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P OU R G G , C. PER STIN O S IP TE G T N & I ER TEM, SIS E N : OM ENGI E, S NALY 2018 R F h A WS EN'S IMec ON, ARCH 8 E N OM 1 M I , W I. NTAT 13 E 20 . S B. RUME ION, PRIZ S N LE IT ST IN XHIB ATSO RTIC E R W L A A WS TE PE HNIC Y NE S C TE USTR NEW D IN DUCT O PR

44 EIS ENGINEERING INTEGRITY MARCH 2018

JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INTEGRITY SOCIETY

Papers on: • How Simple is as Simple as Possible? • Target Reliability as an Acceptance Criterion

for Fatigue

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INSTRUMENTATION, ANALYSIS AND TESTING EXHIBITION Entrance to the exhibition & open forums is free to visitors along with free car parking and complimentary refreshments

THE SILVERSTONE WING, SILVERSTONE RACE TRACK 13 MARCH 2018 10AM - 4PM Over 60 exhibitors will present the latest advances in measurement analysis and testing technology in aerospace, automotive, motor-sport, rail, off-highway, mechanical handling, industrial and power generation industries. Visitors will be able to discuss these developments and their applications in an informal atmosphere with exhibitors. Open Forums include: • Seeing the ‘Wood for the Trees’; making sense of analysis classification tools? • How good is CAE Modelling v.s Test? • A Comparison between the Input and Output of Signals using Different Systems. Guest panels comprising experts from industry and academia will expand on the technical developments & take questions from the floor. Visitors If you are interested in attending please pre-register by emailing info@e-i-s.org.uk or visit www.e-i-s.org.uk.


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Engineering Integrity Society Accelerometer Selection and Signal Processing Basics - 25 April 2018 This is a one-day training course on the science and practical use of accelerometers and the basics of signal processing. We will look at the manufacture, calibration, set-up, measurement and use of accelerometers and how this data is acquired and processed for analysis. The day will culminate in a factory tour which will show the different types, assembly and calibration of accelerometers. There will also be the opportunity to ask questions of knowledgeable engineers with many years’ experience in the fields of accelerometers, vibration testing and filtering. For more information contact the Secretariat, Sara Atkin, on 01623 884225 or email info@e-i-s.org.uk

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Contents Index to Advertisements ....................................................................................................................................................... 5 Editorial................................................................................................................................................................................. 7 Technical Paper: How Simple is as Simple as Possible? .................................................................................................... 8 Technical Paper: Target Reliability as an Acceptance Criterion for Fatigue ....................................................................... 15 Obituary: Dr Colin Dodds.................................................................................................................................................... 23 Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition, 13 March ................................................................................................. 24 Peter Watson Prize 2018 .................................................................................................................................................... 26 Digital Image Processing ................................................................................................................................................... 28 Industry News .................................................................................................................................................................... 30 Product News ..................................................................................................................................................................... 34 News from Women’s Engineering Society ......................................................................................................................... 36 News from British Standards .............................................................................................................................................. 37 News from the Tipper Group .............................................................................................................................................. 37 News from ‘Inspiring the Next Generation’ ......................................................................................................................... 38 News from Institution of Mechanical Engineers ................................................................................................................. 39 The University of Wolverhampton Racing 2017 ................................................................................................................. 40 Profiles of Corporate Members........................................................................................................................................... 42 Corporate Members ........................................................................................................................................................... 45 Membership ........................................................................................................................................................................ 45 Group News........................................................................................................................................................................ 46 Diary of Events .................................................................................................................................................................. 47 Committee Members ......................................................................................................................................................... 48 Report on Advanced Engineering Show, NEC, November 2017 ........................................................................................ 50

INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS Advanced Engineering 2018 ...................................52 CaTs3/Zwick .............................................................42 Data Physics.................................... Inside front cover DJB Instruments ........................................................4 EIS ...................................................................... 1 & 3 Head Acoustics .........................................................4

M+P International ......................................Back cover Micro-Epsilon ...........................................................51 Sensorland ..............................................................14 Team Corporation ....................................................51 Tcal ..........................................................................14 Vibration Research .........................Inside Back Cover

Thank you to HORIBA-MIRA for hosting the September committee meetings and Serco, Derby for hosting the February meetings.

Front Cover: Courtesy of University of Wolverhampton Racing

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HONORARY EDITOR Dr Karen Perkins

MANAGING EDITOR Catherine Pinder Anchor House, Mill Road, Stokesby, Great Yarmouth, NR29 3EY Tel. 07979 270998 E-mail: catherine@cpinder.com

EDITORIAL BOARD Paul Armstrong Grant Gibson Brian Griffiths EIS SECRETARIAT: Sara Atkin Engineering Integrity Society 6 Brickyard Lane, Farnsfield, Nottinghamshire, NG22 8JS Tel: +44 (0) 1623 884225 E-mail: info@e-i-s.org.uk WWW: http://www.e-i-s.org.uk

EDITORIAL POLICY Engineering Integrity contains various items of information of interest to, or directly generated by, the Engineering Integrity Society. The items of information can be approximately subdivided into three general categories: technical papers, topical discussion pieces and news items. The items labelled in the journal as technical papers are peer reviewed by a minimum of two reviewers in the normal manner of academic journals, following a standard protocol. The items of information labelled as topical discussions and the news items have been reviewed by the journal editorial staff and found to conform to the legal and professional standards of the Engineering Integrity Society.

COPYRIGHT Copyright of the technical papers included in this issue is held by the Engineering Integrity Society unless otherwise stated. Photographic contributions for the front cover are welcomed. ISSN 1365-4101/2018

The Engineering Integrity Society (EIS) Incorporated under the Companies Act 1985. Registered No. 1959979 Registered Office: c/o Hollis & Co., 35 Wilkinson Street, Sheffield S10 2GB Charity No: 327121

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Editorial Welcome to the Spring 2018 edition of the EIS journal. Sadly we lead this edition with an obituary for Colin Dodds who passed away in August. Our condolences go to his family and friends. This issue features two technical papers which are both in the field of fatigue (not that you would always necessarily guess from the title!): ‘How Simple is as Simple as Possible?’ and ‘Target Reliability as an Acceptance Criterion for Fatigue’, while the ‘How it works’ section looks at Digital Image Correlation. The perennial skills gap issue is covered in the ‘Industry News’ section: a worrying study has found that school children are so ill-informed about engineering that their subject selection cuts off technical career paths at an early stage. A different study has concluded that when it comes to collaborative problem solving girls are the best. All we need to do now is work out how to convert those girls into women in engineering. Industry News also reports that, according to the ‘Create the Future 2017’ report, Britons think that the computer is the most significant advance of the last 100 years. The combination of a new technology with novel applications can indeed be a real game changer. On slow news days the latest ‘revolutionary’ new technology or material is a ready headline filler. 3D printing and graphene are a couple of recent examples, high temperature superconductors were a revolution of the late eighties while composites filled the same role several decades ago. Most of these advances have found their place in certain applications and the more recent may still, but few, certainly none of these examples, can be argued to have changed the world. This reflects more on the journalistic hyperbole of ‘revolutionary’ than the undeniably amazing science underlying these advances. Indeed the existence of a well established application to be revolutionised, while making the newspaper article easier to write, sets the bar for success very high. A mature application guarantees a mature alternative technology against which the new kid on the block must compete superconductors may offer lossless transport of electricity, but copper is a pretty good conductor, so any overheads offset a relatively small marginal gain. Unsung improvements to existing technologies can prove more significant than headline grabbing new comers you would need to search hard for headlines about the improvements in paint that have pushed rusty bodywork over the horizon as far as all but the oldest cars are concerned.

CHANGE OF ADDRESS The Society has a new address: Engineering Integrity Society 6 Brickyard Lane Farnsfield Nottinghamshire NG22 8JS Telephone: 01623 884225

Evolution rather than revolution is more typical for mature technologies and no less laudable, whether this is driven purely by competition with the market place or changing external factors. The oil crisis of the 1970’s is credited with driving greater fuel efficiency in cars, but the changes could hardly be described as revolutionary - the cars of the 1960’s are still recognisable as cars and, apart from possibly operating a manual choke, a millennial could drive one. Equally an octogenarian would recognise the controls of an electric car - at the user end little changes, but under the bonnet things are very different. Consumer and regulatory inertia act as a brake on change for mature technology. For instance, one might ask why houses are still being built out of brick with the associated poor thermal performance necessitating the installation of central heating systems, when much more thermally efficient building options are available. Is it customer resistance to change, regulatory concerns in the form of insurance companies or the vested interest of brickies? If revolution is to be found, new technologies are the place to look. Mobile communications is perhaps the most striking recent example. Using Inspector Morse as a snapshot of the 1980’s, while my son recognises Morse’s iconic red Jaguar - a classic even when the series was made, he is bemused by people going into cabinets dotted around the landscape to make telephone calls. Merging applications can provide something distinct Morse may not have approved of a self-driving Jaguar, but he probably wouldn’t have objected to the option of an extra lunchtime pint before the car drove him to his next interview. Karen Perkins Honorary Editor

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Technical Paper How Simple is as Simple as Possible? Peter Heyes, HBM-Prenscia Abstract Albert Einstein said “It can scarcely be denied that the supreme goal of all theory is to make the irreducible basic elements as simple and as few as possible without having to surrender the adequate representation of a single datum of experience” [1]. This statement is often paraphrased as “Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler”. This is a useful principle to apply to engineering models, though the engineer’s aims may be more pragmatic than Einstein’s. It can certainly be applied to the modelling of fatigue damage where the need is for answers accurate and reliable enough to support design decisions, but achievable at a reasonable cost and in a timely manner. This work considers the question in the title in connection with the characterization and modelling of fatigue performance in short glass fibre reinforced polyamides – materials widely used in automotive and other industries. INTRODUCTION The basic premise of this paper is that models of physical systems should be as simple as possible, but not simpler. This premise is a common paraphrase of the words of Albert Einstein: “It can scarcely be denied that the supreme goal of all theory is to make the irreducible basic elements as simple and as few as possible without having to surrender the adequate representation of a single datum of experience” [1]. A scientific model needs to be sophisticated enough to allow predictions of phenomena to be made that match experimental measurements within the limits of error. However, simplicity and elegance are virtues in a scientific theory – complexity is itself undesirable and often an indication that the theory is flawed. By way of illustration consider models describing the motion of the planets within the solar system. The Ptolemaic model [2] was based on the ideas that the earth is at the centre of the universe, and that the planetary motions are based on circles. In order to make these ideas match the observed facts, a number of tricks were required, including moving the earth from the centre of the main cycle (the deferent) and having the planets move on an epicycle which itself moved around the deferent as illustrated in Figure 1. Copernicus [3] took some steps in the right direction by moving the sun to the centre of the solar system, but because he adhered to the ideal of celestial spheres, still needed epicycles to make his system work. Kepler [4,5] came up with a much more elegant description of the motion of the planets based on elliptical orbits and summarized in his three “laws”. These “laws” were purely empirical, based on the observations © Copyright HBM Prenscia

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Figure 1. Ptolemaic model of planetary motion of Tycho Brahe, but were later shown by Newton [6] to be derivable from his laws of motion and universal gravitation. Newton’s laws were highly successful, being able to model the observed motions of the planets within the accuracy of the available observations, and also to make excellent predictions. When unexpected perturbations of the orbit of Uranus were observed, the application of Newton’s laws predicted the presence and location of a further planet, now known as Neptune. However it was not long before Urbain le Verrier (who predicted the existence and location of Neptune) noticed that the orbit of Mercury precessed in a way that could not be explained by Newton’s laws. It was not until Einstein developed his theory of general relativity [7] that this “anomalous” precession could be modelled within the accuracy of the observations of Mercury’s orbit. For physicists the test for a good model is whether it can predict relevant phenomena within the accuracy of any measurements made. Simplicity and elegance are virtues for aesthetic reasons, and the need for complications such as Ptolemy’s epicycles are often an indication that something fundamental is in error. Einstein’s theories of relativity are simple in concept if not in application! For engineers, a model does not necessarily have to match reality within the accuracy of the physical measurements, but only with sufficient accuracy to be useful. For example, we now know that Einstein’s theory of General Relativity


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 44, MARCH 2018, pp. 8-14.

is much more accurate in predicting the motion of bodies in space and time than Newton’s laws. However, for an engineer planning a trip to the Moon, the error associated with calculating a lunar orbit using the much easier Newtonian mechanics is around 1.3 cm [8], and so in this case the relativistic effects can safely be ignored. Furthermore, the simpler mathematics allows the engineer to do his work in a relatively timely and inexpensive manner. Engineers are frequently required to make design decisions concerning systems and materials whose behaviours are too complicated to model precisely in a reasonable period of time, or just not properly understood. CAE methods may be used to inform such decisions, but the need for these methods to deliver answers within a reasonable period of time often requires simplifications and compromises in the fidelity of the models applied. This paper considers the question of how much a physical model can be simplified and still be useful. The question is considered in relation to modelling the durability of components made from short fibre reinforced injection moulded thermoplastics. FATIGUE MODELLING OF SHORT FIBRE REINFORCED THERMOPLASTICS Background – CAE and the local strain approach The local strain approach is a commonly used methodology for fatigue life prediction of metallic components and structures. Metal fatigue is a process whereby cracks initiate, typically as a result of cyclic plasticity within individual crystals of the material, sometimes from pre-existing defects, and then grow in a rather complex and intermittent way as they interact with the microstructure of the material, before reaching a critical size and leading to failure. The local strain approach is a simplified engineering approach, often used to evaluate the expected durability of engineering components and structures. In application to finite-element based fatigue calculations, some of the simplifications commonly made are as follows: • •

The material is treated as an isotropic continuum (it isn’t) Plasticity is modelled with a kinematic hardening law, with plastic strain range having an exponential relationship with applied stress (this is an approximation) The actual redistribution of stress and strain due to local plasticity is not calculated, but estimated from purely elastic stress analysis and approximate methods such as Neuber’s rule. The highly non-linear processes of crack initiation and growth are not modelled but replaced by “damage” which is assumed to accumulate in a linear manner (it doesn’t). The redistribution of stress and strain as a crack grows is ignored.

In spite of these simplifications, the local strain approach is widely used, because when applied to suitable cases, it is capable of making life predictions to within an order of magnitude or less, which is considered to be a useful level of accuracy (prediction of the mean fatigue life to within a factor of two is often possible). The rest of this paper considers some of the additional challenges of modelling fatigue in short fibre reinforced thermoplastics, and in particular which simplifications are appropriate, i.e. how simple can we make the problem and still get useful answers. Summary of challenge Short fibre reinforced thermoplastics widely used materials, with many applications across different industries. For example, glass filled polyamides (PA) are widely used in the automotive industry, and valued for their good balance of mechanical strength, stiffness, toughness, high temperature performance and ease of manufacture through injection moulding. As well as drawing from examples from the literature, this paper is based on experiences working with DuPont Zytel 70G30 HSLR. This is a PA 6.6 reinforced with 30% short glass fibres, used in injection moulding processes. Although the performance of this material is very good, it presents serious challenges for the analyst. •

• •

When injection moulded, the flow of material into the mould creates a microstructure that is anisotropic and inhomogeneous The glass transition temperature of the matrix is in the middle of the typical operating range for many components, so the performance is very temperature sensitive It absorbs moisture which causes dimensional changes and very significant changes in physical properties such as stiffness and strength. The deformation behavior of the material is complex Damage mechanisms are only partially understood

We will now look at these challenges in more detail and try to establish how we can keep the modelling process as simple as possible. Anisotropy/Inhomogeneity The biggest simplification that could be made to the problem is to treat the material as homogeneous and isotropic. The polyamide used in this study is reinforced with 30% of glass fibres that are about 10 µm in diameter and average about 300 µm in length. When the material is injection moulded, the flow of material into the mould tends to cause quite strong alignment of the fibres. Figure 2 illustrates the test plaque geometry used in this study, together with a crosssection taken close to the centre of the plaque. In the cross-

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section the skin-core effect is clearly seen, with the narrow core section having fibres that are mainly aligned transverse to the flow direction, and the rest having fibres predominantly aligned with the flow. The average elastic moduli obtained from tensile tests of coupons cut parallel and transverse to the flow are 6390 MPa and 2560 MPa respectively. This degree of anisotropy will have a significant effect on the distribution of stress and strain in the component, and ignoring it and treating the material as homogeneous and isotropic is too big a simplification. This can be a challenge because the location of injection points is often considered a manufacturing process detail and not considered during the design and design analysis stages. However, treating the material as isotropic or using conservative properties (measured in the material’s weak direction) will result in products that are over-designed and hence overweight and/ or having poorly quantified safety factors.

