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University Gardens High School

The UGHS Scientific Journal Issue 1, Volume 2, Number 1 April 2013

EAGLES ‘13

University Gardens High School, Georgetown St., Notredame Corner, University Gardens Urb., San Juan, Puerto Rico 00921


LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS AND PARTICIPANTS This edition of The UGHS Scientific Journal was prepared, written and designed by the following: 1. Alicea Zambrana, Kimberly

15. Quiñones Santiago, Melanie

2. Bayona Torres, Melissa

16. Rivera González, Alex

3. Cuevas Cruz, Julio

17. Rivera Rosario, Ángel

4. Díaz Carrasquillo, Zalimech T.

18. Rivera Hernández, Melody

5. Figueroa González, Almaris

19. Rivera Vélez, Lyanne M.

6. García Berríos, Andrés

20. Rodríguez Montañez, Cristian

7. Montes Torres, Agness

21. Rosario Vega, Nattalia

8. Oquendo, Gabriela I.

22. Sánchez Candelaria, Daniel

9. Ortiz Beyley, Sofía

23. Sánchez Torres, Neysharie

10. Padilla Martínez, Iván

24. Solivan Texidor, Kimberlly

11. Pagán Muñoz, José

25. Torres Molinari, Ámbar

12. Peña Muñiz, Alexandra

26. Torres Moreno, Naillil

13. Pérez Jiménez, Charlie

27. Zayas Alom, Gabriela

14. Quiñones Acevedo, Jinelys

JOURNAL COMMITTEES Committee

Members

Tech Expert

José A. Pagán Muñoz

Editor

Neysharie Sánchez Torres

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DEDICATION

The contributors and editorial committees dedicate the third volume of The UGHS Scientific Journal to professors Annia Calcaño and Pablo Hernández. Both of whom have been actively involved in the school’s Science Fair and have helped us in the development of our scientific investigations.

X

X

Annia Calcaño Nieves UGHS Professor

Pablo J. Hernández UGHS Professor

THANKS We thank all professors that have helped us in the development of this scientific journal, and those who have helped us in our scientific research. Professors: Glory Velázquez, Frank Torres, Annia Calcaño, Pablo Hernández, Vicnuel Echavarry, Nelson Ruiz and Marta Padró are very well appreciated.

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INDEX

University Gardens High School, Specialized In Science and Mathematics

Eagles 2013

Why make this journal? The UGHS Scientific Journal aims to recognize and share with the scientific community the school’s scientific investigation potential. Making scientific data and results public is one of the most important steps of becoming great investigators. Through this journal we take our first steps of becoming the investigators of the future.

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Scientific Articles

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DEMONSTRATION OF THE STRONG GOLDBACH CONJECTURE IN THE NUMERICAL RANGE OF 104 TO 107 José Pagán Muñoz, Agness Montes Torres and Marcel Ruiz Ortiz University Gardens H.S. Seniors, B.S. in Pure Mathematics with Minor in Programming, M.B.A. in Marketing, M.B.A. in Human Resources and M.Ed. in Mathematical Education The Strong Goldbach Conjecture, developed in 1742 by German mathematician Christian Goldbach, states that every even number greater than or equal to four can be expressed as the sum of two prime numbers. Being a conjecture means that this statement has not been found completely proven, or to have at least one counterexample. This research project focused on proving Goldbach’s conjecture on the interval of 104 to 107 by the means of a laptop computer and using the numerical analysis program Wolfram Mathematica 9. Our results proved that the Strong Goldbach Conjecture is proven in the previously mentioned interval. More importantly, we proved that by the means of a relatively simple computer we successfully demonstrated Goldbach’s Conjecture in the interval of 104 to 107. Introduction “A conjecture is a proposition that is consistent with known data, but has never been verified or proven wrong.” (Weisstein, 2012). Since conjectures are not completely verified or proven wrong, they cannot be used in formal demonstrations. When these propositions are fully proved, they can be used in these types of demonstrations and are called theorem. Some conjectures have never been proven, or a long time passes before their truthfulness is verified. In 1742, German mathematician Christian Goldbach formulated a few statements in a letter sent to recognized mathematician, Leonhard Euler. One of these propositions is known as the Strong Goldbach Conjecture, and it states that every even number greater than or equal to four can be expressed as the sum of two prime numbers. Being a conjecture, this statement has remained unproven for 271 years even though considerable effort has been put into solving it. Oliveira e Silva (2012), a professor in Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, has been running

