Mechanika 2008 edition Editors: Ayush Arora & Rohit Mittal Designed by: Vivek Tripathi & Rohit Mittal
MESA Faculty Adviser Dr. Sankha Deb
President Rohit Mittal
Vice President Lokesh Saini
◊ Executive Members Rohit Mittal, Lokesh Saini, Atul Kumar Soti, Ayush Arora, Atanu Bhuyan, Sushant Kumar, Rohit B. Ramtekkar, C.Kartha
◊ Publication Team Ayush Arora (Secretary), V.Rohit, Prathyusha.M, Nished Singhal, Rohit Koolwal, Deepak Shilpi, Govind Mohan, Grandhi Pradeep Kumar
◊ Activity Group Atul Kumar Soti (Secretary), D.V.Phani, Shalabh Malhotra, S Satya kalyan
◊ Website Committee Atanu Bhuyan (Secretary), Pratik Sachan, Arun Kumar Nirala, Pankaj Singh
From the President First of all my congratulations to all members of MESA for the effort they have made with the various activities organized this session. I am pleased to see the 3rd edition of the annual magazine of MESA, MECHANIKA’08, out in the campus and want to congratulate MECHANIKA team. I am glad to see various students from B.Tech, M.Tech, Ph.D. of all years as well as Faculty members contributing to this magazine. Articles cover different ﬁelds of Mechanical Engineering along with the experiences of ﬁnal year students. Apart from this, certain things of common interest in various ﬁelds of science and technology have also been incorporated in this edition. There has been a lot of improvement with the type of content, design and participation from the student’s community in this edition as compared to last year’s edition. Hard work should only be the motto of all members so that we successfully keep on publishing this magazine with a lot of improvement each time. I would like to thank our faculty advisor, Dr. Sankha Deb for his valuable inputs to our effort. He has been a great motivator through out this session. I would also like to take this opportunity to thank our HOD Prof. U. S. Dixit, for his valuable suggestions and motivation Finally, I am grateful to the department for the ﬁnancial support. ‘Encouraging scientiﬁc spirit by spreading scientiﬁc knowledge’ is the aim of MESA. It not only strengthens the integrity among the future engineers but also provides them with the opportunity of helping out others. With various activities around the year it has become a part of the mechanical student’s life in the campus. With the involvement of more and more students it is on the path of success. It has a very bright future and, I wish all the very best for its future endeavours. Suggestions from readers are most welcome and we assure you that they would be incorporated in the next edition to make this magazine more useful to them.
Volume III For the year 2008-2009
Rohit Mittal President, MESA
MESSAGE FROM HOD
MESSAGE FROM FACULTY ADVISER
I am happy to note that the students of Mechanical Engineering Department are bringing out the third issue of the annual magazine Mechanika with a new look. The members of Mechanical Engineering Studentsâ€™ Association (MESA) of Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati have put commendable efforts for the magazine. The magazine contains very interesting articles written by students and faculty members of the Department.
I am very happy to note that Mechanical Engineering Studentsâ€™ Association (MESA) is publishing the third edition of its annual magazine, Mechanika. The articles published in the magazine include contributions by undergraduate and postgraduate students of the department and faculty members. It covers a range of topics including some interesting developments in science and technology as well as some research articles.
First and second issues of Mechanika have been liked very much by the readers. I am sure that the readers will like the third issue even more. This issue contains a number of articles of general interest and a few articles on speciďŹ c topics. Students as well as faculty members have contributed for making Mechanika more informative and enjoyable.
I would like to congratulate the publication committee, the authors and the members of MESA for all their efforts in bringing out the magazine. I would also like to express my sincere thanks to Professor U. S. Dixit, HOD and the faculty members of the department for their constant support and valuable suggestions in publication of the magazine.
I congratulate the editors, authors and members of MESA team for binging out this issue of Mechanika. I wish that Mechanika may receive the love of the readers and motivate the authors for contributing in this magazine.
Prof. Uday Shankar Dixit Head of Deaprtment Department of Mechanical Engineering
Dr. Sankha Deb Assistant Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering
COVER STORY 05
Emission Trading: Indian Scenario on Carbon Credits
Yearbook: Final year students What passing out seniors want to convey to juniors?
Alumni Speaks - Rahul Swarnkar He was the ﬁrst president of MESA.
Rare Breed ‘Cars’
Most Powerful Diesel Engine
The Space Elevator
Theory for Everything
Science in the Lap of Spirtuality
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Change of Identity Why Pluto is no more a planet?
Rare Breed - Cars
Most powerful Diesel Engine
The Space Elevator
When Compasses point south
Theory for Everything
The Automated Guided Vehicle It is a mobile robot used in industrial applications to move materials around.
OFF CAMPUS 29
Science in the Lap of Spirtuality
Campus Placement Report for (2007-08) Session What are the stats of the placement in this session?
Gear up for Interviews How to crack PI?
Two-phase ﬂow instabilities in ﬂow boiling in microchannels
Finite Element Analysis of Mixed Mode Fatigue Crack Growth Problems
Vibration Problems of the Primary Limestone Crusher Unit, a Case Study
M.Tech. Projects Allotted for 2007-08 session
Gourami Business Challenge What are the different ways to get in Royal Dutch Shell?
Perimeter Security Systems Bollards are one of the most effective equipments which provide both visibility and high security.
We usually see various types of surveys in magazines & newspapers on politics, cricket but here it is different. Want to know more?
EMISSION TRADING INDIAN SCENARIO ON CARBON CREDITS by Vijaya Kumar Pantangi
KYOTO PROTOCOL Kyoto Protocol (KP) is an agreement made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The very phrase ‘Kyoto Protocol’ has become synonymous with the idea of saving the planet from global meltdown. The UNFCCC divides the member countries into two main groups: A total of 42 industrialized countries are currently listed in the Convention’s Annex-I, including the relatively wealthy industrialized countries that were members of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1992, plus countries with economies in transition (EITs), including the Russian Federation, the Baltic States, and several Central and Eastern European States. The OECD members of AnnexI (not the EITs) are also listed in the Convention’s Annex-II. There are currently 23 such Annex-II Parties. All other countries not listed in the Convention’s Annexes, mostly the developing countries, are known as Non-Annex-I countries. They currently number 145. The convention covers all Green House Gases (GHG’s) not covered by the 1987 Montreal Protocol to the United Nations Convention on protection of the Ozone layer. The target gases are mainly six: Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Methane (CH4), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Hydroﬂourocarbons (HFC’s), Perﬂourocarbons (PFC’s) and Sulpur Hexaﬂouride (SF6). The KP aims to tackle global warming by setting target levels for nations to reduce GHG’s worldwide. These targets vary between regions and countries but globally the initial target is to reduce GHG’s level by 5.2 below 1990 levels (base levels) during the 2008-2012 period.
The Kyoto protocol broke new grounds with three innovative and ﬂexible mechanisms: Joint Implementation (JI) JI is a project based mechanism developed under the KP, designed to assist countries in meeting their emission reduction targets through joint projects with other countries. That means JI projects can only be implemented between capped industrialized countries. One or more investors (governments, companies, funds etc.) will agree with partners in a host country to participate in project activities which generate Emission Reduction Units (ERU’s), in order to use them for compliance with targets under the KP.
Global Warming “save our planet” One of the environmental threats our planet faces today is the potential for long-term changes in the earth’s climate and temperature pattern known as “Global Climate Change”. Scientists estimate that as a result of global climate change, the earth’s average temperature could increase as much as six and a half degrees Fahrenheit by the year 2100. During the last ice age, when our planet was on average only nine degrees Fahrenheit cooler, the area that is now New York city was under 1000 feet of ice and this shows how much effect these global climatic changes can have on the natural and human systems of earth. The consequences of global warming are innumerous with the very beginning affecting the human health, sea level, life cycles of each and every living being. The Inter Government Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projects a sea level increase of six inches to more than three feet by the year 2100. Droughts, ﬂoods and storms could become more severe and entire agricultural regions could become disrupted as rainfall and temperature patterns shift. This also results a large gap between demand and production of food crops and ﬁnally one has to compete with each other for these in a different environment which is beyond the imagination. To prevent this sort of disruption, an important step was made in 1995 when over 2500 scientists from around the world agreed for the ﬁrst time that emissions of Green House Gases (GHG’s) from human activities have inﬂuenced the global climate. Again on 11 December, 1997 a new treaty at the 3rd conference of the parties held in Kyoto, Japan called Kyoto Protocol was agreed. It entered into force on 16 February, 2005.