Figure 2. Test plaque geometry and cross section through plaque centroid Through-process modelling approach Taking into account material anisotropy from the design stage requires a through-process modelling approach. Such a process is illustrated in Figure 3. The process begins with simulation of the manufacturing process. Moulding simulation tools, for example Moldex3D using the iARDRPR model [9] are able to predict the distribution of fibre orientations in the finished product, based on a discretized model of the mould cavity, suitable material parameters and injection moulding machine setting information. The fibre orientation distribution at any point is typically assumed to be orthotropic and can be represented by a second-order tensor. This fibre orientation tensor is a key piece of information that allows the composite level material properties to be predicted. For example the anisotropic elastic stiffness matrix may be estimated using homogenization techniques such as the Mori-Tanaka method [10]. This also requires knowledge of the fibre concentration and aspect ratio, and the elastic properties of the fibres and matrix. Once calculated (and potentially varying throughout the whole of the structure) the stiffness matrices may be mapped on to the structural FE mesh, which is solved in the normal way

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Figure 3. Through-process modelling approach for fatigue durability of short fibre reinforced thermoplastics to determine the transfer functions between applied loads and local stresses. Of course, this step involves a number of simplifications, such as assuming that the matrix and fibre properties are isotropic. It is also normal to assume an even distribution of fibre density and fibre lengths throughout the component - thought to be reasonable assumptions for this type of material, but less-so for longer fibres where fibre breakage and the presence of matrix-rich areas will be more significant. Based on the structural response calculated by FE, a description of the expected loads (mission profile or duty cycle representative of service or test conditions) and a suitable fatigue model, a fatigue life simulation may then be carried out resulting in predicted fatigue damage at each calculation point (e.g. element/layer) [11]. Since the fatigue behaviour of the material is also highly anisotropic, the fatigue model may need to be calibrated based on tests carried out on coupons cut at different orientations to the dominant fibre direction. This calibration process is explored later. Constitutive modelling The process described in the previous section, wherein fatigue calculations are not coupled with the FE solution, is based on certain further assumptions, namely that the behaviour of the material when the component/structure is subjected to service can be treated as approximately linear elastic, and that this behaviour does not change significantly unless close to failure. In fact the behaviour of the material used in this study is rather complicated. Launay et al [12,13] describe the behaviour of a similar material with a constitutive model merging short and long term viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity and cyclic softening. However incorporation of such a model into a non-linear FE solution presents significant challenges for the analyst, in the difficulty of characterizing the material behaviour, and because the computationally intensive nature of the analysis restricts its application to rather simple loads and small numbers of cycles.


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 44, MARCH 2018, pp.8-14.

and including fibre failure, damage at fibre ends, debonding, micro-cavitation and cracking. Ultimately, robust failure modelling methods are likely to be based to some extent on the physical processes they attempt to model. Meanwhile, most practical attempts at simulation of fatigue in this type of material are based on a criterion (calculated from stress and/ or strain components) taken to be related to the fatigue life, and implicitly or explicitly a scale over which that criterion is evaluated.

Figure 4. Load-strain hysteresis loops from a coupon fatigue test on PA66 with30%GF at 23°C and 50% RH. Tests carried out at R = -1

Figure 4 shows selected load-strain hysteresis loops from a fatigue test carried out on a coupon of the Zytel 70G30 material. The coupons were cut from a plaque as illustrated in Figure 2, parallel to the flow direction. The last hysteresis loop was captured just before failure of the coupon (at around 105 cycles), the large deformation and asymmetry being due to the fatigue damage at this point. The other hysteresis loops are typical of a material whose behaviour is primarily viscoelastic. Note: 1. At this loading level the influence of the viscous component is rather small. Reasonable calculations of stress and strain distribution might be made by treating the material as linear elastic. The dynamic modulus determined from the first captured loop corresponds very closely with the quasi static value. 2. At higher levels of strain, and/or if calculations require the dissipated energy per cycle e.g. for fatigue calculations (Launay et al. [14]) or to estimate selfheating, the additional effort required to model the inelastic behaviour may be justified. 3. According to Fatemi et al [15] the cyclic softening seen here is typical of such a material close to its glass transition temperature. Damage modelling, characterization

scale

and

material

fatigue

Recent work by Rolland et al [16] describes fatigue damage in a fibre reinforced polyamide, observed at the microscale

For example, De Monte et al [17] use an extension of the Tsai-Hill criterion to fatigue, evaluated at the macro scale (assuming uniform properties through thickness). Fatemi et al [15] do something similar, where the scale of evaluation is the cross section of a test coupon. Fatemi’s work also includes consideration of temperature and self-heating. Malo et al [18] describe a method where the Tsai-Hill criterion again is extended to fatigue, but this time applied at the pseudo-grain scale. Klimkeit [19] describes an approach based on elastic strain energy density, evaluated through the thickness of the material. Launay et al [14] also evaluate through the thickness, but their criterion is based on the dissipated (hysteretic) energy density per cycle. Heyes [20] describes an approach based on principal stresses and curve interpolation where the scale of evaluation is the finite element/layer (requires adequate discretization). One of the reasons that the scale of evaluation is very important is due to the support effect. The support effect occurs when the critically stressed volume of a component is very small, or there are high stress gradients, in which case methods that consider only the local stress tend to be over-conservative. This effect in short fibre reinforced thermoplastics is described by Sonsino and Moosbrugger [21] who use a stressed volume approach to address it. This type of attempt to address the notch sensitivity of the material is complicated by the gradients of fatigue strength arising from the inhomogeneity of the material, which may also generate stress hotspots and gradients in addition to those arising from geometry. There is as yet no clear consensus as to which of the above methods is most useful and in which scenarios. One of the problems here is that in evaluating these methods it is not easy to separate out the choice of failure criterion, scale of evaluation and the material characterization process. These issues are illustrated by an example based on testing and analysis of coupons machined from the centre of the plaques illustrated in Figure 2, at orientations of 0°, 45° and 90° to the flow direction. The material was DuPont Zytel 70G30 HSLR, conditioned and tested at 23°C and 50% RH. The FE models were constructed from 13 layers of solid elements. The elastic stiffness matrix of each layer has been calculated using homogenization based on the measured fibre orientation tensors at 13 different points through the thickness at the centre of each coupon. The

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stress distributions arising from an enforced displacement are illustrated in Figure 5. The impact of the heterogeneity (skin-core effect) and anisotropy on the coupons’ stress distributions is clearly seen, and in deriving fatigue properties from tests of such coupons, the stress distribution and scale of evaluation of the correlating parameter should be considered. Figure 6 is a set of conventional SN curves for this material, where the stress plotted on the vertical axis is the net section stress in the coupon gauge section. These data on their own are of limited use for life prediction; since the stress plotted is not representative of the locations where damage arises, the curves are not transferable to situations where the stress distribution and microstructure are significantly different.

Figure 5. Stress fields, major principal, linear elastic for test coupons cut at 0°, 45° and 90° to the flow direction

moulded rather than machined from plaques, further reducing costs. One disadvantage of the Klimkeit approach is that the strain energy is averaged through the coupon thickness, effectively smearing the skin-core effect and not offering a satisfactory solution for other loading cases such as bending. In Figure 7(a) an attempt is made to address this issue by correlating the fatigue life results using the FE models from Figure 5 to determine the elastic strain energy density from the coupon tests, based on the most critical element. The curves from the 0° and 45° orientations are now very close, but the 90° orientation does not fit so well, suggesting that this approach may be too simple! However, if we consider the support effect, a possible explanation for this problem is that in the 90° case, the region of high stress and hence also strain energy is the very thin core layer where the fibres are aligned primarily in the loading direction, so a larger strain energy density can be supported because of the size of the highly stressed volume. In Figure 7(b) this has been addressed by averaging the strain energy density over a small volume around the most critical element, leading to improved correlation of the three orientations. This type of approach has some promise but it remains to be seen whether it would work for different materials and in the presence of geometric stress concentrations. There are other possible ways of offering relatively simple fatigue calculations and minimizing testing costs. For example Fatemi et al [15] note that the variation in fatigue strength that occurs due to material orientation or temperature is rather proportional to the variation in tensile strength. If true for different materials, this could allow the modelling of fatigue under a variety of conditions based on a single SN curve, supported by a number of much more economical tensile tests. So far there has not been a great deal of work published on variable amplitude loadings. For the moment our variable amplitude calculations are based on rainflow cycle counting and Miner’s rule. These may be regarded as simplifying assumptions. Rainflow cycle counting is based on elasticplastic material behaviour so may be inappropriate for viscoelastic/visco-plastic materials, but it is possible that Miner’s rule may be no more wrong for plastics than it is for metals. CONCLUDING REMARKS

Figure 6. Conventional SN curves for PA66 with 30% GF, normalized with respect to the UTS of the zero degree coupons Energy based criteria such as that described by Klimkeit [19] (if they work) offer a major advantage in that in theory they make it possible to characterize the behaviour of a material by carrying out tests on coupons cut in one orientation rather than three. In principle the coupons might be injection

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Regrettably, there is no simple answer to the question asked in the title of this paper; the question is one that must be answered by the engineer in selecting a modelling approach for each problem he/she faces. In practice the best answer will depend on some of the following: • • •

The current state-of-the art in the field and in related simulation tools The loading and environmental regimes The time and money available


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 44, MARCH 2018, pp.8-14.

a)

b)

Figure 7. Fatigue test data for PA66 with 30% GF, correlated with respect to a strain energy density parameter W: a) evaluated locally over a scale of one element • • •

b) evaluated over a small averaging domain around each element

The degree of accuracy required The available benchmark data from similar problems Availability of relevant material data

In relation to fatigue of short fibre reinforced injection moulded thermoplastics, it is reasonable to suggest that: •

• • •

Taking into account the material microstructure by including moulding simulation in a through process modelling approach is highly desirable For polyamides the moisture content of the material will make a large difference to the material properties and should be taken into consideration For high cycle fatigue problems at moderate temperatures linear elastic FE may suffice Energy based criteria may not be perfect but offer useful benefits in reducing material characterization costs The support effect is likely to be important, and if so should be considered in the reverse engineering of material curves from coupon tests as well as component life estimation.

There is a saying, attributed to A. R. Dykes “Engineering is the art of modelling materials we do not wholly understand, into shapes we cannot precisely analyse so as to withstand forces we cannot properly assess, in such a way that the public has no reason to suspect the extent of our ignorance.” The part about materials is particularly relevant when it comes to modelling the fatigue behaviour of fibre reinforced thermoplastics. However, even a compromised approach to simulation, including assumptions such as treating the material as linear elastic, may yield information that enables the engineer to reduce the extent of his ignorance, and hence to make products that are safer, more reliable and better optimized.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author would like to acknowledge Prof Don Baird and Rebecca Minnick from Virginia Tech for their work on measurement of fibre orientation tensors and fibre length distributions, and to thank ANSYS and e-Xstream for permission to use their software. REFERENCE LIST (1)

Einstein, A., On the Method of Theoretical Physics, The Herbert Spencer Lecture, delivered at Oxford (10 June 1933). Also published in Philosophy of Science, Vol. 1, No. 2 (1934), pp. 163–169. (2) Ptolemy, C., The Almagest, ca 150 AD (3) Copernicus, N., De revelotionibus orbium coelestium, Nuremberg, 1543. (4) Kepler, J., Astronomia nova, 1609. (5) Kepler, J., Harmonices Mundi, 1619. (6) Newton, I., Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, London 1687. (7) Einstein, A., Sitzungsber. preuss. Akad. Wiss., Vol. 47, 1915, pp. 831–839. (8) “Could we send a man safely to the moon in a rocket without knowledge of general relativity?” http:// physics.stackexchange.com/questions/170962 (9) Tseng, H-C., Rong-Yeu, C., and Chia-Hsiang H., Journal of Rheology, Vol. 57, No. 6, 2013, pp. 1597–1631. (10) Mori, T. and Tanaka, K., Acta Metall., Vol. 21, 1973, pp. 571–574. (11) nCode DesignLife Theory Guide, Version 12.1, 2016 (12) Launay, A., Maitournam, H., Marco, Y., Raoult, I. and Szmytka, F. International Journal of Plasticity, 2011, Vol. 27, pp. 1267-93.

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(13) Launay, A., Maitournam, H., Marco, Y. and Raoult, I., International Journal of Fatigue, 2013, Vol. 47, pp. 382389. (14) Launay, A., Maitournam, H., Marco, Y. and Raoult, I., International Journal of Fatigue, 2013, Vol. 47, pp. 390406. (15) Fatemi, A., Mortazavian, S. and Khosrovaneh, A., Procedia Engineering, 2015, Vol. 133, pp. 5-20. (16) Rolland, H., Saintier, N. and Robert, G., “Fatigue mechanisms description in short glass fibre reinforced thermoplastic by microtomographic observations”, Proc. 20th International Conference on Composite Materials, Copenhagen, 2015. (17) De Monte, M., Moosbrugger, E., Bolender, K. and Quaresimin, M., “Fatigue failure assessment of a short glass fibre reinforced polyamide 6.6 under multiaxial loading”, Proc. AIAS, XXXV Convegno Nazionale, 2006.

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(18) Malo, T., Adam, L., Assaker, R, Matsumoto, T. and Giacomini, R., “Multi-scale modeling of high cycle fatigue of chopped and continuous fibre composites”, Proc. SPE Automotive Composites Conference and Exhibition, 2013. (19) Klimkeit, B., “Etude expérimentale et modélisation du comportement en fatigue multiaxiale d’un polymère renforcé pour application automobile.” PhD diss., ISAEENSMA Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d’Aérotechnique-Poitiers, 2009. (20) Heyes, P., “Multiaxial assessment method for fatigue calculations in composite components”, Proc. SPE Automotive Composites Conference and Exhibition, 2013. (21) Sonsino, C. and Moosbrugger, E., Int. Journal of Fatigue, 2008, Vol. 30, pp. 1279-1288.


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Technical Paper Target Reliability as an Acceptance Criterion for Fatigue

Keith Wright, Chief Stress Engineer & Associate Fellow – Structural Integrity, Rolls-Royce plc, PO Box 2000, Derby, DE21 7XX, UK

Abstract The assessment of a component’s suitability for cyclic operation by demonstrating a fatigue usage factor of less than unity against an S-N fatigue design curve is the traditional and standard approach adopted by many industries. The ASME Section III boiler and pressure vessel code approach developed in the 1960s would appear to have served the nuclear industry well. However, the emerging understanding of environmental degradation on fatigue life and its significant dependence on temperature and strain rate for austenitic stainless steel has challenged the view held by many that the traditional approach being followed was ‘fully’ deterministic. The conservatism from the use of many assessment input variables and methodology assumptions is generally unquantified. Hence when combined with a fatigue design curve, now exacerbated by environmental penalty factors, this can result in analytical justification problems for new designs or when previous assessments are updated. This paper outlines the methodology developments and difficulties in the introduction of a more modern acceptance criterion for nuclear component fatigue assessments. INTRODUCTION Offshore structures in the North Sea are subject to more or less continuous storm loading making fatigue an important consideration. The use of target levels for reliability-based assessment of offshore structures during design and operation, including fatigue limit states of components, were first implemented in codes for the Norwegian Continental Shelf in the 1980s, Aker Offshore Partner A.S [1]. Similarly, the application of deterministic fracture mechanics assessment procedures can in some circumstances lead to unacceptably over-conservative predictions of structural integrity. Hence alternative reliability assessment methods are proposed in some codes such as Annex K of BS7910, [2]. The development of risk initiatives in ASME Nuclear codes and standards also go back to the late 1980s, Balkey et al. [3], but more recently a joint JSME/ASME task group has been considering the derivation of component level target reliabilities from plant safety requirements for use in a code case to justify elimination of certain NDT examinations, albeit for liquid metal reactors, Asayama [4] and Takaya [5]. Pressurised water reactor (PWR) nuclear reactor plant (NRP) components are subjected to cyclic loading usually

associated with variations of pressure and temperature. Transient variations in water temperature can result in significant cyclic thermal stresses developing. Subsequent to the development of the original ASME fatigue design rules it has been shown that the hot PWR wetted environment is significantly more severe for both fatigue initiation and fatigue crack growth of austenitic stainless steels. Hence, for the most limiting NRP components it is proposed that a total life fatigue assessment approach with quantified margins from the use of target reliabilities as an acceptance criterion for fatigue be considered. INTENT OF THE ASME SECTION III FATIGUE DESIGN PROCEDURE A Special Committee to Review Code Stress Basis (SCRCSB) was created in 1955 to investigate what changes in Code design philosophy might permit the use of higher allowable stresses without reduction in safety. Prior to World War 2 the design of pressure vessels was primarily based on selecting the thickness such that the maximum design pressure-induced stress in simple geometries was less than one-fifth of the ultimate tensile stress. This nominal factor of safety of five was reduced to four as a war emergency measure. The SCRCSB were tasked to determine what was required to further reduce this factor of safety to three. Although the rules for all aspects of construction were tightened by the recommendations of the SCRCSB, the major conceptual change was in design with the adoption of a ‘Design by Analysis’ approach which led to the development of ASME Section III in 1963. The Criteria of Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for Nuclear Vessels has been documented and captured in [6] and subsequently [7]. These provide an explanation of the methods used for determining the suitability of vessels and parts for cyclic application of loads. However, one of the leading participants in the SCRCSB between 1954 and 1963 was W.E. Cooper (Bill Cooper) who produced a paper in 1992 that discussed the initial scope and intent of the Section III fatigue design procedures, [8]. His paper provides a valuable personal insight to the thinking at that time with some of the key points reproduced below.

The requirements of Section III were for new construction and were therefore addressed primarily to the Manufacturer whilst the Owner/User was responsible for defining the operational conditions to be considered by the Manufacturer via a Design Specification.

© Copyright Rolls-Royce plc 2017

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The design criteria for fatigue as a failure mode were provided to assure that the reduction of the nominal factor of safety to three did not result in a decrease in reliability if the vessel was expected to be subjected to cyclic operating conditions. It was not a valid measure of the eventual operational fatigue life but rather a screening criterion to decide if the vessel design was judged to be fit-for-purpose for construction. This was largely possible because the cyclic conditions defined for vessels were seldom significant for the plant constructed at that time.

