UK technology firm specialising in the electrification of vehicles, the Royal Borough of Greenwich and its urban innovation agency, DG Cities. The project was part funded by Innovate UK, the Government’s research and development lead.

The miniature car created by a group of students that could change the future of driverless cars A group of final year Engineering students, supervised by Dr Alistair McEwan, at the University of Leicester, have developed a miniature autonomous drive-by-wire vehicle which will provide knowledge that could speed up the development of driverless cars. The student-developed ‘μPod’ prototype could potentially lead to a whole new system of testing code and algorithms for connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs). Fully autonomous vehicle are ones in which a driver is not necessary,

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although these vehicles will be able to carry passengers. Connected vehicle technologies allow vehicles to ‘talk’ to each other and to the infrastructure around them, with well-known examples including GPS navigation. The vehicle prototype is a 1:6 scale version of the LUTZ Pathfinder Pod developed by Transport Systems Catapult (TSC) a not-for-profit Technology and Innovation Company. The students’ drive-by-wire miniature vehicle has been created to act as a representative initial platform for the testing of the code and algorithms, which would then be applied to the full-size pod. It is capable of driving under remote control, but also has the electronic components required to enable autonomous control. The vehicle can function in two modes- by remote control using a standard Xbox controller and under autonomous control. The autonomous mode enables the vehicle to follow a previously mapped out route without further command input. This works by first recording a GPS route for a certain route through the Xbox remote control. After a completed GPS route recording is collected, the autonomous mode can work by following the recorded GPS file with latitude, longitude and heading as reference, allowing it to move to the destination with self-adjustment as necessary.

University of Glasgow and Oles Honchar Dnipro National University in Ukraine discuss how they have built, fired, and for the first time throttled up and down an ‘autophage’ engine which could change how small satellites are sent into space. Today, most rockets use tanks to store their propellant as they climb, and the weight of the tanks is usually many times greater than the weight of the useful payload. This reduces the efficiency of the launch vehicle, and also contributes to the problem of space debris. However, a launch vehicle powered by an autophage engine would consume its own structure during ascent, so more cargo capacity could be freed-up and less debris would enter orbit. The autophage engine consumes a propellant rod which has solid fuel on the outside and oxidiser on the inside. The solid fuel is a strong plastic, such as polyethylene, so the rod is effectively a pipe full of powdered oxidiser. By driving the rod into a hot engine, the fuel and oxidiser can be vaporised into gases that flow into the combustion chamber. This produces thrust, as well as the heat required to vaporise the next section of propellant. Simply by varying the speed at which the rod is driven into the engine, the researchers have shown that the engine can be throttled – a rare capability in a solid motor. Currently, the team have sustained rocket operations for 60 seconds at a time in their lab tests.

Engineers aim for the stars with new rocket engine A ‘self-eating’ rocket engine which could place small satellites in orbit more easily and more affordably is under development at universities in Scotland and Ukraine. In a paper titled ‘Autophage Engines: Toward a Throttleable Solid Motor’ published in the Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, engineers from the

Lamppost EV charging points brought to market thanks to WMG Lampposts could be the answer to electric vehicle charging, thanks to help from researchers at WMG, University of Warwick in bringing a new brand of charging points to market – some of which are powering electric vehicles on the University campus.


Startup company char.gy created a new electric vehicle charging point product – which can be easily installed onto existing lampposts, resulting in no requirement to add another power supply or dig up the road or pathway – but it required a bespoke electronic circuit board in order for it to meet to EU standards for public charge points. The SME support team at WMG helped char.gy rapidly design, build and test a prototype of the new electronics board in order to achieve the certification deadlines. Because of this, char.gy was able to complete the product to time, and send it for testing – eventually making the charge points ready for public use. The University of Warwick not only supported the development of char. gy, but has also purchased “char.gys” to charge electric vehicles across the campus – including the University Estates Team’s new fleet of batterypowered Nissan vans. Through cutting-edge research and an evolving campus infrastructure, the University of Warwick is committed to accelerating the future of energyefficient electric vehicles, and supporting the growing number of people who use them. The University of Warwick campus currently has four char.gy points – as well as numerous other electric vehicle charging points - and will purchase more in the near future.

AMRC and Rhodes Interform Press on with new Composite Forming Facility Rhodes Interform, a specialist in bespoke composite and metal forming machinery, has recently completed the installation and testing of a ‘world class’ composite forming facility at the University of Sheffield’s Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC) in the UK.

The AMRC’s brief was to design, develop and manufacture a composite press that could ‘do it all’ as it would be used as a facility to assist a wide range of UK companies to stay at the leading edge of composite development.

the aim is to create a business with the capabilities, breadth and scale to deliver differentiated customer value, for example, in the domains of propulsion, durability, safety and noise, vibration and harshness.

The state of the art facility, comprising of a 10,000 kN hydraulic press with six axis loading, high pressure RTM, twin die transfer tables, thermal fluid heating system and die splitter, is capable of a wide range of composite forming including Open and Closed Moulding, Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM), Prepreg, Compression Moulding and Thermoplastics. The project attracted funding from the Government’s Advanced Manufacturing Supply Chain Initiative (AMSCI).

In preparation of the merge, a new management team has been selected, drawing on the strengths and expertise from both HBM and BKSV. Merger preparation activities will be undertaken from now through to the end of 2018, and during this phase, both companies will operate in existing structures. All existing HBM agreements, points of contact, procedures, partnerships etc. will continue as normal.

Rhodes Interform, part of Group Rhodes, based in Wakefield, worked very closely with the AMRC team throughout the design and manufacture phase of the project ensuring that the bespoke equipment was delivered both on time and to the client’s exacting specifications. The machine will be available for use by companies looking to develop their composite capability through Research and Development. For more information please visit the website www.grouprhodes.co.uk

HBM and Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration To Merge HBM – a market leader in the field of test and measurement – is pleased to announce it will be merging its activities with BKSV (Brüel and Kjær Sound and Vibration) from 1 January 2019. Both owned by UK based Spectris Plc, the new company will be named HBK (Hottinger, Brüel and Kjær).