Emission from host country are limited under the KP; JI projects reduce emissions in the host country and free up part of their total amount (assigned amount) which can than be transferred to the investor country in the form of ERU’s, which are subtracted from the host country’s allowed emissions and are added to the total allowable emissions of the investor country. Projects started in 2000; however, ERU’s can only be used for compliance from 2008, even in the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS).
The Clean Development Mechanism Under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), a developed country can ‘sponsor’ a greenhouse gas reduction project in a developing country where the cost of GHG reduction project activities is usually much lower, but the atmospheric effect is globally equivalent. The developed country would be given credits for meeting its emission reduction targets, while the developing country would receive the capital investment and clean technology or beneﬁcial change in land use. The CDM is a mechanism established for project based emission reduction activities in developing countries. The CDM is designed to meet two main objectives: to address the sustainable development needs of the host country and to increase the opportunities available to Parties to meet their commitments.
The CDM Project cycle comprises seven steps: • Submission of the project design document to the national CDM Authority • Project registration in the host country • Project validation and registration by the executive board of the UNFCC • Project monitoring by the host country • Veriﬁcation and certiﬁcation • Issuance of Certiﬁed Emission reductions (CER’s) • Revalidation of the undergoing projects for extended crediting periods. Consultants for validation of the CDM projects are: Pricewaterhouse Coopers, DNV, Ernst & Young, TERI and WIN ROCK. “A
International Emission Trading
“Carbon Trading” Under International Emissions Trading (IET), countries can trade in the international carbon credit market to cover their shortfall in CER’s. Countries with surplus credits can sell them to countries with capped emission commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. Carbon credits are generated by enterprises in the developing world that shift to cleaner technologies and thereby save on energy consumption, consequently reducing their GHG emissions. For each CER unit (the major GHG) emission avoided, the entity can get a carbon emission certiﬁcate which they can sell either immediately or through a futures market, just like any other commodity. The certiﬁcates are sold to the entities in rich countries, like power, utilities, which have emission reduction targets to achieve and ﬁnd it in cheaper to buy ‘offsetting’ certiﬁcates rather than do a clean-up in their own backyard. This trade is carried out under UNFCC to help rich countries reduce their emissions. Emission trading is a general term used for the three KP ﬂexibility mechanisms. It is a market based system that allows the ﬁrms the ﬂexibility to select cost-effective solutions to achieve established environmental goals. These ﬂexibility mechanisms include the use of Carbon Sinks (pools that take up released carbon from another part of the carbon cycle) and emissions trading. Under the Protocol a planted forest which is established after 1st January 1990 on previously cleared land will count as carbon sink. The carbon dioxide sequestered in such a forest can be used to create carbon credits. Carbon credit as deﬁned by KP, is one metric ton of carbon (t CO2) by the burning of fossil fuels. The other target GHG’s are also can be converted into carbon credits with an internationally agreed ‘Global Warming Potential’ (GWP) assigned to them. These GWP factors are used to convert each of the major GHG’s that are not carbon dioxide into tones of equivalent carbon dioxide (t CO2eq) which is a standard unit for the trading. The prices of the credit ranges hover around 22 Euro per t CO2 in 2005. In 2004, 107 mt CO2 were exchanged through green projects, a 38% rise from 2003.
CER unit is equivalent to one tonne of CO2”
Indian Scenario India comes under the third category of signatories, i.e. Non-Annex-I, to UNFCCC. India signed and ratiﬁed the Protocol in August, 2002 and has emerged as a world leader in reduction of GHGs by adopting Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM’s) in the past few years. Being a developed country it is exempted from the requirement of adherence to the protocol. This serves three purposes: 1. Avoids restrictions on growth because pollution is strongly linked to industrial growth, and developing economies can potentially grow very fast. 2. It means that they cannot sell emissions credits to industrialized nations to permit those nations to over-pollute. 3. They get money and technologies from the developed countries in Annex II. Companies that invest in bio-diesel, windmills co-generation and bio-mass are the huge generators of carbon credits in India. There is a great opportunity awaiting India in carbon trading which is estimated to go up to $100 billion by 2010. According to a recent World Bank Survey, the country could emerge as one of the largest beneﬁciaries accounting for 25% of the total world carbon trade as the countries like US, Germany, Japan and China are likely to be the biggest buyers of carbon credits. The major sources of GHG’s emission in India other than industries and transportation are as follows:
Table 1: List of few Indian ﬁrms, acquired carbon credits and their money value Companies
Value in Money (INR Crores)
Torrent Power AEC
Gujarat Flouro Chemicals
Chennai Petroleum Reﬁneries
Jindal Vijayanagar Steels
Orissa Sponge Iron
Kalpataru Power Transmission
Paddy ﬁelds: The emissions from the paddy ﬁelds can be reduced through special irrigation strategy and appropriate choice of cultivars and a major break through is already done by the scientists at the University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Bangalore. They have developed a new rice variety called “Aerobic Rice“ that consumes 50% less water than conventional types and precludes release of methane. The intensive roots of this variety help in better absorption of water thereby eliminating the need for water logging and nonmethane emitting capabilities is hoping to get carbon credits. It has been developed by Prof H. E. Shashidhar and the team from Dept of Genetics and Plant Breeding, UAS, Bangalore.
Enteric fermentation from cattle and buffaloes: In case of enteric fermentation emission, it can be reduced through proper feed management.
Municipal Solid Waste: The last and the least preferred one, municipal solid waste, is a huge potential for the GHG’s emission in India and requires a lot more scientiﬁc approach to treat them with compliance of regulations. Mechanika, 2008
REFERENCES • http://en.wikipedia.org/ • http://www.hinduonnet.com/
• http://www.ipcc.ch/ • http://unfccc.int/2860.php
• Sachin Trivedi, “Global Warming and Kyoto protocol: Indian Scenario on carbon credits”, Conference proceedings of Green Power 5 – International conference on Development, Management of resources and Energy Security, Feb 2-3, 2006, 398-415. • National Solid Waste Association of India and Environmental Information System Center, News letter, Seventh Issue, February 2007.
science & technology
Change of Identity a journey from planet to dwarf planet by Rohit Mittal
which till now, was better known as the ninth and the smallest planet of our solar system is no more a planet. On August 24, 2006, International Astronomical Union (IAU) for the ﬁrst time deﬁned the term ‘Planet’ due to which it is now known as a Dwarf Planet and is the second largest body in this category. On September 13, 2006, the IAU included Pluto in their Minor Planet Catalogue and gave the number 13430. Pluto was discovered by ‘Clyde W. Tombaugh’ in February 18, 1930. The name Pluto was ﬁrst suggested by Venetia Burney, an elevenyear-old schoolgirl in Oxford, England. It is the tenth-largest body observed directly orbiting the Sun. It has three known natural moons: Charon, Nix and Hydra.
In 2006, IAU passed a resolution that created an ofﬁcial deﬁnition for the term Planet. According to this resolution, there are three main conditions for an object to be considered a Planet. While other planets satisfy all the above three conditions, Pluto fails to meet the third condition.
IAU Resolution The object must be in orbit around the Sun.
The object must be massive enough to be a sphere by its own gravitational force. More speciﬁcally, its own gravity should pull it into a shape of hydrostatic equilibrium.
It must have cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit, meaning it has become gravitationally dominant, and there are no other bodies of comparable size other than its own satellites or those otherwise under its gravitational inﬂuence.
Its mass is only 0.07 times that of the mass of other objects in its orbit, on contrary, Earth’s mass is 1.7 million times the remaining mass in its own orbit. The small mass and great distance of Pluto from Earth presents signiﬁcant challenges for the explorers in studying more about Pluto. First serious attempt was made in 1977 with Voyager I. It could have visited Pluto, but was able to reach Jupiter and Saturn only. After 29 years i.e. on January 19, 2006, a new mission targeted to Pluto was launched named New Horizons. New Horizons will use a remote sensing package that includes imaging instruments and a radio science investigation tool, as well as spectroscopic and other experiments, to characterize the global geology and morphology of Pluto and its moon Charon. It will map their surface composition and analyze Pluto’s neutral atmosphere and its escape rate. It will also photograph the surfaces of Pluto and Charon. Its closest approach to Pluto will be on July 14, 2015. So wait for that day to know more about one of the most controversial Planet oh! sorry, Dwarf Planet.