Therefore, the Code fatigue rules as a screening criterion were related to crack intiation only and did not consider corrosion fatigue, high cycle vibratory loading or thermal mixing. These were the assigned responsibility of the Owner. Bill Cooper did agree, [8], that with hindsight there was a need to include environmental corrosion fatigue effects into the design process.

The appropriate place for an operational fatigue life evaluation was considered to be Section XI of ASME, where the propagation of a crack is evaluated using fracture mechanics techniques, and the consequences of the crack to future operation is similarly evaluated.

The significance of the latter statement is that it supports the point of view that in operation the fatigue failure mode that is being protected is through wall leakage and not just the initiation of a crack. Hence a total life prediction to through wall leakage, providing it maintains an adequate margin, is considered to be consistent with the intent of the pioneers behind the Code. DETERMINISTIC OR PROBABILISTIC The word deterministic is one that is used so frequently in engineering that the meaning has in the author’s opinion become blurred. Maybe it is because the words deterministic and probabilistic are seen by some as two opposite extremes. But if you look up the definition, of which there are many, the one found most apt was: “A deterministic analysis will always produce the same output from a given set of initial conditions or inputs.” What that means is that there is no randomness involved and you get the same answer or outcome in a “pre-determined” way for that particular set of inputs. Engineers like methods that consistently give an answer for the same set of inputs because that fits comfortably with the creation of design rules and acceptance criteria. You get a clear black or white answer – it either passes or it fails. So, if that is the case, why is it said that the meaning

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has become blurred? When engineers use deterministic methods they do so by using conservative inputs, usually because some of the input parameters may have uncertainty because we do not know the real value or because we wish to simplify and speed up the obtaining of a result whilst still guarding against the risk of failure. This way of working gets embedded into engineers at the outset of their careers, and no more so than in the Nuclear Industry, where there is a fear of providing an answer that may be later shown to be non-conservative or even worse if it is later associated with an actual failure. A workshop, [9], held April 2017 “When Fully Deterministic is not possible in Structural Integrity” raised this as an issue. The term “Fully Deterministic” was used in the title of this workshop because it relates to where engineers feel the need to make every single input to their analysis conservative, if not bounding. Over time this has become the accepted norm by far too many as what is meant by a deterministic analysis. This is the blurring of the meaning of deterministic that needs to be addressed. This situation is not helped by the key documentation provided by either the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or the UK Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR). Whilst the IAEA considers that deterministic safety analyses for design purposes should be characterized by their conservative assumptions and bounding analysis, [10], it does recognize and caution that the use of a conservative methodology may be so conservative that important safety issues may be masked. This means that industry could be committing considerable expense in managing conservatism, possibly from more frequent inspections or costly analysis, and neglecting apparent less limiting areas which are not really bounded. For example, with the ASME Section III fatigue methodology a thick walled component could have a higher predicted fatigue usage factor than a thin walled component but in practice the operational cyclic life to through wall leakage for the thin walled component could be considerably less than that of the thick walled. This is one of the key reasons for advocating a total life (to through wall leakage) approach for the fatigue assessment. The IAEA documentation does suggest that one way to overcome these deficiencies in the ‘fully deterministic’ method may be to use a best estimate approach together with an evaluation of the uncertainties for comparison with an acceptance criterion. This is referred to as a best estimate plus uncertainties approach. This can still be consistent with the definition of ‘deterministic’ in that it will always produce the same output from a given set of initial conditions or inputs. The important consideration being that the margin to the acceptance criteria, whatever they are, is deemed adequate.


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The ONR Technical Assessment Guide on the Assessment of the Integrity of Metal Components and Structures that are significant for nuclear safety, [11], points out that “design should be based on deterministic engineering, defence in depth and adequate safety margins”. Moreover, whilst experience of actual component reliability is a relevant consideration it also states that “theoretical analyses to yield predictions of component reliability are unlikely to provide a significant contribution to a safety case”.

scale components with an industrial surface finish, and for environment, as well as allowing for scatter in the data. Total factors of 20 on cycles and 2 on strain were originally used. The fatigue design curves generated were validated, or as ASME stated – checked for appropriateness, by simple tests on 12” and 36” diameter pressure vessels, [12]. These tests are briefly discussed in the ASME Criteria documents, [6, 7]. The alternating stress amplitudes during the tests

Another related and significant paragraph from [11] is under the heading of Structural Integrity Philosophy, which states: “The general lack of adequate reliability data for structural components leads to assessment being based primarily on established deterministic engineering practice. Even when there is confidence in assessing reliability based on existing data and a probabilistic safety case is possible, it is unlikely to be acceptable without substantial support from theoretical analyses and engineering judgement”. Hence with the ONR being a goal setting rather than a prescriptive standard based regime, then the onus is on us in the industry to justify any alternative approach as an option. What is clearly Figure 1. Appropriateness of ASME Fatigue Design Curves Based on of most importance is that engineering Pressure Vessel Tests assessments in design demonstrate an adequate margin that is fit-for-purpose. were known from a comprehensive strain gauge survey of The difficulty is in quantifying what is adequate. the peak stresses. The results, Figure 1, indicated that no crack initiation was detected at any stress level before the WHY THE INTEREST NOW allowable number of cycles from the design curve and no crack penetrated the through wall thickness in less than When you understand the origins of the ASME code through three times the allowable number of cycles. This was judged personal reflections like that provided by Bill Cooper (see by the code committee members at that time as being what above) you realise that in the 1960s they did not have they considered to be a fit-for-purpose approach. all the answers and significant assumptions had to be made. Hence the margins applied to address the gaps in However, that still leaves us in uncertainty of whether (to knowledge were unquantified margins. use ONR or IAEA wording) the result is ‘demonstrably conservative’, ‘suitably conservative’ or ‘very unlikely’ so In an age before we even had finite element analysis, we that there is an ‘adequate margin’. can only admire the work that these pioneers of design codes managed to contribute. But, as our understanding of So why is fatigue still obtaining so much attention in those gaps has improved, it is apparent that now is the time the Nuclear Industry? Although the above tests were to better quantify what the margins should be against fatigue undertaken with a water environment to pressurise the failure and that we modernise our assessment methods. vessels, they were also at ambient temperature. Work undertaken in the 1990s with a water environment at much The fatigue design curves that first appeared in the 1960’s higher temperatures from 150º to 300ºC showed that a were from fairly simple tests with data generated from significant deterioration in fatigue life then occurred. The uniaxial small scale polished specimens of about 9mm US NRC lost patience due to the lack of consensus from diameter from tests in air. They then applied design factors, ASME and in 2007 published its own document NuReg/ to allow for the transference of the data generated to larger

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CR-6909, [13], and associated Regulatory Guidance 1.207, [14], that said in layman language - if you want to apply for any new build or licence renewals then you are expected to consider environmental effects in a way similar to that prescribed by [13]. Moreover, a correction to the air design curve for stainless steel was also introduced and it was also found that water environment made crack growth rates worse. ASME code case N-809, [14] which was finally published in 2015 provides details of revised environmental fatigue crack growth laws for stainless steels. The net effect of these disruptive changes resulting from an improved understanding of hot wet environmental effects for austenitic stainless steels can be summarized as follows: •

An increase in the basic air fatigue usage factors of up to ×10 is possible, although on average a factor of between 2 and 4 may be typical. An additional enhancement due to environment effects. This Fen factor as it is known is strongly dependent upon temperature and strain rate of the loading cycle. It is most severe at high temperatures and with slow strain rates and although a factor of ×14 is possible on average a factor of between 2 and 8 is more likely. Finally in terms of fatigue crack growth, enhancements of up to ×70 at low ∆K values are observed, although for a typical spectrum of transients this equates on average to a total factor of 2 to 4 on crack growth.

Not surprisingly the results from analyses of various components now show that predicted fatigue usage factor (FUF) values in excess of unity are being predicted and inservice inspection (ISI) intervals for some components are also being challenged. However, the international field experience of these components over a number of platforms has been good and does not tally with the latest predicted FUF values. So why is there a difference and where do we go from here? The US NRC responses to the public comments on Revision 1 of [13] are expected mid 2017 but the feedback received unofficially is that they do not expect any significant changes. DEVELOPMENTS The industry response to the 2007 publication of [13] included EPRI co-ordination of an Expert Focus Group that led to the production and prioritization of gaps via a roadmap, [16, 17], and the production of initial code cases by ASME Section III, [18, 19]. However, these code cases offered no real benefit, in terms of reduced conservatism, compared to [13].

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Subsequently, a new ASME Section III Working Group on Environmental Fatigue Evaluation Methods (WGEFEM) was established with the following charter: “The Working Group will evaluate recognized methods of assessing cyclic life of Class 1 components that are subject to a wetted environment. The life assessment includes traditional fatigue usage evaluations, crack growth evaluation and other approaches to provide appropriate design margins when a usage factor or an equivalent criterion is determined”. The activities of WGEFEM have included consideration of a range of options for the designer recognising that the ‘one size fits all’ approach is not ideal. Opportunities for reducing conservatism have centred around a recognition that the fatigue design curves are based upon polished small scale specimens subject to cyclic membrane loading conditions. Plant components usually experience strain gradients through the thickness either from the presence of stress concentration features or from the loading being dominated by thermal shock transients. A Fatigue Action Plan has been developed by the WGEFEM to support a graded approach of fatigue assessment from the most simplistic with most conservatism to the most complex where conservatism is proposed to be minimized. The latter approach is the total life assessment to through wall leakage with a margin determined by a target reliability dependent upon the consequences of the leakage occurring. This more complex approach is deemed necessary for the most limiting of NRP components if regular in-service inspection or component replacement on a more frequent basis than we would otherwise have expected is to be avoided. However, there is a price to be paid with a need for both an improved mechanistic understanding and also validation from plant representative testing against which to benchmark the improved methods. A number of International Forums have been held in recent years to consider the impact of environmental fatigue. Two of particular note are the 4th International Fatigue Conference, held September 2015 in Seville, Spain and the IAEA Technical Meeting on Fatigue Assessment in Light Water Reactors for Long Term Operation, held July 2016 in Erlangen, Germany. The output from the Seville conference is reported [20] and includes recommendations that are supportive of the option for a total life approach with target reliabilities. The output from the IAEA meeting is still awaited although the case for a total life approach with quantified margins was presented [21]. A criticism of [13] was that whilst it comprehensively addressed environmental effects for small scale specimens under isothermal membrane loading conditions for simple sawtooth waveforms it fell short of addressing how to read across to real plant components and complex waveforms


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such as thermal shock transients. The work reported by Le Duff et al., [22], was a significant indicator that complex waveforms and the integrated effects of surface finish and water environment were not as severe as suggested by [13]. The international collaboration which contributed to the Environmental Fatigue roadmap, co-ordinated by EPRI, [16], identified that plant representative component testing was one of the key priority items judged necessary to aid the development of a less conservative environmental fatigue evaluation method. Since then progress has been slow due to the expense and timescales involved for hot pressurised testing.

component cyclic duty lifetimes. TARGET RELIABILITY Quantified margins expressed as a target reliability is not a new idea. Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) was introduced into USA structural codes in 1986, as discussed by Marek and Brozzetti, [24], and a similar approach for the avoidance of fracture was implemented in PD6493:1991 now superseded by [2]. Target probabilities of failure are provided in Annex K of [2] that are deemed to be satisfied through the use of partial safety factors on stress, defect size, toughness and strength. What is not clear is the basis behind the choice of the target probabilities of failure reproduced in Table 1 although a similar reliability differentiation and values of reliability index (β) are noted in Annex B of the Eurocode EN1990, Basis of structural design, [25].

In the UK a phased approach towards more representative testing has been adopted to steadily build credibility from air to water environment testing of standard specimens; from isothermal to varying temperature both in and out of phase and from standard to hollow tubular specimens. In addition a number of crack growth tests have been undertaken TABLE 1 Target failure probability (events/year) – from Annex K, BS7910 to investigate crack closure effects anticipated during Failure Consequences Redundant Component Non-redundant Component -1 thermal cycling R = -1 10-3 Moderate 2.3 x 10 conditions and also for Severe 10-3 7 x 10-5 understanding the effective Very Severe 7 x 10-5 10-5 rise time during more -5 Extremely Severe 10 10-7 complex loading waveforms. An important step is now the move to thick-walled hollow specimens subjected to thermal shock transients that generate a strain gradient from the wetted surface. The intent is for the specimens to be subjected to sufficient cycles to initiate and grow cracks to a sufficient depth through the thickness that enables the developed assessment methodology to be ‘benchmarked’ in terms of a best estimate predictive capability for combined initiation and fatigue crack growth (the total life). These tests by the very nature of repeated hot and cold shocks have temperature variations at the wetted surface out of phase with the strain cycles, and strain gradients through the wall thickness that are more representative of plant components. Longer term, the aim is for an industry sponsored component features test to be undertaken, potentially under the auspices of EPRI, for the various participants to ‘validate’ their own or a harmonised assessment methodology. A Request For Proposals (RFP) is being prepared by EPRI as explained by Steininger et al., [23]. With the proviso that the combination of improved analytical methods and plant representative testing is able to demonstrate that our predictive capability in a water environment has improved sufficiently then we will be in a position to introduce a total life fatigue assessment approach in conjunction with quantified margins for justification of

In the Nuclear industry, a systems based code (SBC) approach has been proposed in Japan by Asada et al., [26], that correlates safety requirements and structural design with an aim to achieve a leap of progress both in safety and economy of NRP. Its implementation is more strongly desired after the Fukushima accident. The JSME has launched a project to implement the concept to codes for fast reactors and a joint effort between the JSME and ASME is also ongoing as part of the ASME Section XI Reliability and Integrity Management Task Group. The philosophy of the SBC concept is that the balance of safety and operational performance is important in achieving the required reliability. Figure 2 illustrates a comparison between the traditional present approach, where excessive margins can accumulate in an unquantified way, with the SBC approach in which working to a target reliability enables excessive conservatism to be eliminated. The analogy of Figure 2 to where we find ourselves today with a traditional fatigue design methodology compounded by water environmental effects causing analytical justification issues is clearly self-evident. Hence we need to trade the benefit of improved understanding of environmental effects and analytical predictive capability against reducing some of the previous unquantified margins judged and imposed by the early pioneers.

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of operational plants in service worldwide. Therefore whilst the International field experience is considered to be good, Reference [11] points out that the total worldwide experience of NRP is modest with the worldwide operational experience being about 15000 reactor years at the end of 2015. In the railway industry, where railway axles are primary safety components and associated with the origins of fatigue knowledge, the operational fleet FIGURE 2. An illustration of the SBC Concept and use of a Target and experience is much larger and Reliability. statistically more significant. In this case the determination of railway axle risk of The JSME have proposed a way by Kurisaka et al. [27] fatigue failure under service loading has been presented to derive target reliabilities at a component level by using by Beretta and Regazzi, [29]. The admissible failure probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) methods in a reverse way. probability of a railway axle is based on [25] from which PRA is usually used to integrate the individual reliabilities a medium consequences minimum reliability index of 3.8 into the risk index whereas the proposed method uses PRA is recommended that gives a target failure probability for to separate the risk target into component level structural construction during the entire life as 7 x 10-5. For a service reliability levels, Figure 3. A relationship between predicted throughwall leakage of components and the estimated contribution to core-damage frequencies has already been attempted by Khaleel et al., [28]. This showed that for the particular plant designs considered, leakage did not make a significant contribution to the risk of core damage. Care needs to be taken to consider plant designs on an individual basis as those which are more reliant on human intervention rather than automatic protection would be expected to require more stringent target reliabilities for the avoidance of leakage occurring. Even if the analytical predictive capability is shown by representative testing to be good, thought remains necessary to understand how to deal with the PRA uncertainties.

FIGURE 3. Proposed Methodology to Derive Component Level Target Reliabilities, Ref [27].

Nevertheless, once a target reliability for a component is known, this should be able to be translated to an overall factor on predicted life to through-wall leakage, providing a more meaningful and quantified margin. DISCUSSION The ONR negativity towards the use of theoretical analyses to yield predictions of component reliability, [11], is believed to be influenced by the relatively small number

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life of 30 years corresponding to 107 km this equates to a failure rate of 2.33 x 10-6 failures/year. On a fleet of one million axles this would correspond to approximately 2 axle failures per year. Reference [29] considers that this figure is very close to the present situation of average recorded failures in Europe due to mechanical causes between 2010 and 2012. This provides some confidence that the method could be meaningfully applied to other industries, such as Nuclear, where the operational experience is relatively smaller. Interestingly, the railway industry are now looking


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to improve upon that reliability of railway axles by reducing the target failure probability by one order of magnitude.

component feature collaboration.

In the Nuclear Industry there is a Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) Codes and Standards Working Group (CSWG) with an initiative to achieve harmonization of nuclear pressure boundary codes and standards. A benefit of harmonization is believed to be consistency in worldwide safety and reliability of NPPs. However, this is currently being pursued from the bottom up by attempting to achieve convergence amongst the Standards Development Organisations on several technical topics such as non-linear analysis methods. It would appear more logical, at least to the author, to attempt a top down convergence on agreement of target reliabilities for key systems and components. In this respect a good example is provided by EN 1990: Eurocode – Basis of structural design, [25]. This is the head key code for the harmonized Structural Eurocodes, albeit focused on buildings and civil engineering structures. However, it gives guidelines for related aspects of structural reliability, durability and quality control and includes the partial safety factors that must be used by each of the design Eurocodes (Eurocodes 2 to 9 for the different types of structures).