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a distributed computer research and has successfully proven this conjecture up till However, no convincing or solid proof for the Strong Goldbach Conjecture has been validated and accepted in the mathematical community. Various methods for proving the conjecture have been attempted throughout the years. As mentioned, research has been made in a wide distributed computer research using programming algorithms and codes for calculating the conjecture. No research has shown, however, the use of a single computer to calculate these algorithms. In this investigation we attempt to do the same procedures, using a single computer to calculate the algorithms. Methodology Initially, we reviewed different algorithms to estimate the sum of two primes, resulting in an even number greater than four. Among the selection criteria of the algorithm, we considered the computer language in which the algorithms were written and if they meet the principal objective mentioned above. Figures 1, 2 and 3 present some of the algorithms that met the necessary criteria. Figure 1: First evaluated programming algorithm.

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Figure 2: Second evaluated programming algorithm

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Figure 3: Third evaluated programming algorithm.

After completing the review process of all algorithms found, we continued to find a numerical analysis programmer to run the algorithm. For the selection of these programs, it was taken into consideration: the availability, cost, compatibility with the computer programmer to use, compatible language, the amount of memory needed to run the program, the amount of memory used, among other criteria. Among the main numerical programmers, the ones considered were: MATLAB (Matrix Laboratory), GNU Octave, FreeMat, Maple and Wolfram Mathematica 9. After completing the review process, we chose the program Wolfram Mathematica, as it was the one that met the most established criteria. Figure 4: Main interface of Wolfram Mathematica

After selecting the numerical programmer to be used, an elimination process was conducted to select one algorithm of the initially revised, to run it using the previously selected numerical

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programmer. The chosen algorithm to perform the calculations is presented previously in Figure 1. Subsequently, the parameters of the chosen algorithm were modified to calculate the prime addends of even numbers in the set range of 104-107. Figure 5 shows the algorithm selected with the modified parameters. After modifying the parameters in the selected algorithm Wolfram Mathematica programmer was used to run the algorithm.

Figure 5: Modified algorithm for the investigation

The processes were done using a laptop with the following specifications: 

Apple MacBook, 13-inch

Operating System: Mac OS X, version 10.7.4

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Processor: 2.5 GHz Intel Core i5

Memory: 4.00GB RAM, DDR3 1600 MHz

Startup Disk: Macintosh HD

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Results & Analysis The research aimed to test whether the conjecture was true or not in the range of 104 to 107. Figure 6: Fraction of output obtained by running the program

Table # 1: Some prime addends of even numbers in the range [104.107]. Even Number

Prime addends

100002

11 + 99991

10000

59 + 9941

100004

13 + 99991

10002

29 + 9973

100006

3 + 100003

10004

31 + 9973

100008

5 + 100003

10006

83 + 9923

10008

41 + 9967

10010

3 +10007

10012

3 + 10009

10014

5 + 10009

10016

7 + 10009

10018

11 + 10007

100000

11 + 99989

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Even Number

Prime addends

100010

7 + 100003

100012

23 + 99989

100014

11 + 100003

100016

13 + 100003

100018

29 + 99989

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1000000

17 + 999983

9999992

19 + 9999973

1000002

19 + 999983

9999994

3 + 9999991

1000004

43 + 999961

9999996

5 + 9999991

1000006

3 + 1000003

9999998

7 + 9999991

1000008

5 + 1000003

10000000

29 + 9999971

The investigation has as a result the decomposition of even numbers in prime addends for even numbers between ten thousand and ten billion. Because there are about 4, 995, 000 even numbers in the range, it would be unreasonable to express in tables the prime addends for each number. Figure 6 shows part of the output obtained by running the input, showed in Figure 5. Table # 1 shows some examples of the decomposition with dispersed numbers in the interval [104,107]. Discussion & Conclusion The results show that we can calculate Goldbach partitions in a limited numerical range using only a laptop computer. Using these results we can approve our main hypothesis, and continue to explore other possibilities thanks to our results. In the future, we may attempt to demonstrate the Strong Goldbach Conjecture in a wider range of numbers, or also more elevated numbers in the real numbers scale. Furthermore, we can also try to combine algorithms and numerical programs (using a single computer) to create a more efficient method of partially calculating the Strong Goldbach Conjecture References Angiz Langroudi, M.Z., Jandaghi, G. & Mustafa, A.B. (2007). Goldbach Conjecture and Integer Programming. Advances in Theoretical and Applied Mathematics, 2(3), pp. 279-285. Bruckman, P.S.(2008). A proof of the strong Goldbach conjecture. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 39(8), pp. 1102-1109. Cilleruelo Mateo, J. El diablo de los números: La Conjetura de Goldbach. La Gaceta, pp. 557564. Peral Manzo, M. (2007). Replanteamiento de la Conjetura de Goldbach. Revista digital Matemática, Educación e Internet, 8(1), pp. 1-11