Table shows the comparison of physical properties of Pluto and Ceres (both dwarf planets) with Earth
Mean Radius Surface area Volume Mass Density
A Dwarf Planet
A Dwarf Planet
6,371.0 km 1,195 km 7 510,072,000 km² 1.795×10 km² 1.0832073×1012 km³ 7.15×109 km³ (1.305 ± 0.007)×1022 kg 5.9736×1024 kg 5,515.3 kg/m³ 2.03 ± 0.06 g/cm³
475 km NA NA 9.46 ± 0.04×1020 kg 2.077 ± 0.036 g/cm³
science & technology
Rare Breed They are fast and out of the world by Alok Verma Buggati Veyron
It is said that one man’s luxury is another’s banality. The words ﬁnd meaning no where better than the world of “Ultra” cars. These cars are built to eat miles of the highways with a blink of an eye. They have body that is ravishingly stunning and they are stupendously expensive. This most elite stratum in the world of automobiles is currently occupied by Bugatti Veyron and Lamborghini’s Reventon.
It has held the position of being the fastest and most expensive production car for 3 years now. Equipped with an engine that churns out a whopping 1,001 Bhp, it has recorded speed of 253 mph (408.47 km/h). 10 radiators work continuously to keep this beast cool. The 8 litre, 16 cylinder engine is fed by 4 turbochargers. If still your jaw has not dropped to the ground fancy this, the car can be brought to rest from highest speed in just 10 seconds.
The car was introduced in 2007 Frankfurt Auto Show. Since then the car has invaded Bugatti Veyron’s territory with its badge of $1.4 million. The car easily attains the speed of 224 mph, thanks to 650 Italian Horses locked inside it. It has a 6.5 liter, V12 engine. The styling of the car is inspired by F-22 stealth bomber. Its angular body frame has earned it a reputation of the sexiest looking car in the world. The car is a god-send for all those who want to feel like a ﬁghter pilot without leaving a foot off the ground.
To put things in perspective consider this: a normal supercar (Porsches, Ferraris) have one turbocharger and at max 2 radiators. The speed of 253 mph is enough to zoom past a Formula 1 car. The gearboxes of the Formula 1 cars need to be changed in 2 races, while Bugatti gearbox is designed to last 20-25 years. At a price tag of $1.7 million, Veyron promises to dig a gigantic crater in bank account of anyone who fancies of buying one.
Unlike the shiny ﬁnish of super cars, Reventon has a matte skin, that too grey-green. The driver is housed in a pilot like seat with LCD instrument panel. Both these cars are mid engined i.e the engine is placed between the front and rear wheels. Both are four wheel drive to have enough grip.
“Art is I, Science is we”
- Claude Bernard
science & technology
It’s not all rosy… Ultra car is a new breed of cars, but sadly the future looks bleak for this exotic breed. The reasons are many fold:
Fuel Consumption: These cars consume a lot of fuel. Bugatti for instance has a 100 litre tank and ﬂat out it can run dry in 12 minutes. Expensive to Produce:
Taking a car to such a high speed requires a whole new technology. This requires time & money. Both of these are prized commodity in an environment where there is cut-throat competition among automobile manufacturers and numerous money minded share holders. Volkswagon invested 5 million Euros to produce Veyron.
Carbon emission: The CO2 per km emitted by these cars is about 10-12 times the normal cars and 4-5 times that of super cars. Lamborghini Reventon spews out 1 kg of CO2 per km. The recent change of attitude around the world towards carbon emission, tighter norms, signing of Kyoto Protocol etc. may tighten the noose just tight enough that these rare breeds may suffocate to an unfortunate death. There has been a U-turn in the past decade’s headlong pursuit of horsepower and size. Alternate technologies like Fuel cells, Hybrid cars, Biodiesel, Solar cars etc. which not long time back were frowned upon, are now being embraced with open arms.
EU is all set to tighten its carbon emission limit to 130 gm/km. Trans Atlantic, things are slowly getting into grooves, CAFE (corporate average fuel efﬁciency) is expected to rise to 35 mph from the current 27.5 mph. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that 7.5 billion gallons of renewable biofuel be blended into petrol by 2012. The big cars are giving way to small cars. Fuel efﬁciency instead of Bhp is the buzzword now. Only time will tell, whether Bugatti Veyron and Lamborghini Reventon are headed to become the memorabilia of an era of big, fuel guzzling, powerful and really fast cars. Till then, I keep my ﬁngers crossed.
“A typical cable-stayed bridge is a continuous girder with one or more towers erected above piers in the middle of the span. From these towers, cables stretch down diagonally and support the girder” A
cable-stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more columns (towers or pylons), with cables supporting the bridge deck. They can be distinguished by the number of spans, number of towers, girder type, number of cables, etc. by Rohit Mittal
science & technology
Different types of cable arrangments used are mono, harp, fan, and star arrangements as shown in the ﬁgure. In some cases, only the cables on one side of the tower are attached to the girder, the other side being anchored to a foundation or other counterweight.
the bridge. The tension on the cables must be transferred to the earth by the anchorages, which are sometimes difﬁcult to construct due to poor soil conditions.
Typical towers used are single, double, portal, and A-shaped towers
Comparison with suspension bridge A multiple-tower cable-stayed bridge may appear similar to a suspension bridge, but in fact is very different in principle and in the method of construction. In the suspension bridge, a large cable is made up by “spinning” small diameter wires between two towers, and at each end to anchorages into the ground or to a massive structure. These cables form the primary load-bearing structure for the bridge deck. Before the deck is installed, the cables are under tension from only their own weight. Smaller cables or rods are then suspended from the main cable, and used to support the load of the bridge deck, which is lifted in sections and attached to the suspender cables. As this is done the tension in the cables increases, as it does with the live load of vehicles or persons crossing Mechanika, 2008
In the cable-stayed bridge, the towers form the primary load-bearing structure. A cantilever approach is often used for support of the bridge deck near the towers, but areas further from them are supported by cables running directly to the towers. This has a disadvantage, compared to the suspension bridge, that the cables pull to the sides as opposed to directly up, requiring the bridge deck to be stronger to resist the resulting horizontal compression loads; but has the advantage of not requiring ﬁrm anchorages to resist a horizontal pull of the cables, as in the suspension bridge. All static horizontal forces are balanced so that the supporting tower does not tend to tilt or slide, needing only to resist such forces from the live loads.
Suspension Bridge 11
science & technology Key advantages of the cable-stayed brudge over suspension form are as follows: • much greater stiffness than the suspension bridge, so that deformations of the deck under live loads are reduced. • can be constructed by cantilevering out from the tower - the cables act both as temporary and permanent supports to the bridge deck. • for a symmetrical bridge (i.e. spans on either side of the tower are the same), the horizontal forces balance and large ground anchorages are not required. • any number of towers may be used. However, a suspension bridge is usually built only with a pair of towers. There are a number of cable-stayed bridges all over the world. The longest cable-stayed bridge is currently under construction in China and is called Hangzhou Bay Bridge.
Hangzhou Bay Bridge China The 36 km long Hangzhou Bay Bridge will be the longest ocean-crossing bridge in the world, spanning across the Hangzhou Bay on the East China Sea and crossing the Qiantang River at the Yangtze River Delta. Preparatory work started on the bridge as far back as 1994. Construction work began in June 2003 and completion is scheduled for 2008. The S-shaped Hangzhou Bay Bridge will be an important connection in China’s East Coast Superhighway. Starting at Jiaxing to the north, the bridge will end at Ningbo to the south. It will shorten the ground transportation distance from Ningbo to Shanghai by 120km and travel time from four hours to two hours. It will be a six-lane, two-direction highway with a 100km/ hr speed limit, and a 100 year, service guaranteed, cable-stayed design.