The original intent of the ASME Section III fatigue design methodology was simply to provide engineering confidence that a particular design of NRP component was fit-forpurpose to construct against a design specification, not to provide a precise predictor of operating cycles to fatigue failure where failure would be loss of functionality due to pressure boundary leakage.

It is acknowledged that there are difficulties in the introduction of more modern acceptance criteria for fatigue such as the use of target reliabilities, not least the derivation of the target reliabilities themselves. The concept of reverse engineering the PRA sounds logical but as always the devil will be in the detail. Hence the outcome from some initial estimates is eagerly awaited. For nuclear applications the agreement of the regulator will require a strong case to be made as this is a departure from established deterministic engineering practice, even if the established practice of the use of unquantified margin is being challenged by the industry itself. CONCLUSIONS The use of target reliability as an acceptance criterion for fatigue, or any other failure mechanism for that matter, is considered a logical approach that quantifies the required assessment margin in a more transparent manner. However, from an engineering point of view, it is more demanding in effort to interpret the PRA and its assumptions and uncertainties to obtain component specific targets rather than to take a ‘fully’ deterministic approach. Additionally, in terms of application there is also a need to demonstrate that a sufficiently robust mechanistic understanding has been achieved for the predictive capability of both fatigue crack initiation and fatigue crack growth as well as the final failure mode. Validation of predictive capability in the case of stainless steel components in a nuclear PWR environment will require expensive and time-consuming representative

testing

ideally

via

international

Today, over fifty years later, our improved understanding of PWR environmental effects requires that an updated screening approach to fatigue design be developed. In order to achieve this we need to initially go one step further to demonstrate for the most limiting NRP components that an adequate margin still exists for a significant proportion of plant life, before recourse to ISI or other measures. This one step further will need a combination of methodology developments and a more modern acceptance criterion. A total life fatigue assessment approach with quantified margins from target reliabilities is proposed as the way forward. REFERENCE LIST (1)

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Aker Offshore Partner A.S., Target levels for reliabilitybased assessment of offshore structures during design and operation, HSE Offshore Technology Report 1999/060. London, Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, 2002. BSI, Guide to methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in metallic structures, BS 7910:2013, UK, 2013. Balkey, K.R., Closkey N.B. and Sloane, B.D., Risk Initiatives in ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards, ASME Standards Technology LLC, STP/NU-001, New York, USA, 2005. Asayama, T. et al., Development of Structural Codes for JSFR Based on the System Based Code Concept, ASME, PVP2014-28853. Takaya, S. et al., Determination of in-service inspection requirements for fast reactor components using System Based Code concept, Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol 305, 2016, pp. 270-276. Criteria of Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code for Nuclear Vessels, ASME, USA, 1964. Criteria of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for Design by Analysis in Sections III and VIII, Division 2. ASME, USA, 1968. Cooper, W.E., The Initial Scope and Intent of the Section III Fatigue Design Procedures, PVRC Workshop on Environmental Effects on Fatigue Performance, Clearwater Beach, FL, USA, January 1992. Wright, K., When Fully Deterministic is not Possible – An Example, FESI Workshop on When Fully

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Deterministic is not possible in Structural Integrity, Derby, UK, April 2017. IAEA, Deterministic Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants, Specific Safety Guide SSG-2, Vienna, Austria, 2009. ONR, Integrity of Metal Structures, Systems and Components, Nuclear Safety Technical Assessment Guide, NS-TAST-GD-016 Revision 5, March 2017. Kooistra, L.F., Lange, E.A. and Pickett, A.G., Full-Size Pressure Vessel Testing and Its Application to Design, Journal of Engineering for Power, ASME, USA, 1964. Chopra, O. and Shack, W., Effect of LWR Coolant Environments on the Fatigue Life of Reactor Materials, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, NuReg/CR6909, USA, 2007. U.S. NRC, Guidelines for Evaluating Fatigue Analyses Incorporating The Life Reduction of Metal Components Due to the Effects of the Light-Water Reactor Environment for New Reactors, Regulatory Guide 1.207, USA, March 2007. ASME, Reference Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Curves for Austenitic Stainless Steels in Pressurized Water Reactor Environments, Section XI, Division 1, Case N-809, June 2015. Midmore, L. and Tice, D., Environmentally Assisted Fatigue Gap Analysis and Roadmap for Future Research – Roadmap, EPRI 1026724, November 2012. Midmore, L. and Tice, D., Environmentally Assisted Fatigue Gap Analysis and Roadmap for Future Research – Gap Analysis, EPRI 1023012, December 2011. ASME, Fatigue Design Curves for Light Water Reactor (LWR) Environments, Section III, Division 1, Case N-761, September 2010. ASME, Fatigue Evaluations Including Environmental Effects, Section III, Division 1, Case N-792, August 2012. OECD/NEA, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fatigue of Nuclear Reactor Components, 28th September – 1st October 2015, Seville, Spain. Wright, K., A Total Life Assessment Approach with Quantified Margins for LWRs, IAEA Technical Meeting on Fatigue Assessment in Light Water Reactors for Long Term Operation: Good Practice and Lessons Learned, Erlangen, Germany, July 2016. Le-Duff, J.A., Lefrancois, A., Vernot, J.P. and Bossu, D., Effect of Loading Signal Shape and of Surface Finish on the Low Cycle Fatigue Behaviour of 304L Stainless Steel in PWR Environment, PVP2010-26027, Proceedings of the ASME 2010 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Bellevue, Washington, USA. Steininger, D.A., et al., Component Testing Proposal to Quantify Margins in Existing Environmentally Assisted Fatigue (EAF) Requirements, PVP2017-65995,

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Proceedings of the ASME 2017 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA. Marek, P. and Brozzetti, J., From Deterministic to Probabilistic Way of Thinking in Structural Engineering. BSI, Eurocode – Basis of Structural Design, BS EN 1990:2002+A1:2005UK, 2010. Asada, Y., Tashimo, M. and Ueta, M., Systems Based Code – Principal Concept, Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, 2002. Kurisaka, K., Nakai, R., Asayama, T. and Takaya, S., Development of System Based Code (1) Reliability Target Derivation of Structures and Components, Journal of Power and Energy Systems, JSME, JP, 5, pp. 19-32, 2011. Khaleel, M.A., Simonen, F.A., Phan, H.K., Harris, D.O. and Dedia D., Fatigue Analysis of Components for 60year Plant Life, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, NuREG/CR-6674, USA, June 2000. Beretta, S. and Regazzi, D., Probabilistic fatigue assessment for railway axles and derivation of a simple format for damage calculations, International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 86, 2016, pp13-23.


Obituary – Dr Colin Dodds, B.Sc., PhD 1943-2017 Colin James Dodds was born in Manchester on the 8th January 1943 to George and Marion Dodds. When he was a year old the family moved to Scotland to set up home in Dollar where Colin attended Dollar Academy from 1954 to 1961. At school he was a self-proclaimed ‘geek’ excelling in Chemistry, Physics and Maths and passing the Scottish Higher exams required for university in his 5th year, but staying on in Dollar for 6th year studies.

English Electric KDF9 with 16K bytes of core memory and program and data input through punched card. Mini-computers were only just becoming available. Problems with speed and storage on both systems were considerable. Nevertheless Colin persisted and in 1972 was awarded his doctorate on “The response of vehicle components to random road surface undulations.” In conjunction with Prof. Robson, Colin also published papers on the development of numerical methods to compute some of the key measurements to characterise and control MIMO systems, especially the Multiple and Partial Coherence of their inputs and outputs.

With an engineering scholarship in hand the choice of course to pursue in university was straightforward. Colin graduated in 1965 with a first-class honours degree in Mechanical Engineering from Glasgow University thereafter joining the staff of a pressure vessels manufacturer in Fife. In 1966 Colin married Janette, a fellow student he had met while at Glasgow University.

Colin continued to work in Glasgow University as part of a university consulting company, Structural Monitoring Limited (SML), formed to allow lecturers and researchers to apply their academic research to real world identification of structural failure through measurement of the dynamic response of offshore oil platforms. Thanks to the work at NEL, however, hydraulic, not crude, oil was in Colin’s blood and he left in 1975 to join MTS, a global supplier of servo-hydraulically operated mechanical test systems for the automotive industry based in the USA. While at MTS, Colin put his PhD work to good use implementing many of the measurement and analysis methods he had developed as tools in the MTS Remote Parameter Control (RPC) software package. Colin was also a key member of the MTS team doing the missionary work demonstrating and selling the RPC technology to ‘early adopters’ in the automotive test world.

Colin’s numerical skills had clearly made an impression in Glasgow University as two years later he was approached by Professor John Robson, head of the Mechanical Engineering department, to see if he was interested in studying for a PhD. John Robson had formed a stochastic process research group which had a working relationship with the National Engineering Laboratory (NEL) at East Kilbride who had recently taken delivery of a tyre-coupled ride simulator. Both were interested in developing the control methods required to simulate true road load inputs to the test vehicle. Two PhD research positions were available in the department, one in stochastic processes and one in ‘traditional’ mechanical engineering and, as he later related, on a flip of a coin he took the research post in the stochastic process group. That coin toss ultimately determined his future career path in automotive test engineering. Doing practical research in stochastic (random) processes and developing the numerical methods required to simulate measured field responses on multipleinput multiple-output systems was a significant challenge in the late 1960’s when Colin started his work. The main university computer at the time was an

He returned to the UK in 1977 where he rejoined SML as managing director. There he put his new-found MTS entrepreneurial and business skills to good use selling the SML team and starting to establish the company’s reputation in the oil and gas and automotive industries, so much so that SML is still in existence 40 years later, albeit now as part of the Fugro Group. Colin’s wanderlust was still not satisfied and in 1983 he was made head of the Mechanical Engineering department in Napier College in Edinburgh. In 1985 he became both an advisor to the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation building the Automotive Research Association of India’s new laboratory, in Pune, India and later

relocated to Michigan, with Janette and son Iain, to set up a new laboratory, AEVC, in Detroit for Structural Dynamics Research Corporation (SDRC). After two years with SDRC he handed over management of AEVC and in 1987 moved to EG&G Corporation as a director in their Structural Kinematics (SK) laboratory. A period of relative calm for Colin and his family ensued with him ultimately becoming president of SK in 1995. In 1996 EG&G were awarded a contract to manage the ATP Automotive Testing Papenburg GmbH proving ground for Mercedes Benz and Colin and Janette relocated to Germany to set up the management team. Diagnosis of Janette’s terminal illness in 1998 played a large part in their decision to return to the UK. Never one to sit still, Colin set himself up as an independent consultant in Dodds and Associates. With his reputation in the automotive test community a steady stream of work from India, Iran, China, Japan, Italy, Brazil, Germany, USA and elsewhere was assured. This work continued into years when most of us would have been well retired. Apart from a love of opera, having sung in amateur performances of Gilbert and Sullivan operettas in university, Colin had no leisure pastimes of which the author is aware. Work was his passion and despite increasing ill health this passion continued to drive him until his death by heart attack on the 20th August 2017. While Colin should be remembered for his contributions to automotive test methods what is also important, and what may not be apparent in the above chronology, is that throughout his career Colin was always able to gather together, lead and mentor teams to support whatever engineering or business venture he was pursuing. In leading these groups, in SML, in UNIDO, in SDRC, in EG&G and his later consulting work, he always ensured that success was appropriately attributed and rewarded within the team. Failures he took on his own shoulders. Thanks to Colin’s lifetime of mentoring and support there is now a large group of people worldwide that have successful careers contributing their skills and knowledge to the automotive test engineering community. The author and the other contributors to this obituary count themselves fortunate to have been part of this group. Malcolm Sharp/Iain Dodds/Neil Hay

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Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition 13 March 2018 T

he Society’s Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition will be held on 13 March 2018 in Hall 3 at the Silverstone Circuit overlooking the race track. The event has been successfully running for over 25 years and in recent years has grown significantly to 70 stands throughout the hall with a steady increase in visitor numbers. The event covers a variety of industries including aerospace, automotive, motor-sport, rail, off-highway, mechanical handling, industrial and power generation industries. On show and being demonstrated will be a range of products, testing equipment, transducers, data acquisition and analysis systems and imaging systems. The exhibition offers an ideal opportunity for all engineers to meet face to face with equipment suppliers and get to see and understand the latest technological developments in this field of engineering. The exhibition is free to attend as are the open forums and there is also plenty of free car parking available at the site. With a complimentary lunch voucher for all guests, visitors have the opportunity to make the most of the exhibition, forums and the chance to meet with colleagues and exhibitors. Once again this year’s event continues with our series of open forums where panels of renowned experts discuss specific topics and take questions from the floor. These interactive sessions have proven to be very popular and often lead on to one day seminar events.

This year’s forums will cover the following topics:•

Seeing the ‘Wood for the Trees’; Making Sense of Analysis Classification Tools - How do you decide what data to collect, how will the data be used, how many channels to collect, ensuring accurate analysis.

A Comparison between the Input and Output of Signals using Different Systems – The EIS has been involved in studies to compare the results from the analysis of a standard set of signals conducted by several different establishments. This highlighted differences in results which varied depending on the operator, equipment or both.

How Good is CAE Modelling v.s Test ? – There is often conflicting points of view between the modelling and test engineer, both like to think they are achieving accurate results, but often there are correlation differences.

The Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition attracts visitors from all over the UK and is seen by many as the go-to event for testing and analysis technologies. For more information or to register your attendance, please contact the EIS Secretariat (Sara Atkin): info@e-i-s.org.uk or visit the website www.e-i-s.org.uk

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“I never miss the EIS Exhibition for the chance to see the latest instrumentation and analysis technologies in a friendly environment. Silverstone is a great venue, plus you usually get see some racing cars as well!” John Tyrrell, Managing Director of TTS Systems

The following companies will be exhibiting: A&D Europe GmbH UK branch AcSoft Ltd Adwin Alphatech ASDEC, University of Leicester Bruel & Kjaer BMTA Campbell Associates CaTs3 CentraTEQ Ltd Data Acquisition and Testing Services Ltd Data Physics Datron Technology Dewesoft UK Ltd DJB Instruments DWE Scientific Enabling Process Technologies Ltd First Sensor Technics Ltd Frazer-Nash Consultancy Fylde Electronic Labs Ltd Gantner Instrumentation GOM UK Ltd

HBM UK Ltd Head Acoustics Ltd IAMT Pruefsysteme GmbH IDT (UK) Ltd Instron GmbH Interface Force Measurements Ixthus Instrumentation JR Dynamics Ltd Julabo KDP Electronic Systems Ltd Kemo Ltd Kistler Instruments M&P International UK Ltd Meggitt Sensing Systems Mescmesin Ltd Micro-Epsilon Micro-Measurements UK Millbrook Moog Industrial Group MTS Systems Ltd Mueller BBM Optimax Imaging Inspection & Measurement

PCB Piezotronics Phoenix Materials Testing Ltd Photo-Sonics Photron (Europe) Ltd Prosig Quadratec Ltd Racelogic Sensors UK Ltd Servotest Testing Systems Ltd Shimadzu UK Ltd Siemens Society of Environmental Engineers Star Hydraulics Strainsense Ltd Techni Measure Telonic Thermal Vision Research THP Systems Ltd Tiab Ltd Vibration Research Yokogawa Zwick Testing Machines

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The Engineering Integrity Society Peter Watson Prize 2018

Young engineers are invited to submit an entry for the 2018 EIS Peter Watson Prize which will be held at a special event in October 2018.

Eligibility The prize is named after our founding President, Dr Peter Watson, who passed away in 2015. It was created to support young engineers at the start of their career, a cause Peter keenly supported throughout his working life. Entrants should meet at least one of the following criteria: A person working in industry below the age of 28 on submission A post-doctoral worker with a maximum of 3 years’ experience since completing a PhD/EngD Any currently registered undergraduate or postgraduate student

Entries Interested engineers should submit an application form and a one page abstract summarising the presentation they would like to give. The presentation should be relevant to the interests of the EIS and should be based on work that the applicant has undertaken themselves. Suitable topics include: durability, fatigue, NVH, sound and vibration, simulation, test and measurement. Applications will be assessed by a panel and the shortlisted candidates will be invited to present at the Final in October 2018.

The Final Finalists will be invited to make a 15 minute presentation at a special EIS event. Presenters will also have 5 minutes to take questions from the panel, who will assess the candidates and their presentations for technical content, presentation quality and handling of questions.

Prize A prize of ÂŁ400 will be presented to the young engineer who has delivered the best presentation as determined by the judges. A prize of ÂŁ200 will be presented to the individual who the judges would like to highly commend.

Closing Date Applications must be received by 30 June 2018 by emailing info@e-i-s.org.uk.

www.e-i-


Entrants in the 2017 Peter Watson Prize

ENTRY FORM

Please complete and email to info@e-i-.s.org.uk or post to 6 Brickyard Lane, Farnsfield, Nottinghamshire, NG22 8JS.

First Name Surname Eligibility - I confirm that I am: Under the age of 28

A post-doctoral worker with maximum 3 years experience

A current undergraduate or postgraduate student

Address:

Contact Number: Email: Terms and Conditions By submitting an application you are agreeing to abide by the following terms and conditions. The Peter Watson Prize is run by the Engineering Integrity Society. All entrants must complete and submit the registration form along with their abstract. On submission of an application, abstracts will be judged by a panel of experts. Deadline for submission is strictly 30 June 2018. Applications must be submitted in English and candidates should be living in the UK. We reserve the right at our sole discretion to refuse or disqualify any applicant who does not meet the criteria. Participants will be responsible for all their costs for entering and participating. Only one entry per person allowed. Second or subsequent entries will be disqualified. The competition is open to all entrants meeting the criteria as laid out above. We will use information which you provide, including your personal details to administer the competition. Names and titles of presentations of shortlisted candidates will be listed on our website. The judges’ decision is final and no correspondence will be entered into. Photographs of entrants and winners will be used in both print and online media after the event. Entrants will be deemed to have accepted these terms and conditions and to agree to be bound by them when entering this competition.