“Brüel and Kjær and HBM are both premium hardware providers in measurement with a strong focus on software. By combining their activities, the two companies can deliver an integrated offering, combining sensors, data acquisition, preparation, evaluation and engineering services into one solution for its customers” says Eoghan O’Lionaird, Business Group Director responsible for the Test and Measurement segment. “This aligns closely with the Spectris strategy of focusing on the provision of complete solutions combining hardware, software and related services and will enable us to provide a broader service with increased value to BKSV and HBM customers.” For further information: Tel: +44 (0) 1525 304980, email: info@ uk.hbm.co.uk or visit the HBM website at www.hbm.com

Both HBM and BKSV are global leaders in their respective disciplines and have complementary expertise across the measurement chain. By leveraging their respective strengths,

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Product News New wide-ranging sensor

particulate

Alphasense has launched a new version of its optical particle counter. The new OPC-N3 retains all of the advantages of its predecessor (OPC-N2) with the added benefit of automatic range switching covering PM10, PM2.5 and PM1. With an expanded measuring range (0.38 to 40 µm), the OPC-N3 is able to measure the particulate fractions of most interest; from the finest of particles up to larger particles such as pollen. “This is an extremely important development for manufacturers of air quality monitoring instrumentation,” says Alphasense Director, Arthur Burnley. The OPC-N3 measures particulates with minimal maintenance using a patented design, providing both particulate matter readings and realtime particle size histograms. As such, the sensor competes in performance with existing analytical units, but at a fraction of the cost. Full technical specifications for the new OPC-N3 are available from www.alphasense.com in addition to detailed information on the company’s other sensors.

ACSOFT Introduces Acoustic Camera

Handheld

Leading specialist in sound and vibration instrumentation, software and sensors, AcSoft Sound & Vibration (www.acsoft.co.uk) is now offering the AC100 AcoustiCAM® from SINUS Messtechnik GmbH. The portable, low cost and easy to use acoustic camera has been specially designed to quickly identify and find the precise location of sound sources. Aimed at standalone applications, the affordable AcoustiCAM has a multi microphone array that uses beam forming techniques to overlay an

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acoustic image onto a visual image that allows the operator to see sound sources. It is ideal for the sound analysis of complex objects and often reveals issues where conventional measurement methods using single microphones have difficulty.

single-beam design, offering skipfree regulation over the entire speed range • No demand for top cover cooling under the most common conditions. Variable-speed advantages added

In addition to the AC100 acoustic camera, AcSoft is offering the Tornado multi-channel system for both stationary and mobile applications. This is an excellent platform for data acquisition with conventional microphone arrays and for the beamforming calculation with its high performance PC. For product information please contact Paul Rubens, Tel: 01234 639550 or visit www.acsoft.co.uk

Johnson Controls introduces the SMC Mk 5 compressor, reflecting SABROE’s dedication to continuous development of the reciprocating compressor portfolio. 29 May 2018 – Johnson Controls, a global leader in delivering solutions that increase energy efficiency, reliability and durability, has launched the SABROE® SMC Mk 5 reciprocating compressor. Numerous valuable updates have been implemented in the SMC compressor, including the option of a unit without oil separator, providing smaller footprint and a lower unit cost. The main specifications of the SMC Mk 5 are: • Extended service life over the entire operating range (+25%) • Load-based service option, providing further extension of service life • Configuration without oil separator, meaning a smaller footprint at a lower cost • 20% capacity boost achieved by changing the shaft speed from 1500 rpm to 1800 rpm • Optimised for variable speed with

All SMC Mk 5 compressors can be fitted with variable-speed drive (VSD) as standard. VSD ensures exceptional performance with maximum energy efficiency, even under part load conditions and changing operating requirements. The skip-free speed regulation offers a huge capacity area from 100-28%, without any efficiency loss, and ensures that performance and operating costs are optimised at all times. For more information, www.sabroe.com

visit

Moog’s New Test Controller for Automotive Test Labs Easily Balances Reliability, Value, and Features Moog has developed the Moog Test Controller, a new 1 – 32 channel, modular test controller, for automotive test lab managers, to improve the quality of test data, speed up test setups and decrease the time it takes labs to complete tests. Moog engineered its new Test Controller to satisfy lab managers’ desire for an easy-to-use product that delivers exceptional value with a wide set of features. Moog’s newly developed Test Controller offers lab and project managers phased control to all the channels in a test system, along with the functionality to save the setup parameters and test profiles for later use. It provides advanced control loops for improved feedback control and on-the-fly, “bumpless” transfer from one control mode to another (e.g., force to position control). Moog also eliminated the need


for an external program generator to manually change command signals during a test, ensuring quicker set up so the designated test can start faster. The Moog Test Controller’s built-in data acquisition for control-loop signals or connected transducers delivers lab managers real-time monitoring, too. With more digital data available via the Test Controller, lab managers can check the health of their test equipment and specimen throughout a test, which prevents downtime and unplanned maintenance. . For more information contact: Lena Schulte-Feldhoff, E-Mail: Ischultefeldhoff@moog.com

New Compact Z6R Load Cell Offers Big Solution Now available from HBM – a market leader in the field of test and measurement – is the new Z6R Bending Beam Load Cell, which has been specifically developed for use in harsh environments and applications with high requirements for hygiene. Designed for maximum capacities ranging from 20 to 200 KG and featuring an accuracy class of C3, the Z6R is particularly suitable for use in food processing, production of pharmaceuticals or packaging of building materials. Manufactured in stainless steel, the robust enclosure can withstand mechanical stress and is not affected by dirt, humidity or aggressive environments with acids and alkalis. Featuring an innovative design, without any gaps or edges, the Z6R is easy to clean and can therefore help to reduce costly downtime. Furthermore, the new Z6R is also ingress protected to IP68, with IP69K as an option for added protection. In addition, as with most load cells from HBM, the Z6R is also suitable for use in potentially explosive atmospheres (IECEx: Zone