“When opened to the public in 2009, it is estimated that the bridge will carry 45,000 to 50,000 vehicles per day in its ﬁrst year of operation” “Designed for 100 years of service life, the bridge has speed limits of 100 km/h for the main spans and 120 km/h for land approaches”
Architecture, Design and Structure The cable-stayed bridge design was selected for the project as it can withstand the adverse conditions, multi-directional currents, high waves, and geologic conditions at the site. The bridge structure has also been designed to seismic criteria and will retain integrity in earthquake conditions up to seven on the Richter scale. The 36 km length will be of highway-class road with six, 3.75 m lanes, three in each direction. The overall width of the bridge will be 33 m. The bridge has a height of 62 m, enabling fourth and ﬁfth generation container ships to pass through in all conditions. The total length of cable used in the project will be 32.2 km. 12
“A temporary 10 km trestle has been erected for pile driving and pier construction. Each previously erected span will serve as the deck for transportation and erection of the next girders as the launching gantry moves forward”
science & technology
Bridge Layout and Structure The Hangzhou Bay Bridge consists of nine sections. The ﬁrst one is the bank lead road to the north approach. The north approach rests on low piers with post-tension concrete boxgirder spans spanning pre-stressed continuous concrete box-girders and drill-shaft pile. The north approach leads to the north navigable bridge; a cable-stayed bridge with twin diamond-shaped towers, double cable and steel boxgirders. The main span of the north approach is 448 m. Including side spans, the total length is 908 m. The north high piers have continuous, 70 m, post-tensioned, concrete box-girder spans with a total length of 1,470 m. The middle bridge approach is laid on low piers with 70 m, post-tension, concrete box-girder spans with a total length of 9,380 m. The south navigable bridge is a cable-stayed bridge with an A-shaped single tower, double-cable and steel box-girders. The main span is 318 m, and the total length including side spans is 578 m. The south high piers have continuous 70 m, post-tension, concrete box-girder spans with a total length of 1,400 m. The eighth section measures to a total of 19,373 m, and is composed of three sections: 1. 6,020 m in-water section with 70 m girders and steel piles 2. 10,100 m mud-ﬂat section with 50 m girders and drill-shafts 3. 3,253 m land section with 30 m to 80 m girders and drill-shaft foundations The ninth section is Bank Lead Road at the south approach.
Construction Challenges One major challenge faced by the project was the eruption of natural gas in a shallow layer along the bridge line. A special study was conducted and exploration was performed to investigate the distribution of the gas and the property of the soil during and after releasing the gas. The gas was released before pile driving to avoid any disturbance to the soil, collapsing of ground or eruption and ﬂaming of gas. Construction on mudﬂats near the south shore, in an alternating wet and dry tidal area, presented serious technical problems. A temporary 10 km trestle has been erected for pile driving and pier construction. Girders weighing 1,430 ton erected from the top, starting from the land end and launching towards the sea. Each previously erected span serve as the deck for transportation and erection of the next girders as the launching gantry moves forward. Also, severe marine conditions caused difﬁculties in anchoring barges and construction vessels. Under turbulent tidal ﬂow and typhoon inﬂuences, water ﬂow currents are in the range of 2 m/s to 3.32 m/s at the Hangzhou Bay Bridge sites. The ﬂoating cranes can safely transport the 2,000 tons of girder from the shore to the site and then anchor stably to erect and install the precast concrete box girder. Mechanika, 2008
“Construction work on the Hangzhou Bay Bridge began in June 2003 and completion is scheduled for 2008”
REFERENCES • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cable-stayed_bridge • http://www.roadtrafﬁc-technology.com/projects/ •
hangzhou/index.html#hangzhou1 http://www.matsuo-bridge.co.jp/english/bridges/ basics/cablestay.shtm
science & technology Wartsila Sulzer RT-ﬂex96c COURTESY: www.wartsila.com
Most Powerful Diesel Engine by Nished Singhal
he Wartsila Sulzer RT-ﬂex96C turbocharged two stroke diesel engine is the most powerful diesel engine in the world. It was developed by Wartsila Corporation, a Finnish manufacturer of large diesel engines and power plants.
Courtesy: www.wartsila.com Wartsila Sulzar RT-ﬂex96c
The needs for such powerful and large diesel engines have arisen due to the new generation of large container ships which need bigger engines to propel them. Most ship owners prefer single propeller designs. The 14-cylinder RT-ﬂex96C has been considered a major breakthrough in ship propulsion as it combines the high power output (around 80,080 kW) with complete ﬂexibility of RT-ﬂex Common Rail technology along with beneﬁts of proven, reliable engine design.
A DIESEL ENGINE A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the diesel cycle named after its inventor, German engineer Rudolf Diesel. Diesel engine uses compression ignition process in which the air is compressed in the compression chamber and then the fuel is injected causing the fuel to self ignite. The underlying principle is that if the air is compressed to a high degree its temperature will rise to a point sufﬁcient to burn the fuel on contact.
AMAZING FACTS ABOUT WARTSILA SULZER RT-FLEX96C • It was designed in Finland and made in Korea. • It runs more efﬁciently than most car engines. • The fuel consumption is about 0.26 lbs/hp/hr. Most automotives and small engines have fuel consumption in the range of 0.4 to 0.6 lbs/hp/hr. • It runs at more than 50% thermal efﬁciency and has lesser toxic emissions. • The diametrical cylinder linear wear is only 0.03 mm per 1000 hours. • The 14 cylinder RT-ﬂex96C consumes about 1660 gallons of heavy fuel oil per hour. • It was ﬁrst used aboard the Emma Maersk in September, 2006. • Out of total engine weight of 2300 tons, the crankshaft alone weighs 300 tons.
EMMA MAERSK (ship on which wartsila sulzer rt-ﬂex96c was used)
science & technology
WHY CROSSHEAD BEARINGS? In normal automotive engines, the connecting rod is directly attached to the piston, whereas in RT-ﬂex96C, there is a crosshead which connects them. The crossheads are used for numerous reasons. Firstly, the sideways forces produced by connecting rod are absorbed by crosshead and not by piston. The sideways forces are the causes why the cylinders in an auto engine get oval shaped over time. Thus, the cylinder wear is reduced. It also separates the combustion area from the crank case oil which stays clean from combustion products. Lastly, it serves as a cushion the pistons as they approach the bottom dead centre to remove some load from the bearings.
TECHNICAL DETAILS Total engine weight Height Length Power Maximum Power Cylinder bore Piston stroke Speed Volume displaced Fuel consumption at maximum economy Maximum torque
2300 tons 44 feet 89 feet 5720 kW per cylinder 80,080 kW (108,920 bhp) 38 inches Just over 98 inches 92-102 rpm 111,143 cubic inches per cylinder (1820 litres per cylinder) 0.26 lbs/hp/hour 5,608,312 lb/ft running at 102 rpm
COMMON RAIL TECHNOLOGY Common rail direct fuel injection (known as CRDi) is a modern variant of direct injection system for diesel engines. It features a high-pressure (1000+ bar) fuel rail feeding individual solenoid valves, as opposed to low-pressure fuel pump feeding pump nozzles or high-pressure fuel line to mechanical valves controlled by cams on the camshaft. Third generation common rail diesels now feature piezoelectric injectors for even greater accuracy, with fuel pressures up to 180 MPa / 1800 bar.
