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G & IN M R S E E I CH E T S R : N S Y A M I O NG hE, ANAL 13 M FR E WS N'S I M e c O N , O N , E N E OM I., T A T I B I T I W . .S UMEN E X H I B ES TR NG L S C IN STI TI R E A T 18 C A L E W S 0 2 NI N H Y S C R EW TE UST N D IN DU C T O PR

43 EIS ENGINEERING INTEGRITY SEPTEMBER

2017

JOURNAL OF THE ENGINEERING INTEGRITY SOCIETY

Papers on: of Voids and Inclusions on the High Temperature Localised • Effect Cyclic Behaviour of a Next Generation Power Plant Material • Corrosion Fatigue Assessment of Brazed AISI 304/BNi-2 Joints in Synthetic Exhaust Gas Condensate

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Contents Index to Advertisements........................................................................................................................................................ 7 Editorial................................................................................................................................................................................. 9 Diary of Events...................................................................................................................................................................... 9 Technical Paper: Effect of Voids and Inclusions on the High Temperature Localised Cyclic Behaviour of a Next Generation Power Plant Material ............................................................................................................................... 10 Technical Paper: Corrosion Fatigue Assessment of Brazed AISI 304/BNi-2 Joints in Synthetic Exhaust Gas Condensate................................................................................................................................................................. 17 Membership ........................................................................................................................................................................ 23 Fatigue 2017 Report ........................................................................................................................................................... 24 The Next Evolution of the Hydraulic Servo-Valve?.............................................................................................................. 26 Industry News ..................................................................................................................................................................... 28 Product News ..................................................................................................................................................................... 32 News from the Women’s Engineering Society ................................................................................................................... 34 News from British Standards............................................................................................................................................... 35 Inspiring the Next Generation ............................................................................................................................................. 36 News from Institution of Mechanical Engineers.................................................................................................................. 37 EIS to Sponsor the University of Wolverhampton .............................................................................................................. 38 Committee Members .......................................................................................................................................................... 42 Group News........................................................................................................................................................................ 44 New Personal Members ..................................................................................................................................................... 45 Corporate Members............................................................................................................................................................ 46 INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS Advanced Engineering 2017....................................49 CaTs3........................................................................48 Data Physics.................................... Inside front cover DJB Instruments.........................................................6 EIS....................................................................... 1 & 3 Head Acoustics ..........................................................2 M+P International.......................................Back cover Micro Epsilon ...........................................................46

Moog..........................................................................4 Sensors & Instrumentation Exhibition .....................49 Sensors UK..............................................................27 Tcal...........................................................................27 Team Corporation.......................................................6 THP Systems............................................................47 Tiab.............................................................................5

Thank you to the University of Wolverhampton for holding the June committee meetings and AGM. Front Cover: Group photo taken at the 6th International EIS conference on Fatigue, 'Fatigue 2017' held at Downing College, Cambridge 3-5 July 2017.

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The principal activity of the Engineering Integrity Society is the arrangement of conferences, seminars, exhibitions and workshops to advance the education of persons working in the field of engineering. This is achieved by providing a forum for the interchange of ideas and information on engineering practice. The Society is particularly committed to promoting projects which support professional development and attract young people into the profession. ‘Engineering Integrity’, the Journal of the Engineering Integrity Society is published twice a year.

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‘Engineering Integrity’ is lodged with the Agency for the Legal Deposit Libraries on behalf of the Bodleian Library Oxford University, the Cambridge University Library, National Library of Scotland, National Library of Wales and Trinity College Dublin.


Editorial Welcome to the summer 2017 edition of the EIS journal. The two technical papers in this edition represent two award winning papers amongst the 57 presented at the extremely successful Fatigue 2017 conference held at Cambridge last month. The first paper titled “Effect of voids and inclusions on the high temperature localised cyclic behaviour of a next generation power plane material” presented by Eimear O’Hara was awarded the Peter Watson prize for the best young presenter. The second paper presented by Anke Schmiedt was also awarded the position of highly commended titled “Corrosion fatigue assessment of brazed AISI 304/BNi-2 joints in synthetic exhaust gas condensate”. After talking about the demonisation of diesel in the last edition, technology shifts are moving apace, with Volvo being the first major car maker to announce plans for the electrification of all its new cars by 2019 and Hyundai looking to push the range of its all electric cars over 300 miles. Volvo may not be evicting all internal combustion engines in this phase, but once the electric motors are there, how long before the petrol and diesel elements are eased out altogether? At least it will be a while before electric motors threaten the EJ200 Eurojet engine powering Bloodhound SSC. As reported in the Industry News section Bloodhound is due for some low speed (200mph!) public tests later this year. Rockets also get a mention in the Inspiring the Next Generation column, air rockets in this case being used to enthuse cubs and brownies. To see how poppy seed shortbread fits in you'll have to read the column! While civil engineering and fire safety are not directly our remit, as human beings and engineers with an interest in integrity, the Grenfell Tower tragedy hits us on both a personal and professional level. Our heartfelt sympathies go to the victims and their relatives. There are many chilling aspects of the tragedy, the number of fatalities is naturally chief amongst them, but also the extended time scale over which the events unfolded and the fact that tragedy struck in people's homes, where they should have felt safest. With an aeroplane crash there is a sense that we are not built to fly, so active technological involvement is required and, despite our best efforts, that technology can fail. We can also hope that things happen quickly. Shockingly it appears that a simple engineering requirement, namely non-combustible cladding, was not applied. Given the simplicity of the testing required to ascertain the behaviour of a panelled wall, it beggars belief that panelling systems are not experimentally tested before being used. Perhaps it is easier to put economic considerations ahead of good engineering practice if you

know you and your loved ones are not going to have use of what you've made. As I write this year's A-level results have just been released and the press presents the familiar mix of smiling successful students and 'what to do if you didn't get the grades you wanted' guides. After a series of good years for recruitment of undergraduate engineers, the drop in overall university applications will no doubt present a challenge. With the advent of tuition fees, discussions of the value of higher education have become very financially oriented. While some may see this is a narrow view, from a STEM perspective the data is, unsurprisingly, positive. While official figures show that the average graduate earns £9500 a year more than the average non-graduate, earnings tables show how this is very subject dependent, with only economists, medics and vets competing with STEM graduates in terms of earnings. With this sort of information being presented to potential students more prominently, the circle might finally be closing. We have known for a long time of the need to train more engineers, perhaps now more teenagers will realise that the economic benefits of a STEM trained workforce are not just for the country, but also for the individual. Karen Perkins Honorary Editor

Diary of Events Servo Hydraulics & Testing to Achieve Accurate, Meaningful & Economic Results Star Hydraulics, Tewkesbury 14 September 2017 Visualising Strain 5 October 2017 Rubber Seminar 15 November 2017 Tyre Road Contact Seminar 18 January 2018 Instrumentation, Analysis & Testing Exhibition Silverstone 13 March 2018

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Technical Paper Effect of Voids and Inclusions on the High Temperature Localised Cyclic Behaviour of a Next Generation Power Plant Material E.M. O’Hara1,2, N.M. Harrison1,2, B.K. Polomski3, R.A. Barrett1,2, S.B. Leen1,2 1 Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering & Informatics, NUI Galway, H91 HX31, Ireland. 2 Ryan Institute for Environmental, Marine and Energy Research, NUI Galway, H91 HX31, Ireland. 3 GE Power, Gas Power Systems, Newbold Road, Rugby, Warwickshire, CV21 2NH, United Kingdom Abstract This paper presents an analysis of the effect of voids and inclusions on crack initiation for the high temperature low cycle fatigue (HTLCF) behaviour of the nano-strengthened martensitic-ferritic cast steel, MarBN, which is a candidate future power plant material. Microstructural analysis suggests that voids and inclusions play a key role in crack initiation and crack branching phenomena under cyclic loading. Multiaxial unified cyclic viscoplastic analyses of void and inclusion geometries are implemented to identify the effects of such discontinuities on localised cyclic plasticity, ratchetting and associated crack nucleation. INTRODUCTION Next generation power plant materials face the significant challenge of flexible operation at higher steam temperatures and pressures to improve overall plant efficiency and accommodate increased energy contribution from renewable energy sources. This is based on the drive to reduce global emissions and provide increased energy security. Thus, there is a requirement for a new generation of materials capable of operating under such conditions. Enhanced 9Cr steels have been identified as a candidate material for the next generation of power plants as an alternative to more expensive stainless steels and nickelbased superalloys. Nano-strengthening mechanisms, such as precipitates and solutes distributed throughout the hierarchical microstructure, provide improved creep strength at elevated temperatures. However, the fatigue performance of these materials is becoming increasingly important due to an increased frequency of plant start-up and shut-down and more rapid load fluctuations. The combined effects of fatigue, creep and oxidation on these materials can cause significant degradation and reduce component life; hence fatigue loading effects must be considered in terms of material selection and component design for future power plants [1,2]. Inclusions are the most common source of hole formation and lead to both ductile and brittle fracture under mechanical loading due to plastic deformation, decohesion and localised stress and strain concentrations. The strength and toughness of steels is dependent on microstructure refinement and significant financial resources have been invested in producing steels free from inclusions which

occur as a result of chemical reactions with the environment during steel manufacture [3–8]. Microcrack initiation and propagation is promoted at elevated temperatures as a result of void growth and inclusion-matrix decohesion under cyclic loading. The likelihood of this is further increased when voids or inclusions are located close to the surface and are of increased size [3,5,9–11]. The effects of size, shape, distribution, decohesion, thermal and mechanical loading and thermal mismatch are all areas that have been investigated in the literature for various metals [3,9–11]. This indicates the complex nature of voids and inclusions. Hence, it is vital to fully understand their effect on the material under a range of loading conditions and how this influences component behaviour in service through both experimental and computational methods. The modelling of inclusions was first investigated by Eshelby [12] in 1957 and has since become a widely investigated research topic under thermal and mechanical loading. Due to a mismatch in coefficient of thermal expansion between inclusions and the matrix during cyclic loading, e.g. heat treatment or power plant start-up and shut-down, decohesion of the inclusion from the matrix material can often occur. Young’s modulus is also important during cyclic loading where increased compressive and tensile loads at the interface increase the likelihood of crack initiation [8,13–16]. A greater mismatch in these properties can further increase the localised stress and strain concentrations at the interface and promote early crack initiation. It has been found that even if cracking occurs away from an inclusion it tends to propagate towards the inclusion due to the high stress concentration [17]. Fatigue crack nucleation is further promoted when decohesion of the inclusion from the matrix occurs, where sufficiently large inclusions in conjunction with clustering are found to have detrimental effects under cyclic loading [5,7,8,18–20]. Microstructural analysis and fractography of LCF cast MarBN samples is presented to determine the effect of voids and inclusions on crack initiation. Finite element (FE) modelling confirms the presence of complex, localised stress and strain concentrations at such discontinuities. Conventional macro-scale failure prediction methods are applied locally at voids and inclusions to predict the number of cycles to crack initiation. The objective of this work is to present a combined experimental and computational investigation into the fatigue response of MarBN containing voids and

The above paper was presentated at the Engineering Integrity Society, Fatigue 2017 Conference held at Downing College, Cambridge, UK on 3-5 July 2017 and was the winner of the Peter Watson Durability Prize.

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 43, SEPTEMBER 2017, pp.10-16.

inclusions and determine how it influences the local crack initiation material response under cyclic loading. MATERIALS & METHODS Microstructural Analysis An experimental test program of fully reversed (triangular), strain-controlled HTLCF and stress relaxation testing was previously published for MarBN at 600°C [21,22]. The present cast MarBN material has been developed as part of an industry-academic collaborative UK based project, IMPEL [23]. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis is performed on the gauge length and fracture surface of post-HTLCF test MarBN samples to identify mechanisms of deformation. Porosity fraction of voids and inclusions is measured using optical microscopy for a range of samples.

Z = αβcoshβf. As shown in later sections, localised plasticity for both inclusions and voids is predicted to lead to ratchetting. Hence, a localised ductility exhaustion model is adopted based on the Rice and Tracey void growth model and the work of Yatomi et al. [27,28]. The multiaxial failure strain, ε*f , is: (5)

The ratio of the hydrostatic stress, σm, to the equivalent stress, σeq, is the triaxiality ratio and εf is the uniaxial failure strain, taken to be 18% for MarBN at 600 °C. Number of cycles to crack initiation due to ratchetting, Ni,r , is calculated based on an approach developed elsewhere [29–31].

(6) Material Model The constitutive behaviour of the material is simulated using a unified cyclic viscoplastic material model, implemented in an implicit user material subroutine (UMAT) for use with the commercial FE code Abaqus, as described in detail in [24– . 26]. The viscoplastic strain-rate, εpl , is defined as: (1) where s is the deviatoric stress tensor and α and β are the cyclic viscoplastic material constants. The Bauschinger effect is accounted for using the Armstrong-Frederick model to describe the initial and later strain hardening stages, such that χ = χ1 + χ2 , via the following equation: (2) where Ci is hardening modulus, γi is a recall parameter . and p is the accumulated effective plastic strain-rate. The isotropic softening behaviour is described by the R term, such that R = R1 + R2. Two isotropic softening terms are used to simulate primary and secondary stages of softening. The evolution of Ri is defined using the Chaboche model as follows: . . Ri = bi (Qi - Ri)p (3) where bi is the rate of decay and Qi is the saturated cyclic softening stress. The iterative increment in accumulated effective plastic strain, d∆p, is:

(4)

where ϕ is the accumulated effective plastic strain-rate for the previous iteration of the current time step increment and

where ∆εr is an equivalent (multiaxial) ratchet strain r determined from individual ratchet strain components ∆εij . The number of cycles to LCF crack initiation, Ni,f, is determined here using the local (void and inclusion) hysteresis loops via the Coffin-Manson relationship and the constants identified from uniaxial (macroscale) tests [32], as follows: (7)

where εf' and c are the fatigue ductility coefficient and exponent, identified previously for MarBN [22]. Assuming linear damage summation for ratchetting and LCF, the total damage per cycle for crack initiation is taken here as .

MATERIAL ANALYSIS AND MODEL Microstructural Analysis Figure 1(a) shows the presence of inclusions on the fracture surface at locations of cracking and influencing the crack path (Figure 1(b)). A number of voids and inclusions are presented in Figure 2 indicating the size variation throughout the material. It is assumed that any damage to the inclusions observed on polished samples is as a result of the etching process, as damage has not been observed on the fracture surface. The measured porosity fraction for MarBN is in the range of 0.09 – 0.22 %, similar to that determined for ASTM A216 cast steel [19].

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 43, SEPTEMBER 2017, pp.10-16.

