Impact Research Magazine
Patients with Medicare or Medicaid coverage and patients age 65 and older were more likely to receive prescriptions benzodiazepines. “There needs to be a move toward a more uniform prescription system – at least for certain types of medications,” said Balkrishnan. – from an article by Holly Wagner, OSU Research Communications
Professor studies exposure to insecticides during pregnancy J.R. Wilkins, professor in SPH’s Division of Epidemiology, is currently studying the effects of perinatal exposure to various insecticides. The three classes of toxicants being examined are chlorpyrifos (CP), other organophosphate (OP) insecticides and pyrethroids (PYR). Wilkins is recruiting 176 women in their second trimester of pregnancy and will follow healthy, full-term newborns. Wilkins’ team began recruiting women in 2002 for the study and completed recruiting in fall of 2005. “We then must follow the babies until they are 2 years of age, so the study will continue on for at least another two to two-and-a-half years,” he said. Each woman is interviewed about her exposure to insecticides, other toxicants, maternal demographics and other family-based factors. After birth, additional information is obtained from the mother when the child is 3, 12 and 24 months. At 3 months, information will be obtained on the infant by administrating the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II), a framework used to diagnose mental, motor and behavior scales. At 12 months, control data on potential confounders will be acquired, in addition to data on breastfeeding and parental IQ. At 24 months, the information will be gathered by repeat administration of the BSID-II, in addition to a one-time administration of Ireton’s Child Development Inventory (CDI). “Basically, we want to contribute to the growing body of scientiﬁc evidence that addresses the question of pre- and post-natal exposure to OP’s and the potential neurotoxic effects of these environmental chemicals,” he said. – by Alicia Ritchey, SPH Communications Intern
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MPH student Mark Lehman works with a Maasai man to screen goats for subclinical mastitis.
Tanzania practicum illustrates zoonotic link in public health Mark Lehman is a public health ofﬁcer in the Air Force who pursued public health after becoming dissatisﬁed with private practice in veterinary medicine. Public health gave him the opportunity to do everything he enjoyed about veterinary medicine, and his work has an impact that reaches all the way to Africa. He started working on his Master of Public Health (MPH) degree at Ohio State in the fall of 2004 and plans to graduate in the summer of 2006. For his practicum, Lehman worked with the Christian Veterinary Mission, part of World Concern, on a detection study checking for subclinical mastitis in goats and sheep in Tanzania. Though mastitis literally means inﬂammation of the breast, in subclinical mastitis there is no swelling of the udder and other than a possible reduction in milk production, the milk appears to be normal. The objective of the study was to detect and develop a prevention strategy at the subclinical stage of disease. Early detection prevents a disruption of milk supply and prevents the disease from being passed to humans. “Mastitis reduces the amount of milk produced by the animals, which leads to malnutrition of the people. Also, most of a family’s worth is based on their livestock. If you sell a sick animal at market you won’t get as much money as a healthy one. For me it was important to test and evaluate these animals because many of the diseases we saw have been eradicated from the US,” he said. Lehman worked with a veterinarian who had been an army reservist. Besides testing animals for mastitis, they also tested some for Brucellosis, a disease that can cause severe infections of the central nervous system among other things. “The most unusual disease I came across was East Coast Fever, a disease speciﬁc to Africa, caused by a blood parasite.
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