EFFICIENCY It has the best Speciﬁc Fuel Consumption efﬁciency among piston engines. It runs at more than 50% thermal efﬁciency. It emits fewer exhaust carbons per gallon of fuel burnt, making an eco-friendly engine. REFERENCES • • • •
http://www.wikipedia.org/ http://www.gizmag.com/ http://www.associatedcontentcom/ http://www.wartsila.com/
science & technology
Nano-Car Courtsey: Y. Shirai/Rice University
ice University scientists have developed the world’s ﬁrst single-molecule car which contains a rigid chassis, four alkynes’ axles that spin freely and swivel independently, four wheels made up of p-carborane (spherical molecules of carbon, Hydrogen and boron containing 60 atoms apiece) and utilizes nanotechnology practically for all functions. It is a small coupe, with a wheel base of less than 5 nanometer, which does not have any plush seating or conventional steering system. The entire car measures just 3-4 nanometers across, making it slightly wider than a strand of DNA. About 20,000 of these nanocars could be parked, side by side, across the diameter of human hair. The nano car’s chassis and axles are made of well-deﬁned organic group with pivoting suspension and freely rotating axles. The axle and chassis are synthesized via palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions. It was found that nanocar was quite stable on the ﬂat gold surface so car was driven on a gold microscopic highway and this surface was used to prevent the nanocar actually roll around its fullerene wheels rather that slipping, until the surface was heated above 170oC – presumably because of strong adhesion between the fullerene wheels and underlying gold. Between 170oC and 225oC, the car moved around by translational motion in a direction perpendicular to the handcar’s axle, indicating its motion by rolling rather than sliding. This was engineless model which could be powered remotely using a heated gold surface to stop its wheels from sticking and an electromagnetic ﬁeld to drag it forwards. Recently researchers have installed molecular engine into a “car” just a few billionth of a meter long to propel itself, using a motor entirely by light, measuring just 3 by 4 nanometer. Courtsey: T. Sasaki/Rice University
Courtsey: Y. Shirai/Rice University
World’s First Single-Molecule Car
Two motorized nanocars on gold surface
by Lokesh Saini
A computer model shows the molecular engine in action
science & technology
The nano-car’s molecular motor contains a pair of bonded carbon molecules that rotate in one direction if illuminated by a speciﬁc wavelength of light. After ﬁxing the molecular engine to the car’s chassis and shining light on it, it was conﬁrmed that engine was running using nuclear magnetic resonance to monitor the position of the hydrogen atoms within it. The development bodes opening new vistas and we can transport molecular cargo as well as a light-driven motorized nanocar.
These images describe the basic concepts of the motorized nanocar
Courtsey: Y. Shirai/Rice University REFERENCES www.media.rice.edu www.technology.newscientist.com
“One machine can do the work of ﬁfty ordinary men. No machine can do the work of one extraordinary man” - Elbert Hubbard
science & technology
The Space Elevator by Deepak Shilpi
Gone are the days when there was loud roar of rocketry and bone jarring liftoffs, the time has come to make way for the project of greatest height, THE SPACE ELEVATOR. A concept imagined way back in the 1960’s, the researchers are gathering momentum in their pursuit to propel this uplifting concept into actuality. The space elevator in simplest terms is a ribbon, one end attached to earth, the other end attached to a counterweight in outer space. The rotation of the earth throws the counterweight on the ribbon outward keeping the ribbon taut. The counterweight spins around the Earth, keeping the cable straight and allowing the robotic lifters to ride up and down the ribbon. A space elevator made of a Carbon Nano-Tubes Composite Ribbon anchored to an offshore sea platform would stretch to a small counterweight approximately 62,000 miles (100,000 km) into space. Mechanical lifters attached to the ribbon would then climb the ribbon, carrying cargo and humans into space.
HOW IT CAN BE BUILT?
THE PROBLEM “CABLE MATERIAL” The only reason why this project had remained only a ﬁctitious idea for over 40 years was to ﬁnd a material that is super strong. The answer arrived in the form of carbon nanotubes composite ribbons. Carbon nanotubes have the potential to be 30 times stronger than steel and are as ﬂexible as plastic. The strength of carbon nanotubes comes from their unique structure, which resembles soccer balls.
THE RIBBON Made from an advanced carbon nanotube composite material 30 times stronger than steel, the ribbon is 3 feet wide and thinner than a sheet of paper. Then vehicles climb the ribbon from earth to outer space. Simple electric motors hold the climbers upwards. Power is supplied from a ground station in form of a laser beam which is converted into electricity. The ground station can be very similar to an oil platform.
Once a long ribbon of nanotubes is created, it would be wound into a spool that would be launched into orbit. When the spacecraft carrying the spool reaches a certain altitude, perhaps Low Earth Orbit, it would begin unspooling, lowering the ribbon back to Earth. At the same time, the spool would continue moving to a higher altitude. When the ribbon is lowered into Earth’s atmosphere, it would be caught and then lowered and anchored to a mobile platform in the ocean. The ribbon would serve as the tracks of a sort of railroad into space. Mechanical lifters would then be used to climb the ribbon to space.
BUILDING THE IMPOSSIBLE The elevator is a concept that does require a lot of research work like studying the effects of lightening, weather conditions on the nanotubes, wind and clouds. Space elevators to go to other worlds are also being thought of. For some the concept may sound impossible and far-fetched, but one thing is to be kept in mind that building the impossible is one thing that human knows very nicely. REFERENCES www.physicspost.com www.science.howstuffworks.com
science & technology
WHEN COMPASSES POINT SOUTH!!!!
by Govind Mohan
We have had several visits above the earth, hundreds of satellites have been sent to space, dozens had trips to the moon and many are planning to visit the Mars but no one has ever dared to go beneath the earth. Yet what happens there affects every day of our lives. The Earth’s molten core is around 2,000 miles beneath our feet. Here a vast ocean of liquid iron generates an invisible force, the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. It’s what makes our compasses point north.
Having witnessed the powerful Boxing Day earthquakes in 2004 that triggered the Tsunami disaster, people are trying to ﬁnd out the possible causes for the apparent instability of the earth’s Crust. Many researchers are of the view that the weakening of earth’s vital magnetic shield may be the possible cause of these massive destructions. Today the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is decreasing very rapidly, at a rate that it will last only into the next millennium. If the magnetic ﬁeld dies, it will also mean the death of the Blue Planet. This decreasing magnetic ﬁeld was evident from a very surprising source. It’s hard to believe that pottery records the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld. Clay contains tiny pieces of an Iron based mineral called Magnetite. This magnetite is composed of lots of tiny magnets at the microscopic level. These magnets all point in different directions and fail to create any resultant magnetic ﬁeld in raw clay. The high temperature of the kiln erases all magnetic regions. But as the pot cools, new magnetic regions are regenerated which align in the direction of the earth’s magnetic ﬁeld thus making the pot slightly magnetic. Once cooled, the magnetism gets locked in. The strength of the ﬁeld depends on the ﬁeld it has magnetized in. John Shaw from the University of Liverpool examined the pottery from prehistoric to modern times and plotted the results from the ceramics. He saw gentle changes as we come forward in time over twelve thousand years, a gentle rise and then a rapid fall, as we come towards the present day. The rate of change is higher over the last three hundred years than it has been for any time in the past ﬁve thousand. It’s going from a strong ﬁeld down to a weak ﬁeld, and at a very high rate. This change can also be evident from the lava samples of different periods. Mechanika, 2008
Earth’s Magnetic Field
Global Magnetic Field But it was 50 years ago when a group of scientists examined the magnetic ﬁeld in older Hawaiian lava samples, they found that the magnetic ﬁeld inside was pointing south away from the north.
science & technology
According to Mark Fuller, University of Hawaii, “It was hard for people to accept. They did not like the idea that the ﬁeld reversed. It took about 50 years to convince people of this. That the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld reverses is an extraordinary phenomenon, but this reversal process is quite common. The last reversal was what, 780,000 years ago. Before that, there was one about 200,000, before that, again, actually less than 200, so in a sense we are a bit overdue for a reversal.”
The Cause of Reversals
Earth’s protective magnetic shield
The causes of these reversals are still under doubt. Many scientists believe that reversals are an inherent aspect of the dynamo theory of how the geomagnetic ﬁeld is generated. In computer simulations, it is observed that magnetic ﬁeld lines can sometimes become tangled and disorganized through the chaotic motions of liquid metal in the Earth’s core. In some simulations, this leads to an instability in which the magnetic ﬁeld spontaneously ﬂips over into the opposite orientation. This scenario is supported by observations of the solar magnetic ﬁeld, which undergoes spontaneous reversals every 7-15 years. The next solar ﬂip is due to occur in 2012. This may be the reason why the magnetic ﬁeld is getting weaker these days or may be our planet is getting ready for another reversal. The wiping out of the gigantic life forms like dinosaurs from the face of the earth could be a result of past weakening of magnetic ﬁeld leading to reversals. If so, what could be the result of today’s magnetic ﬁeld weakening? The weakening intensity suggests that we will be more exposed to the cosmic radiations from the Sun, this clearly means more deaths from cancer per year. Hundred thousands of people would die from the increased space radiation per year. The radiations could also have serious effects on crops, electronic goods, etc. It maybe that no one of us live to see the next reversal but let’s hope that it would bring with it fun and many great ideas rather than destruction. Gary Glatzmaier (University of California, Santa Cruz) also seems positive when he said, “It’ll be something to be concerned about, but it won’t be a catastrophic event. And certainly by the time it happens, civilization will have ﬁgured out how to deal with it”.