Figure 1. (a) Cracking at inclusions on the fracture surface of MarBN and (b) secondary cracking at inclusions near the surface post-HTLCF test

Figure 3. Calibration and validation of the UMAT for the initial and 150th cycles material. A Young’s modulus of 390 GPa and Poisson’s ratio of 0.35 are assigned to the inclusion, based on experimental measurements by Melander et al. [15]. A harder inclusion type was chosen as inclusion cracking is not observed experimentally. This paper is focused on isothermal fatigue, therefore thermal loading is not considered at this time. RESULTS

Figure 2. SEM images of polished and etched MarBN post-HTLCF test at 600 °C (a) containing a ≈12 µm void, (b) containing a ≈23 µm inclusion and (c) a ≈30 µm hole containing an inclusion

The MPS distributions are presented in Figure 5 for a 30 µm void and inclusion for the initial and 50th cycles. The location of MPS for the void model is consistent with that of a notch [25,26], i.e. at the minimum section location (labelled ‘Root’). However, for the inclusion case, the MPS occurs at the top of the inclusion-matrix interface (labelled ‘Interface’),

Void and Inclusion Modelling The cyclic viscoplastic material model parameters for MarBN at 600 °C were previously identified from experimental data [21,22]. Calibration and validation of the UMAT is described in detail by Barrett et al. for P91 [25,26] and has been performed here for MarBN at 600 °C, as shown in Figure 3, for a range of strain-rates and strain-ranges. The axisymmetric FE model for the void and inclusion is presented in Figure 4, describing the geometry, symmetric boundary conditions and loading applied ( ε = 0.1 %/s and ∆ε = 1%). Based on experimental observations (Figure 2) three different void and inclusion diameters are investigated; 12 µm, 23 µm and 30 µm. The model uses axisymmetric stress elements and mesh convergence is achieved to within 1.5% in terms of maximum principal strain (MPS) and axial stress evolution. The inclusion model has frictionless, hard contact between the inclusion and the MarBN matrix

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Figure 4. Mesh and boundary conditions of the Abaqus model containing an inclusion. The void model is almost identical, except for the omission of the inclusion


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 43, SEPTEMBER 2017, pp.10-16.

Figure 5. MPS distributions for the 30 µm void and inclusion models at N = 1 and N = 50

is compared for a 30 µm void and inclusion in Figure 9(a). Similar significant reductions are seen experimentally by Zhang et al. [1] for P91 during initial cycles and the ratchetting strain increment slowly increases over later cycles due to cyclic softening. Figure 9(b) compares the SNCF for each model and is shown to increase linearly with cycles up to ≈10. Larger inclusion and void diameters are predicted to increase the SNCF, with a greater concentration predicted at inclusions than voids in all cases. The multiaxial failure strain with average triaxiality ratio is compared for each void and inclusion size in Figure 10(a). The uniaxial failure strain (18%) is significantly reduced by the presence of a void and furthermore by an inclusion as average triaxiality ratio increases. Finally, the predicted crack initiation lives for 30 µm void and inclusion cases, based on combined ratchetting and LCF damage, are compared to the measured total fatigue life in Figure 10(b). DISCUSSION

The presence of voids and inclusions in MarBN is clearly observed on both the fracture Figure 6. MPS distributions at N = 715 for (a) 12 µm void, (b) 12 µm inclusion, surface and at subsurface (c) 23 µm void and (d) 23 µm inclusion locations. Such inhomogeneties are known to provide sites for crack initiation and influence the crack path, as seen for MarBN due to restricted matrix compression, resulting in a higher in Figure 1. Under LCF loading fatigue cracking generally strain concentration factor (SNCF), defined here as ratio of initiates on the sample surface, but during high cycle fatigue maximum local strain-range to nominal applied strain-range. loading crack nucleation is found to occur within the sample Figure 6 compares the predicted MPS distributions for the as a result of discontinuities in the material [6]. Therefore, 12 µm and 23 µm void and inclusion models at the 715th cycle the location of voids and inclusions can significantly affect for maximum tension. The MPS concentration increases cracking in a material as a result of the applied loading with increasing void or inclusion size and is higher for conditions. From the contour plots presented in Figures inclusions than voids. Figure 7 presents the MPS distribution 5 to 8, multiaxial strain distributions are shown to occur for a 30 µm void at N = 715 and the corresponding stressaround the inhomogeneity and strain redistribution occurs strain evolution at the void root (labelled ‘A’) and location of for the larger void and inclusion sizes with increasing cycles. MPS (labelled ‘A’’); multiple locations are investigated due to strain redistribution during cyclic loading. Ratchetting occurs Void deformation due to strain accumulation and material in both the compressive and tensile directions due to a small softening is observed at later stages, but the presence of non-zero mean stress. Figure 8 presents the equivalent an inclusion impedes deformation and produces increased results for a 30 µm inclusion model; only tensile ratchetting localised stresses and strains compared to a void. The is predicted, with higher strain accumulation than for the accumulation of such large strains in this region will inevitably void case. The increment in ratchetting strain with cycles lead to crack initiation and propagation.

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 43, SEPTEMBER 2017, pp.10-16.

Figure 7. (a) Contour plot of the MPS at N = 715 for a 30 µm void case, (b) stress-strain evolution at the void root (A) and (c) stress-strain evolution at the site of MPS (A’)

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Figure 9. (a) Ratchetting strain increment with cycles for the 30 µm void and inclusion cases and (b) SNCF at the location of MPS for all models Ratchetting plays a large role in terms of the amount of strain accumulated as a result of a non-zero mean stress both at the interface and in the surrounding area. This is shown to be highly complex for a void, varying from compressive to tensile as redistribution of the MPS location occurs and is further complicated due to large cyclic softening of the 9Cr steel. Lower stress rates and combined creep-fatigue loading, more typical of plant conditions, have been found to increase the non-zero mean stress and ratchetting rate [33,34]. Therefore, this phenomenon is further motivation to reduce the size and distribution of inhomogeneties in plant components. MarBN is a strain-rate dependent material at 600 °C [21,22]. However, in terms of notched specimens, variation of stress triaxiality (Figure 10(a)) was found to have the greatest influence on fracture strain, with negligible observed dependency on strain-rate [27,35–37].

Figure 8. (a) Contour plot of the MPS at N = 715 for a 30 µm inclusion case, (b) stress-strain evolution at the top of inclusion-matrix interface (B) and (c) stress-strain evolution at the site of MPS (B’)

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The results shown here clearly indicate significant localised cyclic plasticity and ratchetting phenomena due to voids and inclusions in MarBN. In order to estimate the effects of these phenomena on crack initiation, ratchetting and CoffinManson LCF cycles to crack initiation have been estimated for the void and inclusion models (Figure 10(b)). The present models predict a dominant cyclic plasticity effect, despite the significant ratchetting and strain accumulation. The LCF void and inclusion crack initiation lives are ≈19%


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 43, SEPTEMBER 2017, pp.10-16.

influence the location of crack initiation and direction of crack propagation under high temperature cyclic loading conditions. • Large cyclic strain accumulation is predicted due to ratchetting at voids and inclusions, as well as significant and cyclically-evolving strain localisation. This leads to strain concentration factors of up to 10, depending on void or inclusion size with inclusions predicted to cause higher strain concentrations. • High localised triaxiality ratios at voids and inclusions, particularly at inclusion-matrix interfaces, are predicted to reduce local material ductility, exacerbating ratchetting damage. • Estimated crack initiation lives at voids and inclusions, due to combined LCF and ratchetting effects, are typically about 11% and 17%, respectively, of measured total life. Void and inclusion size are not predicted to significantly affect initiation life; the key effect is the presence of voids or inclusions. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Figure 10. (a) Multiaxial failure strain as a function of average triaxiality ratio at multiple locations and (b) comparison of 30 µm void and inclusion crack initiation lives against measured total life and ≈12%, respectively, of measured total life. Note

The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from the Irish Research Council and GE Power under the Enterprise Partnership Scheme (EPSPG/2015/55). The authors would also like to express their gratitude to Mr. Rod Vanstone from GE Power and Dr. Conor O’Hagan from NUI Galway. The authors acknowledge the facilities and technical assistance of the NCBES Electron Microscopy unit within the Centre for Microscopy & Imaging at the National University of Ireland Galway and the SFI/HEA Irish Centre for High End Computing (ICHEC). REFERENCES

exp

that total experimental life, N f , for the present cyclic softening material, is defined as a 20% load drop from the end of primary softening [21]. Ratchetting further reduces local cycles to crack initiation by ≈1 to 2% for voids and inclusions. The effects of ratchetting, stress triaxiality and multiaxial failure strain, in conjunction with void or inclusion diameter, distribution and loading indicate the complexity of this problem and their effect on fatigue life. Therefore, the reduction and elimination of voids and inclusions is a priority for increased resistance to fatigue crack initiation of power plant materials and components. CONCLUSION This paper has examined the effects of measured voids and inclusions on the cyclic viscoplastic behaviour of MarBN at 600 °C. The main findings are as follows: • Voids and inclusions are experimentally shown to

[1] K. Zhang, J. Aktaa, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 2016, 472, 227. [2] N. Ohno, J.D. Wang, International Journal of Plasticity, 1993, 9, 375. [3] D. Hull, Fractography: observing, measuring and interpreting fracture surface topography. Cambridge University Press, 1999. [4] D.R. Askeland, P.P. Fulay, W.J. Wright, The science and engineering of materials. Stamford, CT : Cengage Learning, 2011. [5] X. Xie et al., Superalloys, 2004, 451. [6] Q.Y. Wang et al., International Journal of Fatigue, 2002, 24, 1269. [7] I. Gustavsson, Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, 1992, 15, 881. [8] C.P. O’Hagan et al., Corrosion Science, 2016, 3. [9] S. Suresh, Fatigue of Materials. Cambridge University Press, 1998.

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[10] F. Ellyin, Fatigue damage, crack growth and life prediction. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012. [11] S. Murakami, Continuum damage mechanics: a continuum mechanics approach to the analysis of damage and fracture. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012, 185. [12] J.D. Eshelby, P.R.S.L. A, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 1957, 241, 376. [13] E. Pessard et al., International Journal of Fatigue, 2011, 33, 568. [14] E. Pessard et al., International Journal of Fatigue, 2012, 41, 168. [15] A. Melander, International Journal of Fatigue, 1990, 12, 154. [16] E. Maire et al., Acta Materialia, 2008, 56, 4954. [17] T. Billaudeau, Y. Nadot, G. Bezine, Acta Materialia, 2004, 52, 3911. [18] R. Prasannavenkatesan et al., International Journal of Fatigue, 2009, 31, 1176. [19] R.A. Hardin, C. Beckermann, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 2007, 38, 2992. [20] L. Babout, E. Maire, R. Foug, Acta Materialia, 2004, 52, 2475. [21] R.A. Barrett et al., Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 2016, 138, 41401. [22] E.M. O’Hara et al., Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials Design and Applications, 2016, 1464420716667759.

[23] Private Communication, IMPEL Consortium. 2015. [24] R.A. Barrett et al., Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 2014, 136, 21402. [25] R.A. Barrett et al., Materials Science and Technology, 2014, 30, 67. [26] R.A. Barrett, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland, 2016, PhD Thesis. [27] B.J.R. Rice, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 1969, 17, 201. [28] M. Yatomi et al., Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures, 2004, 27, 283. [29] A.L.M. Tobi et al., Wear, 2009, 267, 270. [30] T. Zhang, P.E. McHugh, S.B. Leen, International Journal of Fatigue, 2012, 44, 260. [31] C.H. Goh, D.L. McDowell, R.W. Neu, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 2006, 54, 340. [32] L.F. Coffin, in Fatigue at elevated temperatures, ASTM International, 1973. [33] R. Halama, J. Sedlák, M. Šofer, Numerical Modelling, 2012, 1, 329. [34] G. Kang, International Journal of Fatigue, 2008, 30, 1448. [35] P. Church, Journal of Materials Science, 1996, 31, 453. [36] O.S. Hopperstad et al., European Journal of Mechanics-A/Solids, 2003, 22, 15. [37] T. Børvik, O.S. Hopperstad, T. Berstad, European Journal of Mechanics-A/Solids, 2003, 22, 15.

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ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 43, SEPTEMBER 2017, pp.17-23.

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Technical Paper Corrosion Fatigue Assessment of Brazed AISI 304/BNi-2 Joints in Synthetic Exhaust Gas Condensate A. Schmiedt1, D. Nowak1, M. Manka2, L. Wojarski2, W. Tillmann2, F. Walther1 1 TU Dortmund University, Department of Materials Test Engineering, Baroper Str. 303, D-44227 Dortmund, Germany 2 TU Dortmund University, Chair of Materials Engineering, Leonhard-Euler-Str. 2, D-44227 Dortmund, Germany

Abstract During the operation of e.g. exhaust gas heat exchangers, the fatigue loading of brazed components is superimposed by corrosive attack due to aggressive exhaust gases. Thus, the corrosion fatigue behaviour of brazed joints is relevant for component design. In the present study, brazed AISI 304/ BNi-2 joints were cyclically tested in synthetic exhaust gas condensate K2.2, using a corrosion cell, as well as in air after pre-corrosion acc. to VDA 230-214 with ageing durations of up to 6 weeks. A significant reduction of fatigue strength at 2∙106 cycles down to 43% was determined for superimposed and down to 22% for successive corrosion fatigue loading. In this context, a novel test strategy with local strain measurements, using a newly developed extensometer, as well as electrical and electrochemical measurements have proven to be appropriate for a precise corrosion fatigue assessment of brazed joints. Corrosion- and deformationinduced microstructural changes of joints were evaluated using light and scanning electron microscopy. INTRODUCTION Brazing is considered as an economic joining technology that is even applicable for non-weldable material combinations and therefore is established in a wide range of industrial applications, such as for automotive parts. During the operation of e.g. exhaust gas heat exchangers, static and cyclic loadings of brazed components are superimposed by high temperatures and corrosive attack due to aggressive exhaust gases. Thus, the corrosion fatigue behaviour of brazed joints has to be considered for component design and lifetime calculations. Initial studies to investigate the corrosion resistance of brazed joints are focused on fundamental electrochemical methods [2] and various specifications for visual evaluation of the resistance of materials, as shown e.g. in [3]. Application-related examinations, based on the combination of mechanical and corrosive loadings, were first performed in the last years, especially with quasi-static and fatigue tests of varied pre-corroded brazed specimens [4, 5]. However, time- and cost-efficient test strategies and test procedures to investigate an application-related superimposed corrosion fatigue loading do not exist yet. The aim of this study was to characterise the corrosion fatigue behaviour of commonly used brazed AISI 304/BNi 2 joints in synthetic exhaust gas condensate K2.2 with chemical composition acc. to VDA test sheet 230-214 [3], which is relevant for assessments of exhaust gas-carrying

components. Therefore, brazed joints were cyclically tested in situ in the corrosive environment, using a corrosion cell, to realistically simulate damage mechanisms. To enable a comparison with the effect of a long time corrosion, brazed joints were additionally fatigued in air after pre corrosion acc. to VDA 230-214 with ageing durations of up to 6 weeks. Thus, the corrosion fatigue behaviour of brazed AISI 304/BNi-2 joints, based on superimposed and successive loadings, was examined and a novel test strategy with an optimised experimental setup was developed. MATERIALS AND MATERIAL CONDITIONS The most widely used austenitic stainless steel X5CrNi18-10 (AISI 304), produced as a cylindrical bar material acc. to specification DIN EN 10088-3, was used as base material for the brazed joints. For AISI 304, plastic deformations can lead to a phase transformation from paramagnetic austenite to ferromagnetic martensite. This fact was extensively investigated in terms of cyclic loading for homogenous alloys in earlier studies [6]. A commercially available nickelbased brazing alloy BNi-2 (Ni 620) was used as brazing foil to adjust a brazing gap of about 50 µm for the butt joints (Fig. 1a). The brazing process was carried out acc. to previous optimizations in [7] in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum of 10-5 to 10-6 mbar at temperatures of 1050°C and with a dwell time of 2 minutes. Specimens for fatigue and corrosion fatigue tests were manufactured from brazed bars with the geometry shown in Fig. 1b. The rejuvenated sample range was polished to achieve a surface quality of Rz = 0.9 µm and to ensure the consistency and reproducibility of the test results. The VDA test sheet 230-214 [3] defines an established procedure to evaluate the condensate corrosion in exhaust gas-carrying components and specifies the chemical composition of a synthetic exhaust gas condensate K2.2 with 0.035 ml/l acetic acid, 0.039 ml/l formic acid, and 1650 mg/l NaCl, dissolved in water. According to VDA 230-214, the corrosion behaviour of materials was analysed after an alternating corrosion exposure consisting of daily periods of semi immersion, drying, and a steam phase in combination with weekly heat ageing for 5 hours [3]. For the present study, a weekly heat ageing was conducted at the proposed maximum temperature of 600°C. The described pre-corrosion was applied to brazed AISI 304/BNi-2 joints over a time span of 3 weeks as well as over a time span of 6 weeks, which is the maximum test

The above paper was presentated at the Engineering Integrity Society, Fatigue 2017 Conference held at Downing College, Cambridge, UK on 3-5 July 2017 and was Highly Commended for the Peter Watson Durability Prize.