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Pollack, P. (2011). The Exceptional set in the polynomial Goldbach problem. International Journal of Number Theory, 7(3), pp. 579-591. Sáenz Castro, C. (2001). Sobre conjeturas y demostraciones en la enseñanza de las matemáticas. Quinto Simposio de la Sociedad Española de la Investigación en Educación Matemática. pp. 47-62 Sivaramakrishnan, R. (2006). Certain Number-Theoretic Episodes in Algebra. Chapman and Hall:

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THE IMPACT OF HERBIVORY ON SEED PRODUCTION OF THE TREE LAGERSTROEMIA SPECIOSA (REINA DE LAS FLORES) Alex A. Rivera González UGHS Senior Student; B.A in General Sciences (Biology), M.S in Environmental Management and Ph.D Environmental Sciences in Restoration and Physiological Plant Ecology.

Herbivory is defined as the process by which an animal is fed of a plant. These animals are called herbivores. When herbivores perform this process often affect plant both negatively and positively. Studies show that these could potentially affect the production of flowers and seeds. This study is based on checking there is a relation between herbivory and seed production of the Reina De Las Flores tree, or rather, if a greater herbivory is lowest the amount of seeds.” “Collection was performed and leaf herbivory measured in those that were consumed. Similarly, the seeds were counted.” “The results showed that there is a clear and strong trend that higher herbivory fewer the quantity of seeds in the plant; giving way to the amount of seeds can be considered indicative of the herbivory level on the plant. The study is conducted with three individuals at a schoolyard under the same conditions. The same is not representative of the species.

INTRODUCTION Herbivory is the relationship that allows the passage of the chemical energy stored by plants to animals. When renewing herbivores part of the leaf tissue of a plant, synthetic they reduce the area and consequently the ability to synthesize carbohydrates. Also there is a loss of carbon nutrient reserve and stored in the leaves. There is loss of resources that the plant uses for growth and reproduction. It is mentioned in the literature: resource depletion in damaged plants, may affect the size or number of flowers and seeds. (Strauss et. Al 1997, Mariano 2001). Also note that receive less damaged plants visits be less attractive therefore have less capacity to fertilize flowers. The Reina de las Flores is native to southern China. In its natural range reaches

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100 feet. The leaves are simple and are up to 1 foot long. The flowers are up to 2.5 inches wide and are purple or pink, depending on variety. Fruits are about 1 inch long and open in five parts to release many winged seeds. The genus name honors the Swedish naturalist Lagerstroem von Magnus (1696-1759). The species name means showy, beautiful. This research is entitled "The Impact of herbivory on seed production of the tree Lagerstroemia speciosa (Reina de las Flores)". The hypothesis for this investigation is: “A greater percentage of herbivory, fewer will be the quantity of seeds in the tree Reina de las Flores, Lagerstroemia speciosa.” In the same will appreciate how much influence the level of a plant herbivore in the amount of seeds that this produces. In addition, the intrigue of whether the animals from eating the plants positively or negatively affect them. It becomes somewhat interesting to know how the plants being eaten by animals, how they can change something essential for plant survival. This interaction is considered common and part of the food web in nature, but we must be careful. Many of the plants may be suffering as a result of uneven and this interaction could be found to be endangered sometimes useful to society or the environment. The study is based on checking the percentage of herbivory of the tree Reina de las Flores and checking whether this has any effect on seed production. This tree was selected because it was inside a school yard and the three individuals are exposed to the same conditions or variables. The circumstances that led to choose that topic were: working interest in some aspect of science integrating nature, curiosity and appearance of the Reina de las Flores. Why this tree? Literature states that herbivores often feed considering the appearance of the tree, its fruit, smell, taste, among others. Also, when herbivory as a broad concept refers to action but lacking in information, this would be another reason to justify the conduct of this study. Furthermore, studies by Janzen-Connell indicate that herbivory can cause damage to the plant, growth and seed production or flowers. However, it also indicates which greatly aid in the dispersal of seeds of the tree. In addition, the tree king of flowers containing a number of seeds and has a long fruiting period which helps you to compare the amount of seed herbivory held in the tree.

PROCEDURE

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For this study we selected three trees of the same species, these are trees: Reina de las Flores, Lagerstroemia speciosa. These were located in an inner courtyard of a middle school in Carolina. We measured the distance between these trees with a tape measure from root to root. Then, we collected data on general characteristics of the area around both trees. These trees were identified by the letters A, B and C.