“Comets can travel around the sun at about 160000 km/h making them some of the fastest objects in the solar system. Closer it is to sun fatser it would be. Point at which it is closest to sun is called perihelion and farthest one is called apehelion”
science & technology Courtesy: www.googlescholar.wordpress.com
Theory for Everything by Rohit Koolwal
“Not many people realize that Albert Einstein’s greatest theory was never ﬁnished i.e. “Theory for everything”. His crowning achievement would have been The Uniﬁed Field theory that would explain all physical phenomena from the birth of universe, to supernovas, to atoms and molecules. A uniﬁed ﬁeld theory allows all of the fundamental forces between elementary particles to be written in terms of a single ﬁeld. He spent last two decades of his life searching for this theory”
Cosmologists believe that everything began after a huge explosion called The Big Bang. The big bang theory does not tell anything about what banged, why banged and what were the conditions immediately after the bang. Even the laws of physics do not hold good at the time of big bang. Now the string theory has to explain how the world began. But as people worked on it they found ﬁve different string theory namely Type I, Type IIA, Type IIB, Heterotic E8 and Heterotic SO32. String Theory has previously displaced the idea of super gravity. The contrasting features of these two theories were the number of dimensions in the universe. The former considered ten dimensions (nine spatial and one time dimension), while the latter considered eleven dimensions (ten spatial and one time dimension). But with the loss of uniqueness, the string theory was in trouble, so some people started working on the eleventh dimension. Adding one dimension in the string theory made all the ﬁve different string theory to be clubbed again into one. These theories are related by transformations that are called Dualities. These dualities link quantities that were also thought to be separate. These ﬁve different theories
any theories have been put up claiming to be the Einstein’s missing theory but one idea was the most revolutionary of all. The theory was so provocative that it immediately began to sound like a perfect Theory for Everything. It was all to do with strings, The String theory. It has been thought that matter was made up of tiny, invisible particles. But now the point of view has changed and the matter is considered to be made up of little strings. The building blocks in string theory are one-dimensional extended objects called strings. According to it, the subatomic particles in nature are nothing more than different resonances of the vibrating superstrings, in the same way that different musical notes emaCourtesy: www.misunderstooduniverse.com nate from the different modes of vibration of a vio- turned out to be different manifestations lin string. For this to be Ein- of a more fundamental theory, M-Theory. stein’s missing theory, it has to Now, the basic idea of string theory, tiny explain the birth of universe. invisible strings, has changed. When the 21
science & technology physicists look at the computer model of the eleventh dimension, i.e. from the point of view of the eleventh dimension they found that the ‘String’ changed. They stretched and they combined. In the standard string theories, strings are assumed to be the single fundamental constituent of the universe. M-theory adds another fundamental constituent-membranes. The astonishing conclusion was that all the matter in the Universe was connected to one vast structure, which was called a membrane. When Witten named M-theory, he did not specify what the “M” stood for. He says that M stands for “magic”, “mystery”, or “matrix” according to taste. Some suggest M stands for “membrane”, some other says “mother of all theories”, “master theory”, or “missing”. A membrane, or brane, is a multidimensional object, usually called a p-brane, with p referring to the numberof dimensions in which it exists. The value of ‘p’ can range from zero to nine, thus giving branes dimensions from zero (0-brane for point particle) to nine. The eleventh dimension could be of maximum one trillionth of a millimeter. We can observe only three spatial dimensions and one time dimension because the other seven spatial dimensions are “curled up” or “compactiﬁed”. The eleventh dimension exists only one trillionth of a millimeter from every point in this three-dimensional world and our membrane universe is ﬂoating. Some people suggested that there could be another universe pulsating at the opposite end of the eleventh dimension. Courtesy: www.hiddenmeanings.com
Another phenomenon which astonished scientist was the weakness of gravity. This force was very weak as compared to other forces such as electromagnetic forces. So they started thinking whether the other dimensions that we can’t see are reducing the strength of gravity, i.e. gravity is leaking from other universe to our’s and on that membrane, it is as strong as other force. Believing this, everything has now began to exactly fall in place and weakness of gravity can be explained but with the idea of Parallel
Universe. Quantum superposition, a phenomena exhibited by particles, meant that objects can be in more than one place at once, suggested that parallel universes exist. The parallel universe was the perfect explanation of the problems but physicists could ﬁnd more and more number of parallel universe. This leads to emergence of the idea of inﬁnite number of parallel universe. They believe that some were like our universe, some were completely different with different laws governing natural phenomenon. There could be one universe in which we all were never born, and in some other Napoleon won the Battle of Waterloo and in other, Einstein is still alive and has already found the Theory for Everything. Still, the beginning of the Big Bang, commonly called as singularity, has to be explained to explain the universe completely. The possible explanation could be that brane collisions produce all of the effects of the early universe and they collide to produce the ‘Big Bang’ effect. There are ripples in the surface of each brane and when they come together they don’t hit at exactly the same time, same place, but in fact they hit at different points and at different times. So when the collision takes place it imparts those ripples into real matter. This could explain the birth of universe and resolve singularity. The understanding of the multiverse is that there could be an inﬁnite number of universes each with a different law of physics. Big Bangs probably take place all the time. Our Universe coexists with other membranes, other universes which are also in the process of expansion. Our Universe could be just one bubble ﬂoating in an ocean of other bubbles. However, some physicists claim that the multiverse theories lack empirical correlation and testability. There is no accepted uniﬁed ﬁeld theory yet, and this remains an open line of research.
REFERENCES • http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/horizon/2001/paralleluni.shtml • http://science.howstuffworks.com • http://www.wikipedia.org
science & technology
The Automated Guided Vehicles by V Rohit
“The Automated Guided Vehicle is a mobile robot used in industrial applications to move materials around a manufacturing facility or a warehouse”
Fig. 1: Light-duty assembly AGV
utomated Guided Vehicles (AGV’s) have now become quite popular in automated material handling systems, ﬂexible manufacturing systems and even container handling systems. AGV’s help to reduce the total manufacturing cost and increase the efﬁciency in a manufacturing system.
Timely movement of materials is a critical element to an efﬁcient manufacturing operation. The costs associated with delivering raw materials, moving work in process and removing ﬁnished goods must be minimized while also minimizing any product damage that is the result of improper handling. An AGV system helps streamline operations while also delivering improved safety and tracking the movement of materials. Today, a country like India has surplus human force and thus the cost of human resources is not of much importance. But, pretty soon there will surely be a demand for more labor and that is when the manufacturing industry can look up to these AGVs to help accomplish the tasks at a cheaper cost with greater efﬁciency.
AGV’s can tow objects behind them in small trailers which they can autonomously hook up to. These trailers can be used to move raw materials into line to get them ready to be manufactured. The AGV can also store objects on a bed. The objects can be placed on a set of motorized treads and then pushed off by reversing them. The ﬁrst AGV was brought to market during the second half of the twentieth century. At the time it was simply a tow truck that followed a wire in the ﬂoor instead of a rail. Over the years the technology has become more sophisticated and today automated vehicles are mainly Laser navigated e.g. LGV (Laser Guided Vehicle). In an automated process, LGV’s are programmed to communicate with other robots to ensure product is moved smoothly through the warehouse, whether it is being stored for future use or sent directly to shipping areas. Today, the LGV plays an important role in the design of new factories and warehouses, safely moving goods to their rightful destinations. Mechanika, 2008
Fig.2: Inner Guided Automatic trailer loading vehicle
science & technology Although, the AGV’s have announced their arrival into the industries the main problem which still remains to be troubling the scientists and researchers is the problem of ﬁnding optimal routes for the AGV’s which are inferior to human drivers in terms of sensory and decision making abilities. The routes for AGV’s are designed in two ways, static routing and dynamic routing. Static routing refers to the scenario wherein the routes are formulated before hand assuming there shall not be any break down of the vehicles. Dynamic routing refers to the more realistic scenario wherein routes are formulated in real-time even when one of the AGV’s breaks down. Although, till recently research was basically focused on static routing the importance for dynamic routing has been recognized.