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corrosive attack. In addition, the application-oriented effect of a superimposed corrosion fatigue loading was analysed by performing fatigue tests of brazed joints in the synthetic condensate K2.2, using an in situ corrosion cell. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PROCEDURE

a)

b) Figure 1 a) Longitudinal polished section of brazed AISI 304/BNi-2 joint; b) Specimen geometry for fatigue and corrosion fatigue investigations (all dimensions in mm) [1].

duration defined in the test sheet and leads to a distinct corrosive attack of the brazed specimens, as shown in Fig. 2a. Brazed specimens were cyclically tested in air prior to and after the described VDA pre-corrosion with ageing durations of 3 and 6 weeks, respectively, to evaluate the influence of a successive corrosion fatigue loading with a long time a)

b)

Instrumented stepwise load increase tests (LIT) in combination with constant amplitude tests (CAT) were performed at a servo-hydraulic testing system (Instron, 8801, F = ±100 kN) to investigate the fatigue and corrosion fatigue behaviour of brazed AISI 304/BNi-2 joints. The time- and cost efficient load increase procedure was already utilised for a wide range of material classes and joints to characterise fatigue behaviours as well as to estimate fatigue limits [8, 9]. Thereby, the maximum stress of cyclic loading is increased stepwise with a constant load ratio, starting at a load level at which the material is expected to be damage-free up to the level of specimen failure. The material response to cyclic loading was continuously recorded by different measuring instruments and plotted as a cycle- and load-dependent development (Fig. 2b). Based on numerical-graphical methods, the fatigue limit can be estimated as σmax,e (LIT) by determining the transition from an almost steady (linear) to significantly increasing (exponential) slope of material reaction. In combination with the failure maximum stress σmax,f (LIT), which correlates with the last cyclic loading at the end of the LIT, suitable loading parameters for the validation in CAT can be defined [8, 9]. LIT and CAT of brazed joints in air prior to and after precorrosion, as well in synthetic exhaust gas condensate K2.2, using an in situ corrosion cell, were performed at a stress ratio of R = 0.1 and with a frequency of 10 Hz at ambient temperature, using sinusoidal load-time functions with a limited number of cycles of N = 2·106. For LIT, the maximum stress σmax was increased stepwise by ∆σmax = 5 MPa each ΔN = 104 cycles, starting at σmax,start = 50 MPa until specimen c)

Figure 2 a) Specimen with brazing seam (BS) after 6 weeks of pre-corrosion acc. to VDA 230 214; b) Schematic of stepwise load increase test with development of material reaction; c) Experimental setup for fatigue investigations in air [1].

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failure. The material response and deformation behaviour to cyclic loading was characterised with mechanical, electrical, magnetic, and electrochemical measuring techniques.

electron microscopy (SEM) for microstructure-related evaluation of corrosion fatigue mechanisms.

The experimental setup acc. to Fig. 2c for tests in air includes an optimised extensometer with a gauge length of 3 mm for local strain measurements in the area of the brazed joints, as well as a crack growth monitor (Matelect, CGM-7) for alternating current potential drop (ACPD) measurements and a feritscope (Helmut Fischer, Fischerscope MMS). For the ACPD method, an AC power supply was fixed to both clamping jaws and the change in deformation- and damage-induced electrical voltage ∆U was recorded with two wires welded to the shafts of the specimens. The feritscope was positioned exactly at the brazing seam to enable the detection of magnetic contents close to the surface, which could be correlated with the plasticityinduced phase transformation of the base material from paramagnetic austenite to ferromagnetic martensite. To specify the change in magnetic portion ∆ζ and the change in AC voltage ∆U as indicators for the state of fatigue damage, the measured data were referred to the initial values at test beginning.

Load increase tests (LIT) were performed in air prior to and after pre-corrosion as well as in situ in synthetic condensate K2.2, using a corrosion cell, to characterise the fatigue and corrosion fatigue behaviour and define suitable loading parameters for subsequent constant amplitude tests (CAT). Afterwards, metallographic investigations of tested specimens were complemented.

The experimental setup for superimposed corrosion fatigue loading in synthetic exhaust gas condensate K2.2 with an in situ corrosion cell, as well as the schematic drawing is shown in Fig. 3a and Fig. 3b. The self-designed cell allows integrating an extensometer and a standard three electrode system for electrochemical measurements. Here, a silver chloride electrode (Ag/AgCl) was used as a reference electrode, a glassy carbon electrode as counter electrode, and the brazed specimen serves as the working electrode. Thereby, changes in the open circuit potential EOCP of the specimen due to deformation- and cycle-dependent microstructural changes on the surface were measured continuously with a potentiostat (Gamry, Interface 1000) [10]. A newly-developed extensometer with drop down extensions at the knife edges was applied to enable local strain measurements with a gauge length of 5 mm inside the fluid media. After mechanical testing, fractured surfaces, and microstructures were investigated using light and scanning

RESULTS

Fatigue behaviour in air prior to and after pre-corrosion Results of a LIT in air with a specimen prior to pre-corrosion are exemplary shown in Fig. 4. The progression of the maximum stress σmax as a controlled variable as well as material reactions in terms of the total strain amplitude εa,t, total mean strain εm,t, and deformation-induced changes in alternating current (AC) voltage ∆U are plotted as functions of load cycles N. Values of the total strain amplitude εa,t remain constant within each load level and increase stepwise and linearly with increasing stress level (Fig. 4). In contrast, a continuous growth is determined for data of total mean strain εm,t with a linear trend up to 31∙104

Figure 4 Results of a load increase test in air with a specimen of as-received condition [1].

cycles at 205 MPa, followed by a pronounced progressive increase until specimen fracture at 37.1∙104 cycles (Nf (LIT)). This corresponds to the failure maximum stress σmax,f (LIT) = 235 MPa and a maximum total mean strain of approx. 0.5%. The determined directional accumulation of plastic strain is a consequence of an asymmetric cyclic loading with mean stresses and is known as ratcheting or ratcheting fatigue. The increase of ratcheting strain, as a measure of cyclic plastic deformation and Figure 3 a) Experimental setup for corrosion fatigue investigations; damage, in relation to elevated b) Schematic drawing of specimen in the in situ-corrosion cell [1].

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mean stresses and stress amplitudes was also described in [11, 12]. Measured values concerning the change in AC voltage ∆U remain, after an initial scattering, at a constant level until 31∙104 cycles and finally increase progressively until fracture. Thus, values of change in AC voltage ∆U and total mean strain εm,t are able to announce fatigue fracture early at 84% of fatigue life and indicate damage-induced microstructural changes of brazed AISI 304/BNi-2 joints. Figure 5 presents the results of a LIT in air with a specimen after 3 weeks of pre-corrosion, whereby the change in magnetic portion ∆ζ, measured with a feritscope, was used as a further material response value. Here, significant fatigue damage-induced changes can be detected at 20∙104 cycles, which also corresponds with the values of change in AC voltage ∆U and total mean strain εm,t. All LIT in air with brazed joints prior to and after pre-corrosion were evaluated with respect to the three mentioned indicative material response values in order to determine transitions from linear to significantly increasing curve progressions and estimate fatigue limits σmax,e (LIT) for 2∙106 cycles. In this context, fatigue limits σmax,e (LIT) of 205 MPa for the as-received condition, 155 MPa for the 3 week pre-corrosion, and 80 MPa for specimens after 6 weeks of pre-corrosion were estimated. The results were used in combination with failure maximum stresses σmax,f (LIT) to define suitable loading parameters for CAT. Consequently, the number of cycles to failure Nf in relation to the constantly controlled maximum stress levels are displayed in Fig. 6a for brazed specimens prior to and after pre corrosion. To determine mechanical stresses, measured forces were referenced to the diameters of the specimens in the area of brazed joints. Presented S,N curves were described in a semi logarithmic scale with linear fit lines in Fig. 6a. Here, a small gradient, at which an increase of Nf from 3∙102 to 2∙106 cycles can be achieved by a small reduction of maximum stress in the range of 50 MPa for the as-received condition, has to be considered. To enable a comparison of the deformation behaviour of brazed joints for various applied stress levels, the development of total mean strain εm,t is given in Fig. 6b for brazed materials in

Figure 6 a) Results of constant amplitude tests in air with specimens of as-received condition (0w.) as well as after 3 weeks (3w.) and 6 weeks (6w.) pre-corrosion; b) Course of total mean strain εm,t of constant amplitude tests in air with specimens of as-received condition [1]. as-received condition. Therefore, ratcheting strains remain almost constant during the first cycles and afterward increase progressively with proceeding fatigue loading. The effect is more pronounced for elevated mean stresses and stress amplitudes.

Pre-corrosions, performed acc. to VDA 230-214 in synthetic exhaust gas condensate K2.2, lead to a significant impact on the material behaviour concerning a succeeding fatigue loading with a reduction of fatigue strength for 2∙106 cycles from 210 MPa to 162 MPa (77%) regarding 3 weeks and to 46 MPa (22%) regarding 6 weeks of precorrosion (Fig. 6a). Thus, the novel test strategy with local strain and electrical measurements in combination with LIT have proven to be appropriate to estimate fatigue limits with deviations smaller than 5% for brazed specimens prior to and after the 3 week pre-corrosion. Corrosive attack due to ageing durations of 6 weeks promotes early failures of specimens tested at higher stress levels. As a consequence, the successive corrosion fatigue behaviour cannot be evaluated in a range below 104 cycles Nf where plastic deformations are prominent. In Figure 5 Results of a load increase test in air with a specimen conclusion, a significant reduction of fatigue after 3 weeks pre-corrosion [1].

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limits due to successive corrosion, caused by synthetic exhaust gas condensates acc. to VDA 230-214, was determined for brazed joints, relevant for component design and for lifetime calculations. Fatigue behaviour in case of superimposed corrosive attack Figure 7 shows the results of a LIT performed in situ in a synthetic exhaust gas condensate K2.2, using a corrosion cell, to characterise the material behaviour of brazed joints under superimposed corrosion fatigue loading. The maximum stress σmax as a controlled variable as well as the total strain amplitude εa,t, total mean strain εm,t, and the electrochemical open circuit potential EOCP of the specimen as measured values are displayed in relation to load cycles N. The failure maximum stress σmax,f (LIT) of 220 MPa, reached after a test duration of only 9 hours, is only 15 MPa below maximum stresses of specimens assessed in air. The presented data verify that the newly developed extensometer is well suited to determine local strains as well as the increase of ratcheting strain of brazed specimens inside a fluid medium. Deformation- and damage-induced microstructural changes due to corrosion fatigue loading were detected in the curve progressions of the total mean strain εm,t and the open circuit potential EOCP as early as at 84% of the fatigue life.

Figure 8 a) Results of constant amplitude tests performed in air prior to and after pre-corrosion as well as performed in situ in synthetic condensate K2.2; b) Results of constant amplitude tests performed in situ in synthetic condensate K2.2, shown in a linear grid [1]. the significant role of the test duration as corrosion fatigue properties of both mentioned section can be described with one continuous regressive correlation (Fig. 8b). Thus, the applied test frequency has to be taken into account for the evaluation of results and component design.

Figure 7 Results of a load increase test performed in situ in synthetic condensate K2.2 [1]. Results of CAT performed in situ in synthetic exhaust gas condensate are illustrated as S,N-curves in Fig. 8a and can be divided into two sections. In the section of high loads above 210 MPa, which corresponds to a number of cycles to failure up to 3∙105 and test durations of up to 8 hours, the superimposed corrosive attack leads to a reduction of Nf with a factor of approx. 5. Longer test durations increasingly affect the fatigue performance of brazed joints and measured data for tests with maximum stresses below 210 MPa show a linear relation in a semi-logarithmic scale. The limiting number of cycles of N = 2·106 was obtained after a test duration of 56 hours for a maximum stress level of 90 MPa, which is 43% of the fatigue limit evaluated in air. The presentation of results in a linear net illustrates

Fatigue tests performed in the corrosive environment K2.2, using a corrosion cell, represent mechanical and corrosive damage mechanisms under realistic conditions. Comparisons with specimens tested cyclically after precorrosions demonstrate the influence of long time corrosion on the fatigue behaviour of brazed joints. Compared to the superimposed corrosion fatigue loading, a successive 6 week pre-corrosion leads to a more pronounced reduction of fatigue strength, whereas specimens after 3 weeks pre-corrosion achieve even higher numbers of cycles for lower stress levels with σmax below 170 MPa. However, the evaluation of the corrosion fatigue behaviour is restricted to tests with a frequency of 10 Hz and a limited number of 2·106 cycles in this study. Microstructural investigations Fractured surfaces of specimens tested after precorrosions, performed acc. to VDA 230-214, present a