1 + 21, Zone 2 + 21). For further information, please contact HBM on +44 (0) 1525 304980 or via email: info@uk.hbm.co.uk or visit the HBM website at www.hbm.com

Hexagon introduces the Leica BLK3D for real-time, in-picture 3D measurement Hexagon AB, a global leader in digital solutions, has introduced another industry-first solution in its popular BLK line – the Leica BLK3D – a compact 3D handheld imager that improves productivity by enabling immediate and precise 3D measurements from any image it captures. By combining measurement sensors, software, and on-device edge data processing capabilities, the BLK3D enables in-picture measurements with professional-grade accuracy. Every image captured by the BLK3D is a complete and precise 3D record. Its edge capabilities eliminate the need for network connections and/or cloud services, ensuring professionals can make faster decisions within their daily workflow – whether creating floor plans and estimating building installations or documenting construction progress and creating as-built facility documentation. With the expanded functionality of the desktop software, users can create new projects and CAD-ready 3D models from their measurable images. BLK3D connects seamlessly to a laptop or desktop computer – via Wi-Fi or USB cable. Data is automatically synced and measurable images can be accessed, processed, and organised from the convenience of the desktop application.

Kistler launch a highly dynamic pressure sensor with 500 kHz natural frequency If you need to measure high pressure in hydraulic and pneumatics systems or highly dynamic pressure measurements in shock tubes or blast tests, Kistler Instruments has the answer. The 1,000 bar, miniature Type 603C piezoelectric (PE) pressure sensor has a very high natural frequency of 500 kHz which makes it suited to a wide range of applications where highly dynamic pressure transients need to be measured. A unique characteristic of the 603C PE sensor is its ability to measure small pressure fluctuations, superimposed on a high static pressure, with exceptional resolution. The integrated acceleration compensation ensures reliable measurements even under highly vibrating conditions. Add long life reliability and calibration at 10% and 100% of FSO making the sensor easily matched to changing needs resulting in exceptionally low cost of ownership. The new Type 603C PE pressure sensor has been designed for use with the dual-mode LabAmp Type 5165A series for dynamic pressure and the Type 5167A series for both dynamic and quasi-static pressure measurements. More Information: 01256 741550 Tel: Fax: 01256 741551 Email: sales.uk@kistler.com

For further information, please contact: Maria Luthström, Investor Relations Manager, Hexagon AB, +46 8 601 26 27, ir@hexagon.com

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News from the Women’s Engineering Society International Women in Engineering Day (INWED, 23 June) marked WES’s 99th anniversary with a call to support us in “Raising the Bar” ahead of our Centenary in 2019. The fifth INWED and our second year of making the day a truly international recognition of female engineers across the globe is a good time to review what has changed over the last 12 months to move to the step-change that is required in the proportion of women in technical roles in engineering. Key events include gender pay reporting – highlighting increasing

differences at more senior levels – as well as PROCESSIONS, mass participation artwork which celebrated one hundred years of votes for women. Positive signs also of 12% of women in the engineering workforce slightly up on last year. We do however still have a long way to go. That is why, for our Centenary, we are asking for companies and organisations to join us in aiming for 30by30 – that is 30% of the engineering workforce to be female by 2030. We are calling for joint positive action and a brilliant way to support is through INWED19, a huge opportunity to increase the reach and awareness further and wider across the UK and the world. There is

no better way to show commitment to diversity and to celebrate engineers – that are women – across all sectors, backgrounds and aspirations. Together with partners, volunteers and members, a lot has been achieved in the last 100 years, much due to some of the pioneering and trailblazing women in engineering – such as Amy Johnson and Caroline Haslett (former Presidents of WES). WES is aiming to achieve this leap forward to 30by30 working hard to support the engineering sector to transform and lead us to our vision of women being as likely to choose careers in engineering as men. Kirsten Bodley CEO, WES

News from British Standards The general overarching standard of the BS8887 series is part 1(BS88871:2006) “Design for manufacture, a s s e m b l y , disassembly and end-of-life processing (MADE) – Part 1: General concepts, process and requirements.” This has now been published as an ISO standard (ISO8887-1:2018). There are four standards within the BS8887 series published on end-of-life processing focussed on remanufacture, reconditioning, reworking and remarketing. The subject of remanufacturing is a significant growth area with much attention being given to it in industry and academia. The reason for this is that remanufactured product components are returned to service in the same or better condition to the original. This is significant for product quality. So far, one BSI standard has been published on remanufacturing

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which is the overarching and guidance standard: BS8887-220:2010. “Design for manufacture, assembly, disassembly and end-of-life processing (MADE) – Part 220: The process of remanufacture – Specification.” The 8887 committee is hoping to submit this as an ISO in the future. The committee is well aware that the area needs more standards so in preparation, a new 8887 sub-committee is being formed to concentrate specifically on remanufacturing. To launch this, a half-day conference is being held at the BSI Chiswick on the 21st November. It is anticipated that several new remanufacturing standards will be published as a result of this initiative. If any readers out there feel they have a contribution to make, they are welcome to contact Sarah Kelly at the BSI secretariat (Sarah.Kelly@bsigroup. com). Brian Griffiths Chair of BS8887 series

New Personal EIS Members Amy Turner- Leyland Trucks Oliver Greenwood – Rolls Royce Roanan Ellis – AVA Consulting Richard Crompton – AVA Consulting Jon Adams – Jost World Dave Hollis – La Vision


News from the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and lead author of the report.