-s.org.uk


Digital Image Processing Digital Image Correlation (or DIC) is a non-contact optical 3D deformation measurement technique. It is used widely as a replacement for or complementary to strain gauges and extensometers. DIC recognizes the surface structure of the measuring object in digital camera images and allocates coordinates to the image pixels. The first image in the measuring project represents the undeformed state of the object. After, or during the deformation of the measuring object, further images are recorded. The DIC software then compares the digital images and calculates the displacement and deformation of the object. This allows 3D Displacement, velocity, strain in X or Y and Major and Minor strains and directions to be visualised as a full field colour map. This is shown in Fig 1 which shows the major strain in a tensile test with a hole. Red colour indicates higher strains, blue lower. This is done by tracking the stochastic or random speckle pattern which is applied to the surface. Typically this is done with standard matt black and white spray paints. Fig 2. Stereo camera measuring system with test object prepared with a speckle pattern

Fig 1. Pairs of images, left hand side, before and after are analysed using the speckle pattern on the surface to produce surface displacements and stains, right hand side.

DIC is particularly suitable for three-dimensional (3D) deformation measurements under static and dynamic load, in order to analyse deformations and strain of real components. For 3D surfaces and objects moving in 3D, a stereo camera system is required, this has 2 cameras with an angle between. 2D measurement is possible with a single camera but this makes the following assumptions: • • •

Object surface is flat Object is perpendicular to the camera There is no out of plane movement, towards or away from the camera

A typical 3D measuring system is shown in Fig 2. DIC algorithms follow the speckle pattern on the surface by

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splitting the camera image into smaller facets or subsets, typically of 19x19 pixel size and with an overlap between the facets of one third. This is shown in Fig 3 which shows three stages or points in time of data. Lt0 is the reference (or zero) state and the green facets shown can be matched to the right hand image, Rt0, to produce the 3D coordinate of the red cross for each facet. This is helped by the known calibrated relationship of the two cameras. The centre points of the facets can be meshed together to give a surface, in this example a triangular mesh has been used, but, a square mesh can also be used. Typically there would be 10,000’s of facets on an object to build up the complete surface. These facets are then tracked through time, in this example t1 and t2. The displacement is calculated by comparing the 3D coordinates at t1 back to t0, then t2 to t0 etc to give displacement. The calibration of the sensor also allows conversion of pixels, which the cameras measure, to mm. Strain is then calculated by the changing in length of points around the centre point, in the example in Fig 3 hexagonal mathematics must be used. A square grid can also be used but a hexagon gives a more stable strain calculation. Hexagons are a stable structure used in nature by bees in beehives for example. 3D Digital Image Correlation was first used in the 1990’s and with the subsequent development of computer and camera hardware the technique is now widely used within academic research as well as industry test labs. Because of it’s optical nature the technique can be used on samples of a few mm up to a few m. With the use of high speed cameras high


Fig 3. Speckle pattern with the facets used to track displacement and the strain calculation

speed impacts etc can be measured as well as more traditional quasi-static test setups. Being non contact the technique can be used to look into climate chambers to do measurement at high temperatures. Typical applications include material testing and component testing. Its full field nature makes it ideal for comparisons of Finite Element (FEA) simulation data, especially for complex 3D objects such as shown in Fig 4. Rob Wood, GOM UK

Fig 4. Major strain visualisation of a complex 3D geometry

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Industry News Welcome to the Industry/Product News section of the journal. The nominal limit for submissions is 200 words. Please forward press releases to catherine@cpinder.com British Standard for information security risk revised BSI, the business standards company, has revised its guidance standard for information security management systems, BS 7799-3 Guidelines for information security risk management. BS 7799-3 specifically assists organizations regarding the risks and opportunities aspects in the internationally recognized ISO 27001 Information technology. Security techniques. Information security management systems. Requirements. BS 7799-3 provides guidance on defining, applying, maintaining and evaluating risk management processes in the information security context. The standard is relevant to organizations which have, or are intending to have, an information security management system which conforms to ISO 27001. BS 7799-3 identifies two widely recognized approaches to risk identification and risk analysis: the scenario-based approach, where risks are identified (and assessed) through a consideration of events and their consequence; and the assetthreat-vulnerability approach, where risk identification takes into account the value of information assets and identifies applicable threats. BS 7799-3 accounts for risks as diverse as whether the influences of a foreign actor are a threat to the organization; technology failure; influences of domestic crime, including fraud; and the probable skill of an attacker, and the resources available to them. The standard includes dedicated sections for information security risk treatment, with guidance on how an organization can monitor and measure their risk identification plan.

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Emerald Aero Group propels engineering revenues by 25% 12 December 2017, London – Irish Government agency Enterprise Ireland has announced the creation of the Emerald Aero Group, a new Aerospace & Aviation Cluster which is forecast to rocket precision engineering, composite, plastics and metal fabrication companies’ turnover by at least 25%. Formed from 15 indigenous manufacturing companies, the aim of the company is to increase aerospace manufacturing revenues and employment, developing opportunities for Irish aerospace companies in the UK and further afield. Based on the average sector turnover, the goal of this new Sub Con Alliance is to increase collective aerospace exports from £13.2million in 2016 to £30.1million in three years. This will also lead to the creation of 200 new jobs across individual members by 2019. The Emerald Aero Group will act as a catalyst in allowing these smaller industry companies to join forces, forming clusters and sharing widespread industry knowledge and technical expertise in a bid to win greater contracts against contending larger companies across the aerospace sector. Valued at €4.1bn, Ireland’s aerospace and aviation industry is soaring faster than ever demonstrating a growing need for increased business collaboration, so smaller, more niche companies can benefit; propelling growth in the UK and further afield. The creation of the Emerald Aero Group will also give these newly formed alliances a competitive advantage when contending with larger players, while helping mitigate risk. Members, located throughout Ireland, are all owner-managed indigenous SMEs, with expertise in sectors

such as precision engineering, metal treatments, plastic injection moulding & thermoforming, 3D Printing, composites and fabrication. UK’s failure to integrate engineering in curriculum threatens country’s economy and productivity UK’s engineering skills crisis will deepen without a fundamental change in the way we educate children about the ‘made world’. 21 November 2017. School students have little exposure or understanding of engineering which is leading most to choose subjects which effectively rule out this career path early on in their schooling, according to a new report by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. The report, We think it’s important but don’t quite know what it is: The Culture of Engineering in Schools, says that although students have a vague sense of engineering’s value, its low visibility in schools means they do not feel informed or confident enough to consider it as a future career. Furthermore, teachers and career professionals lack the time, knowledge and resources to communicate the breadth of career opportunities to students. This report, the third in the series by the Institution looking at engineering in schools, highlights the need for Government to rethink how it presents and promotes engineering to future generations, especially girls who feel less informed, inspired or inclined towards engineering as a potential career. This failure has made UK engineering one of the least diverse professions in the developed world, with only 9% of all engineers being women. The report is the combination of two complementary pieces of research: a school-based study conducted at 11 schools in London, Manchester and Sheffield; and an engineering debating competition for over-16 students. The


report has nine key recommendations on how the UK can begin to address the engineering shortage. New Academy fellowship set to advance UK intelligence research Four early-career engineering researchers are set to advance the future of UK intelligence research and technology after being awarded the first UK Intelligence Community (IC) Postdoctoral Research Fellowships. From quantum sensors and advances in battery design to improved tools for security screening and behavioural analysis, the four projects will investigate some of the biggest issues facing the intelligence, security and defence communities in the UK. Focusing on areas of basic research, the fellowships aim to enable cutting edge developments in topics relevant to the intelligence community while providing mentoring to a new generation of engineers. The fellowships, which are offered by the Government Office for Science and administered by the Royal Academy of Engineering, provide a critical link between academia and the intelligence community. Each awardee receives funding for at least two years of their project and mentorship from a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering as well as an advisor from the intelligence community. Professor Dame Ann Dowling OM DBE FREng FRS, President of the Royal Academy of Engineering, said: “Engineering innovation is vital to the development and success of many sectors in the UK, including the intelligence, security and defence communities. These four awardees reflect the very best of what the UK’s excellent researchers have to offer and recognise the crucial role engineering plays in shaping the UK’s security future. “Research is an essential part of

innovation and the new IC Postdoctoral Research Fellowships strengthen the necessary relationship between universities and the intelligence community, ensuring that the UK stays at the forefront of development and can address the new security challenges of our modern world.” Peter Finegold, Head of Education and Skills at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, said in response to the Government’s careers strategy: 4 December 2017 - “Careers advice matters more for engineering than many other subjects. Our research shows that unless students come from an engineering heritage background, they are unlikely to know about it. “We strongly believe that high quality career guidance is the engine of social mobility. The UK has a particular challenge in that 50% of an individual’s lifetime earnings can be explained by their parents’ earnings. It’s 15% in Denmark. “We support the adoption of Sir John Holman’s Gatsby Good Career Guidance Benchmarks, but have real concerns that the original PwC costings (£207 million in the first year and £173 million per year thereafter) will not be met – and that we will end up with a new bureaucracy and little cultural change. “It is not sufficient simply “to allow providers of technical education access to pupils”. Cultural prejudices against technical education are so deeply ingrained in our society. If we are serious about developing a parity between academic and vocational learning, then we need to align careers advice much more closely with the dayto-day learning experience in schools. “We know that one of the most powerful and cost-effective ways of achieving careers-readiness for young people is through teacher placements in industry. This is why the Institution

developed and funds a STEM Insight scheme, in which secondary teachers spend five or ten days in industry. STEM Insight is predicated on the fact that teachers are among the most powerful influencers of careers decision-making.” New Study Finds Girls Are the World’s best Collaborative Problem Solvers Global problem solvers are in high demand. Just google Re-Imagine Education and check out the wealth of conferences and events focused on what learning matters to ensure individuals have the skills to think like entrepreneurs and collaborate with people from all backgrounds. What lessons can researchers learn from the 15 year-old girls who outperformed boys in collaborative problem solving in every country around the world, according to the new study by the OECD? In C.M. Rubin’s interview with Andreas Schleicher, Director for the Directorate of Education and Skills at the OECD, he notes, “Girls show more positive attitudes towards relationships, meaning that they tend to be more interested in others’ opinions and want others to succeed.” Schleicher also notes that “strong academic skills will not automatically also lead to strong social skills. Part of the answer lies in giving students more ownership over the time, place, path, pace, and interactions of their learning. Another part of the answer can lie in fostering more positive relationships at school and designing learning environments that benefit students’ collaborative problemsolving skills and their attitudes towards collaboration.” Andreas Schleicher is Director for Education and Skills, and Special Advisor on Education Policy to the Secretary-General at the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in Paris. The

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Industry News first ever assessment of collaborative problem solving skills aims to help countries and economies see where their students stand in relation to their peers in other education systems. Students in 52 countries completed this test in addition to the main OECD PISA 2015 Survey on Science, Mathematics and Reading. BLOODHOUND Targets 500mph in South Africa in 2018 The BLOODHOUND Project has announced plans to run BLOODHOUND SSC for the first time on its dry lake bed race track at Hakskeen Pan, Northern Cape, South Africa, in October 2018. The ‘BLOODHOUND 500’ trials will test the Car’s performance and handling during one of its most vulnerable phases: the point between 400 and 500mph (640-800kmh) where the stability of the Car transitions from being governed by the interaction of the wheels with the desert surface, to being controlled by the the vehicle’s aerodynamics. The grip from the wheels will fall off faster than the aerodynamic forces build up, so this is likely to be the point where the Car is at its least stable. Data on the interaction between the solid aluminium wheels, which will be used for the first time, coupled with ‘base drag’ measurements, will provide ‘real world’ insight into the power required to set records. Base drag relates to the aerodynamic force produced by low pressure at the rear of the Car, sucking it back. As the Car approaches transonic speeds, this force far exceeds the friction of the air passing over BLOODHOUND’s bodywork. Hundreds of gigabits of information will be gathered by over 500 sensors built into the Car. This will be shared with schools around the world, thanks to Cloud Computing partner Oracle. Students will be invited to analyse the data and ‘mark’ the engineers’

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homework in real time, as part of the world’s biggest STEM education programme. The BLOODHOUND Project is inviting supporters to join them for this historic first foray into transonic speeds. A limited number of ‘All Access’ places are available now for pre-booking, via http://www.bloodhoundssc.com/ bloodhound500. Guests will visit the Desert Technical Centre, attend team briefings and meet driver Andy Green. Inventions by British Engineers Top List for Most Important Innovations in Our Lifetime Second study by prestigious Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering shows increasing reliance on technology and engineering, while skills gap widens London, UK. 6th December: The Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering (QEPrize) today released the Create the Future 2017 report, an international survey into the attitudes towards engineering across 10 markets including the UK, US, Germany, Japan, India and Brazil. Research shows that Britons believe computers have had biggest impact on humanity over the last 100 years. The internet came in a close second on the list, demonstrating how our work and personal lives have been transformed by modern computers and digital technology. Both the modern computer and the internet have been credited to British inventors and pioneers, Alan Turing and winner of the inaugural QEPrize, Sir Tim Berners-Lee. The British public also placed MRI scans, the silicon chip and nuclear power at the top of the list. The Create the Future 2017 report was published to mark the 2017 QEPrize ceremony at Buckingham Palace, where the inventors of digital image sensors were honoured. This innovation has revolutionised everything from modern medicine to the way we consume and create media; from Skype, to selfies, to

smartphones. The winners of the prize are the UK’s Michael Tompsett, America’s Eric Fossum, George Smith, and Japan’s Nobukazu Teranishi. Aptiv PLC to Transform Future Mobility Delphi Automotive PLC Completes Spin-Off of Powertrain Segment The future of mobility takes a major step forward with the launch of Aptiv PLC (NYSE: APTV), a technology company that develops safer, greener and more connected solutions for a diverse array of global customers. Formerly known as Delphi Automotive, Aptiv emerges from the completion of Delphi’s spin-off of its Powertrain segment, which today became Delphi Technologies PLC (NYSE: DLPH). “Mobility has the power to change the world, and Aptiv has the power to change mobility,” said Kevin Clark, president and chief executive officer. “Aptiv is built on a strong foundation of industry firsts, and has the knowledge, capability, and agility to win with traditional OEM customers and emerging mobility players. It is a remarkable time to be in our industry, and we are very confident about our future.” Aptiv brings unparalleled capabilities to solve the complex challenges associated with safer, greener and more connected transportation. At the core of these capabilities is the software and vehicle architecture expertise that enables the advanced safety, automated driving, user experience, and connected services that are enabling the future of mobility. Aptiv will build on Delphi’s consistent track record of delivering value to shareholders through profitable growth, strong cash flow generation and disciplined capital deployment. Visit aptiv.com. Contact: Richard Gotch +44 (0)1295 277050 richard. gotch@m-eng.com


First-Of-Its-Kind Masters-Level Apprenticeship from BAE Systems and Cranfield University set to Boost Britain’s Engineering Skills BAE Systems has partnered with Cranfield University to boost Britain’s engineering skills through a new postgraduate engineering apprenticeship programme, which will provide learners with a valuable Masters-level qualification. The first cohort of 76 engineers from BAE Systems began the academic element of their level 7 apprenticeship programme on 8 January 2018, undertaking modules including design-driven innovation, operations management and cost engineering. Modules will be carried out alongside the graduate engineers’ day-to-day roles within the business. Teaching will be delivered entirely online, through a combination of interactive video sessions with Cranfield’s academics and remote online learning platforms, to provide the graduate engineers with the flexibility to study and acquire a Masters-level qualification without taking time out from work. On successful completion, the apprentices will obtain a PostGraduate Diploma in Engineering Competence – a key step towards reaching Chartered Engineering (CEng) accreditation. Already one of the largest recruiters of apprentices in the UK, BAE Systems has further expanded its wide range of apprenticeship schemes by offering this new programme to post-graduates across the business, as the company seeks to attract talent from the widest cross section of society. Further to the post-graduate apprentices, the defence company recruited just under 600 apprentices across its wider apprenticeships schemes in 2017 and reported record numbers of both female apprentices and apprentices with disabilities – making up 27% and 15% of recruits respectively. In addition, 18% of recruits came from

the most socially deprived areas of the UK. h t t p s : / / w w w. b a e s y s t e m s . c o m / en-uk/careers/careers-in-the-uk/ apprenticeships Dozens of projects announced as EPSRC welcomes Year of Engineering January 2018 - As the Year of Engineering gets underway, the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) has announced support for 28 pioneering new research projects. EPSRC, alongside the UK’s other Research Councils and Innovate UK, is supporting the Year of Engineering, a year-long government-wide campaign to celebrate UK engineering and inspire a new generation into engineering careers.

of new solutions to antimicrobial resistance in wastewater systems. EPSRC’s Chief Executive, Professor Philip Nelson, said: “Engineers are creators, innovators and problem solvers; their pioneering work creates a better future for us all. “ Three-quarters of engineering professionals say age discrimination is common in their workplace 11th December 2017 – A staggering 79.5% of workers in the engineering industry have revealed that discrimination around age is common in their workplace. That’s according to the latest piece of research from CVLibrary, the UK’s leading independent job board.