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clearly visible corrosive attack in the area of the brazing seam that progressed from the specimen’s surface to the inner volume during ageing and significantly reduced the unaffected cross-section area. The longitudinal polished section at the position marked in Fig. 9a shows a local corrosive attack in the area of the diffusion zones at both sides of the base material, especially at grain boundaries (Fig. 9b). According to [4, Figure 10 Fractured surface of a specimen tested in synthetic condensate K2.2 7], a formation of chromium borides for 18 hours: a) top view and b) longitudinal polished section (SEM) [1]. is believed to be the reason for chromium depletions that promote local corrosion in diffusion zones of base materials. Due CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK to the cyclical loading, the fatigue crack propagated alternatingly through one of the two affected diffusion zones In this study, a comparison of the effect due to successive within the outer region of the fracture surface. Concerning and superimposed corrosion fatigue loading, caused by the unaffected cross-section area, a crack path in the centre synthetic exhaust gas condensate K2.2 acc. to VDA 230of the brazing seam was determined. The fractured surface 214, on brazed AISI 304/BNi-2 joints was made possible. of a specimen, cyclically tested in synthetic condensate Here, a significant reduction of fatigue strength at 2∙106 K2.2 with a maximum stress of 195 MPa, was analysed cycles was quantified with values down to 22%, relating to using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and shows 5 the as received condition. Consequently, the corrosion fatigue crack initiation zones, where corrosive attack occurred behaviour is relevant for the design of brazed components, preferably during the test duration of 18 hours (Fig. 10a). whereby the influence of test frequency and test duration has A longitudinal polished section at the position marked in to be taken into consideration. The novel test strategy, based Fig. 10a was examined. The local corrosive attack is visible on a stepwise load increase with local strain measurements, exclusively in one of both areas of the diffusion zones of using a newly developed extensometer, as well as electrical, the base material, where the fatigue crack propagated magnetic, and electrochemical measurements, have proven (Fig. 10b). It can be assumed, that the corrosive attack to be appropriate for a precise corrosion fatigue assessment proceeded, with ongoing cyclic loading, preferentially at of brazed joints and will be applied to additional material the fatigue crack tip and opening and is therefore only classes and joints. Further investigations will include anodic located in the area of one diffusion zone. In the centre of polarizations of specimens tested in situ in the condensate the fractured surface, the crack is positioned centrally in K2.2, to increase the corrosion rate and therefore efficiently the brazing seam. Thus, different corrosion mechanism simulate the realistic damage mechanisms of the long-time and processes were shown for superimposed and and cost intensive pre-corrosion. For an implementation successive corrosion fatigue loading of brazed AISI 304/ of the results, the material behaviour of brazed joints has to be assessed beyond the current limiting 2∙106 cycles BNi-2 joints. and the transferability to thin walled components, such as brazed structures of exhaust gas heat exchangers, has to be evaluated. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank the German Research Foundation (DFG) for funding this research project WA 1672/13 and TI 343/96. REFERENCE LIST

Figure 9 Fracture surface of a 6 week pre-corroded specimen: a) top view and b) longitudinal polished section with base material (BM), brazing seam (BS) and diffusion zone (DZ) (SEM) [1].

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(1) Schmiedt, A. et al.: Corrosion fatigue assessment of brazed AISI 304/BNI-2 joints in synthetic exhaust gas condensate, Fatigue 2017, Proc.


ENGINEERING INTEGRITY, VOLUME 43, SEPTEMBER 2017, pp.17-23.

of the 7th International Conference on Durability and Fatigue, Cambridge, UK. Engineering Integrity Society, P. Bailey, F. Berto, E.R. Cawte, P. Roberts, M.T. Whittaker, J.R. Yates (Eds.), ISBN 978-0-9544368-34, 2017, pp. 201-210. Cole, N. C.: Corrosion resistance of brazed joints, Welding Research Council Bulletin, Vol. 247, 1979, pp. 1-41. VDA Test Sheet 230-214: Resistance of metallic materials to condensate corrosion in exhaust gascarrying components, Verband der Automobilindustrie, 2010. Holländer, U. et al.: Determination of failure criteria of mechanically and corrosively loaded brazed joints of sheets made of stainless chromium-nickel steel, Welding and Cutting, Vol. 5, 2015, pp. 280-288. Bobzin, K. et al.: Systematic investigation of the properties of brazed joints with application-relevant testing procedures II, "Systematische Untersuchung der Eigenschaften gelöteter Füge-verbunde mit anwendungsrelevanten Prüfverfahren II", Abschlussbericht, IGF 16.558N, 2012. Smaga, M. et al.: Deformation-induced martensitic transformation in metastable austenitic steels, Mat. Sci. Eng. A 483-484, 2008, pp. 394-397.

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7) Tillmann, W. et al.: Examination of the influencing factors on the microstructure of AISI 304/ BNi-2 joints, Loet 2016, Proc. of the 11th Int. Conf. on Brazing, High Temperature Brazing and Diffusion Bonding, Aachen, DVS report, Vol. 325, 2016, pp. 233-238. (8) Walther, F.: Microstructure-oriented fatigue assessment of construction materials and joints using short-time load increase procedure, MP Materials Testing, Vol. 56, 2014, pp. 519-527. (9) Tillmann, W. et al.: Fatigue behaviour of brazed AISI 304 joints using Au-fillers, Proc. of the 10th Int. Conf. on Brazing, High Temperature Brazing and Diffusion Bonding, Aachen. DVS report, Vol. 293, 2013, pp. 232-236. (10) Wittke, P. et al.: Corrosion fatigue assessment of creep-resistant magnesium alloy Mg-4Al-2Ba-2Ca in aqueous sodium chloride solution, Int. J. of Fatigue, Vol. 83, 2016, pp. 59-65. (11) Sarkar, A. et al.: Effect of mean stress and solution annealing temperature on ratcheting behaviour of AISI 304 stainless steel, Procedia Engineering, Vol. 74, 2014, pp. 376-383. (12) Koster, M. et al.: Fatigue and cyclic deformation behavior of brazed steel joints, Mat. Sci. Eng. A 581, 2013, pp. 90-97.

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Fatigue 2017 Conference Report

Following a 10 year break the society was pleased to run the 6th International conference on Fatigue in Cambridge at the beginning of July. HBM Prenscia was the leading sponsor with additional sponsorship from ADwin, Dassault Systèmes Simulia, GOM UK, Instron, Matelect, Phoenix Materials Testing, Severn Thermal Solutions, Siemens and Zwick. With presenters and delegates attending from 15 countries there were 100 attendees from both academic and industrial disciplines. The conference was held over three days at Downing College which provided a splendid setting and guests were able to appreciate the fine architecture and beautiful gardens.

President of the Society, Roderick Smith, opens the conference

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The technical presentations took place over 3 days with fifteen sessions, five pairs of which were in parallel, allowing delegates the opportunity to attend a wide range of topics. Three keynote presentations provided industrial context for high performance aerospace applications by Steve Williams of Rolls Royce plc, the current state of the art in modelling small fatigue cracks by Dr Mike Sangid of Purdue University, and in corrosion fatigue by Professor Robert Akid from the University of Manchester. The conference had several strong technical themes across the 57 papers presented. A popular subject was the complex

Keynote Speaker Steve Williams of Rolls-Royce

Delegates meet with exhibitors in the Grace Howard Room


Howard Theatre, Downing College, Cambridge

Some of the entrants for the Peter Watson Prize

interplay between modern manufacturing processes The winner of the Peter Watson Prize was announced at such as additive manufacturing and flow forming and the the conference dinner and we congratulate Ms Eimear resulting durability of components. Another theme was O’Hara from NUI Galway who is currently studying the the severe operating conditions high temperature performance of experienced by today’s machines new materials for power plants. and this included multiaxial loading The judges felt that a wide range of and high temperature operations. investigative techniques had been The traditional topic of fatigue employed effectively and that the at welds and notches was well work was clearly presented with represented, with some recent good interpretation of results and developments in the assessment research outcomes. The panel of structures containing these also awarded the position of highly features. The characterisation and commended to Ms Anke Schmiedt assessment of long fatigue cracks, from TU Dortmund, for her work on with their attendant questions of corrosion fatigue of brazed joints. closure and performance under variable amplitude loading was We were very grateful to Professor Winner of the Peter Watson Prize, another subject of considerable Lord Robert Mair for his afterEimear O'Hara from NUI Galway with interest. dinner speech which included Chairman John Yates a fascinating look at the world The conference also incorporated of structural engineering and the Peter Watson Prize for the best young presenter. tunnelling. We were delighted to receive 15 applications which represented a fifth of the conference. The standard It was a relief to everyone involved in organising the was extremely high and there was much deliberation by conference that the feedback from delegates, presenters the judges due to the many well-presented and varied and exhibitors was overwhelmingly positive and the Society presentations. looks forward to running the conference again in 2020.

Pre-dinner drinks in the Fellow’s Garden

Anke Schmiedt from TU Dortmund who was Highly Commended in the Peter Watson Prize

Conference Dinner

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The Next Evolution of the Hydraulic Servo-Valve? Hydraulics has been the dominant power source for test rigs since Bill Moog invented the electro-hydraulic servo-valve in the 1950's. The response he achieved with his innovative valves massively expanded the capability of hydraulic actuators and set the bedrock for test systems, for the generations to follow. The technologies of hydraulic actuation flourished to achieve even smoother and faster performance, with linear and hydrostatic bearing actuators. Sensor technology of Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs) and later magnetostrictive provided position control, while the widespread use of load cells provided accurate measurement and control of force. I had the pleasure to meet Bill Moog in the 1980's and I don't think he would appreciate the way technology has now moved. In his servo-valves he exploited the fast response of small electric motors to move small spools, these in turn throttle flow to control hydraulic power. But electric motors are now so powerful they don't need this hydraulic power stage, they can simply do the end work far more efficiently by themselves. In essence, if electrical signals from sensors pass to a digital controller, which computes the demand for the electric drive, which then controls the power to electric actuators - why would you need to introduce hydraulics? It used to be the case of “where could we use electric actuation?” It had limited applications in low speed tensile screw thread test rigs, vibrophores and low load applications. Now it is more the case of “where can't we use electric and elaborate on what has been achieved hydraulically?”. There is a fast growing and rapidly improving array of electric actuation products flooding on to the market. Direct drive linear electric actuators achieve up to 20 m/sec, with full acceleration in fractions of a millisecond; roller screw actuators work up past 1 MN; ball screw provide clean

smooth control in tensile and fatigue applications. The improvements in performance and control of electric motors, both linear and rotary are redefining the engineers playing field. Servo-hydraulic power certainly comes at a cost - it is very energy inefficient. When cycling under no load an actuator throttles the full hydraulic pressure across the servo-valve. This generates heat which is carried in the oil to a cooler, blasting away as the system provides no useful work. As the test load increases this system does improve in efficiency but, to generate the necessary flow and pressure drop across the valve, a huge energy loss is inherent. In the generations of gas guzzling cars this scenario has been acceptable but there is little that has, and can be done, for this wastefulness.

Electric drive systems are the exact opposite and the analogy with cars goes much deeper. If you sit behind the wheel of any electric car the first thing you will notice is the quiet, then the immediate acceleration on demand. These benefits transfer over to the electric control of test rig actuators. Here there is no power unit ticking over in the background, the power is simply ready, as and when needed. The electric power expended is primarily that absorbed by the test specimen, little is wasted. Electric drives can even, when decelerating, put any braking energy back into the mains supply, much like Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems (KERS) on many transport vehicles. The biggest drawback of electric cars - the battery pack, isn't needed in the lab as you can plug directly into the wall. Couple this with a much cooler, cleaner test environment and you can understand why electric actuation is rapidly gaining impetus. So why has the testing industry been slow to pick up on these electric benefits? This is partly due to hydraulics being so entrenched, but also in coming to grips with the

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the array of new technology; the many types of actuators (ball screw, planetary, direct drive linear); absolute and incremental encoders; the use of digital protocols like ProfiNET and EtherCAT and the way electric systems are configured, used, controlled, monitored and interconnected. But engineers should certainly not be complacent, the life of most test rigs is thirty years plus so, to prevent having a laboratory of rapidly dating equipment, there is good cause to act now. For an electrically actuated solution engineers need to be sure the test system will cover their immediate requirements, before starting to make use of the many advantages. Many electric control systems have been designed to repeatability move parts from A to B in a manufacturing plant, the demands of test rig and its controller are very different. It is also easy to come unstuck by not appreciating the new technical specifications of electric products. Actuators have historically been defined in terms of static load rating with the dynamic being slightly lower, but for many electric actuators the static

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capability is lower than the dynamic. In electric systems it is more important to assess the energy needed or absorbed by the test part. In some cases resonances can be used to generate loads well past the actuators dynamic capacity (as with vibrophores). Yet the pros for using hydraulics must also be remembered; they have a higher power to volume ratio and the smooth guidance can be achieved with an oil film. Companies and people with the experience to exploit the new and growing electric potential (pun intended) are few and far between. Bill Moog's legacy established a testing industry that has improved the strength, safety and durability of all vehicles and countless other products. With modern advances in electric technology, we can yet again raise the bar, for the next generation of test engineers. Conway Young Engineering Director, Tiab Limited


Industry News Welcome to the Industry News section of the journal. Thank you to everyone for their submissions. The nominal limit for entry is 200 words, which should be sent to eis@amberinstruments.com or posted to EIS, c/o Amber Instruments Ltd, Dunston House, Dunston Road, Chesterfield, S41 9QD. We would appreciate you not sending entries by fax. BAE Systems engineers develop Bluetooth-enabled sensors to detect health of military bridging systems Engineers at BAE Systems in Telford, Shropshire are testing an integrated Bluetooth and sensing technology which reports the remaining servicelife of military bridging systems. The new ‘fatigue monitoring’ technology continuously detects the stress and strain on bridges designed to be used by tanks such as the more than 60 tonne Challenger® 2. The sensors then wirelessly transmit data to a handheld device, allowing soldiers to easily assess the health of the bridge. Without the use of an automated fatigue monitoring system, the remaining service life of rapidly deployable military bridges is based on manual records and is difficult to judge, resulting in bridges being retired early or overused. The new technology uses a series of sensors fitted to the bridge components which undergo the most strain and records around a hundred strain readings per second to monitor. A computer-analysis then gives a component-by-component overview of bridge health. BAE Systems’ use of fatigue monitoring technology gives military engineers the peace of mind that their bridges remain healthy, even on extended military campaigns where bridges can remain in place for many months. The system is being tested by BAE Systems’ 50-strong specialist military bridging team based in Telford, UK, who operate Europe’s most advanced Bridge Test Facility. The Facility simulates thousands of bridge crossings by a variety of wheeled

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and tracked vehicles, allowing BAE Systems to assess bridge performance using comprehensive data records on how the various components perform.