Industries like Daimler Chrysler and Honda have been using AGV’s in their units to increase the efﬁciency of their production.
Automotive Applications HONDA Features Date Installed
Side Reach Lift
Number of Vehicles
Application Description Transport Stamped Parts Industry Description
SGV Host Controls Pick/Drop Type
Windows NT(R) Racks and Baskets
30,000 square feet-Phase 1
Fig. 3: Automotive Applications of AGVs in Honda
DaimlerChrysler Features Conveyor Deck SGV
Conveyor Deck, Autocart and Tugger
Number of Vehicles
Conveyor - 3,000 lbs Autocart - 1,000 lbs Tugger - 20,000 lbs
Racks of components, instrument panels and auto body parts
Battery Charging Method Opportunity Throughput
Upto 27 deliveries per hour facility produce 81 vehicle/hr
Fig. 4: Automotive Applications of AGVs in DaimlerChrysler
science & technology
Conveyor Deck SGV: Operates in the Trim/Chassis Final (TCF) area of the plant and transports racks of engines, shocks, struts, and suspensions from the manual receiving dock conveyors to lineside conveyors. The conveyor deck vehicle picks-up loads from eight receiving dock linear conveyors and delivers them to drop locations at the lineside indexing conveyors. Autocart SGV: Operates in the Trim/Chassis Final (TCF) area of the plant and transports racks of instrument panels from the automated receiving dock to lineside conveyors, and also returns empty racks. Dock stripping equipment which consists of a robotic arm loads and unloads powered Over-the-Road Trailers, and places materials directly onto the Autocart vehicle. The Autocart also interfaces with accumulation conveyors at each lineside operator station. Tugger SGV: Tows/pulls racks of autobody components from the ASRS in the Body-in-White (BIW) area to lineside positions in the Trim/Chassis ﬁnal (TCF) area. When at the lineside drop position a froklift opeartor unloads full containers from the Tugger trailers and replaces them with empty containers. The Tugger SGV then travels back to the ASRS area to deliver the empty containers, and the process is repeated.
“Owing to the great advances in the ﬁelds of artiﬁcial intelligence and intelligent manufacturing better routing techniques are being formulated every day, all around the world to make things simpler and more effective”
Beneﬁts • • • • •
Reduced labor costs Improved safety through reduced fork truck trafﬁc Improved production efﬁcency (plant produces 81 Dodge Caliber vehicles/hr) Flexible solution for plants changing production demands Safe reliable delivery of components
REFERENCES • Hsu, W.-J. and Huang, S.-Y., 1994, Route planning of automated guided vehicles. In Proceedings of Intelligent Vehicles, Paris, pp. 479±485. • Le-Anh, T., De Koster, R., in press. Online dispatching rules for vehicle-based internal transport systems. Technical Report ERS-2004-031-LIS, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), Erasmus University Rotterdam, International Journal of Production Research. • Tuan Le-Anh, M.B.M. De Koster., A review of design and control of automated guided vehicle systems, European Journal of Operational Research 171 (2006) 1–23. • Samia Maza, Pierre Castagna, A performance-based structural policy for conﬂict-free routing of bidirectional automated guided vehicles, Computers in Industry 56 (2005) 719–733. • Jervis B. Webb, Worldwide Material Handling Solutions: http://www.jervisbwebb.com/Categories/AGVs.aspx?cid=3 • FMC Technologies: http://www.fmcsgvs.com • Wikipedia: http://www.wikipedia.org
science & technology
Perimeter Security Systems “Crash Rated Active Bollards” by Prathyusha.M
As passenger safety is of paramount importance to the manufacturer of passenger vehicles, so is the security of the nation to its government. Recent developments in the usage of heavy vehicles by militant outﬁts to carry out attack has become the main concern of many governments around the world, hence the existence of some kind of barrier to stop vehicles from entering restricted areas was thought of. Bollards are one of the most effective equipments which without being much expensive provide both visibility and high security. A bollard pole with sufﬁcient energy absorbing capability can be used as a simple restraint at dead ends of the road to save lives. These bollards can be deployed quickly and effectively, even in places where it is impossible to excavate for a permanent foundation.
bollard is an aesthetic concrete/steel barrier used to protect critical infrastructures as well as deﬁne a roadway or path. Bollards are unobtrusive and enhance the site appearance while providing the highest protection needed. Automatic bollards as the name suggests, are automatic in operation and detect a vehicle by an authorization pre-programmed into the system. The crash rated ones are the most critical and used for perimeter security. Even when the passage is obstructed, if a vehicle tries to intrude, it undergoes a crash with the bollard and completely collapses but the bollard still stays upright and continues to function the same way as it did before the crash.
Bollards Lined up infront of a museum as a protective measure for the monument
science & technology
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION Bollards are designed with an inner steel core coated in a polyurethane casting, whilst the outer casing is constructed from a hard polyurethane compound. In its withdrawn position, the bollards descend hydraulically into the outer casing located below the ground level. A maximum of 4 bollards can be operated from each system. A typical bollard operates from a single phase 240 V supply, rated at 13 amps. The system is controlled by a micro processor based Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) which provides programmability for complex access and trafﬁc control systems. The controllers together with the Hydraulic Powerpack, safety circuits, power supplies and peripheral controls are housed in a road side cabinet. The basic principle of stoppage of a vehicle is energy absorption. A vehicle moving towards a barricade has a certain kinetic energy, which is the major measure of how much “hitting power” it possesses. Mathematically, kinetic energy is derived from the vehicle velocity and its weight (mass). On impact, some of this energy is converted to heat, sound and permanent deformation of the vehicle. The barricade absorbs the remainder of this energy if the vehicle is to be stopped. The amount of remaining energy varies depending on several factors, primarily the velocity of the vehicle at the moment of impact. The amount of kinetic energy possessed by a vehicle changes as the square of its velocity. For example, a vehicle moving at 50 mph has 25 times as much kinetic energy than it would at 10 mph.
SPECIFICATIONS Bollard diameter
700 mm - 800 mm
Bollard ﬁnish options
Stainless steel or galvanized mild steel with a round/octagonal polyurethane sleeve
Available in different colors
Optimum bollard riser time
Optimum bollard lower time
Power fail status
Bollard down as standard/Bollard up option available
240v single phase 20amp
science & technology
CRASH TEST The ﬁnished bollard after being installed has been crash tested with different vehicles and impacts. Alternatively, 3D models can be developed using different Finite Element softwares like ANSYS, Hypermesh, CATIA, NASTRAN and LS-Dyna 970 and the simulation of crash test can be done.
Figures above show the complete stoppage of a vehicle at 75 mph impact by a single bollard and the extent to which the truck is damaged
REFERENCES • “Protective Bollard Design for high impact energy absorption” by Bangalore Krishna-Prasad, Bangalore University, Karnataka” • “Dynamic performance of New Design- Energy Absorbing Bollards” by Automotive Safety Engineering Pty Ltd” • http://www.atgaccess.com • http://www.aptcontrols.co.uk • http://securitysolutions.com Interesting Crash Test Videos can be found on the following websites: • http://www.atgaccess.com/products/impact-tested-products.htm • http://www.southwestautomated.com/crashvids.html
“The whole of science is nothing more than a reﬁnement of everyday thinking” - Albert Einstein
Gourami Business Challenge
He is the lone Shell recruit this year from IITG. For the first time Gourami Business Challenge made its presence in India, and only 10 from all over India were selected to be part of this challenge in Malaysia. He was by Priyesh Sinha the only one from IITG.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that energy usage could grow by more than half over the next quarter century and possibly double by 2050. A majority of this growth looks set to come from Asian countries, particularly China and India with their increasing economic growth.
Shell Technology India (STI)
hell Technology India, a counterpart of Royal Dutch Shell Group that operates in over 140 countries, started its operations in 2006. It will serve as an entry point for the cutting edge Indian talent to potentially move into the wider group. Thus it is the wonderful opportunity for those individuals who wish to make a career in the energy sector, who want to discover the magnanimous world of oil and gas or work towards the alternative sources of power. Shell recruits individuals for a variety of job proﬁles from different engineering disciplines viz. Mechanical, Civil, Chemical, Electrical, and Geology to name a few. Recruitment occurs through internships, campus interviews better known as shell recruitment day (SRD) and Shell Gourami Business Challenge.