Throughout 2018, hundreds of organisations across the UK will showcase the world of engineering and look to inspire the next generation of engineers by bringing young people face-to-face with engineering experiences and role models.

The study asked 1,400 UK workers to open up about the topic of discrimination in the workplace, particularly when it comes to age. It found that one third (31.7%) of professionals in the sector have been rejected for a job because of their age. Other key findings include:

The EPSRC has announced an investment of £6.6 million through the Engineering for a Prosperous Nation call to support projects with potentially transformative impact in fields ranging from autonomous vehicles to energy storage and healthcare technology. The EPSRC encouraged bids for creative, novel engineering research projects with the potential to contribute to EPSRC’s four Prosperity Outcomes for the UK.

• One third (30.5%) of engineering professionals feel they’re not taken seriously at work, because of their age • With a further 61.1% stating that they have been discriminated against at work because they were considered ‘too old’ • AND, 33.3% of professionals working in the sector were discriminated against for being ‘too young’

Twenty-eight projects at 17 different universities have been supported. Research areas include the development of intelligent driver seats to act as co-pilots in autonomous cars; the use of diamond quantum technology to investigate neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease; the use of novel materials to create artificial leaves for use in solar power generation; and the investigation

Of those that said they were considered to be ‘too young’ for a job, 66.7% were told that they didn’t have enough experience. Conversely, for those considered to be ‘too old’, 27.3% heard that there were concerns that they wouldn’t be able to learn new things quickly, and that they wouldn’t be agile enough for the job (18.2%).

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Product News Kistler’s new digital charge amplifier sets a new standard for measurement in the Industry 4.0 era January 2018 Kistler’s Type 5074A charge amplifier breaks new ground in industrial charge amplifier technology for the Industry 4.0 era. This unit is currently the only piezoelectric sensor amplifier on the market that offers communication based on realtime capable Industrial Ethernet. For the first time, plant and machinery manufacturers can integrate any desired piezoelectric sensors directly into a real time-capable Ethernet system to easily make settings on the measurement amplifier. Available with one, two, three of four channels, each with a measuring range of 20 to 1,000,000 pC and integral 24 bit analog to digital conversion, allowing up to four piezoelectric sensors per unit to be connected to the digital network without additional equipment or complex and costly cabling for analog and control signals. The high performance data transmission at up to 50k samples/s per channel enables real-time transmission of measurement data with cycle times as short as 100μs, allowing critical process controls to be fully implemented. The increasing complexity of data communications in response to the demands for process optimisation has resulted in older bus systems such as Profibus and CANbus to reach their performance limits. Industrial Ethernet is rapidly becoming the global communication standard making the switch from analog to digital mandatory for those who want to be at the forefront of these fastmoving developments. To facilitate the adoption of these new high speed and flexible communications, Kistler has developed the Type 5074A charge amplifier. This innovative product is an ideal choice for monitoring and optimizing industrial manufacturing and assembly processes using all types

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of piezoelectric sensors. The new amplifier brings an exceptionally wide range of measuring functions which make it the perfect partner for Industrial Ethernet in applications that call for dynamic and quasi-static measurements.

REOLAB 1000E electronic DC power supply for test equipment. The product is designed for use in testing the operating current of semiconductor diodes and rectifiers, as well as the maximum DC reverse voltage of a system up to 1200V.

Further information: 01256 741550, Email: sales.uk@kistler.com

Further information: Tel: 01588 673 411, Website http://www.reo.co.uk

Can power electronics support market growth? Power quality specialist launches DC power supply for testing

New Weighing Terminal from HBM Tips the Scales with its Latest Technology

Recent market research by Grand View Research has projected that the global power electronics market will be valued at $39.2 billion by 2025. To ensure electrical products and infrastructure are capable of supporting this 40 per cent growth, power quality expert REO UK is calling on laboratories and testing facilities to invest in stable DC power supplies for electrical testing. REO UK has worked extensively with test facilities and laboratories in the past and has identified a recurring problem of poor power quality affecting test accuracy. The company has previously launched ranges of electrical power supplies to provide stepless voltage adjustment to overcome this issue. “Electrical testing requires absolute accuracy to ensure that products are reliable, safe and able to perform,” explained Steve Hughes, managing director of REO UK. “If the market for power electronics is to reach its projected 40 per cent growth in the coming decade, testing must be accurately controlled and reliable to ensure a consistently high standard of products. Unfortunately, we often see that test facilities lack this control, either due to inaccurate electrical equipment or electromagnetic interference (EMI) making the current unreliable.” Now, the company has stepped up its focus on test facilities with its new

HBM – a world leader in the field of test and measurement – is pleased to introduce the arrival of its new WTX110-A Industrial Weighing Terminal, which is the latest addition to its world-class WTX series. Designed for static and dynamic filling or dosing tasks, the new WTX110-A is encased in robust stainless steel housing and is certified to IP69, making it suitable for industrial and legal for trade weighing applications in harsh environments or for products with strict hygiene requirements, such as those in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Featuring a large easy to read back-lit display, push buttons and simple text navigation, the durable WTX110-A allows for effortless on-site operation and has been designed for optimal ease of maintenance. Enabling easy configuration or calibration, as well as other servicing measures, to be performed conveniently on-site or in a distributed system using PanelX software, the WTX110-A enables remote calibration to be performed via the internet quickly and cost-effectively. An encrypted connection ensures secure data exchange through remote access, via both PanelX software and the WTX Mobile App, which makes HBM one of the very first manufacturers of weighing technology products to offer this highly innovation option.


From sensors to software, HBM offers a complete range of weighing solutions which can be adapted to suit a variety of requirements. For more information, please contact HBM on +44 (0) 208 515 6000 or visit www.hbm.com Consortium discovers new cure for high value, out-of-autoclave manufacturing Project could dramatically cut operating expenses and reduce cycle times by 40% Manufacturing a range of components, from wind turbine blades to car panels, could become significantly more cost-effective and quicker thanks to a ground-breaking R&D project underway in Prestwick, Scotland. The initiative – which involves Spirit AeroSystems working in collaboration with the University of Strathclyde, and supported by CENSIS, the Scottish Innovation Centre for Sensor and Imaging Systems – has found a new, more cost-effective method of producing composite parts, replacing the traditional autoclave “curing” process with an intelligent and tailored heating tool. In an industrial context, autoclaves are vessels used to process materials in a mould at high pressures and temperatures. They typically “cure” high-performance components, placing the part in a vacuum within an autoclave and then applying a combination of pressure and heat during a pre-determined cycle – typically two hours at the cure temperature. The result is a highstrength, lightweight component for use in a range of high-value manufacturing sectors, predominantly aerospace. Normally, these parts are cured for a standard period of time, at a set temperature, regardless of how they are responding to the curing process. The consortium in Prestwick

has improved on this by creating a tool that removes the need for an autoclave, which typically represents around US$4 million in upfront capital expenditure, while allowing users to monitor and match a cure cycle to a component’s geometric characteristics and how it is reacting to the process. The consortium has developed a multi-zone heated tool with advanced control of the curing for individual parts, allowing for geometry-driven cure cycles and better decision making. The optimisation of the composite curing process has been a long-term goal for a range of industries and this solution has the potential to revolutionise the sector. Zircotec ceramic exhaust coating provides enhanced thermal management for limited-edition Aston Martin Heat protection and aesthetics provided for Red Arrows edition Aston Martin Vanquish S 20th December 2017. The highly durable ceramic coating from specialist heat management company, Zircotec Group, is being used to treat the exhaust tailpipes of the extraordinary Q by Aston Martin Vanquish S Red Arrows edition. The limited-run vehicle, of which only 10 have been made, is the latest prestigious, highperformance validation of Zircotec’s Ultimate RangeTM coating technology. The exclusive Aston Martin uses Zircotec’s Ultimate RangeTM coating, which is specifically formulated for use on vehicle exhaust tailpipes to withstand extreme heat. In this instance, the coating was applied using an automated process, which ensures a high quality, consistent finish. Its automated capabilities allow the company to cater for large volumes, up to 100,000 parts a year, with additional programmes in place to increase this further. The quality of coating on an A Class surface component has to be very

high, particularly for a tailpipe, which is subjected to salt, moisture, stone chips and high temperatures. Further benefits of the Zircotec Ultimate RangeTM that make it the ideal tailpipe coating include resistance to flame and heat, corrosion protection, defence against staining and weather damage, and the ability to maintain aesthetics without flaking, peeling or chipping. The Aston Martin Vanquish S Red Arrows editions are one of the most exclusive Aston Martins ever built. Each car is uniquely paired with a Red Arrows jet, including matching military serial numbers throughout. Red 10 has been donated to the Royal Air Force Benevolent Fund and has been raffled off to raise money for the organisation. New contactless RFiD safety switch makes it easier to protect employees in dangerous industrial areas Creating a safe and efficient work environment is of paramount importance to every business owner and plant manager all across the globe. As the danger level presented by industrial equipment increases, so, too, must the strength of the solutions put in place to keep those areas safe and secure. Installing the new XCSR contactless RFiD safety switch from Telemecanique Sensors instantly provides industrial companies with the highest level of safety-certified switch protection, allowing employers to effectively seal off areas in the workzone that are dangerous. At the same time, the design of the new XCSR safety switch essentially safeguards that company’s employees against any tampering with that protection system. Finally, these features are provided by the XCSR with a bare minimum of installation effort. A single safety solution that provides multiple benefits. Telemecanique Sensors

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News from the Women’s Engineering Society It has been a busy start to 2018 and it will be an exciting one for many reasons including celebrating the centenary of the Act of Representation where some women – those propertied women over 30 years old – first got the vote. Other key events in the diversity and inclusion in engineering calendar for 2018 are the bicentenary of the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE), the centenary of the RAF as well as the Year of Engineering. The Women’s Engineering Society is looking forward to celebrating all these through partnerships and collaborations throughout the year ahead of our own Centenary in 2019. WES was founded on 23 June 1919 to support women engineers who, although welcomed into the profession during World War I, were under pressure at the end of the war to leave the workforce to release jobs for men returning from the forces. WES was founded to resist this pressure and also to promote engineering as a rewarding job for women as well as men. Although the context has changed significantly since 1919, women represent a very low proportion of the engineering workforce at 11% (admittedly up from 9% last year) from the latest statistics from WISE (November 2017). Our vision is one where women are as likely as men to choose to study and work in engineering, and one in which there are enough engineers to meet a growing demand. This is still far from a reality. It is time for a step change in the diversity balance in engineering, not only for the economic wellbeing of the UK (– research shows that more diverse organisations do better, and

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we are crying out more and more loudly for engineering skills) – but because it is the right thing to do. That is why the theme for International Women in Engineering Day in 2018 (#INWED18) is #RaisingTheBar. It is time to up our game and really get the needle to move round. Let’s aim for 30 by 30 – that means 30% of the engineering workforce to be female by 2030. That should not be an unrealistic target. It will however take an approach that doesn’t just aim to encourage more girls and other diverse groups to enter the pipeline – we also need to keep them there. What will #RaisingTheBar need? A concerted and determined approach from educational organisations (for both traditional and technical routes), companies (at all levels and across all functions), supporting D&I organisations as well as government. Why do less female engineering undergraduates go into engineering sectors compared to their male peers? Why do so many women either not return to employment or return to jobs that require less capability after a career break than the one they left? Some may suggest this is because of women’s “career choices” but it is of course much more than that. Through the STEM Returners programme many – men as well as women – are reporting that they are not getting anywhere once they have even a short career break. What a waste of talent! One area that can make a significant difference to retaining female staff (and support them in progressing to fulfil their potential) is through mentoring – both internally and externally to the organisation. And of course, this cannot happen unless we have men’s support – our INWED theme for 2017 was #MenAsAllies and it will remain a theme underlying what we do. Having male champions who address the gender imbalance within engineering is a vital part of the equation as they

hold the majority of roles in the sector. Cultural change will not happen without them. Through my role at WES, and earlier experiences, I have met some truly inspirational male allies – including the nominees for the WES Men As Allies award which was newly established in 2017. There are a host of brilliant events taking place that you and your companies can take part in with so many centenaries and a bi-centenary this year, and of course, the Year of Engineering. Through International Women in Engineering Day (INWED) this year WES is aiming to not only celebrate the success of women in engineering, but raise awareness of the work that still needs to be done through the attraction, recruitment, retention and progression of a diverse workforce. Gender and wider diversity should not determine your career. This is about positive action – to level the playing field. Let’s make 30 by 30 a reality. Kirsten Bodley, CEO, WES


News from British Standards By the time you read this dear reader, the long awaited part 3 of BS8887 will have been published. This is a milestone.

to choosing an appropriate end-of-life strategy”.

no further use and may be burnt for energy or dumped.

Part 2 is concerned with terms and definitions (BS8887-2:2009) and identified the following six options for the treatment of a product at the end of a life in service:

The general overarching standard of the BS8887 series is part 1(BS8887-1:2006) “Design for manufacture, assembly, disassembly and end-of-life processing (MADE) – Part 1: General concepts, process and requirements.” There are four standards within the BS8887 series published on end-of-life processing focussed on remanufacture, reconditioning, reworking and remarketing. The missing link is a standard on what decisions need to be made re which end-of-life route to take – hence the committee has focussed on part 3 which is titled: “Guide

• Remanufacture, where the product components are returned to service in the same or better condition to the original. • Recondition, where any remedial work returns the components to a similar quality to the original. • Reuse, where components can still be used for a similar product, but at a lower quality. • Repurpose, takes components for use in a different product. • Recycle, breaks down components into their constituent materials for reprocessing. • Disposal, when the materials are of

The new part 3 will help designers take decisions during the ab-initio design of a product to aid end-of-life processing which will give the product a value. This should encourage users to return the product for reprocessing and give industry a potentially profitable additional business. The standard sets out the reasoning behind the adoption of a reprocessing policy by a company with environmental, business and marketing aspects. It contains tables giving comparisons, advantages and disadvantages of each of the six endof-life options. These enable the user to make an educated end-of-life decision. Thus, this part 3 bridges the gap in the design process and hence we think it’s a milestone. Brian Griffiths Chair of BS8887 series

News from the Tipper Group The Tipper Group was launched by a group of engineers at TWI Ltd, The Welding Institute and the National Structural Integrity Centre (NSIRC) in autumn 2016. It is named after Constance Tipper who was a Cambridge fracture female engineer, who investigated the liberty ship wartime failures. The Tipper Group holds events and networking opportunities to support and inspire female engineers in welding, joining and associated technologies in order to offer inspiration, support and professional development. Within the Tipper Group, NSIRC is providing support to its female PhD and MSc students, whilst The Welding Institute is looking after diversity issues and TWI Ltd is pursuing the recruitment and development of female engineers. Around 25% of engineers at TWI are female, while only 9% of the 1

engineering workforce is female in the UK1. The group is currently chaired by Kamer Tuncbilek. In 2016 and 2017, the group organised 5 inspirational role model talks given by various guests: Prof. Dame Ann Dowling, Prof. Dame Athene Donald, South Cambridgeshire MP Heidi Allen, Dr Hugh Hunt and Prof Tim Minshall. Up to date a confidence workshop was run to address the challenges for career progression, with more being planned to focus on professional development and unconscious bias. It is within The Tipper Group’s main goals to facilitate the opportunities for networking, peer support, mentoring, issues related to returning from career break (i.e. parental leave). This is planned to be achieved by organising activities such as talks, seminars, one-to-one mentoring, social media, webinars and out-of-work social activities.