The UK Power Network’s Flexible Urban Networks – Low Voltage (FUN-LV) project Supported by Ricardo, the project has been awarded the Business Green, Green IT Project of the Year, recognizing its potential to “significantly improve the resilience and performance of urban grids in a cost-effective way.” The FUN-LV project uses power electronics to release spare capacity in the electricity distribution network. Smart electronic devices are fitted in the network to detect when the facility is running close to capacity. The power flow is then automatically redirected and shared with neighbouring substations that are more lightly-loaded. FUN-LV received funding under Tier 2 of Ofgem’s Low Carbon Networks Fund for Electricity Distribution Networks. This is the third time that the project has been recognized for energy sector innovation, having previously been awarded the European Utility Week Industry Innovation Award in 2015, and the Institute of Engineering Technology (IET) Power Innovation Award the following year. The award comes after a successful trial where 36 locations in London and Brighton were fitted with electric sensors. Ricardo played a key role in the development and delivery of the trial. This involved supporting the development of a control algorithm for the power electronics, identifying field trial sites and specifying business and user requirements for IT tools and technology. Ricardo’s energy specialists also supported the development of an LV load-flow modelling tool and realtime monitoring and control system. The team analysed trial data to identify, quantify and demonstrate the benefits of the technology, disseminating the results through a variety of internal

stakeholder workshops, papers and conferences.

academic

Institute of Railway Research receives £30m to create the ‘Rolling Stock Innovation Centre’ THE Institute of Railway Research (IRR) at the University of Huddersfield is to play a key role in a £92 million network aimed at establishing the UK as a world leader in rail technology. Experts at the IRR, working with other universities and major manufacturers, will develop rolling stock that lasts longer, is more energy efficient and is less costly to maintain, leading to major environmental and economic gains. The Institute already has state-of-theart facilities, including a £4.5 million test rig that is unique in Europe. But now it will expand further, enabling larger and more diverse railway vehicle system components to be delivered to the IRR for research and testing. New facilities will include an extended range of fullscale advanced test rigs to accelerate the adoption of new technology for the next generation of rolling stock. The funding comes via the newlyannounced UK Railway Research and Innovation Network (UKRRIN), in which University of Huddersfield is a partner. Following a bid led by the University of Birmingham, UKRRIN has been awarded £28.1 million from the UK Research Partnership Investment Fund and this is boosted by £64 million of support from 17 industrial partners including Alstom, Siemens and Bombardier Transportation. UKRRIN will consist of three linked world-class centres of excellence, which share the total £92 million funding. One is the IRR at Huddersfield, which will be the home of a new Rolling Stock Innovation Centre. With contributions from specialists at the University of Newcastle and from Loughborough University, it will focus on high value rolling stock systems, whole life asset optimisation and


through-life management, and energy management.

HORIBA MIRA Announces £2m Creation of Advanced Battery Development Suite HORIBA MIRA – a world-leader in advanced engineering, research and product testing – is enhancing its test and engineering capabilities with a dedicated Advanced Battery Development Suite. The Development Suite, which represents £2m of investment by the HORIBA Group into HORIBA MIRA’s engineering capabilities, will provide test and development services for battery packs and other components for hybrid and electric vehicles. The facility will enable HORIBA MIRA to complete battery pack testing, simulated battery pack testing, integration testing and development of powertrain and battery packs at system level including EMC characterisation. The 2000 sq. ft. test centre, which started construction in July, is a dedicated facility for the testing and development of high voltage battery systems. The facility is capable of high resolution cell characterisation as well as testing battery modules and packs through representative charge and discharge cycles at a wide range of temperatures to provide full representative testing profiles. The Development Suite provides unique levels of testing capability for the UK, with the ability to test battery packs at up to 600kW, 1200A and 1000V. The facility is set for completion by the end of 2017, and will continue the growth of HORIBA MIRA’s capability in sustainable technologies. This latest investment follows on the heels of a £0.5m investment earlier this year on a range of High Voltage EMC testing products to support the latest developments in plug-in vehicle

technology. The Advanced Battery Development Suite also complements an existing battery validation test facility, which is located at HORIBA MIRA’s Quatro Park facility, based near Basildon in Essex.

Neutrons Point the Way to Optimised Crash-Tolerant Automotive A recent collaboration between the ILL, WMG at the University of Warwick, Tata Steel, and the Engineering and Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC) conducted a study to investigate the correlation between boron steel hardness and residual stress. Tata Steel provided the boron steel sheets for the experiments, which were carried out by WMG researchers on the ILL’s SALSA (Stress Analyser for Large-Scale Applications) beamline. Neutron diffraction was chosen as the method for measuring residual stress in this study due its ability to penetrate heavy materials such as boron steel, and the finer resolution it provides. Hardness distributions were measured on the same welds. This study experimentally determined for the first time a strong correlation between reduced hardness in heataffected zones of boron steel spot welds and increased residual stress. The findings have indicated the need to develop new welding methods that do not have the same damaging impact as spot welding, especially because there is nothing that can be done to avoid the reaction of reduced hardness when spot welding is used on boron steel. This study has evidenced the need for alternative welding methods that can lengthen the lifetime of the widelyused boron steel to its full potential. With several thousand welds being made on a single car, future work on non-destructive welding techniques and post-spot welding treatments will enable the boron steel components of cars to maintain their hardness and avoid residual stress. Importantly, this will ultimately provide top-tier

passenger safety in stronger yet lighter vehicles. Effect of Weld Schedule on the Residual Stress Distribution of Boron Steel Spot Welds, Raath et al., Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 48: 2900, 2017, DOI: 10.1007/s11661-017-4079-9 https://link.springer.com/ article/10.1007/s11661-017-4079-9

Millbrook Group expands testing capacity with the acquisition of the CSA Leyland Technical Centre Millbrook, a leading provider of vehicle testing and validation services to customers in the automotive, transport, tyre, petrochemical, defence and security industries, is pleased to announce that on 1st July it acquired a new site in the UK. The CSA Leyland Technical Centre provides test services to the commercial vehicle, automotive and off-highway sectors and is the latest addition to Millbrook’s testing locations in the UK and Northern Finland. This is an important step in Millbrook’s strategy to expand its capacity and capabilities in powertrain, safety and vehicle testing to better serve the industries in which it operates. Paul Wilkinson will continue to lead the site, backed by the wider Millbrook management team. Millbrook will make initial investments to enhance the test services offered at the site. All of the employees on the site are now employed by Millbrook and will benefit from increasing job security as a result of the tie-up with Millbrook. “We are very excited to become part of Millbrook as the next chapter for our business,” says Paul Wilkinson, Managing Director Leyland. “Our Lancashire site is steeped in commercial vehicle testing heritage and we are proud to be joining a company that understands our business and the needs of our customers so well.”

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Industry News BAE Systems Awarded £457,000 to launch UK's First Maritime Autonomous Systems Testing Service The Solent Local Enterprise Partnership (LEP) has awarded BAE Systems a grant of £457,000 to design and deliver the UK’s first dedicated autonomous systems testing service. Based around Portsmouth, Southampton and the South East of the Isle of Wight, BAE Systems together with ASV Global (ASV), Blue Bear Systems Research (Blue Bear), Marine Electronic Systems (MES), SeeByte and the University of Southampton, will work together to provide the service’s infrastructure, with other organisations set to join later this year. Together the Solent LEP and partner organisations are investing £1.5 million in this project, the first of its kind in the UK. The new service will be ready for use later this year and customers will be able to conduct trials and test systems such as unmanned boats, air vehicles and autonomous sensors in a safe, controlled and realistic environment in the Solent. Backed by a comprehensive safety case, the service will make use of a secure maritime communications network and a mobile command and control centre, featuring the same technology BAE Systems provides to UK Royal Navy platforms. In October 2016, BAE Systems and the test service partners successfully showcased their autonomous maritime capabilities in the Royal Navy’s ‘Unmanned Warrior’ exercise – the world’s first large scale demonstration of innovative maritime robotic systems. BAE Systems’ bespoke ACER (Autonomous Control Exploitation and Realisation) system provided a seamless flow of information from sensors on the unmanned boats to crews on the hosting warships. One of the unmanned boats used in the Unmanned Warrior exercise was BAE Systems’ Pacific Class 950 Unmanned Rigid Inflatable Boat which is capable

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of travelling autonomously at up to 47kts for up to 12 hours at a time. The autonomous technology on the Pacific Class 950 can be retro-fitted to existing boats.

British Standard for Diversity and Inclusion Launched BSI, the business standards company, has launched a new standard for employers to provide guidance for good practice on valuing their employees through diversity and inclusion. The standard, BS 76005 Valuing people through diversity and inclusion – code of practice for organizations, provides recommendations for undertaking, reviewing, assessing and undertaking a competent and principled approach to diversity and inclusion in the workplace. The recommendations cover people management and development, and the evolution of more inclusive policies, procedures, practices and behaviours within organizations supporting diversity. The building of productive relationships with others – be they customers, clients or people within communities – is also a key recommendation in the standard. BS 76005 is relevant to all organizations, whatever their size, sector and level of maturity. The standard recognizes that each organization is different and that decision-makers are best placed to determine the most appropriate approach according to their organization’s context. In the standard, “valuing people” is not confined to the calculation of directly quantifiable monetary value; the term is used in recognition that “value”, defined as the inherent and unique merit and worth of people, connotes the actual – or potential – contribution that people at all levels in the organization make as a result of their capabilities, knowledge, skills, networks, experience, attitudes and insights.

The phrase “working on behalf of an organization” is deliberately used to acknowledge those who might be working on behalf of organizations through agencies, sub-contractors and self-employment arrangements.

SNC-Lavalin Graduate Engineers Triumph again at Railway Challenge A team of nine graduate engineers from SNC-Lavalin Rail & Transit, Derby, has retained the award of Overall Winner at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers’ Railway Challenge 2017 at the Stapleford Miniature Railway near Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire. The competition, which took place on 30 June-2 July, saw 11 teams compete against each other to design and manufacture the best, most innovative, efficient and quietest small-scale locomotive. The SNC-Lavalin Rail & Transit team previously won the competition in 2012 and 2016. The competition comprises of a series of track based and presentation challenges, including a design report and an ‘Innovation Challenge’ which involves the production of an academic paper on the innovations in the loco. The track based challenges include: Energy Storage, Traction, Ride Comfort, Noise, Maintainability and Energy Efficiency. The locomotives are designed to work on 10¼” gauge railway line and must be powerful enough to transport a 600kg load – including one of the Railway Challenge judges. The Railway Challenge is sponsored by RSSB, the Railway Industry Association and Wabtec Faiveley UK.

Autocar names autonomous driving engineer as winner of Great British Women in the Car Industry - Rising Stars accolade Autonomous car engineer Amy Rimmer


has been named as the overall winner of the Autocar Great British Women in the Car Industry - Rising Stars accolade. Rimmer, who works for Jaguar Land Rover, stood out from hundreds of nominations because of her focused ambition to become a leading expert on autonomous vehicles. To date, she has played an instrumental role in developing Jaguar Land Rover’s autonomous vehicle technology, and taken the lead in demonstrating autonomous cars to the UK Government for the firm. Drawing on a strong academic background, Rimmer studied at Cambridge, gaining a master’s degree in mechanical engineering before going on to complete a PhD in vehicle dynamics. Rimmer’s automotive career began with internships with the McLaren F1 team and Volvo trucks, before she eventually headed to Jaguar Land Rover in 2015. Today her job title is Research Engineer – Autonomous Vehicle Control. Rimmer topped a list of 100 rising stars from diverse backgrounds within the car industry, reflecting the wide scope of opportunity for careers within it. Categories included vehicle development, executives, manufacturing, retail, marketing, communications, design and apprenticeships and interns.

Competitors challenged to build unmanned humanitarian supply vehicle

Northrop Grumman presented the Grand Champions award to Team Bath Drones from Bath University. They also earned the category awards for design and innovation. Students from 17 universities including Southampton, Sheffield, Bath, Nottingham, Swansea and Loughborough as well as Karachi and Istanbul, competed in the fly-off to determine the winner of this year’s competition. This is the third consecutive year that Northrop Grumman has sponsored the UAS Challenge as part of its global initiative to encourage innovative thinking in engineering and technology among today's youth. The competition is designed to bridge the gap between academia and industry in developing applied UAS-related activities, giving students an opportunity to strengthen links with industry, as well as enhance employment opportunities. The competition required the teams to design and build a UAS and demonstrate its operation in a humanitarian supply mission scenario. The aircraft had to operate autonomously, perform a series of tasks such as area search, navigating waypoints, accurately dropping a payload and returning to base via a defined route. In the live fly-off final, the teams of young engineers were challenged to transport an aid package as rapidly and accurately as possible. Additionally, the teams were tested to explain the commercial viability of their solutions with a ‘dragons den’ style pitch to competition judges.

wheel of BLOODHOUND SSC as it is put through its paces this autumn. Runway trials will mark the culmination of a month of tests to prove the car’s steering, brakes, suspension, data systems, and so on, as well as the EJ200 jet engine, sourced from a Eurofighter Typhoon. Thousands of visitors are expected to come and see history being made as BLOODHOUND SSC is driven at speeds of up to 200mph on the 1.7mile (2.7km) long runway. Before it moves under its own power, BLOODHOUND SSC will first undergo several days of static ‘tie-down’ tests. The jet engine will be run up, with the Car chained to the ground, so that the performance of car’s bespoke air intake, fuel and electrical systems can be checked. All being well, dynamic testing will then follow on. Of primary interest is the lowspeed capability of the jet engine intake, positioned above the cockpit. Designed to work best at speeds over 800mph, the Project’s engineers need to understand how it performs at very low speeds. The Newquay Trials will also be Andy Green’s first opportunity to drive the Car and experience the steering feel, throttle and brake action, noise and vibration – things that can’t be simulated. Please visit https://bloodhoundssc. yourticketbooking.com for more information and to purchase tickets.

BLOODHOUND is Go LONDON – June 22, 2017 – Northrop Grumman Corporation (NYSE: NOC) presented the award for the winner of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers’ annual Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Challenge which took place at the Snowdonia Aerospace Centre, Llanbedr, northwest Wales.

The world’s most advanced straight-line racing car, BLOODHOUND SSC, will be driven for the first time, at Cornwall Airport Newquay, this October, twenty years after the current record of 763.035 mph was set. Wing Commander Andy Green steered Thrust SSC to victory on 15th October 1997 and will be at the

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Product News X-ray Technology - Boosting Efficiency and Cutting the Costs of Catalytic Converters

Plastic Bearings Make the Grade Specialist bearings provider launches plastic bearings range

The catalytic converters on cars, lorries and diesels massively reduce pollution - but they are extremely costly due to the expensive metals they use platinum, palladium and rhodium.

Miniature and specialist bearings and relubrication provider, SMB Bearings, has launched a range of plastic bearings that provide non-magnetic, chemical resistant options to a variety of industries and manufacturers. The bearings provide a cost-effective solution to a range of niche markets, where traditional bearings would not be appropriate.

3DX-RAY's MDXi x-ray system can substantially reduce manufacturing costs - at the same time as boosting the efficiency of a catalytic converter. This can help to meet the increasingly stringent environmental emission standards being introduced worldwide. A catalytic converter is basically a honeycombed cylindrical chamber with a series of precious metal washcoats that react with the exhaust. Washcoats need to be very thin (to reduce costs) and very even (to boost efficiency). 3DX-RAY has developed a powerful and precise x-ray analysis technology to check the quality of these washcoats actually inside their metal casing. Their MDXi system allows users to see internal features and defects nondestructively, this can be fed back, in real-time, to control the manufacturing process and eliminate problems before they arise. The system reduces wastage, minimises scrap and optimises the application of expensive catalysts. Advanced image capture and processing software allows users to see and measure sub-millimetre details inside the converter. Where required it can be tailored to meet bespoke application requirements and it offers optional robot compatibility and PLC control. The 3DX-RAY MDXi x-ray system can measure both substrate coatings and multiple washcoats, allowing manufacturers to identify artefacts and defects (distributions, overlaps and voids). Best still, this is done in real time, providing 100% inspection at full production line speed.