We measured the removal of the leaf tissue (leaf consumption) of the tree of Reina de las Flores (Lagerstroemia speciosa) using the estimation system herbivory. Trees were divided into two strata according to their height (4.57 m). These layers are: 4.57 m to 1.52 m to 3.5 m and 5.3 m. Within each stratum, 20 leaves were collected randomly. Of these 20 sheets there were consumed leaves and intact leaves. We proceeded to measure the area of each leaf herbivory consumed performing the estimation process herbivory using graph paper, tracing and looking leaf area consumed and total. We averaged the percent of each leaf herbivory once taken the area.

We performed the above process with each tree selected for this research. To measure the possible impact of herbivory on seed production was conducted seed counts. This is based on what is suggested in the literature: "The decline in resources damaged plants can affect the size or number of flowers and seeds." (Strauss et al. 1997, Mariano 2001). Which state that adequacy is evaluated by counting of flowers, fruits or seeds. "

For counting of the seeds was used a digital approach of the tree (by photography) and this was worked in quadrants through the computerized use. We analyzed the data collected and assessed the potential impact of herbivory on Reina de las Flores, Lagerstroemia speciosa.

RESULTS & ANALYSIS

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All these results were represented through a statistical analysis which used a combined bar graph to represent the percentage of herbivory and the number of seeds per individual, a graphical correlation and analysis of variance to get the index of herbivory of each individual. We evaluated and analyzed the results in order to reach a conclusion. The research consists of two graphs (combined bar chart and ANOVA test) to help solve the problem in a clear, precise and convincing way. First, the combined bar chart which depicts a comparison between the percentage of the amount herbivory seed and individuals, shows a fairly clear. This high quantity of seed represents herbivory when the tree is relatively low and in the other way. The tree has an amount of 1.553 seeds and 3.49% of herbivory. The tree B has an amount of 1.385 seeds and 10.97% of herbivory. Finally, the tree C shows an amount of 1,543 seeds and 2.52% of herbivory. We can see the trend that the higher percentage of herbivory, fewer seeds.

In the ANOVA test we worked the percentage of herbivory by each individual and see if the herbivory differs in a significant way between the studied trees. The graph shows there is a noticeable difference between the trees herbivory. Clearly, the B-tree has a greater herbivory. However, when testing the tree we see that between A and B no significant difference with a P-value of 0.074174. Among the tree A and C cannot see a significant difference as it has a P-value of 0.358431. However, in the tree B and C if you can see a significant difference since the p-value is less than 0.05. In the graph, the letters A and B denotes that no significant difference between the tree B and C. Yes, herbivory differed between the studied trees.

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Comparison between the percentage of herbivory and the amount of seeds between the trees 12

1,600

10.97 1,553

1,543

8

1,500

6

4

1,550

1,450

1,400

3.49

Quantity of seeds

Average Percentage of herbivory

10

Porciento de Herbivoria Cantidad de semillas

2.52

1,385 2

1,350

0

1,300 Árbol A

Árbol B

Árbol C

Trees

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DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION According to the data collected and the analysis presented in the graphs can be said that the working hypothesis was that the greater herbivory lower will be the seed production, is accepted. This is clearly because the graph comparing the percent herbivory and the amount of seeds showed a tendency of a relation between herbivory and the tree seeds. You could say that herbivory is reflected in the production of seeds. According to literature, the decrease of the amount of seeds due to herbivory can be attributed to the feeding of plants has survival effects, although this is not completely consumed. Herbivores can affect the operation of the plant and therefore the production of seed of the same. Similarly, herbivores could be feeding the coverage area or where the seeds are produced.

Once herbivory seen that influences the production of seeds of the tree, this study opens step to deepen why this occurs this way. It could investigate consumed coverage of the leaf or the operation of the tree. Furthermore, it could bring countless other study variables as: compare results with other area containing the tree, expand the sampling season, among others. On the other hand, one might consider investigating other tree species to confirm whether the results match the higher herbivory fewer seeds. Thus, one might consider the factor of seed production as indicative of how high or low the index or the percentage of herbivory in a tree and how much the species being affected by eating the leaves of the herbivores.

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REFERENCES Botanical – Online (El Mundo de Las

Martínez, T.F.; Barroso, F.G. & Paz,

Plantas).

(1999-2011).

M.T.

Recovered

on

January

Taninos. 22,

2011.

(2000).