Using gas grid to store excess electricity could boost UK renewables Energy from Gas: Taking a Whole System Approach Institution calls for Government support to change pipes and materials to allow excess electricity, in the form of hydrogen, to be stored in the gas grid. Government and industry should boost investment in technology to promote the use of hydrogen as a way of storing energy, which would make the UK energy system greener and more efficient, according to a new report by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. The technology would allow the gas grid to be used to store excess electricity, in the form of hydrogen, and support an expansion of renewable power in the UK. One of the barriers to increasing renewable capacity in the UK is the inability to store excess electricity if, for example, it is very windy but demand levels are low. The recommendation is made in the report, ‘Energy from Gas: Taking a Whole System Approach’, which outlines keyways that gas could be used to make the UK energy system greener, cheaper and more efficient. “Government and industry need to step up efforts to provide funding programmes and demonstration sites to encourage the greater use of hydrogen as energy storage,” said Dr Jenifer Baxter, Head of Engineering at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers

“The UK has a strong track record of being at the cutting edge of new energy developments, and this could present the country with a chance to be a world leader in power-to-gas and hydrogen technology.” The report calls for more support for power to gas technology, which is when excess electricity on the National Grid, from either high levels renewable generation or low demand, is used to create hydrogen through electrolysis. This can be used locally, or injected into the gas grid at a low hydrogen concentration. Apart from producing ‘green’ gas, it can also be used to balance the electricity grid. The UK gas grid has the potential to store excess electricity in the form of hydrogen, for a greater amount of time than some other forms of energy storage, such as batteries. This hydrogen can then be used in all areas of the energy system producing low emissions fuel for transport, reducing the CO2 emissions from the heating system, reused to generate electricity as well as a greener feedstock for industries such as ammonia and plastics production. “We need to move away from our wasteful culture to a more sustainable and circular economy. Power-to-gas and hydrogen technology could and should play a major role in building this future,” said Dr Baxter.

to promote the generation and storage of hydrogen for use across the UK energy system in heat, transport, power generation and heavy industry. Investment now in the future hydrogen economy will begin to encourage further innovation, open up markets and help clarify legislation and regulation. 2. UK Government must work with the gas industry to promote the use of up to 20% hydrogen in the gas distribution network including change in pipes and materials by 2023. Funding programmes and demonstration sites are crucial to decarbonising gas. Government has the power to finance research, development and demonstration and support deployment through programmes such as Innovate UK, as well as bespoke programmes designed to deliver future UK infrastructure. 3. UK Government should commission a comprehensive comparative study of the longterm sustainability of materials used to create lithium ion EV batteries versus power-to-gas/ gas systems and fuel cells, to identify appropriate technology and life cycle approach. By understanding this more clearly, UK Government can make evidence-based investment decisions that meet the requirements of sustainable development in the transport and heat sectors.

The report makes three recommendations for how power to gas technology could be used to transform the UK energy system: 1.

UK Government must commit to creating an industrial forum that brings together the nuclear, renewable power and gas sectors

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News from the Tipper Group As we see the trends emerging from companies publishing their gender pay statistics, it is difficult as a female engineer not to feel overwhelmed and dis-heartened by the bleak and genderbiased landscape we work in. Whatever female engineers there are, they are significantly absent amongst those earning hourly pay in the upper quartile for their companies, but better represented in the lowest quartile. Possibly because women find themselves in lower paid job roles, and are not reaching the highest paid roles in their companies. Many women become engineers because they love the subject - science and engineering allows you to do cool things, and change the world. We want to spread this message to kids, especially young girls, to encourage their future participation in our field. We do not want to say to them: “If you come into engineering, you have to accept the fact that you might not get paid as much as the men.” “If you come into engineering and have a family, you might be held back and not progress to the top.” If we would like to increase female interest in our industry, then we have to

do better than today and work on those shortfalls. It is not going to happen on its own. Sometimes women are accused of not putting themselves forward for senior management roles, that they do not want these high-powered jobs. Is it because women are not even given this opportunity in the first place because they have a potential to be away from the work place due to maternity etc.? Is it really a requirement of leadership to be single-minded, to work long hours and leave teamwork behind? No. There are many good examples that businesses do not fail when they are led by women, or when their values are evident at all levels. Long-hours culture is the excuse to justify biases in promotions, and to maintain the gender imbalance at the top. Companies need to implement positive interventions from the top to pull up the women engineers who have become stuck in their career progression; because they had children, because they were too quiet, because they were too outspoken (and there’s no middle ground between these), because they work part time, because they do not ‘look’ like they can do the job. Perhaps they have no one to advocate for them at the top.

Now, in 2018 the Year of Engineering, it is time for those in the engineering sector to hear the voices of their female employees and act. The Tipper Group has heard from a range of expert speakers and individual engineers in

the past year who have been able to help us identify some actions which could help. As individuals we can all act as allies, calling out unacceptable comments, and reinforcing the voices of women in meetings and conferences. This is a long journey, and we have to accept the fact that things will not change overnight. Workplace cultures can change through enforcing zerotolerance of disrespectful behaviours towards any minority. Implementing changes such as ensuring gender diversity in interview boards, conference panels, and committees, can help level the playing field by overcoming unconscious biases. Offering genuinely flexible working helps not only females but also males with caring responsibilities from falling behind in their career. These are some of the interventions which are considered to make the most difference to achieve gender equality at all levels. The Tipper Group is working hard to help share best practises for diversity in the workplace, which should help improve the engineering industry for everyone. Philippa Moore The Tipper Group

Tipper Group talks

Dawn Bonfield of RAENG and Aston University

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Simon Webster & Catherine Smith from BP

Prof Dame Athene Donald from the University of Cambridge.