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Bearings are available in a variety of materials, the most common being chrome steel and stainless steel. However, these materials are not always appropriate for applications across industries like the food and beverage or pharmaceutical sectors. For instance, bearings used across the food and beverage industry need to be able to handle regular wash-downs and steam cleaning as well as potentially corrosive fluids and materials, yet they must also meet the industry’s hygiene standards. The range of plastic bearings offered by SMB Bearings is ideal for lower precision applications, such as conveyor rollers and trolleys. They can also be supplied with flanges for easier location in a housing. The SMB Bearings plastic bearing range is available in a range of popular metric and imperial sizes, starting at 3mm. To discuss your bearing application requirements, contact the SMB Bearings sales team on +44 (0)1993 842555 or email sales@ smbbearings.com.

Future of Engineering Harmonic Drive UK is exhibiting at the 2017 Engineering Design Show High precision gearing specialist Harmonic Drive UK will be exhibiting at the Engineering Design Show at Coventry’s Ricoh Arena from October

18–19, 2017. Harmonic Drive will be showcasing its range of servo actuators and gears created for applications in the aerospace, military, medical and automotive industry from stand G50 in the Jaguar exhibition hall. The two-day event includes workshops and keynote speakers discussing the future of engineering design. Visitors will have the chance to talk with industry experts from Harmonic Drive about the latest developments in precision gearing and the benefits they offer to design engineers. One such gearing development is that of Harmonic Drive’s CanisDrive range of drives. The range marks the first use of the company’s CobaltLine precision gears in a servo actuator, which provides higher durability, lifetime precision and a 30 per cent higher maximum torque with zero backlash. The CanisDrive range is also characterised by its lightweight design. This is ideal for design engineers working sectors, such as medical, where creating more accurate and reliable devices with compact footprints is a necessity.

The Next Phase of Six-Axis Robots TM Robotics launches TVM six-axis robot range TM Robotics, Toshiba Machine’s European, Asian and US partner, has launched Toshiba Machine’s latest range of six-axis robots in Europe and the US. Toshiba Machine’s sixaxis TVM range will be used in a variety of industrial applications, including manufacturing for automotive components, plastics, medical, packaging and the pharmaceutical sector. The vertically articulated robot series is available in three models, each with varying reach and payload specifications. Compared to previous ranges, the improved TVM six-axis robot series also provides a longer arm


length in each of its three models. The smallest model, the TVM1500, provides a maximum reach of 1715mm, the TVM1200 can reach up to 1418mm and the largest model, the TVM900, provides a maximum reach of up to 1124mm. In addition to three distinctive arm lengths, the operating range of each model can be expanded by mounting the robot on an optional linear actuator. Even though the robot body has been reduced in weight, the six-axis TVM range can still manage impressive payloads of up to 20kg, with the TVM900 model. The smaller models, the TVM1200 and TVM1500 can each manage 15kg and 10kg respectively. Toshiba Machine’s TVM robots are available to view on the TM Robotics website.

High-Tech Sensing Illuminates Concrete Stress Testing Using the principles of light, University of Leeds scientists have discovered a new way to measure the strength of modern forms of concrete – giving industry a better way to understand when it could fracture. Their approach was based on applying a complex light-refracting coating, designed to display stress positions, to the surface of concrete beam samples. The epoxy coating is ‘birefringent’ – it has the ability to split light waves in different directions in relation to the amount of stress acting in those directions, and reflecting back to a photonic camera. The camera then takes a picture showing where the stress levels are most extreme before cracks or fractures occur. While the coating itself is not new, this research project was the first time it had been used to measure shear stress and assess concrete toughness against fractures.

The results using the new method compared favourably with conventional methods of stress testing, which have relied on combined experimental and numerical or analytical approaches. The rise of composite concretes now used extensively in the construction industry prompted the team to look for new ways to study the material’s strength. Concrete has traditionally been made with cement, gravel and sand but has changed significantly in recent decades. It can now include numerous waste products including plastic pellets, in order to reduce the levels of natural materials used and to recycle waste products. Finding a new way to show industry the precise toughness of these new forms of composite concrete meant there could be more reliance on their use as a building material. The research was funded by the Qatar National Research Fund, and is published in Scientific Reports.

Significant Performance Improvements Released in nCode Version 13.1 HBM Prenscia have released version 13.1 of nCode DesignLife, GlyphWorks, and VibeSys, offering improvements in its suite of powerful software for FE-based fatigue analysis, signal processing, vibration analysis, and durability.

nCode DesignLife 13.1 introduces a new ”glyph” for reconstructing load histories without the use of Python. Noise and Vibration engineers benefit from greater flexibility for experimentally determining natural frequencies and mode shapes using nCode VibeSys 13.1. nCode GlyphWorks 13.1 provides users with new display capabilities and higher quality exports of PDF reports, allowing engineers to produce more meaningful displays in order to better understand behaviors, trends, or correlations between data. The Premium Materials Database contains new material entries populated from testing performed by our Advanced Materials Characterization & Test Facility (AMCT). “We now have 126 material entries available through the Premium Materials Database – that’s 54 new materials added since its introduction in 2014,” said Jon Aldred, Vice President of Product Management at HBM Prenscia. “We have also continued to add materials to the standard database with the addition of BS7608 (2014) steel and BS8118 aluminum weld curves.” The new capabilities in nCode 13.1 will be discussed in a series of free webinars starting with “Functionality and Performance Improvements in nCode 13.1” on August 23, 2017. For More Information - For questions, please contact Kim Woodham, Brand Manager for HBM Prenscia. E-mail: kim.woodham@hbmprenscia.com.

“This latest release introduces an impressive gain in performance and new capabilities for signal processing and reconstructing load histories,” said Paul Roberts, nCode Product Manager at HBM Prenscia. “The updates in nCode 13.1 will allow nCode users to run what-if scenarios and sensitivity analysis in a shorter amount of time, and perform more robust, accurate simulation.”

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News from the Women’s Engineering Society This is my first column writing in EIS Engineering Integrity and so I’d like to introduce myself as Chief Executive of WES (The Women’s E n g i n e e r i n g Society). My background includes working in the chemical industry, teaching and latterly working in STEM – opening the eyes of a wide audience, including young people, to the opportunities and excitement in careers in engineering and technology. Where else can you find the application of creativity and innovation to solving problems to the same extent? However, this is not the picture that is generally held in the wider public. Why do more people not aspire to go into engineering sectors, and especially, why is there still such an imbalance in the diversity within these sectors? The UK is bottom of the EU league in terms of diversity in engineering with women making up less than 9% of professional engineers and only 3% of engineering apprentices. It is worth reminding ourselves why diversity is so important. There are economic arguments – it is well known that companies are more likely to perform better if they are gender diverse. In addition, research shows that diversity is critical for innovation: in a global survey, 85% of corporate diversity and talent leaders agreed that “A diverse and inclusive workforce is crucial to encouraging different perspectives and ideas that drive innovation”. [www.wes.org.uk/ content/useful-statistics] Gender is the most straightforward diversity characteristic to review as all companies collect this data. Question: if you can’t see many of the 50% of the population in the workplace then who else are you missing out on? Importantly also, engineering and technology roles are a route to many opportunities

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including economic wellbeing and women are missing out on such careers. Why is this still the case when research shows that over 80% of female engineers were either happy or extremely happy with their career choice? As has been widely publicised, the engineering careers pipeline is leaky for women who leave engineering at every stage. This includes leaks throughout employment including during recruitment where there are equal ambitions but unequal take up, through career breaks, and into leadership positions. A recent report by PWC, Women Returners, highlights that approximately 60% of professional women (or around 249,000) returning to the workforce are likely to move into lower-skilled or lower-paid roles. In addition, a good proportion who return on a part-time basis will be underemployed, meaning that they would prefer to work more hours if flexible working opportunities were made more widely available. It is estimated that 60% of women find that there were barriers preventing them returning to careers in STEM after a career break. Why? Addressing these career break barriers would provide a significant boost to the UK economy and help address the skills issue in engineering whilst ensuring women do not miss out on fulfilling careers in the sector. Feedback from our membership reveals that there is still a long way to go on overcoming the challenges for women wishing to return to work – lack of confidence and flexible working are the key issues for them. Returnships offer a brilliant route back in for these women engineers if well-structured with both soft and technical skills development in the programme. Mentoring support once back in the work environment will also smooth the return path, providing valuable advice and

support. Returnships also help bridge the issue of the “CV gap”, which still has negative implications in many quarters including the recruitment area if it extends beyond 6 months. The same issues also apply to women who may wish to transfer from one engineering sector to another. Engineering skills are of course very transferrable and similar programmes can support these sorts of transitions. Increasingly our members are asking for advice in returning and transferring, and our corporate partners are recognising the importance of retaining these valuable resources. Returnships have been very successfully set up in many other fields such as banking, why not engineering? There is a lot of work to do. WES works to both attract into and retain women within the engineering sectors. We celebrate our centenary in 2019 – quite an achievement. Our aim is for 30 by 30 – for women to make up 30% of professional engineers by 2030. I hope that you will all contribute to this aim and join WES 2019 celebrations; we have a lot of exciting plans to ensure that we build on our legacy to shape the future of engineering through leading transformation. Kirsten Bodley Chief Executive, WES


News from British Standards 2017 marks a number of significant anniversaries in the standards world and particularly for BSI’s TDW/4 committee area. First and foremost 2017 is the 90th anniversary of the first publication of the UK’s former and much loved technical drawings standard, BS 308. First published in 1927, BS 308 was the world’s first standard for technical diagrams, testament to the UK’s strengths and tradition in engineering and specifically engineering design. The national drawing standard was used not only in the UK but throughout the British Commonwealth, in particular in countries such as Canada, India and Australia. Over the course of its long life, BS 308 developed into a substantial technical document used by designers and engineers across the world until its withdrawal in 2000. BS 308 paved the way for what is now a huge area of international standardization work. More on which is given below . . . As reported in the last edition of this column, BS 8888 – the UK standard which replaced BS 308 in 2000 – was revised and updated earlier this year. The national subcommittee responsible for the technical product documentation and specification standard, TDW/4/8, has been receiving positive feedback from industry and other users on BS 8888:2017. The national standard has been revamped to better reflect the process engineers follow in order to produce their drawings, whether in 2D or 3D. The subcommittee is holding a number of meetings in 2017 to discuss further improvements to the document and to start planning for the next new edition, which is likely to be published in the next two to three years. 2017 also marks the 70th anniversary of the creation of ISO, the International Organization for Standardization. The UK, represented by the British

Standards Institution, was one of the founder members of ISO in 1947 in London. BSI has continued to play a leading role in the international standards arena ever since. Some of the world’s best known international standards started life as British Standards. This includes ISO 9001, the quality management standard – and the world’s most widely used standard – which was first published by BSI in the UK as BS 5750. ISO 14001, the environmental management systems standard, was also first developed and used in the UK. It began life as BS 7750 before becoming an international standard. Other more recent areas of new international standards work put forward by the UK include information security – with BS 7799 becoming ISO 27001 – and business continuity – where BS 25999 became ISO 22301. In significant international standards news of its own, TDW/4 has celebrated a major achievement in 2017. The UK successfully bid for the secretariat of the international standards committee, ISO/TC 213, winning out over a number of bids from other national standards bodies. BSI took over the management of the international committee from Denmark on 1st March 2017 and TDW/4/8 Chair Iain Macleod became the Chairperson of ISO/TC 213. Danish Standards created the international committee in 1996 and ran the work programme until this year. ISO/TC 213 is responsible for all of the standards relating to the tolerancing, specification and verification of mechanical components. Its catalogue and work programme include the standards for geometrical tolerancing (ISO 1101), datums (ISO 5459), and size tolerances (ISO 14405) – some of the key international standards that are called up in BS 8888. On the 21st anniversary of the creation of ISO/ TC 213, the UK is now once again leading the way in engineering drawing and product specification. The first UK-led meetings of the international committee take place in Tokyo, Japan at the end of August and early September.

Other exciting news on the international standards front for the TDW/4 area relates to ISO 8887-1, the first part of the design for manufacture, assembly, disassembly and end-of-life processing (MADE) series to be taken into ISO for development as an international standard. ISO 8887-1 reached its final voting stage this summer and is now expected to move to publication in the autumn. At the annual meeting series of the international committee responsible, ISO/TC 10, the UK delegation to the meetings were heartened by the support received from other delegations for the other parts of the BS 8887 series. TDW/4/7, the national subcommittee responsible for the standards and led by Prof Brian Griffiths, will now make plans to submit subsequent parts of the series into ISO starting with BS 8887-2, the terminology standard for Design for MADE. The BS 8887 standards and BS 8888 are developed within BSI’s committee area TDW/4, Technical product realization, chaired by Phil Childs. The Technical Committee, which also appoints the UK experts to work on the international standards developed within ISO, meets 3 times a year to coordinate strategy and activity across the area. The TDW/4 committee as a whole covers technical drawings, geometrical tolerancing, product specification, verification, measurement instrumentation and design for manufacture. BSI welcomes approaches from anyone interested in taking part in its standards work. Further general information on taking part in standards committees can be found at: http:// www.bsigroup.com/en/Standards-andPublications/About-standards/Whatare-the-benefits-of-standards/ Anyone interested in getting involved in the TDW/4 committee area, please contact Sarah Kelly, Lead Programme Manager – Committee Secretary to TDW/4, at BSI on sarah.kelly@ bsigroup.com.