Shell deﬁnes “Achievement” as “the drive and enthusiasm to set one self and others challenging unambiguous targets; the mental and physical resilience to deliver and the courage & self conﬁdence tackle unfamiliar problems and to go against crowds when necessary”. “Relationship” is describe as “genuine respect and concerned for people, valuing everyone regardless of culture and status, demonstrating on honesty and integrity in all their actions; creating trust by open and direct communication, persuading others by inspiration; sensitivity and clarity of their arguments, arranging clear means of communication and decision making”. “Capacity” is termed as “the ability to analyze data quickly and learn fast, basing judgment of fact not sentiment, analyzing outside existing boundaries to identify implications ad learning from others; the creativity to propose innovative solutions and manage uncertainty within complex environment to produce workable solutions”. During any recruitment procedure shell bases its questions to identify the above characteristics and candidate must demonstrate them during the entire period they are evaluated by shell be it interviews (telephonic or Personal interviews), discussions, presentations or any formal interactions.
“The qualities that shell looks for in employees are condensed as CAR&T attributes i.e. capacity, achievement, relationship and technical proﬁciency”
My inference during the entire gourami procedure was that when it came to us, the students from India, shell focused more on CAR attributes while the technical aspect was limited to CV screening and brief relatively simple technical interview, where I was asked questions on a project undertaken, the details of which were submitted before hand. Gourami in its essence is a ﬁve day recruitment program where candidates appearing are evaluated on various criterions through variety of procedures. It is annually held in ﬁve regions of the world namely Asia – Paciﬁc, Africa, Middle East, Europe and America. The Gourami business challenge held in Malaysia was the ﬁrst opportunity
off campus when ten students from India took part along with candidates from Singapore, Philippines, China, Malaysia, Indonesia and Australia forming a multi–ethnic group of 47 students with technical and non–technical backgrounds. The selections for Gourami in India was done by telephonic interviews for those candidates whose names were forwarded by respective departments of each IITs in numbers speciﬁed. In IIT Guwahati ten students (three each from mechanical & chemical and two each from ECE & civil) were interviewed by shell for selections in Gourami. Gourami is fantasized as a state that has been ruled by sultans but is becoming liberal over the years and has prepared for development. It has rich oil and gas reserves in various parts. The object of this team of 47 candidates was to prepare a business plan to explore, produce, reﬁne, supply and export oil & gas proﬁtably amongst the stringent laws of Gourami. To achieve the target the team was divided into ﬁve groups with 8–10 members each for exploration, production, reﬁning, power generation and economic analysis. The groups were divided such that it had students for technical, ﬁnancial, HR considerations, each belonging to a different nationality. As a member of EP South (Exploration & Production South group) the job of my team was to explore and estimate the oil and gas reserves, make a production plan for a constant supply to the reﬁnery and power group, taking care of the ﬁnancial aspects for a proﬁtable business. The planning went forward through discussions within my own team, with adjoining teams, by negotiations with representatives of the state of Gourami over tax rebates, land equity and collaborations by way of discussions with contemporary organizations. Then there were presentations at various stages to the project heads and the project was concluded by a presentation to the shareholders of the shell. Finally there was an interview one half of which was technical as previously explained and the other half was based on my contribution in the project development plan.
In order to do the jobs assigned in Gourami, no prior preparations are required. An intelligent reading of all the material provided by shell aids enough to the purpose. Apart from that a technical understanding of the various data and information, analytical thinking, judicious use of provided information at the right time, effective use of different people in the team and an integral participation in the group activity that lasts for about three days would deﬁnitely assure success to an individual. Gourami is not about how well an individual is familiar with his area of specialization (be it technical or non technical) but emphasizes more on how does one plan a project intricacies towards a ﬁne completion. It is notable that while in Gourami, you are not to compete with your mates, but must prove your worth in the tasks you do. It therefore makes the atmosphere very friendly and by the end of a hectic day, different entertainment events are organized which relieves one from the tensions. It also helps to know the different members of the group, their culture and ways of living. In a small period of ﬁve days, we 47 at Gourami were like a family irrespective of global boundaries. As Indians have always proved their worth abroad, so was in Gourami. For any student from IITG, it is no hard nut to crack. A tinge of intelligence and a smart makeover of one’s personality would assure the best results and would deﬁnitely make it an experience of a lifetime. I wish all the very best to future Gouramians!!
“Expecting the world to treat you fairly because you are good is like expecting the bull not to charge because you are a vegetarian” - Dennis Wholey
Every team had a coach to assist details. Alongside there were datasheets and information booklets for each candidate as per his/her background and the job assigned. There was also a library to supplement any information alongside the local area network where effective information transfer took place. For sake of evaluation every group had a ‘ﬂoating accessor’ who never interacted but made notes on performance of each candidate.
Science in the lap of Spirituality by Aseem Bansal
he serene and sparkling abode of Lord Venketeshwara, Tirumala, Tirupati Devasthanam, located in Andhra Pradesh was witness to recondite cogitations of the scientiﬁc and spiritual warlords of world. Noble Laureate Prof. Roger Kornberg was an agent and catalyst in the heated debates with students well represented from different universities across the globe like the IITs, IISC, IIMs, AIIMS, NITs, DRDO, ISRO, BEL, Oxford University (UK), Stanford University (USA), University of Illinois (USA), National University of Singapore, etc. In the war of titans, other big players were the likes of Prof. Yash Pal (Padma Bhushan), Dr. Anita Goel (Founder, Chairman and CEO, Nanobiosym Diagnotics), Kota Harinarayana (Padamshree), Vijay Kumar Saraswat (Padamshree) and many more. More than a thousand students participated in the conference which was held in Mahati auditorium (Tirupati). And what’s more satisfying is the fact that main organizer was our very own S. C Mishra sir. Day 1 of conference started with an exhilarating speech by Sri Sri Ravi Shankar which was followed by various talks, exhibitions, paper and poster presentations on topics like “The synthesis of science and spirituality”, “Parallels between spirituality and quantum theory”, “Ultimate reality: Science and Spiritual paradigms”, “Machine, mind and consciousness”, “Unfoldment of collective consciousness in Indian Spiritual traditions”, “Structure of consciousness”, “Consciousness in relation to Bioelectric Neural Circuitry” etc. There was also a panel discussion on ‘Science, Ethics and spirituality: a need for a balanced approach’ in which the view point that ethics (dharma) should be at the core of all scientiﬁc progress was churned and there was an attempt to obtain an ideal roadmap for future progress.
Next day we had to wake up at 2 am because we had to leave for Tirupati Balaji Darshan at 3 am. The Darshan was also a part of the conference. I was very exited. The buses started exactly at 3 am and went uphill to Tirumala Hills, the home of Sri Balaji Maharaj. Amidst tight security and checking, we ﬁnally had the divine darshan of Balaji, an experience which is impossible to limit in words here. After collecting the famous Laddu Prasadam, we returned to the conference where another day of inestimable insights into the absolute reality awaited us. The day proceeded with orations on subjects like “Scientiﬁc exploration and explanation of meditation”, “The nature of time and it’s references in various scriptures”, “Understanding molecular evolution by studying DNA in light of quantum mechanics”, “Mathematization of nature”, “Time dimension: Exploration from science, philosophy and spirituality, Synthesis of Vedic and Modern cosmology”, “Mathematical Techniques for study of EEG data recording during meditation”, “New frontiers in biology and implications for science and spirituality, “The knowable nature of scientiﬁc truth” etc. The panel discussion was on the role of spirituality to imbibe values in education. It was followed by an interactive session with all the speakers including the Nobel Laureate Prof. Kornberg and Prof. Yash Pal. Finally, the conference concluded with a splendid performance by artists depicting the glories of Lord Sri Venkateshwara and a magniﬁcent drum show, martial arts and rasa–dance by a Manipuri cultural arts troupe.
“A little inaccuracy sometimes saves a ton of explanation” - H. H. Munro (Saki)
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