Inspiring the Next Generation Robots Printing

and

After the excitement of the Bloodhound runs in October, 2018 started with a very different STEM offering on the North Wales coast. Llandudno Take pArt is a weekend family orientated event merging Art with STEM. The show has an extreme diverse range of activities from opera singing to forensic science and Rolls-Royce took 3D printing to the masses. Alongside the two 3D printers, we trialled the recently acquired 3D printing pens for the first time, on a large scale. Children were provided with a square of photo paper which had a traced outline of a Trent engine fan printed on it. They were then given the opportunity to use the 3D printing pens to trace around the fan outline or go freehand. The amazing thing with a 3D printing pen is that you are not confined to a 2D drawing space. Some of the children embraced this freedom and constructed towers or houses whilst others followed the layering principle of 3D printing by adding one layer of material on top of another building up a 3D stacked version of the Trent engine fan. The pens are fantastic and the comments from parents were great, one family commenting that they had returned for a second day just so that their son could have another go with the 3D pens. In March I spent three days at the NEC talking about 3D printing and careers to pupils from around the UK. At the show I was fortunate enough to speak to an 18 year old student who had designed and built a 3D printer for £50, Josh Mitchell. The printer was amazingly simple, replacing the usually complex and expensive metal slide rods and bearings with two curved arms, cantilevered from a laser cut, flat packed wooden structure. With my

personal interest in 3D printing I spent some time discussing with Josh ways of commercially launching the design, possible educational routes and also ways of improving the product. The inventiveness and simplicity of the solution led to Josh winning young engineer of the year 2018. I have remained in contact with Josh who hopes to launch his 3D printer this year after receiving an investment for his product. Each year the standard of the entries to the Young Engineer and Young Scientist of the year are improving. Another highlight was talking to a group of female sixth form students who had worked in partnership with Siemens to develop a life size special educational needs teaching aid. The students had worked on the project in the school where the pupils recognise symbols and actions rather than verbal instructions, particularly around telling the time. They made an adult sized foamboard cutout of a friendly lion with integrated buttons that light up to tell the SEN pupils what the time is, from lunchtime to story time, to home time. The visual attraction of the product combined with the simple computer system yielded a fantastic overall solution and the female students who worked on the project were extremely knowledgeable and understandably enthusiastic. In April I started a new project designed to help with the newly introduced coding requirement for primary school pupils. Working with my local primary school over the course of 12 sessions year 5 and 6 students have built 3D printed walking robots. The robots have been designed by the team who developed “Chompie” from Robot Wars and look very similar to AT-ATs in Star Wars. The robots are controlled by a simple Arduino Nano circuit and the level of actual coding required is minimal. The project started with a presentation on “The Rise of Robots” and discussing with the pupils about what factories of

the future will look like. They then spent some time designing an ultimate robot, which unfortunately ended with most of the teams designing war machines. After some discussion and clearly setting the objective to instead design a life saving robot, the pupils moved on to understanding the basics of Gcode. This was a combination of theory and some practical sessions involving an indoor maze for which the pupils had to write an instruction set. The instructions were written in pairs with one member of the pair writing the instructions and the other navigating the maze blindfolded. The activity has the extra complication in that I was reading their instruction sets. It highlights to the students the importance of writing clear, precise instructions and defining units of measurement at the start as well as providing entertainment when the pupils crashed into some of the obstacles in the maze. Over the past 8 weeks the pupils have been constructing the robots and finally setting the parameters in the Arduino code to enable the robots to walk. This culminated in a robot walking race between the teams which the pupils thoroughly enjoyed. Over the coming months I will be attending Farnborough Airshow and looking for new and exciting STEM activities to be involved in. As ever if anyone is interested in knowing more about how they can get involved in STEM please do not hesitate to contact me or your local STEMnet contract holder. Grant Gibson EngD BEng (Hons) Materials Technologist, Surface Engineering, Rolls-Royce Plc. grant.

gibson@rolls-royce.com 07469375700

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Corporate Members - Profiles AcSoft Ltd

Correlated Solutions, Inc.

Building 115 Bedford Technology Park Thurleigh Bedford, MK44 2YA

121 Dutchman Blvd Irmo, SC 29063 USA

Tel: +44 (0) 1234 639550 Fax: +44 (0) 1234 639561 Email: prubens@acsoft.co.uk Website: www.acsoft.co.uk Contact: Paul Rubens At AcSoft we offer the best range of sound and vibration monitoring systems from the world’s leading suppliers. Our market leading application advice and technical support makes analysing and solving your noise & vibration problems so much easier. As applications constantly evolve and new solutions emerge, we keep abreast of instrumentation developments as they arise, while keeping a close eye on quality and support. We design and manufacturer sound level meters, microphones, accelerometers, conditioning amplifiers, calibrators, noise and vibration analysers and software. We run a variety of training courses, from basic introductions on noise to specialised training helping customers get the most from their equipment.

Official UK Distributor: Enabling Process Technologies, Ltd. Tel: +44 (0) 117 205 0077, Sales@EPTworld.com www.eptworld.com Correlated Solutions, Inc. develops advanced, non-contact, full-field digital image correlation (DIC) and digital volume correlation (DVC) measurement systems to quickly and accurately measure surface shape, motion, deformation, and strain of a material of any size under almost any loading condition. Our turnkey systems are fast, robust, and flexible, and are available for a wide range of applications including quasi-static, high-speed (up to 300KHz), ultra-high-speed (up to 5MHz), stereo-microscopy, Thermal (integrated IR), real-time, transient vibration (ODS) measurements, and NDT defect detection.

Airbus Defence and Space

Gantner Instruments

Gunnels Wood Road Stevenage Hertfordshire SG1 2AS

1 Lloyds Court Manor Royal Crawley West Sussex RH10 9QU

Tel: +44 (0) 1438 773386 Email: greg.richardson@airbus.com Website: http://www.airbus.com/ Contact: Greg Richardson The Test Services department at Stevenage have been conducting Environmental and Structural testing for over 60 years. This heritage has enabled us to build one of the most well equipped and expertly staffed facilities of its kind. The Stevenage test facilities include structural, vibration, shock, thermal vacuum, climatic, static and high powered RF testing in vacuum which has enabled the qualification of high quality products. These skills and services are available to all fields of Engineering development and test.