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Inspiring the Next Generation Scouts, Brownies, Baking and the Big Bang Swiftly after the submission of my STEM journal column in February, I attended the Big Bang Fair at the National Exhibition Centre in Birmingham as a Rolls-Royce STEM Ambassador. The Fair has become a key fixture in the STEM calendar and brings together companies from across the STEM sectors under one enormous roof. There are interactive science themed stage shows, handson workshops and demonstrations as well as national competitions such as Talent 2030. Talent 2030 is a competition aimed specifically at females which requires young women to propose solutions to the problems of the 21st century such as the emerging global water shortage or combating extreme weather events. As part of Rolls-Royce’s STEM outreach activities I spent the four days demonstrating and explaining the 3D printers we had on display to students. Not losing my voice over the course of four days was my first challenge as I enthusiastically shared with hundreds of children, parents and teachers the exciting step change technology behind 3D printing. Many of the conversations also focussed on the STEM career opportunities available to young people of all ages. I was also pleasantly surprised at the number of girls enquiring about STEM careers as we have worked hard to counter the sector’s perception that these careers are only open to boys. As an industry we are facing a skills shortage so the need to encourage everyone to consider STEM careers is part of the wider, overall talent pipeline solution. In what has traditionally been seen as a male dominated industry there are still too many stereotypes and barriers for women. By using 3D printing to demonstrate the more

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creative aspects of engineering it helps dispel some of the myths around engineering that it is a rigid science. After the energetic four days at Big Bang Fair I turned my focus to air rocket launchers and RollsRoyce’s outreach programme with Scouts and Girlguiding UK. Each year Beavers, Cubs, Rainbows and Brownies are given the opportunity to attend “Fundays” or “Magic and Mayhem” events. These events are held across the UK in June and offer a chance for the children to try new and exciting hands-on activities. Air rockets have now become a regular activity as part of Rolls-Royce’s efforts to promote the science investigator badge. Over the course of the weekend I ran a rocket launch range in Bristol with other STEM ambassadors replicating the setup at alternative venues. Using plumbing fixtures and fittings, A4 paper and of course sticky backed plastic we could entertain and teach children in a simple but effective way. Although some of the children were keen to try and push their designs to destruction, much to the amusement of many of the group leaders and their fellow Beavers or Cubs. Later in June I found myself at a more unusual STEM outreach event, “The Big Bake” a food and drink festival attended by Rolls-Royce employee and Bake Off star Andrew Smyth. Over the course of the weekend myself and colleagues were tasked with providing engaging STEM based activities for members of the public at the public show. Andrew is also a keen STEM ambassador and between us we designed a 3D print cookie cutter in the shape of an Airbus A380 which Andrew would then use at the event to bake poppy seed shortbread biscuits. The cutters would then be printed on our stand at the event along with the practical activities on offer. With the event being food and drink orientated, the science of sherbet making was

chosen as a simple way to engage members of the public. With just three simple ingredients, some cups and lollipop sticks there were lots of satisfied children, young and old. This year so far has tested my ability as a STEM ambassador to develop existing or create new STEM activities to deliver to a wider, more diverse audience. In the coming months I am aiming to develop a small handheld paper airplane launcher, currently at the working prototype stage as well as being involved in a high altitude balloon project and not forgetting the 1000mph model rocket car attempt. Towards the end of the year, the Bloodhound SSC car is also targeting a 200mph shakedown test at Newquay Aerohub, hopefully building towards a run in South Africa in 2018. I am aiming to be at the shakedown event along with Rolls-Royce and many of the other sponsors providing STEM outreach activities to members of the invited public. As ever if anyone is interested in knowing more about how they can get involved in STEM please do not hesitate to contact me or your local STEMnet contract holder. Grant Gibson EngD BEng (Hons) – Capability Acquisition Engineer, Additive Layer Manufacturing Centre of Competency, Rolls-Royce Plc. grant.gibson@rolls-royce.com 07469375700


News from the Institution of Mechanical Engineers women decide to leave the profession. There is also the need to make the sector more attractive for parents, as currently two thirds of women leave their engineering careers after taking maternity leave. Female engineers continue to face discrimination in the workplace The Institution’s latest report ‘Stay or go. The experience of female engineers in early career' has found that female engineers in the UK are still facing unacceptable behaviour and unequal treatment in the workplace. The study, based on a survey of women in the first ten years of their career in engineering, medicine and finance, found that 63% of the women in engineering surveyed experienced unacceptable behaviour or comments, which is as much as three times more than women in financial or medical professions. According to the findings, 40% of female engineers said they were not treated equally and 60% said it was easier for men to progress in their careers. The report reveals that the problem of unequal treatment is an issue even early on in training, with almost half of female engineers experiencing differential treatment at some stage before graduation either as a student or while on work experience and 75% being aware of being treated differently by the end of the first year at work. Peter Finegold, Head of Education and Skills at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and one of the Lead Authors of the report, said: “The findings of this report show that there is an urgent need for a culture change in engineering companies as well as in academia. “The UK is facing an engineering skills shortfall and we need to find ways to attract and retain women in this sector. It is unacceptable that after completing an engineering degree just under half of

“The Institution’s recommendations include that engineering employers, institutions and the academic community work together to create quality marks and sign up to charters to address all aspects of equality and diversity. Employers and education providers have a duty of care to provide an atmosphere where women are able to thrive.” Silvia Boschetto, Fellow of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and one of the contributors to the report, said: “It isn’t good enough that two thirds of female engineers working in industry feel the need to adapt their personalities and ‘toughen up’ in order to get by. “As part of our study, we heard of incidents of male colleagues saying things, such as, ‘what would you know about this, you’re a woman,’ or ‘I can’t criticise her work because she’ll just cry.’ The study also revealed numerous incidents at meetings where male colleagues would assume that a woman must have an administrative role rather than being a professional with technical expertise. “Women are often placed in an impossible position of either being accused of lacking a sense of humour or pretending they were not offended. It is time for employers and education providers to ensure this stops.” The report makes recommendations:

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RICS Inclusive Employer Quality Mark. Employers must promote a message that no employee should feel a need to ‘toughen up’ to be successful in their career. 2. The engineering community needs to identify and emulate how the most-effective companies address career ‘flashpoints’, such as return to work after maternity leave, through implementing strategies that work both for female employees and the employer. 3. Employers should consult all employees annually, and in confidence, on their views about the fairness of staff recognition, reward, professional support and work social activity – and, where necessary, implement changes to bring about improvement. 4. The academic engineering community should carry out a UKwide study to characterise the experience of being a university engineering undergraduate. All Higher Education institutions should be encouraged to participate in the Athena SWAN charter which addresses all aspects of equality and diversity. 5. Careers education should be properly resourced to reflect its vital role in contributing to a successful Industrial Strategy. A quality national careers programme in schools would both encourage more women to pursue engineering and contribute to the reduction of attrition in early career.

key

1. The engineering community should devise and promote the adoption of agreed quality benchmarks for retaining female engineers in early-to-mid career — building on existing best practice, such as the

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EIS to Sponsor the University of Wolverhampton to overcome, with the weight of the car being an area they particularly targeted. Wolf 1 weighed 292 kilograms, Wolf 2 weighed 262 kilograms and by focusing on light-weight but durable materials and using techniques such as additive manufacturing to construct components, Wolf 3 weighed just 230 kilograms. The team are confident that Wolf 4 will weigh under 200 kilograms, a significant weight reduction in a very short period of time.

The EIS is pleased to announce its support for Wolverhampton University’s Formula Student Racing Team for the academic year 2017/2018. We are delighted to be able to assist the students in their participation in the IMechE Formula Student competition and wish them the very best for a successful year. We look forward to hearing details of their activities and progress over the coming months. The racing wolves enjoy their best year in Formula Student! The University of Wolverhamton Racing Team, or UWR, have just completed their 3rd year participating in the IMechE Formula Student competition. 130 teams from 30 different countries entered into the competition, and it’s been an incredible weekend for the 20 strong team of students from the University of Wolverhampton’s Automotive Engineering and Motorsport Engineering degree programmes. Based at the University of Wolverhampton’s Telford Innovation Campus in Shifnal, the UWR team competes in four different motorsport events. As well as the Formula Student competition, they also work with professional driver Shane Kelly to race in the F3 Cup in a Dallara F308 with a Honda Mugen engine; in partnership with the Morgan Motor Company they

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run a Morgan Plus 4 Babydoll and an ARV6 in the AR Morgan Challenge; and new for 2017 in partnership with the TTC Group they run a Gould GR55 in the British Hillclimb Championship. The diversity of cars and competitions helps to train our students for a career in the automotive and motorsports industries, building from engineering fundamentals to using cutting edge technology so they’re ready for any workplace. In the 2017 Formula Student competition, UWR finished with 490 points, making the team 13th overall and the 9th placed UK University. We’re very pleased with the results, having been 70th overall in year one and 49th in year two. Our most notable achievements of the weekend include placing 7th in the fuel efficiency category and 10th in the sprints. The team were also shortlisted for three awards: the JLR Art of Performance award, the ExxonMobil Innovation award and the Effective Communications award. We even received a special award from Willem Toet, and UWR’s Formula Student deputy team leader Tom Hill was given the award for most entertaining drive. To say that the team were delighted with their success would be an understatement. For Wolf 3, as the car is affectionately known, the team had a few challenges

Other challenging areas the Formula Student team concentrated on were engine cooling, the noise of the engine and fuel economy. The focus on fuel economy paid off with a 7th place finish in this category, but the team knows that a top 10 position overall would cement UWR’s growing reputation. David Tucker, Principal Lecturer in Automotive and Motorsport Engineering and UWR Team Leader said: “The team have done a fantastic job on Wolf 3, not just this weekend, but with all the long days and longer nights during the design stages, the computer modelling and the build. Thanks to their team work and dedication, we’re continuing our way up the results table and I can’t wait to see what we come up with next year. We wouldn’t have the successes we do without our incredible sponsors, so I’d like to say a huge thank you on behalf of UWR to everyone who makes our success possible.” If you’d like to know more about UWR and the associated courses visit www.wlv.ac.uk/uwr or follow our social media pages: Twitter - twitter.com/UWRacing Facebook: - en-gb.facebook.com/UWRacing/ Instagram: - www.instagram.com/uwracing/


Corporate Members Bruel & Kjaer UK

Data Physics (UK) Ltd

Jarman Way Royston Herts SG8 5BQ

South Road Hailsham East Sussex BN27 3JJ

Tel: +44 (0)1223 389800 Fax: +44 (0)1223 389919 Email: ukinfo@bksv.com Website: www.bksv.co.uk Contact: Heather Wilkins Brüel & Kjær is a world-leading manufacturer of sound and vibration solutions for use in a wide range of applications including: environmental noise measurements, building acoustics, vibration measurements and quality control, for use in automotive, aerospace and consumer industries. We design and manufacture sound level meters, microphones, accelerometers, conditioning amplifiers, calibrators, noise and vibration analysers and software. We run a variety of training courses, from basic introductions on noise to specialised training helping customers get the most from their equipment.

Tel: +44 (0)1323 846464 Fax: +44 (0)1323 847550 Email: stephen.coe@dataphysics.com Website: www.dataphysics.com Contact: Steve Coe

Data Physics is a total solution supplier of Dynamic Test equipment for Noise, Vibration and Structural Dynamics. With a wide range of Analysers, Vibration Controllers, Electrodynamic shakers and High Energy Acoustic Noise Generators, Data Physics has a solution for virtually every form of dynamic testing requirement.

CaTs3

Datron Technology Limited

The Priory Priory Road Wolston, Warwickshire CV8 3FX

5-7 Potters Lane Kiln Farm Milton Keynes MK11 3HE Tel: +44 (0)1908 261655 Fax: +44 (0)1908 260108 Email: info@datrontechnology.co.uk Website: www.datrontechnology.co.uk Contact: John Grist

Tel: +44 (0)2476 546159 Email: anton.raath@cats3.com Website: www.cats3.com Contact: Anton Raath CaTs3  (pronounced “Cats cubed”) is a leading specialist in design, development and supply of Digital Controllers and Software for Materials, Components and Structural integrity testing. Used in many test laboratories around the world, our products are applied in simple single axis to high channel count multi-axis simulation test rigs. Working in close co-operation with the leading, global supplier Zwick Roell, we offer the perfect solution to new systems as well as controller/software modernisations to give older generation systems a new lease of life.

Datron Technology was formed in 1990 and has been supplying specialised vehicle test systems and sensors to all forms of automotive, rail and motorsport engineers. Our main area of expertise is non-contact sensors, offering accurate vehicle speed, slip-angle, pitch, roll etc. We also offer a wide range of sensors, data acquisition systems and analysis software that covers applications from motorcycles to F1 or HGV to railways. GPS has become a large part of vehicular testing and we have products that overcome GPS limitations with inertial solutions.

Despite the wealth of advanced functionality, extreme simplicity and ease of use are a key to our Control Cube servo-controller and Cubus software.

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Corporate Members HEAD acoustics UK Limited

Meggitt Sensing Systems

10 Davy Court Central Park Rugby CV23 0UZ

The Laurels Jays Close Viables Industrial Estate Basingstoke Hants RG22 4BS

Tel: +44 (0)1788 568714 Fax: +44 (0)1223 389919 Email: tony.shepperson@head-acoustics.com and rebecca. kerry@head-acoustics.com Website: www.head-acoustics.de/eng/index.htm Contact: Tony Shepperson (Managing Director) and Rebecca Kerry (Office Administrator) HEAD acoustics has developed hardware and software solutions for measuring and analysing sound events on the basis of aurally-accurate recording and playback systems, which have become today’s industry standard. In addition, HEAD acoustics researched and developed numerous internationally-approved measurement tools in other fields of noise and vibration and telecommunication technology.

Tel: +44 7950 444884 Email: david.copley@meggitt.com Website: www.endevco.com Contact: David Copley Meggitt Sensing Systems, a division of Meggitt PLC, is a leading supplier of high- performance sensing and monitoring systems for physical parameter measurements in extreme environments.

HEAD acoustics has subsidiaries in the USA, Japan, France and more recently the UK. As part of its worldwide representation, HEAD acoustics closely cooperates with numerous international sales partners.

Available from the Test & Measurement group are Meggitt’s Endevco® range of piezoelectric, piezoresistive, Isotron® and variable capacitance accelerometers, piezoresistive pressure transducers and electronic signal conditioning instruments. Products ensure critical accuracy and reliability within aerospace, automotive, defence, industrial, medical, power generation, R&D, space and test and measurement applications.

Kemo Limited

P.D.S. Hitech Ltd

Unit 1, Dene Yard Green Street Green Road Dartford Kent DA2 8DH

The Hive Beaufighter Road Weston Super Mare BS24 8EE

Tel: +44(0)1474 705168 Fax: +44(0)1474 705366 Email: technical@kemo.com Website: www.kemo.com Contact: Robert Owens Kemo manufacture a wide range of signal filters. From single channel fixed frequency through to multi-channel computer controlled filter/amplifier systems. For over 40 years we have solved small noisy signal problems for a wide range of applications.

Tel: +44 (0)1934 444222 Email: paul.sodzi@pds-hitech.co.uk Website: www.pdsprojects.co.uk Contact: Paul Sodzier P.D.S. Hitech Ltd is an advanced engineering consultancy and solution provider to the Aerospace industry. Employing state of the art tools, we work collaboratively with our clients to fulfil their task specifications. Our personable, pro-active style of working assures our clients that we are available when needed and able to work with them to the agreed specification – within the allotted timescale. Services provided include Conceptual and Detailed Design, Stress Analysis, Fatigue and Damage Tolerance Analysis and Acoustic Fatigue Analysis.

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Prosig Limited

Tiab Ltd

Link House 44A High Street Fareham Hampshire PO16 7BQ

Upton Lodge Buildings Astrop Road, Middleton Cheney Oxfordshire, OX17 2PJ

Tel: +44 (0)1329 239925 Email: james.wren@prosig.com Website: www.prosig.com Contact: James Wren Prosig are experts in the monitoring, measurement & analysis of sound & vibration. The company provides data capture and analysis systems and services for a wide range of applications. Our focus is NVH, condition monitoring and noise & vibration testing for the automotive, aerospace, manufacturing and power generation industries. The company is focused on producing reliable, high quality measurement solutions that allow clients to achieve best practice by using the latest tools available to the test engineer.

