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Forests western coolwort (Tiarella unifoliata), Dewey sedge (Carex deweyana), nodding trisetum (Trisetum cernuum), false lily-ofthe-valley (Maianthemum dilatatum), strawberry-leaf blackberry (Rubus pedatus), and others. A thick moss layer is also typical. One of the most abundant epiphytes is Selaginella oregana, a club moss. References Baker, L.M., M.Z. Peery, E.E. Burkett, S.W. Singer, D.L. Suddjian, and S.R. Beissinger. 2006. Nesting habitat characteristics of the marbled murrelet in central California redwood forests. Journal of Wildlife Management 70: 939-946. Barrows, C.W., and K. Barrows. 1978. Roost characteristics and behavioral thermoregulation in the spotted owl. Western Birds 9: 1-8. Barrows, C.W. 1981. Roost selection in spotted owls: an adaptation to heat stress. Condor 83: 302-309. Carey A.B. 1985. A summary of the scientific basis for spotted owl management. In Gutierrez and Carey, 1985. Forsman, E.D., E.C. Meslow, and H.M. Wight. 1984. Distribution and biology of the spotted owl in Oregon. Wildlife Monographs No. 87. Franklin, J.F., and C.T. Dyrness. 1973. Natural Vegetation of Oregon and Washington. U.S. Forest Service GTR PNW-80. Franklin, J.F., et al. 1981. Ecological Characteristics of Old-Growth Douglas-Fir Forests. U.S. Forest Service GTR PNW-118.

Figure 70. An epiphyte-draped bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) in the Hoh rain forest. July. 1984.

and blurred outlines (Figure 70). Ancient spruces 10 feet across loom ghost-like in indistinct twilight, and all sounds seem softly muted in the faint, windless air. Flowing luxuriance contrasts with an overwhelmingly spacious immensity. The abundant mossy growth is created primarily by the heaviest rains in the spruce zone, about 135 inches average per year, only 7% of this from June to August (Franklin and Dyrness, 1973). Proximity to the ocean, the high altitudes, and resultant cool temperatures bring the rain. The spaciousness or open canopy and understory are created by heavy grazing of seasonal Roosevelt elk herds on the shrubs, especially salmonberry. The Sitka spruce dominates the hemlock because the elk prefer the hemlock seedlings and generally prevent enough tree growth to close the canopy. Thus the spruce reproduces well and is considered a climax tree while the hemlock reproduces poorly. Scattered through the forest are areas of shallow stony soil where groves of tall, moss-draped bigleaf maples grow. In the shrub layer, vine maple grows in occasional thick clumps, while all other species provide very little cover (Franklin and Dyrness, 1973). Huckleberries (ovalleaf and red), trailing blackberry, and salmonberry are characteristic. The forest floor is carpeted with Oregon oxalis, sword fern, and assorted other herbs, including

Gutierrez, R.J. 1985. An overview of recent research on the spotted owl. In Gutierrez and Carey, 1985. Harris, L.D. 1984. The Fragmented Forest. Island Biogeography Theory and the Preservation of Biotic Diversity. University of Chicago Press: Chicago. Kirk, R. 1966. The Olympic Rain Forest. University of Washington Press: Seattle. Li, C.Y. and E. Strzelczyk. 2000. Belowground microbial processes underpin forest productivity. Phyton 4: 129-134. Maser, C.M., B.R. Mate, J.F. Franklin, and C.T. Dyrness. 1981. Natural History of Oregon Coast Mammals. U.S. Forest Service. GTR-PNW-133. Maser, C.M., and J.M. Trappe. Tech. eds. 1984. The Seen and Unseen World of the Fallen Tree. U.S. Forest Service GTR PNW-164. Proctor, C.M., et al. 1980. An Ecological Characterization of the Pacific Northwest Coastal Region. 5 Vols. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. FWS/ OBS-79/15. Raphael, M.G., and R.H. Barrett. 1984. Diversity and abundance of wildlife in late successional Douglas-fir forests. In New Forests for a Changing World. Proceedings of the 1983 Society of American Foresters National Convention. Portland. Spurr, S.H., and B.V. Barnes. 1980. Forest Ecology. Wiley: New York. Stebbins, G.C. 1974. Flowering Plants. Evolution above the Species Level. Belknap Press: Cambridge, Mass. Thomas, J.W., tech. ed. 1979. Wildlife Habitats in Managed Forests: The Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington. U.S.D.A. Agricultural Handbook 553. Waring, R.H. 1982. Land of the giant conifers. Natural History 91 (10): 54-63. Waring, R.H., and J.F. Franklin. 1979. Evergreen coniferous forests of the Pacific Northwest. Science 204: 1380-1386. Š 2011 Stewart Schultz

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Profile for University of Puget Sound

Bookends Reader  

Welcome new students! This reader is a collection of readings from and about Puget Sound and that will be at the heart of the Bookends orien...

Bookends Reader  

Welcome new students! This reader is a collection of readings from and about Puget Sound and that will be at the heart of the Bookends orien...