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Tel: +1-803-926-7272 Fax: +1-803-749-7956 Email: Sales@correlatedsolutions.com Website: www.correlatedsolutions.com

Tel: +44 (0)1293 514488 Email: gantner@mooreind.com Website: www.miinet.com/UK Contact: Rob Stockham Gantner Instruments are leaders in the acquisition of electrical, thermal and mechanical measurement. You will find our know how in all of our products and services. While our products exhibit high performance and flexibility they remain simple to operate and easy to understand, even in complex applications. Every Gantner product is designed and built to provide high precision and reliable operation in the most extreme industrial environments. High temperatures and EMC conditions are no problem for us. Our products are manufactured to EN ISO 9001 standards and have an average MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure) of over 20 years.


Polytec Limited

Transmission Dynamics (JR Dynamics Ltd)

Lambda House Batford Mill Harpenden AL5 5BZ

Unit 4 Arcot Court, Nelson Road Cramlington, Northumberland, NE23 1BB

Tel: +44 (0) 1582 711670 Fax: +44 (0) 1582 712084 Email: info@polytec-ltd.co.uk Website: www.polytec-ltd.co.uk Contact: Ian Ramsey Non-Contact Vibration Measurements using Laser-Doppler Vibration Measurement equipment by Polytec provides optical measurement solutions for non-destructive testing (NDT). Our market leading non-contact vibration measurement technology is very sophisticated, with both 1D and 3D large area mapping options. Polytec offers many instrument types to improve vibration measurement, analysis and understanding. Instruments configure to aid FEA model correlation, reduce development time with fast no wire measurements for NDT, including; noise, vibration and harshness testing (NVH), failure analysis and research into complex structures.

Tel: +44 (0) 191 58 000 58 Email: wsupport@jrdltd.com Website: www.jrdltd.com Contact: Prof. Jarek Rosinski Transmission Dynamics is a rapid response consultancy organisation specialising in troubleshooting problems in rotating machinery. Our areas of expertise are: failure investigation, noise and vibration research, in-service load measurements, component fatigue life evaluation, bespoke instrumentation, evaluation of gear alignment to ISO-6336 (Method A). Transmission Dynamics provides services to blue-chip technology companies across the globe, including clients in the renewable energy, mining, marine, defence, automotive and rail sectors. We also design and manufacture our own range of wireless telemetry and data acquisition systems, focusing on low power consumption, exceptionally low noise and unbeatable performance, for recovering in-service load information from the most demanding of environments. We deal with: Complex drive systems, Gears and Gearboxes, Chains, Belts, Couplings, Shafts & Bearings.

Systems Services

Zwick Testing Machines Limited

The Coach House 303 Willington Road Kirton End Boston PE20 1NR

Southern Avenue Leominster Herefordshire HR6 0QH

Tel: +44 (0) 1205 724242 Fax: +44 (0) 1296 682860 Email: stephen.barrett@systems-services.co.uk Website: www.systems-services.co.uk Contact: Stephen Barrett - Tel: +44 7836 607414 Since 1982, Systems Services have offered a complete service for fluid power motion control systems, ranging from a single channel to multi-axis, multi-channel, interactive, full scale systems. Our range of services includes consultancy, training, associated servicing and calibration, calibration management, commissioning, gas-loaded accumulator management & related technical procurement services. We offer a range of customised training courses for all users of fluid power systems and have trained over 720 delegates. Further information may be obtained at www.systemsservices.co.uk

Tel:+44 (0) 1568 615201 Fax: +44 (0) 1568 612626 Email: alan.thomas@zwick.co.uk Website: www.zwick.co.uk Contact: Alan Thomas Zwick Roell is a leading, global supplier of advanced materials and component testing equipment. We offer a wide range of both electro-mechanical and servo-hydraulic testing products and controller/software modernisations to give older generation systems a new lease of life. We supply standard and bespoke testing solutions and collaborate with an extensive range of industrial customers and academic establishments where Zwick equipment is used for both teaching and research purposes.

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Group News Simulation, Test & Measurement Group Let me start with a plea to you all to get in touch and let your committee members know what events, training, seminars and other interludes or diversions you would like us to organise during the year. We spend a very considerable amount of time preparing the annual exhibition and trying to make our other EIS events, seminars and exhibitions of interest and pertinent to you. It would really help if you were to let us know what you are interested in as well. The STMG is currently well into the preparations for the Instrumentation Exhibition at Silverstone in April 2019, which is not that far away. A full set of seminars is being organised as well as the measurement and instrumentation exhibition itself. This year we have a dedicated working party, all volunteers, covering the Silverstone event. We have decided that the format will largely be the same, but next year’s open seminars will be a little more formal with topics and content announced well in advance of the day. There will be 3 open seminars and a keynote speaker to tie all the topics together and provide interesting focus. We are looking to advertise our events more widely for next year; if you can help please contact our Secretariat, Sara Atkin. One simple initiative would be to include some leaflets or a poster about the Exhibition and seminars in your reception area or department. At the next Silverstone Exhibition we intend to include the other EIS areas, and not limit the conference to only STMG. After all, each group measures, simulates and gathers data, so it should be of interest to us all. In