Tel: +44 (0)1295 714046 Email: tiab@tiab.co.uk Contact: Conway Young

Fax: +44 (0)1295 712334 Website: www.tiab.co.uk

Tiab are the only company worldwide to specialise exclusively in production Digital Controllers for test, research and automation applications. To be used in any system, the controllers provide unparalleled flexibility, modularity and control. They can be used in new applications or as powerful upgrades to existing systems. The benefits include: comprehensive range of test functionality provided as standard; huge range of application software; bespoke front-ends can be readily designed; reduced purchase, maintenance and development costs; plug-&-play connection to PC; high level technical support and, quite simply, a company that cares. Recent Applications: vehicle safety, component test, materials test, vibration, medical, aerospace, rail, R&D laboratories, test houses, universities, production test, gearbox dynamometers, wind-tunnels, pharmaceutical and bio-diesel production.

Techni Measure

Variohm Eurosensor Ltd

Unit 4 Buccaneer Drive Auckley Doncaster DN9 3QP

Williams Barns Tiffied Road Towcester Northants NN12 6HP

Tel: : +44 (0)3300 101490 Fax: +44 (0)3300 101491 Email: sales@techni-measure.co.uk Website: www.techni-measure.co.uk Contact: Ian Ramage

Tel: +44 (0)1327 351004 Fax: +44 (0)1327 353564 Email: sales@variohm.com Website: www.variohm.com Contact: Pat Goodridge

Techni Measure was founded over 40 years ago, and can supply a wide range of sensors for measuring various parameters. Strain gauges and bonding accessories are available, as well as strain gauge based transducers for load, pressure and displacement. Piezoelectric sensors measure vibration, dynamic force and dynamic pressure, and we have various ways of measuring displacement based on resistive, inductive or capacitive technology. Orientation, inertial, and various different wireless systems are available, as well as pressure seals and temperature sensors.

Variohm Eurosensor is a leading single source supplier of sensors and associated electronic systems and has provided this service since 1974. Our aim is to provide an efficient, cost-effective and totally flexible service to customers, irrespective of their size, business or geographical location. Our goal is to ensure the correct sensor(s) are supplied for our customers application. This can either be from our extensive range of stock products, inhouse production facility, or globally sourced from the world’s leading sensor manufacturers.

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Committee Members President: Professor Roderick A Smith, FREng. ScD Directors Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom................................................................................................................ 0121 7331837 Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant.................................................................................................... 0121 5203838 Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services............................................................................................... 01332 263534 Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant .................................................................................................... 07881 802410 Nick Richardson, Servotest .............................................................................................................................. 01784 274428 Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant....................................................................................................... 07866 815200 John Wilkinson, Engineering Consultant .......................................................................................................... 07747 006475 John Yates, Engineering Consultant ................................................................................................................ 01246 410758 Chairman John Yates, Engineering Consultant ................................................................................................................ 01246 410758 Vice Chairman Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services............................................................................................... 01332 263534 Treasurer Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant.................................................................................................... 0121 5203838 Company Secretary Nick Richardson, Servotest .............................................................................................................................. 01784 274428 EIS Secretariat Sara Atkin...........................................................................................................................................................01572 811315 Communications Sub Committee – ‘Engineering Integrity’ Journal of the EIS Honorary Editor Karen Perkins, Swansea University ................................................................................................................. 01792 513029 Managing Editor Catherine Pinder .............................................................................................................................................. 07979 270998

Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group Chairman John Wilkinson, Engineering Consultant .......................................................................................................... 07747 006475 Members Marco Ajovalasit, Brunel University................................................................................................................... 01895 267134 Joe Armstrong, Alicona ..................................................................................................................................... 01732 746670 Emiel Barten, Muller BBM ............................................................................................................................ +31 627 287 251 Alan Bennetts, Bay Systems............................................................................................................................. 01458 860393 Dave Boast, D B Engineering Solutions ........................................................................................................... 01225 743592 Mark Burnett, HORIBA MIRA ........................................................................................................................... 02476 355329 Gary Dunne, Jaguar Land Rover ..................................................................................................................... 02476 206573 David Fish, JoTech ........................................................................................................................................... 01827 830606 Peter Jackson, European Acoustical Products.................................................................................................. 01986 897082 Paul Jennings, Warwick University ................................................................................................................... 02476 523646 Richard Johnson, Bruel & Kjaer UK ................................................................................................................. 01525 408502 Chris Knowles, JCB .......................................................................................................................................... 01889 593900 Andrew McQueen, Siemens PLM Software...................................................................................................... 02476 408120 Jon Richards, Honda UK .................................................................................................................................. 01793 417238 David Robinson, Birmingham City University............................................................................................................................ Keith Vickers, Bruel & Kjaer UK ....................................................................................................................... 01223 389800 James Wren, Prosig Ltd ................................................................................................................................... 01329 239925

42


Simulation, Test & Measurement Group Chairman Dave Ensor, Engineering Consultant................................................................................................................ 07966 757625 Members Paul Armstrong, Amber Instruments.................................................................................................................. 01246 260250 Steve Coe, Data Physics (UK).......................................................................................................................... 01323 846464 Graham Hemmings, Engineering Consultant.................................................................................................... 0121 5203838 Richard Hobson, Serco Rail Technical Services............................................................................................... 01332 263534 Virrinder Kumar, HBM United Kingdom............................................................................................................ 0208 515 6000 Trevor Margereson, Engineering Consultant..................................................................................................... 07881 802410 Steve Payne, HORIBA MIRA............................................................................................................................. 02476 355526 Tim Powell, MTS Systems................................................................................................................................. 01483 446500 Anton Raath, CaTs3........................................................................................................................................... 02476 546159 Nick Richardson, Servotest............................................................................................................................... 01784 274428 Paul Roberts, HBM United Kingdom ................................................................................................................ 0785 2945988 Jarek Rosinski, Transmission Dynamics........................................................................................................... 0191 5800058 Ian Strath, Siemens PLM Software .................................................................................................................. 01276 413200 Norman Thornton, Engineering Consultant....................................................................................................... 07866 815200 Darren Williams, Millbrook Proving Ground...................................................................................................... 01525 404242 Jeremy Yarnall, Consultant Engineer................................................................................................................ 01332 875450 Conway Young, Tiab ......................................................................................................................................... 01295 714046

Durability & Fatigue Group Chairman Robert Cawte, HBM United Kingdom................................................................................................................ 0121 7331837 Secretary Peter Bailey, Instron.......................................................................................................................................... 01494 456512 Members Hayder Ahmad, Safran Electrical & Power........................................................................................................ 01296 663468 John Atkinson, Sheffield Hallam University .......................................................................................................01142 252014 Martin Bache, Swansea University ................................................................................................................... 01792 295287 Amir Chahardehi, Atkins Energy....................................................................................................................... 01454 662000 Giovanni De Morais, Dassault Systèmes Simulia..............................................................................................0114 2686444 Hassan Ghadbeigi, Sheffield University ............................................................................................................0114 2227748 Lee Gilbert, Element.......................................................................................................................................... 01926 478478 Karl Johnson, Zwick Roell Group...................................................................................................................... 0777957 8913 Angelo Maligno, IISA, University of Derby........................................................................................................ 01332 592516 Ali Mehmanparast, Cranfield University ........................................................................................................... 01234 758331 Karen Perkins, Swansea University ................................................................................................................. 01792 513029 Davood Sarchamy, British Aerospace Airbus.......................................................................................................0117 936861 Giora Shatil, Gamesa Wind UK................................................................................................................................................. Andy Stiles, Aero Engine Controls.................................................................................................................... 0121 6276600 James Trainor, 3T RPD Ltd .............................................................................................................................. 01635 580284 John Yates, Engineering Consultant................................................................................................................. 01246 410758

43


Group News Simulation, Test & Measurement Group

On an organisation front, as a new

As for the future there are a number

chairman, I have tried to adopt a

of events planned such as; Servo

different

STMG

Hydraulics Testing to Achieve Accurate,

meetings, by reducing the formal

Meaningful & Economic Results on

portion to save time (and boredom).

14th September, Visualising Strain on

This way we can introduce a technical

5th October, Rubber Seminar on 15th

It

we

topic, or ideas section, to provide

November and the Tyre Road Contact

are having a good

interest and useful sources for future

on 18th January. A very wide ranging

start

to

events.

and interesting set of topics.

the

Instrumentation

tend to veer off into deep technical

Silverstone has been

discussions anyway (we are Engineers

Into the future we are also looking to

another success, and a number of

after all), and making this a more

continue our remit of helping engineers

events and seminars are organised.

controlled section helps focus ideas

(young and old) gain experience of

STMG support for the Young Engineers

on our events. It may also provide

simulation and test best practices.

is growing and we are attempting to

more interest to any new members

For instance by using the wealth of

modernise our group structure.

wishing to attend the STMG.

experience within our group to set up

The 14th March saw us all gathered

Talking of events, we have run or

examples and demos for events and

again at Silverstone. We had a typical

supported a number of EIS events.

seminars or training. This would be

large turnout both of exhibitors and

Initially on fundamentals of data

with a view to set up a “Best Practices

delegates. A big thank you to all

collection seminar 19th April and a

Manual” or “Wiki”.

involved.

Young Engineers event on 9th May

Exhibition at

seems

that the

year,

approach

Very

to

often

the

the

meetings

a library of basic technical ‘worked’

both hosted by MIRA. These were

It looks like we are going to have an

As well as being able to network with

extremely well attended, and were

eventful year, plenty going on, and a

colleagues, instrumentation suppliers,

aimed at fundamentals and practical

few new ideas to try out.

we held a number of seminars on data

issues in data collection and data

analysis, visualising strain techniques,

analysis. These are subject of other

the tyre road interface and acoustics

articles in the journal.

Dave Ensor Chairman

in low carbon vehicle. Each seminar was well attended and discussions

In addition there have been other

were wide ranging as were the probing

events. A Young Engineers Seminar

questions. It all helped to bring people

with an electro-hydraulic theme on

up to date, or in my data analysis case

13th July. This covered a wide range of

to demonstrate the pitfalls of corner

topics from basics of hydraulic testing,

cutting.

through

materials

and

effects

of

manufacturing variables, overlooked

44

Sound & Vibration Product Perception Group

The STMG committee have discussed

fundamentals, to modelling complex

at length if we can improve these

materials such as composites and

seminars at the exhibition and I am

much more. A second event on a

opening the debate to the EIS as a

NVH data collection theme on 9th

Our next event, planned to be in April

whole. What do you think we should

May covered basic measurements,

2018, is to be a one-day Workshop on

cover next, and more to the point, do

experimental modal analysis, a trip

NVH with the title Electric Vehicle NVH

you think the format is okay? I feel we

round the MIRA Proving Ground with an

- Not as Good as You Thought?

are slipping into a more presentation

instrumented vehicle demonstration.

based

an

Along with presentations on RLD

Most OEMs have an increasing range

interactive discussion. I would be

Instrumentation and Data Collection

of new generation Electric Vehicles on

really interested in your views.

and practical vibration measurement

the market with more in the pipeline.

& modal testing.

The common misconception is that

seminar

rather

than


these vehicles will be highly refined

leading

Structural

doing just this and started in late 2016

from the start of development, with

Dynamics measurement and analysis

with a mix of engineers from different

excellent NVH characteristics, by the

tools will be available for delegates to

industries and disciplines. From the

very nature of their propulsion systems.

interact with. The poster competition

start we wanted the agenda to be

In fact, this is not the case and there

will be judged during the lunch break

driven by the participants, given a

are

challenges

and each competitor will give a short

little priming. I’m pleased to say each

related to the acoustic emissions of

presentation of the poster to the

event

the new technology. These NVH issues

judging panel.

by members of the YE group. The

many

engineering

suppliers

of

has

included

presentations

are often unfamiliar to engineers

John Wilkinson

second seminar hosted by Horiba

used to developing vehicles with

Chairman

MIRA provided a range of activities with a common theme of vibration,

conventional IC engines and usually

Durability & Fatigue Group

require novel solutions. This one-day event will explore the NVH issues that have become apparent during recent

research

and

development

programmes at Universities and vehicle

plus the obligatory trip round the proving ground. Thanks to ASDEC who provided the demonstrations. The third workshop, hosted by STAR Hydraulics, was a smaller group due to the hands-on nature of the activities

OEMs on, for example - Hybrid EVs, EV motors, drive system components

The

group

and focussed on material selection and

battery cooling systems, regenerative

has

been

characterisation and testing and test

braking systems.

h e a v i l y

methods to achieve this. We intend

involved in our Fatigue 2017 conference

to run one more this year and hope to

The venue is being organised at the

which is reported on pages 24-25.

keep the agenda wide enough to be

moment and will be announced when

Delegates were talking of the next

relevant to everyone. Again the wide

we issue the call for papers in Sept/Oct

one before they left which is a sign of

support we get for these seminars, and

success, so I’d like to thank John Yates

feedback, is encouraging and shows

for leading this one. The high standard

we are doing something relevant for

of the papers presented by young or

the next generation of engineers.

The event will feature the following • Technical presentations on a theme

newly qualified engineers came as

of Electric and Hybrid vehicle NVH

no surprise, but we were particularly

As a group we are planning the next

issue

pleased by the high proportion of

seminar

papers submitted by them, which

and the structural performance of

bodes well for the future.

these materials, or should that be

identification

and

issue

resolution • Exhibition of leading Structural Dynamics •

measurement

and

on

Additive

Manufacture

components. We plan to hold this at the

analysis equipment

The EIS aims to encourage best

Manufacturing Technology Centre near

Poster competition with entrants

practice in industry and part of this is

Coventry, with particular emphasis on

sought from various universities

following developments in academia,

quality and reliable performance.

but also applying it in day to day use This seminar aims to review the work

in both analysis and test. The Young

Robert Cawte

conducted by academia, research

Engineers (YE) initiative is aimed at

Chairman

establishments, vehicle OEMs and their suppliers to control EV NVH issues to ensure that the high levels of refinement expected by customers are met or exceeded. As usual, refreshments and buffet lunch will be held in a room containing

New Personal Members Paul Hayford – H4 Technologies Jack Allcock – Tata Steel

the exhibition, where some of the

45


Corporate Members The following companies are corporate members of the Engineering Integrity Society. We thank them for their continued support which helps the Society to run its wide-ranging events throughout the year. AcSoft

HORIBA MIRA

Prosig

ADwin

Instron

RAL Space

Airbus Defence & Space

Interface Force Measurements

Sensors UK

ANV Measurement Systems

Kemo

Servotest

ASDEC

Kistler

Severn Thermal Solutions

Bruel and Kjaer

M&P International

Siemens

CaTs

Meggitt Sensing Systems

Star Hydraulics

Dassault Systemes

Micro-Epsilon

Systems Services

Data Physics

Millbrook

Techni Measure

Datron Technology

MOOG

THP Systems

D C White Consulting Engineers

MTS Systems

Tiab

DJB Instruments

Muller-BBM

TRaC

Element

Nprime

Transmission Dynamics

Gantner Instruments

PCB Piezotronics

Variohm

GOM

PDS Hitech

Vibration Research

HBM

Phoenix Materials Testing

Yokogawa

Head Acoustics

Polytec

Zwick Testing Machines

3

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Engineering Integrity Issue 43  

Engineering Integrity Issue 43

Engineering Integrity Issue 43  

Engineering Integrity Issue 43