Contact Us: Address: TWI Ltd, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge CB21 6AL Email: tippergroupevents@twi.co.uk Twitter: @TheTipperGroup Committee members: • Chair: Kamer Tuncbilek, kamer. tuncbilek@twi.co.uk • Vice-chair: Farnoosh Farhad, farnoosh.farhad@affiliate.twi.co.uk • Operations: Marta Alvarez, marta. alvarez@twi.co.uk • Events: Marion Bourebrab, marion. bourebrab@affiliate.twi.co.uk

Skills & Demands from Industry - 2015 Survey, IET http://www.theiet.org/factfiles/education/skills2015-page.cfm

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Inspiring the Next Generation Bloodhound is go ! After nearly 10 years of hard work and dedication the Bloodhound Super Sonic Car was unveiled and run at Newquay Aerohub in October to the delight of local school children and in front of the World’s media. I was fortunate to attend the event on behalf of Rolls-Royce as part of the team of ambassadors sent to Newquay to highlight the importance of the project, our involvement and also provide hands on educational STEM activities. The event was a major milestone in a project which has been struggling with funding challenges and timescales following the economic downturn. Having been personally involved for a number of years as a Bloodhound Rolls-Royce STEM ambassador it was an unforgettable experience; being able to see the car in person and feel the roar of the EJ200 engine was truly inspirational. The events took place over two days. On the Saturday the organisers hosted a families’ day. There were a number of stands for families to meet and talk about STEM with the companies that support the project. At approximately 1pm the car was test fired twice, piloted by Wing Commander Andy Green of the Royal Air Force, with car reaching a peak speed of 208mph in just 6 seconds. The Monday event was focussed on local school children. A number of schools and businesses participated in a mini careers fair to highlight the exciting opportunities within STEM careers. The Bloodhound car was again test fired much to the excitement of the pupils and teachers. The Bloodhound project aim to spend 2018 breaking the existing land speed record and testing out the theoretical aerodynamics. Importantly and for the first time there will be a comparison

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of the computational fluid dynamic predictions at transonic and supersonic speeds with actual pressure gauge measurements on the car. Whilst standing on the Rolls-Royce stand I spoke with many families regarding the importance of thinking about careers as early as possible. Over recent years I have identified a potential naivety surrounding subject choices with many parents not having considered talking to their children until they are in Year 8/Year 9. Unfortunately this approach can not only put unnecessary pressure on children, it may come too late or not allow consideration for how those subjects may lead to a given career in the future. Regularly at public STEM events I speak with families who have children in Years 5/6/7 and highlight the relatively short time period in which they are required to choose subjects for GCSEs or equivalent. The earlier that children engage in the process of understanding careers and the importance of subject choices in relation to future career pathways, the more likely they are to consider the options available to them as they progress through their academic studies. The UK needs 124,000 engineers per year until 2024 in order to meet growing industry demand and currently 92% of the work force is male and 93% white, statistics which must change. The Government has recognised the challenges faced by the STEM industries in recruiting the number of talented, skilled people needed and have launched a new campaign for 2018, entitled the Year of the Engineer #YoE @YoEgovuk . The initiative is specifically aimed at targeting parents and STEM ambassadors to come together for the future success of the UK by inspiring children to enter engineering. Following the Bloodhound event I was inspired to begin work on a new STEM outreach activity, currently in development. Focusing on 3D

printing, we want to highlight its role in demonstrating advanced manufacturing. However the technology suffers from being slow and can lack excitement for students. An extension or alternative to a 3D printer is a 3D printing pen. The latest generation of pens are now capable of producing reasonable quality items within a short space of time making them perfect for engagement activities both in and outside an academic setting. The first event I took the pens to was a hackspace event at De Montfort University in October. Families were encouraged to come along and try new activities. The addition of the pens alongside the working 3D printer was one of the most successful STEM activities I have been involved with. It is a fantastic demonstration of where Art combines with STEM. From a diversity perspective, encouragingly the pens facilitated strong engagement with young females who said they really enjoyed using them. One girl returned to the stand six times to use the pen she enjoyed it so much. Alongside the exciting developments with the Bloodhound project, over the coming months I will be working on developing the 3D printing pen activities as well as Arduino controlled robots for the first time. As ever if anyone is interested in knowing more about how they can get involved in STEM please do not hesitate to contact me or your local STEMnet contract holder. Grant Gibson EngD BEng (Hons) – Capability Acquisition Engineer, Additive Layer Manufacturing Centre of Competency, Rolls-Royce Plc. grant.gibson@rolls-royce.com 07469375700.


News from the Institution of Mechanical Engineers

Institution of Mechanical Engineers calls for new UK Clean Air Act to prevent illness and deaths caused by poor air quality The UK needs to create a modern Clean Air Act, equivalent to the one produced in the 1950s in response to London’s Great Smog, in order reduce harmful emissions across the UK, according to a new report by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. With air pollution responsible for one in ten of all deaths globally, the report calls for urgent action to tackle the damage to health which these emissions can cause. Health problems range from slowing the proper development of children’s lungs through to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases among the elderly. The report makes a number of recommendations, including for the introduction of a coherent national scheme to monitor emissions from different modes of transport so that informed targets can be set, and for incentives to be introduced to encourage freight deliveries outside of peak hours. The report also contests that bi-mode trains do not produce the same benefits for passengers as an electrified train network and calls for Government to work with Network Rail to deliver the complete electrification of the main rail lines between Britain’s principal cities and ports. The Clean Air Act needs to set out ways to help the 71% of local authorities which missed their 2017 air quality targets. It must also have a broad scope which addresses emissions from across all the UK’s transport modes. The UK must assess emerging technologies for carbon emissions throughout the technology’s entire lifecycle, including the procurement

of parts and fuel. Electric vehicles, which produce lower emissions, encounter challenges both at the start of production of their battery cells and at the end of life, owing to issues such as the economic viability of battery recycling. Philippa Oldham, Lead Author of the report and Member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, said: “Individuals breathe in 20kg of air every day and because we can’t see it, we don’t know about the harmful particles it contains. “Regular commuters encounter air pollution twice a day up to 250 days a year. Even railway stations have relatively high levels of air pollution from diesel. Major railway stations with high numbers of diesel-operated trains include London Marylebone, Birmingham (New Street and Snow Hill), Manchester (Piccadilly and Victoria), Liverpool Lime Street, Sheffield, Leeds, Newcastle, Bristol Temple Meads and Cardiff (Central and Queen Street). “While much of the media focus is on our capital, it is worth noting that this is a serious problem that affects us all. Different communities will require their own solutions; for example, in cities outside London the proportion of public transport is lower, so the proportion of emissions from diesel and petrol cars is greater. In Manchester, 43% of emissions come from cars and just 11% from buses. “Technology has its part to play in addressing the problem, but there is a role and responsibility for individuals too. “Back in the 1950s, doctors kickstarted a national movement on the risks of smoking; there is a need to start doing the same with air quality, to encourage people to drive less and use public transport, walk and cycle more.”

The “Breath of fresh air: new solutions to reduce transport emissions” report recommends that: 1. Government introduce a national monitoring system, across the different types of transport, recording all types of pollution, to create a coherent picture against which national targets can be set. 2. Government to incentive cleaner technologies and encourage the phase-out of legacy vehicles with poor emissions record across the network, for example diesel cars and trains. 3. Government to consider incentivising freight and logistic operators to make deliveries outside peak hours. 4. Conduct a series of trials on existing diesel railway rolling stock, new bimode trains and in major stations, to understand the level and effect of exposure to pollutants has on commuters and railway workers. 5. Conduct a series of trials to understand the impact on the individual of exposure to pollutants in overground and underground railway stations, ports, airports and bus stations. 6. Creates a positive and dynamic campaign that informs the public of the health benefits of switching to lower-emission modes of transport. 7. Government to work with Network Rail to deliver the complete electrification of the main rail lines between Britain’s principal cities and ports and in major urban rail networks. 8. Fund research through the Clean Air Fund and Innovate UK to create programmes to clean up various transport modes.

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University of Wolverhampton Racing – Review of the 2017 season University of Wolverhampton Racing (UWR) have enjoyed another fantastic year, thanks to the hard work of our students on the Motorsport and Automotive engineering degrees and the generous support of our sponsors. For the second year running UWR challenged for the F3 Cup to the very last race of the season, taking part in all 18 rounds across 7 UK venues. The team set the bar high as professional driver Shane Kelly dominated at Donington Park with a hat-trick of pole positions and wins in the Dallara F308. Further race weekends at Silverstone, Brands Hatch and Snetterton saw the UWR team slip from first place in the Drivers Championship to second, but the team were still in contention to seal their first Championship with a good weekend at Oulton Park. U n f o r t u n a t e l y, the UWR car span, forcing an early retirement from the penultimate race, but a 3rd place podium finish in the final race secured 2nd place in the Drivers Championship for the second year in a row. Students and staff alike were thrilled as the UWR team cemented its reputation as a serious competitor, despite being the only student-run team in the F3 Cup. UWR students supported two drivers in the Morgan Challenge 2017. Actor and driver Tony Hirst, of Hollyoaks and Coronation Street fame, showed determination to achieve back to back class wins at Donnington, driving the Morgan ARV6. Craig Hamilton-Smith continued to show improvement in his second season driving the Morgan Plus 4 Babydoll. As the great-grandson

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of FS Morgan, the cars are in Craig’s blood and with the continued support of UWR, his first podium finish can’t be far away. The UWR Morgan team also took part in the MGCC’s Classic 4 Hour Relay. Four drivers raced for UWR and after 4 hours of driving, pushing the Morgans to the peak of their abilities, UWR took second place, mere seconds behind the leaders. Helena Volkman Noguero, one of UWR’s student mechanics said “The relay was challenging. We had a lot going on; problems on the cars and a lot of running up and down the

paddock. It was fun and I would love to do it again.” In the 2017 Formula Student competition, UWR finished with 490 points, making the team 13th overall and the 9th placed UK University. Our most notable achievements of the competition included placing 7th in the fuel efficiency category and 10th in the sprints. The team were also shortlisted for three awards: the JLR Art of Performance award, the ExxonMobil Innovation award and the Effective Communications award. We also received a special award from Willem Toet, and UWR’s Tom Hill was given the award for Most Entertaining Drive. Competing in the British Hillclimb

Championship, owner driver Graham Wynn was supported by two UWR students in 34 rounds of racing across 16 weekends. Driving a Gould GR55, Graham and the team achieved some great results, including 1st place in the Y Gelli Book Auctions Challenge Trophy, 3rd place in the Loton FTD Challenge and 4th in the Midlands Top Ten Challenge. Away from the racing circuits, the goal of the UWR team is to support education and outreach, especially in promoting Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths (STEM) and Women in Science and Engineering (WISE) by attending schools and community events. In 2017, UWR visited 30 schools around the UK to encourage young people to engage with STEM subjects, and worked alongside groups like the RAF, Mercedes F1 and Dare to be Different to promote engineering and motorsport to young women. We have so much planned for 2018, and we’re grateful to the Engineering Integrity Society members for your ongoing support. We hope to see you at an event so you can meet our exciting, hard-working student team. If you’d like to know more about UWR and the associated courses visit www. wlv.ac.uk/uwr or follow our social media pages: Twitter - twitter.com/UWRacing Facebook: - en-gb.facebook.com/ UWRacing/ Instagram: - www.instagram.com/ uwracing/


University of Wolverhampton Formula Student Vehicle 2017 The exhaust system for the University of Wolverhampton’s 2017 Formula Student vehicle is fabricated predominantly out of Inconel 718, with various stainless steel components; where, a mixture of manufacturing methods has been employed. The foremost technique employed has been 3D printing on the university campus, which was selected due to not only being a method of exploiting a cutting-edge process, but allowing for heavier components to consist of an internal lattice structure for weight reduction.

Inconel was the prime material nominated for the printing processes, predominantly due to its exceptional properties at high temperatures; which, understandably, is essential for a high-performance exhaust system.

Another crucial requirement for this system is to provide a large sound reduction to meet regulations; therefore, the design includes a dual-silencer configuration. By achieving this, a larger surface area for the exhaust gases to pass into the soundabsorbing wadding is provided, thus, improving one of its aforementioned main functions. Where, to improve the performance of the engine using the exhaust system, comprehensive hand calculations were completed; alongside employing a software named PipeMax. After this had been performed, it was later decided to design the exhaust header with equal length primaries of 16 inches, with internal diameters of 1 inch. This was

decided due to the understanding of equal length primaries providing improved efficiency of balancing the pressure and flow of exhaust gases. Another benefit to employing a tubular header configuration is the potentiality to increase the engine’s torque output at lower RPMs; this is a result of increased length primaries before merging at the collector. Where, this improved torque at lower RPM is ideal for the Formula Student competition, because of the characteristics of some of the events. Designed by Aidan Silsby – Final year Motorsport Engineering BEng (Hons)

With the intention of ensuring efficient gas flow, with minimum back pressure generated, software known as ANSYS was employed to subject the system to internal fluid flow analysis. This allowed for various parameters to be analysed after simulation, for example the pressures and velocities.

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Corporate Members Profiles CentraTEQ Ltd

Instron

26A Richmond Road Solihull B92 7RP

Coronation Road High Wycombe Buckinghamshire HP12 3SY

Tel: +44 (0) 121 706 2319 Fax: +44 (0) 121 706 2319 Email: info@centrateq.com Website: www.centrateq.com Contact: Jim Flanagan As a provider of product integrity test systems, CentraTEQ is an agent for a number of international companies manufacturing a range of systems. These systems include Vibration Test Systems, Shock and Bump Testers, Vibration Controller and Package Test Systems. Working with colleagues in the industry we are able to provide a turnkey solution integrating a number of disciplines into a single combined and complete test system.

Instron is a leading provider of testing equipment for the material testing and structural testing markets. Instron’s products test the mechanical properties and performance of various materials, components and structures in a wide array of environments. A global company providing singlesource convenience, Instron is a full-service materials testing company that manufactures and services testing instruments, systems, software and accessories. Instron’s proficiency in designing and building testing systems to evaluate materials ranging from the most fragile filament to advanced alloys, affords Instron’s customers a comprehensive resource for all their research, quality and service-life testing requirements. Information is also available on the company’s enhanced website at www.instron.com.

Flintec

Kistler Instruments Limited

W4/5 Capital Point Capital Business Park Wentloog Avenue Cardiff CF3 2PW

13 Murrell Green Business Park London Road Hook Hants RG27 9GR

Tel: +44 (0) 2920 797959 Email: gareth.r@flintec.com Website: www.flintec.com/uk Contact: Gareth Roberts

Tel: +44 (0) 1256 741550 Fax: +44 (0) 1256 741551 Email: sales.uk@kistler.com Website: www.kistler.com Contact: Jim Vaughan, Managing Director

Flintec is a world leader in the manufacture of precision strain gauge load cells and force sensors technologies. Established in 1968, Flintec has grown substantially, with our weighing technologies used by some of the biggest companies in the world. Quality and precision encompasses everything we do. We have a global network of engineers, on hand to help with hardware and software development, no matter what the application. Our office in Cardiff operates as a central engineering and sales hub, assisting customers across the world.

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Tel: +44 (0) 1494 456815 Email: info_news@instron.com Website: www.instron.co.uk

Kistler is a leading manufacturer of sensors for pressure, force, torque and acceleration, as well as the related electronics and software. Technology from Kistler is used to analyse physical processes, and to control and optimise industrial processes. Kistler is headquartered in Winterthur, Switzerland and has production facilities in Germany, Switzerland and the US and employs over 1200 people in 28 locations worldwide.


Micro-Epsilon

Moog Industrial Group

No 1 Shorelines Building Shore Road Birkenhead, CH41 1AU

Ashchurch Tewkesbury Gloucestershire, GL20 8NA

Tel: +44 (0) 1513 556070 Fax: +44 (0) 1513 556075 Email: louise.dodd@micro-epsilon.co.uk Website: www.micro-epsilon.co.uk Contact: Louise Dodd

Tel: +44 (0) 1564 784777 or +44 (0) 1684 296600 Fax: +44 (0) 1564 785846 Email: test.uk@moog.com Website: www.moog.co.uk Contact: Jerry Hughes

Micro-Epsilon develops and manufactures market leading precision sensors to measure displacement, temperature and colour, as well as systems for dimensional measurement and defect detection. Using both contact and non-contact measurement techniques, Micro-Epsilon boasts one of the largest selections of sensor technologies including 1D/2D/3D laser optical, confocal chromatic, eddy current, capacitive, inductive, draw-wire, time-of-flight technologies, IR temperature sensors, thermal imaging cameras and colour recognition systems.

Moog is a designer, manufacturer and integrator of high performance, high integrity control systems and equipment (electro-hydraulic and electro-mechanical) satisfying a broad range of applications in aerospace, defence and Industrial markets. Moog is able to offer expertise in varied fields of engineering and has a proven track record in the successful implementation of major multi-disciplinary projects. Moog Test Division provides a broad range of products and services for mechanical test & simulation.

With over 45 years experience and over 10,000 customers worldwide, Micro-Epsilon can solve tomorrow’s measurement problems today.

Micro-Measurements Group Ltd

MTS Systems Ltd

Stroudley Road Basingstoke Hampshire RG24 8FW

40 Alan Turing Road The Surrey Research Park Guildford Surrey GU2 7YF

Tel: +44 (0) 1256 462131 Fax: +44 (0)1256 471441 Email: mm.uk@VPGSensors.com Website: www.vishaypg.com/micro-measurements/ Contact: MM Customer Service Micro-Measurements has been dedicated to the development and manufacture of products for high-precision strain and stress measurement since 1962. For purposes of experimental stress analysis - whether preproduction prototype evaluation, field-service testing, failure analysis, or pure research - we offer a full complement of sensors, instrumentation, and installation accessories necessary to obtain accurate, reliable strain and stress data. Micro-Measurements strain gauges and accessories also fulfil manufacturers’ requirements for a wide variety of transducers for measuring physical variables (weight, force, torque, pressure).

Tel: +44 (0) 1483 446500 Fax: +44 (0) 1285 658052 Email: mtsuksales@mts.com Website: www.mts.com Contact: Robert Palmer Leading Manufacturers and suppliers worldwide turn to MTS for the relevant testing expertise, innovative technology and responsive, local support they need to design and develop more efficient, higher performing products. Whether you test materials, components, subsystems or products, engaging with MTS offers the advanced mechanical testing and simulation tools required to accelerate development, decrease warranty costs and accurately validate product performance. MTS covers a wide range of industries including automotive, aerospace, energy, medical, civil and materials.

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Corporate Members Profiles Muller-BBM VAS

Siemens PLM Software

Robert-Koch Str. 13 82152 Planegg Germany

Unit 3 Rye Hill Office Park Birmingham Road Coventry CV5 9AB

Tel: +49 89 85602 400 Fax: +49 89 85602 444 Email: info.de@muellerbbm-vas.com Website: www.muellerbbm-vas.de Contact: Dennis de Klerk

Tel: +44 (0)2476 408120 Fax: +44 (0)2476 408135 Email: Leonie.upton@siemens.com Website: http://www.siemens.com/plm/lms Contact: Leonie Upton

MĂźller-BBM VibroAkustik Systeme offers high-performance tools for any acoustic and vibration-technological application. In multi-channel measurement technology we rank among the global market leaders.