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addition

to

the

Silverstone

Exhibition we have also arranged to cover seminars throughout the year. These will range from specific Young Engineer events, training sessions in data collection, analysis and instrumentation, plus a number of new initiatives. The first event will expand this year’s topic at the conference combining expertise from both sides of the tyre and road contact. This will be held somewhere similar to MIRA to attract companies who develop their cars, transmissions components and tyre manufacturers and to combine their expertise with companies who also create the roads and surfaces they drive on. In addition, we can also include the other infrastructure disciplines and the difficulties raised in test, measurement and analysis for EV, autonomous and linked systems. The tyre road contact topic also raised thoughts amongst the group about other new topics that we can eventually cover for the new transport systems, autonomy and a new topic of future proofing. Interesting to think that many new vehicles, systems, and ideas are developed in shorter and shorter time frames. Advances in vehicle systems, autonomy, and alternate fuels are changing over timescales of a few years, whereas the road structure, and transport systems are developed over much longer periods, 10’s of years. Are we taking this into account? The STMG is arranging days for training events on Fundamentals of Data Collection & Analysis, Functional Safety, Testing Standards and Processes. We are also looking at events for our Young Engineers with seminars planned on alternative fuels and future

working

towards

materials with interesting venues such as Morgan cars. Whilst on the subject of new things, it would be helpful to get some feedback from you all on the EIS or STMG having access to a best practices for data collection and analysis area on a tyre website where members could register and join for access to information and advice on methods, techniques and experience in the subjects. Similarly, we are considering filming the forums at Silverstone and adding them to the website. With a wide variety of days planned the remainder of 2018 and 2019 have all the indications of another great year! David Ensor (Chairman)

Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group J o h n Wilkinson has been chairman of the SVPP Group since 2009. Since then the committee has steadily grown in membership and John has lead an evolving enthusiastic team who now support the group, in addition to those

John Wilkinson receiving a gift from John Yates


developments in the analysis of electric motor in-car integration for NVH, and the challenges for product development and driver perception of electric vehicle noise. Momentum with the electrification of vehicles is significantly shaping the product development process for vehicle OEMs. This year’s seminar directly looked at the electric motor as a source of noise and vibration. The SVPP Group will continue to focus on Seminar held at Coventry University in June the challenges for NVH as a result of vehicle electrification who helped build it in the past. In June, particularly in light of weight reduction John announced that he was stepping requirements and changes to down from the Chair of the SVPP, and also from Council and as a Director of suspension and tyre specifications. EIS. However, John has decided to join We will aim to provide opportunities the STMG Group (which he previously for engineers and students to enhance chaired many years ago), utilising his their understanding and insight of NVH challenges in the future through significant experience in that field. ongoing seminars and wider support The SVPP Group committee thank within the EIS. John for his hard work and enthusiasm Dave Fish (Chairman) over the years, leaving the group in very good shape, with an active core of members. We wish John all the best in the future in his time with the EIS, in his retirement and his sailing! John reported that “Dave Fish has agreed to step in as Chair and also as Council member, with Keith Vickers acting as deputy. I am sure that you will all support Dave and Keith in this new phase of the group.” I (Dave Fish), Keith, and the rest of the committee look forward to supporting the EIS through various initiatives over the coming years. In June, under John’s chairmanship, the SVPP Group held a very successful one day seminar at Coventry University, entitled “Electric Vehicle NVH: Not as quiet as you thought?”. This was very well-supported with attendees from academia, manufacturers, and specialist engineering companies. The day was a mix of technical papers, demonstrations and workshops looking at experimental methods for measuring noise and vibration, recent

Durability & Fatigue Group

After a large conference (Fatigue 2017) there is often a lull before new ideas turn into seminars. In the last few months members of the group continued to support the Young Engineers days and the panel discussions at the Silverstone exhibition. We now have 3 seminars in the pipeline. In September there is a joint seminar with FESI entitled “Engineering Integrity of Structures & Components Subjected to Degradation Mechanisms” which covers fatigue, creep and corrosion and is being hosted by Cranfield University. While the topics are common to the EIS membership

it is the first joint event with FESI who share our interests, but in very different industrial applications. It was inspired by our president Prof Rod Smith who is a member of both organisations. It should be an interesting day and a chance to share experience from a new perspective. In early October we have organised a specialised seminar “The Challenges of Structural Integrity at High Temperatures” at Phoenix Materials Testing, in Brierley Hill. The topics address issues surrounding test and measurement and will include a lab tour. This is a topic we’ve wanted to run for a while so the offer by Phoenix to host it was most welcome. Additive Manufacture is popular and we first addressed it in 2010 as the main topic. Then, as now, we recognise this as a new way of manufacturing which is accepted and in use, but inevitably not so well understood, hence the subtitle of “Do you really know what you’ve made?” If it is to be used in products in service (as opposed to prototype test and review) it needs to be fit for purpose. Materials performance and the influence of manufacturing processes need to be understood. We plan to run this early in 2019 at MTC Coventry, details will be published soon. Encouraged by feedback from 2017, we have also started planning our next big conference in Cambridge: Fatigue 2020. Robert Cawte Chairman

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Committee Members President: Professor Roderick A Smith, FREng. ScD Directors Peter Bailey, Instron.......................................................................................................................................... 01494 456512 Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom................................................................................................................ 0121 7331837 Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant.................................................................................................... 0121 5203838 Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services............................................................................................... 01332 263534 Nick Richardson, Servotest............................................................................................................................... 01784 274428 Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant....................................................................................................... 07866 815200 John Yates, Engineering Consultant................................................................................................................. 01246 410758 Chairman John Yates, Engineering Consultant................................................................................................................. 01246 410758 Vice Chairman Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services............................................................................................... 01332 263534 Treasurer Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant.................................................................................................... 0121 5203838 Company Secretary Nick Richardson, Servotest............................................................................................................................... 01784 274428 EIS Secretariat Sara Atkin...........................................................................................................................................................01572 811315 Communications Sub Committee – ‘Engineering Integrity’ Journal of the EIS Honorary Editor Farnoosh Farhad, Coventry University/TWI.............................................................................................................................. Managing Editor Catherine Pinder............................................................................................................................................... 07979 270998

Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group Acting Chairman David Fish, JoTech ........................................................................................................................................... 01827 830606 Deputy Chairman Keith Vickers, Bruel & Kjaer UK ....................................................................................................................... 01223 389800 Members Marco Ajovalasit, Brunel University................................................................................................................... 01895 267134 Matthew Archer, Polytec ....................................................................................................................................01582 711670 Joe Armstrong, Polytec .....................................................................................................................................01582 711670 Emiel Barten, Muller BBM ............................................................................................................................ +31 627 287 251 Dave Boast, D B Engineering Solutions ........................................................................................................... 01225 743592 Mark Burnett, HORIBA MIRA ........................................................................................................................... 02476 355329 Martin Cockrill, ASDEC ............................................................................................................................................................ James Herbert, Bruel & Kjaer ........................................................................................................................... 01525 408500 Peter Jackson, European Acoustical Products.................................................................................................. 01986 897082 Paul Jennings, Warwick University ................................................................................................................... 02476 523646 Chris Knowles, Engineering Consultant ................................................................................................................................... Andrew McQueen, Siemens PLM Software...................................................................................................... 02476 408120 Ian Ramsay, Polytec ..........................................................................................................................................01582 711670 Jon Richards, Honda UK .................................................................................................................................. 01793 417238 James Wren, Prosig Ltd ................................................................................................................................... 01329 239925

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Simulation, Test & Measurement Group Chairman Dave Ensor, Engineering Consultant.................................................................................................................07966 757625 Members Jack Allcock,Tata Steel.......................................................................................................................................01709 825207 Steve Coe, Data Physics (UK)...........................................................................................................................01323 846464 Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant.....................................................................................................0121 5203838 Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services................................................................................................01332 263534 Jerry Hughes, Moog...........................................................................................................................................01684 278478 Virrinder Kumar, HBM United Kingdom.............................................................................................................0208 515 6000 Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant......................................................................................................07881 802410 Steve Payne, HORIBA MIRA..............................................................................................................................02476 355526 Tim Powell, MTS Systems..................................................................................................................................01483 446500 Anton Raath, CaTs3............................................................................................................................................02476 546159 Nick Richardson, Servotest................................................................................................................................01784 274428 Paul Roberts, HBM Prenscia .............................................................................................................................0785 2945988 Jarek Rosinski, Transmission Dynamics............................................................................................................0191 5800058 Ian Strath, Siemens PLM Software ...................................................................................................................01276 413200 Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant........................................................................................................07866 815200 John Wilkinson, Engineering Consultant............................................................................................................07747 006475 Darren Williams, Millbrook Proving Ground.......................................................................................................01525 404242 Rob Wood, GOM ...............................................................................................................................................07970 507360 Jeremy Yarnall, Consultant Engineer.................................................................................................................01332 875450

Durability & Fatigue Group Chairman Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom................................................................................................................ 0121 7331837 Secretary Peter Bailey, Instron.......................................................................................................................................... 01494 456512 Members Hayder Ahmad, Safran Electrical & Power........................................................................................................ 01296 663468 John Atkinson, Consultant ........................................................................................................................................................ Martin Bache, Swansea University ................................................................................................................... 01792 295287 Andrew Blows, JLR .......................................................................................................................................... 07774 557820 Amir Chahardehi, Atkins Energy....................................................................................................................... 01454 662000 Richard Cornish, Birmingham City University ................................................................................................. 0121 331 5416 Farnoosh Farhad, Coventry University/TWI ............................................................................................................................. Giovanni De Morais, Dassault Systèmes Simulia..............................................................................................0114 2686444 Hassan Ghadbeigi, Sheffield University ............................................................................................................0114 2227748 Lee Gilbert, Element......................................................................................................................................... 01926 478478 Oliver Greenwood, Rolls Royce ....................................................................................................................... 0121 2732100 Paul Hayford, H4 Technologies ........................................................................................................................ 07768 601348 Karl Johnson, Zwick Roell Group...................................................................................................................... 0777957 8913 Chris Magazzeni, Oxford University.................................................................................................................. 07543 664696 Angelo Maligno, IISA, University of Derby........................................................................................................ 01332 592516 Ali Mehmanparast, Cranfield University ........................................................................................................... 01234 758331 Andrew Mills, Siemens ..................................................................................................................................... 01522 584002 Karen Perkins, Swansea University ................................................................................................................. 01792 513029 Davood Sarchamy, British Aerospace Airbus.......................................................................................................0117 936861 Giora Shatil, Gamesa Wind UK................................................................................................................................................. Jamie Shenton, JCB......................................................................................................................................... 01889 59 4033 Andy Stiles, Aero Engine Controls.................................................................................................................... 0121 6276600 James Trainor, 3T RPD Ltd .............................................................................................................................. 01635 580284 Vicki Wilkes, Phoenix Materials Testing ........................................................................................................... 01384 480545 John Yates, Engineering Consultant................................................................................................................. 01246 410758

43


Corporate Members The following companies are corporate members of the Engineering Integrity Society. We thank them for their continued support which helps the Society to run its wide-ranging events throughout the year. AcSoft

HORIBA MIRA

Prosig

Adwin

Instron

Rutherford Appleton Lab

Airbus

Interface Force Measurements

Sensors UK

ANV Measurement Systems

Kistler

Servotest

ASDEC

M&P International

Siemens

Bruel and Kjaer

Mecmesin

Star Hydraulics

CaTs3

Meggit Sensing Systems

Systems Services

CentraTEQ

Micro Measurements

Techni Measure

Correlated Solutions

Micro-Epsilon

Telonic

Dassault Systemes

Millbrook

THP Systems

Data Physics

MOOG

Tiab

Datron Technology

MTS Systems

Transmission Dynamics

Flintec

Muller BBM

Variohm

Gantner Instruments

PCB Piezotronics

Vibration Research

GOM

PDS Hitech

Yokogawa

HBM

Phoenix Calibration

Zwick

Head Acoustics

Polytec

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Engineering Integrity Issue 45  

Engineering Integrity the journal of the Engineering Integrity Society.

Engineering Integrity Issue 45  

Engineering Integrity the journal of the Engineering Integrity Society.