LMS Simulation and Test Solutions from Siemens PLM Software help manufacturing companies manage the complexities of tomorrow’s product development by incorporating model-based mechatronic simulation and advanced testing solutions in the product development process. Our products and services tune into mission-critical engineering attributes, ranging from system dynamics, structural integrity and sound quality to durability, safety and power consumption. LMS products also address the complex engineering challenges associated with intelligent systems in the automotive and aerospace industries as well as in other advanced manufacturing industries.

Sensors UK Ltd

Telonic Instruments Ltd

135a Hatfield Road St.Albans Hertfordshire AL1 3AL

Unit 4 Toutley Industrial Estate Wokingham Berks RG41 1QN

Tel: +44 (0)1727 861110 Fax: +44 (0)1727 844272 Email: sales@sensorsuk.com Website: www.sensorsuk.com Contact: David White Established in 1964, Sensors UK Ltd has earned a reputation as a leading distributor and supplier of a broad range of primary sensors, measuring instruments and systems to the manufacturing and process industries.

Tel: +44 (0) 1189 786911 Email: info@telonic.co.uk Website: www.telonic.co.uk Contact: Doug Lovell Telonic Instruments are a small specialist distributor, stockist and repairer of electronic measuring instruments and programmable power supplies manufactured by reputable international companies including Kikusui, Lab-Power and Rigol. They are able to offer their customers, who include MOD, NHS, Universities, Research Establishments and the Electrical and Electronics Industry, experienced pre and after sales service. Telonic are an ISO9001 Registered company.

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Corporate Members The following companies are corporate members of the Engineering Integrity Society. We thank them for their continued support which helps the Society to run its wide-ranging events throughout the year. AcSoft

Head Acoustics

Prosig

ADwin

HORIBA MIRA

RAL Space

Airbus Defence & Space

Instron

Sensors UK

Alphatech

Interface Force Measurements

Servotest

ANV Measurement Systems

Kemo

Severn Thermal Solutions

ASDEC

Kistler

Siemens

Bruel and Kjaer

M&P International

Star Hydraulics

CaTs

Meggitt Sensing Systems

Systems Services

CentraTEQ

Micro-Epsilon

Techni Measure

Correlated Solutions

Micro-Measurements Group

Telonic Instruments Ltd

Dassault Systemes

Millbrook

THP Systems

Data Physics

MOOG

Tiab

Datron Technology

MTS Systems

Transmission Dynamics

DJB Instruments

Muller-BBM

Variohm

Flintec

PCB Piezotronics

Vibration Research

Gantner Instruments

PDS Hitech

Yokogawa

GOM

Phoenix Materials Testing

Zwick Testing Machines

HBM Prenscia

Polytec

3

New Personal Member: Farnoosh Farhad – University of Coventry/TWI

MEMBERSHIP The Engineering Integrity Society is an independent charitable organisation, supported and sponsored by industry. The Society is committed to promoting events and publications, providing a forum for experienced engineers and new graduates to discuss current issues and new technologies. We aim for both company and personal development and to inspire newly qualified engineers to develop their chosen profession. Events run provide an ideal opportunity for engineers to meet others who operate in similar fields of activity over coffee and lunch. All of our events enable engineers to establish and renew an excellent ‘contact’ base while keeping up to date with new technology and developments in their field of interest. We are involved in a wide range of Industrial sectors including Automotive, Aerospace, Civil, Petrochemical etc and continue to be interested in new members from all sectors. Benefits: • • •

EIS members receive a subscription to ‘Engineering Integrity’, mailed direct to their office or private address. Discounts to EIS events. Access to Task Groups, to take part, or to receive information and recommendations. Fees:

Personal Membership (UK) Personal Overseas Membership Corporate Membership (1 April - 31 March)

£25 a year £30 a year £400+VAT a year

(pro rata)

Application forms can be downloaded from the membership page at www.e-i-s.org.uk If your membership has expired or you are unsure if your membership is current, contact: info@e-i-s.org.uk

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Group News Simulation, Test & Measurement Group A new year and there is much to do during 2018. The Group is continuing to evolve over the last few months, with a number of traditional and new ideas. We have covered seminars and initiatives specifically aimed to look at the challenges faced by engineers in delivering reliable and efficient testing and analysis results. Our goal is to gather together the ideas and input from experienced engineers to demonstrate, discuss and review both basic and advanced topics. For instance the STMG has been involved in the organisation or provided technical input to a number of events in 2017. In February, AMRC, in Sheffield hosted a workshop on the practical application of structural dynamics, covering almost everything an engineer needs to know about test preparation data acquisition, modal parameter estimation and more. In May, ASDEC/HORIBA-MIRA hosted a forum about practical aspects of NVH Measurements in lab and on the proving ground. In July, Star Hydraulics hosted one of the EIS “Young Engineers” seminars where new engineers were given an overview of a hydraulic testing and how servo valves work. October saw a further seminar on the subject of various techniques and ideas behind visualising strain. Another important seminar was run in November looking at rubber materials and the introduction of the very interesting topic of the interface between road and tyre.

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All of these seminars followed various demonstrations to the background of both CAE analysis optimisation and the practical testing techniques involved. Often with real case studies in the workshop, on tracks or road, and modelling by very experienced engineers. A bonus for many was the trip round the MIRA Proving Ground followed by a demonstration of a fully instrumented vehicle. The STMG have also given practical guides to RLD instrumentation and data collection, applied to practicalities aspects of measurement & analysis and testing. More importantly the seminars and events have introduced the practical aspects of material selection, the effects of manufacturing variables, even the problems of accounting for residual strain effects and how to allow for this in modelling. We are thus following our remit to teach and pass on experience, by continuing to provide lectures and seminars covering the basic considerations, often overlooked fundamentals, alongside the more advanced smarter testing methods and optimised techniques. There are a number of exciting events coming up in 2018 from the STMG starting in January with another Young Engineers seminar hosted by JCB this time. We will be covering all the practical aspects of collecting data in the field, measuring strain, and some of the best practices for allowing for residual strains, collection of data, and much more. This will be followed by a follow up to the seminar on rubber material held in 2017; this will be focussed on the Tyre Road Contact. This will attempt to combine the experience and knowledge of materials information and data collection and analysis. I think this is a very interesting topic that should provide a number of opportunities as the ideas are not very well understood in the engineering community.

In April we will be running a practical seminar on the use and abuse of accelerometers, what they are, why you use them and the practical issues in the use and application of accelerometer data. Hosted by DJB in Mildenhall. I plan to introduce and expand upon a number of interesting ideas during 2018 for the future, but I need your feedback on which topics and how you would like these to be covered. a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

General Data Measurement Residual Strain Living with Ageing Plant; such as Re-Lifing Thermo Mechanical Fatigue Corrosion Fatigue in Nuclear Power Aerospace Materials Rapid Prototyping

Finally the STMG are looking forward to the next Instrumentation Exhibition at Silverstone and to continue previous successes. A number of events and seminars are already organised. We expect a typically large turnout both of exhibitors and delegates. A big thank you to all involved organising this. As well as being able to network with colleagues, instrumentation suppliers, we will host a number of seminars on data collection and analysis, CAE modelling versus test, comparing input and output signals and their analysis on different systems. I am looking forward to hearing your views for the future as we look to continue our goal of helping engineers (young and old) gain experience of simulation and testing best practices. For instance how we use the wealth of experience within our group to set up a library of basic technical ‘worked’ examples and demos as a training resource for all. Eventually I would like to develop a practical knowledge base as a “Best Practices Manual” or “Wiki”. It looks like we are going to have an eventful year, plenty going on, and a few new ideas to try out. David Ensor (Chairman)


Durability & Fatigue Group The Young E n g i n e e r s ’ meetings (YE) continue and the latest was kindly hosted by JCB, and included a tour of their factory. Topics included measurement data collection, both wireless and around welds, leading neatly into fatigue analysis of welds. YEs from JCB contributed examples from their own work. In the course of my work I do hear comments about “what newly qualified engineers need to know is…. “; if you have experience to pass on, please do let us know. Plans for our next seminar “Additive Manufacture and Structural Integrity” are progressing although we have delayed it to avoid a clash with Sheffield University’s 1st international conference on the subject (MAPP).

Ours will focus on industrial applications and material performance. We are also formulating the following seminar on high temperature applications. As already reported (fittingly in journal 42) founding member Dr Peter Blackmore has retired. We

finally met to thank him for his work for the Society and present him with his life membership certificate, duly embossed with the company seal (above photo). We wish Peter and Sue a long and happy retirement. Robert Cawte (Chairman)

Diary of Events Engineering Integrity Society

Supported Events

Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition Silverstone 13 March 2018

IMechE - Reliability of Systems and Equipment Operated in Harsh Environments 6 March 2018, London

Accelerometer Selection and Signal Processing Basics Mildenhall, 25 April 2018

IMechE - Steam Turbine & Generator User Group 2018 21-22 March 2018, Manchester

Electric Vehicle NHV - Not as Quiet as you Thought? June 2018 Tyre Road Contact Date tbc Durability & Integrity of Additive Manufactured Products: Do you really know what you’ve made? Date tbc

IMechE - Essential Management Skills 2018 18-20 April 2018, Coventry IoT Tech Expo Global 18-19 April 2018 IoT Tech Expo Europe 27-28 June 2018 IoT Tech Expo North America 28-29 November 2018

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Committee Members President: Professor Roderick A Smith, FREng. ScD Directors Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom ............................................................................................................... 0121 7331837 Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant ................................................................................................... 0121 5203838 Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services .............................................................................................. 01332 263534 Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant ................................................................................................... 07881 802410 Nick Richardson, Servotest ............................................................................................................................. 01784 274428 Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant ...................................................................................................... 07866 815200 John Wilkinson, Engineering Consultant ......................................................................................................... 07747 006475 John Yates, Engineering Consultant ............................................................................................................... 01246 410758 Chairman John Yates, Engineering Consultant ............................................................................................................... 01246 410758 Vice Chairman Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services .............................................................................................. 01332 263534 Treasurer Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant ................................................................................................... 0121 5203838 Company Secretary Nick Richardson, Servotest ............................................................................................................................. 01784 274428 EIS Secretariat Sara Atkin ......................................................................................................................................................... 01623 884225 Communications Sub Committee – ‘Engineering Integrity’ Journal of the EIS Honorary Editor Karen Perkins, Swansea University ................................................................................................................ 01792 513029 Managing Editor Catherine Pinder .............................................................................................................................................. 07979 270998

Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group Chairman John Wilkinson, Engineering Consultant ......................................................................................................... 07747 006475 Members Marco Ajovalasit, Brunel University .................................................................................................................. 01895 267134 Joe Armstrong, Polytec .....................................................................................................................................01582 711670 Emiel Barten, Muller BBM ........................................................................................................................... +31 627 287 251 Alan Bennetts, Bay Systems ............................................................................................................................ 01458 860393 Dave Boast, D B Engineering Solutions .......................................................................................................... 01225 743592 Mark Burnett, HORIBA MIRA ........................................................................................................................... 02476 355329 Gary Dunne, Jaguar Land Rover ..................................................................................................................... 02476 206573 David Fish, JoTech .......................................................................................................................................... 01827 830606 Peter Jackson, European Acoustical Products ................................................................................................. 01986 897082 Paul Jennings, Warwick University .................................................................................................................. 02476 523646 Richard Johnson, Bruel & Kjaer UK ................................................................................................................ 01525 408502 Chris Knowles, Engineering Consultant .................................................................................................................................. Andrew McQueen, Siemens PLM Software ..................................................................................................... 02476 408120

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Ian Ramsay, Polytec .........................................................................................................................................01582 711670 Jon Richards, Honda UK ................................................................................................................................. 01793 417238 Keith Vickers, Bruel & Kjaer UK ...................................................................................................................... 01223 389800 James Wren, Prosig Ltd .................................................................................................................................. 01329 239925

Simulation, Test & Measurement Group Chairman

Dave Ensor, Engineering Consultant................................................................................................................ 07966 757625 Members Jack Allcock,Tata Steel ..................................................................................................................................... 01709 825207 Paul Armstrong, Amber Instruments ................................................................................................................. 01246 260250 Steve Coe, Data Physics (UK) ......................................................................................................................... 01323 846464 Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant ................................................................................................... 0121 5203838 Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services .............................................................................................. 01332 263534 Jerry Hughes, Moog ......................................................................................................................................... 01684 278478 Virrinder Kumar, HBM United Kingdom ........................................................................................................... 0208 515 6000 Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant .................................................................................................... 07881 802410 Daniel Nieto, Dyson ........................................................................................................................................ 0800 298 0298 Steve Payne, HORIBA MIRA............................................................................................................................ 02476 355526 Tim Powell, MTS Systems ................................................................................................................................ 01483 446500 Anton Raath, CaTs3 .......................................................................................................................................... 02476 546159 Nick Richardson, Servotest .............................................................................................................................. 01784 274428 Paul Roberts, HBM Prenscia ........................................................................................................................... 0785 2945988 Jarek Rosinski, Transmission Dynamics .......................................................................................................... 0191 5800058 Ian Strath, Siemens PLM Software ................................................................................................................. 01276 413200 Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant ...................................................................................................... 07866 815200 Darren Williams, Millbrook Proving Ground...................................................................................................... 01525 404242 Rob Wood, GOM ............................................................................................................................................. 07970 507360 Jeremy Yarnall, Consultant Engineer ............................................................................................................... 01332 875450 Conway Young, Tiab ........................................................................................................................................ 01295 714046

Durability & Fatigue Group Chairman Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom ............................................................................................................... 0121 7331837 Secretary Peter Bailey, Instron ......................................................................................................................................... 01494 456512 Members Hayder Ahmad, Safran Electrical & Power ....................................................................................................... 01296 663468 John Atkinson, Consultant ....................................................................................................................................................... Martin Bache, Swansea University .................................................................................................................. 01792 295287 Andrew Blows, JLR ......................................................................................................................................... 07774 557820 Amir Chahardehi, Atkins Energy....................................................................................................................... 01454 662000 Farnoosh Farhad, Coventry University/TWI ............................................................................................................................ Giovanni De Morais, Dassault Systèmes Simulia .............................................................................................0114 2686444

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Committee Members Hassan Ghadbeigi, Sheffield University ...........................................................................................................0114 2227748 Lee Gilbert, Element ......................................................................................................................................... 01926 478478 Paul Hayford, H4 Technologies ............................................................................................................................................... Karl Johnson, Zwick Roell Group ..................................................................................................................... 0777957 8913 Chris Magazzeni, Oxford University ......................................................................................................................................... Angelo Maligno, IISA, University of Derby........................................................................................................ 01332 592516 Ali Mehmanparast, Cranfield University .......................................................................................................... 01234 758331 Andrew Mills, Siemens .................................................................................................................................... 01522 584002 Karen Perkins, Swansea University ................................................................................................................ 01792 513029 Davood Sarchamy, British Aerospace Airbus ......................................................................................................0117 936861 Giora Shatil, Gamesa Wind UK ................................................................................................................................................ Andy Stiles, Aero Engine Controls.................................................................................................................... 0121 6276600 James Trainor, 3T RPD Ltd ............................................................................................................................. 01635 580284 Vicki Wilkes, Phoenix Materials Testing .......................................................................................................... 01384 480545 John Yates, Engineering Consultant ................................................................................................................ 01246 410758

Report - Advanced Engineering Show, NEC, 1-2 November 2017 O n c e again the EIS had a stand at the Advanced Engineering Show at the NEC in N o v e m b e r. T h i s provided a great opportunity to talk to visitors about the charitable work of the society as well as a chance to publicise future events. Throughout the two days we also spoke to a number of exhibitors, several of whom booked stands at the Instrumentation, Analysis and Testing Exhibition at Silverstone on 13 March 2018. Forums are run throughout the two days and the society was pleased

50

to contribute to the programme. Peter Bailey presented “The need for consistent testing: connecting industry and standardisation with reality!”. He explained that when testing materials and structures, it is essential to be sure that we are testing what we think we are. Of nearly equal importance is the ability to compare results with others, be they collaborators, suppliers, or competitors. For these reasons, both formal and informal standards in testing have an enormous effect on our work as engineers and scientists. Peter discussed some origins of standardisation, the challenges of creating comparable data, and showed some examples of how experimental effects can create unexpected pitfalls in mechanical testing. On the second day David Ensor presented “Warranty 3 years, life 10 years, production is in 1 year; how do you test?”. He outlined a

little of the history of accelerated durability testing, and some of the modern processes being used for the accurate acceleration of the development and testing of new products. Both forums were wellattended and many delegates visited our stand following the sessions to further discuss these topics. The society will be attending the 2018 show next November and will be involved again in a number of forums.


Measurement Sensors Micro-Epsilon designs and manufactures precision sensors and measurement systems for displacement, profile, gap, thickness, distance, vibration, temperature and colour measurement.

 2D/3D Laser profile sensors  Thermal imaging cameras  Optical micrometers  Turbospeed sensors  Capacitive sensors  Laser triangulation sensors  Thickness sensors Micro-Epsilon is an expert in sensor technologies, get in touch and request your free onsite consultation.

+44 (0) 151 355 6070 | www.micro-epsilon.co.uk | info@micro-epsilon.co.uk

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Engineering Integrity Journal Issue 44  

Journal of the Engineering Integrity Society

Engineering Integrity Journal Issue 44  

Journal of the Engineering Integrity Society

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