Relación entre la

herbivoría simulada y contenido en

http://www.botanical-

taninos

Sarguilla

(Periploca

online.com/medicinalestaninos.htm

laevigata: Ascleopidaceae.

Recovered

on

de

la

January

21,

2011.

http://www.exopol.com/seoc/docs/ibp70 La

Herbivoría.ppt.

January

Recovered

22,

on

mx5.pdf

2011.

http://www.uib.es/depart/dba/ecologia/ec ologia/www/catala/infoalumnes/ecologia

Felipe A. Noguera, Rodolfo Dirzo &

1340/documents/herbivoria.pdf

Cesar

Domínguez.

Interacciones

(2002).

planta-herbívoro en

la selva baja caducifolia de Chamela. La Société des Gens de Lettre. (2000).

Historia

Reina De Las Flores.

517-524.

January

Recovered on

20,

2011.

http://plantencyclo.free.fr/sp/nmauric_la

Natural De Chamela.

P.

Recovered on January 18,

2011. http://books.google.com.pr/books?id=-

gerstroemia_speciosa_gg.html

InqlOPhLEIC&pg=PA517&lpg= PA517&dq=Herbivoria+(Investigaciones )&source=bl&ots=4TVoZrs2Y1&

Maderas de Puerto Rico. Reina De Las Flores

Lagerstroemia

sig=389Nz_vcyiFbf0tbgpmdmX8npbI&

speciosa

hl=es&ei=Qps3TZuHF87pgAey7

(Lythraceae). Recovered on January 20,

pXiCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=resu

2011.

l

http://maderaspr.uprm.edu/reinadelasflor es.pdf

t&resnum=1&ved=0CBEQ6AEw AA#v=onepage&q&f=false

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Milena Gramacho, Tatiana Santander &

H.S. Ballina-Gómez, L.S. Santiago, R.

Alejandro G. Farji-Brener.

Orellana & S. Iriarte-Vivar. (2008).

(2000).

Efectos de la herbivoría sobre la cantidad de óvulos en Loasa speciosa (Loasaceae). Revista de Biología Tropical.

N.2, V.49.

Recovered on

18,

2011.

January

http://www.scielo.sa.cr/scielo.php ?pid=S0034-

Crecimiento, supervivencia y de plántulas

de

Brosimum

alicastrum (Moraceae), especie

del

sotobosque

una

neotropical.

2055- 2067, Vol. 56 (4). Recovered on December

18,

2011.

http://74.6.238.254/search/srpcach

77442001000200009&script=sci_arttext

e?ei=UTF8&p=herbivoria+en+plantas&fr=yfp-t701&u=http://cc.bingj.com/cache.

Reina

De

Las

Flores

http://web.me.com/jamarimutt/arb olesrum/reina_de_las_flores.html

aspx?q=herbivoria+en+plantas&d= 4805338418905140 &mkt=enUS&setlang=enUS&w=de9e2489,70fac987&icp= 1&.intl=us&sig=TuopafcszSl_H8zOYP

Villareal D., L.C. Branch, M. Machicote & J.L. Hierro. (2001).

FJFw—

Riquezas de

especies en un gradiente de herbivoría de vizcachas (Lagostomus

Gerardo Sánchez-Ramos, Pedro Reyes-

Maximus Hollister). Revista Fac.

Castillo, Arturo Mora Olivo & José

Agronomía. N.1, V.12. Recovered on January

21,

Guadalupe

Martínez-Ávalos.

2011.

(2010). Estudio de la herbivoría de la

http://www.wec.ufl.edu/faculty/Br

Palma Camedor (Chamaedorea

anchL/research/Branch%20papers/v iz_riqueza_esp_Agronomia.pdf

Radicalis) Mart., En la Sierra Madre Oriental de Tamaulipas, México.

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Red

de

Revistas

America España

y

Recovered

Científicas

Latina,

el

de

Caribe,

Portugal.

N.1,

V.26.

on

21,

2011.

January

20

http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/pdf/575/57512 379011.pdf

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Long-term climate study

21

To observe this changes data provided by the NOAA (National Oceanic and

in Cambalache Forest from 1980 until 2010.

Atmospheric Administration) was used. These

data

showed

precipitation,

maximum and minimum temperature Authors: Wilnelly A. Ventura ValentĂ­n and Alexandra PeĂąa MuĂąiz Credentials: UGHS Seniors 2013

per day, from 1980 to 2010. The data obtained

was

used

to

average

temperature and precipitation by month. Then the same process was realized again annualizing the result and with

SYNOPSIS:

this

information

the

graphics

were

created. There were five graphs, one of Climatology is the most important

these being a climate diagram showing

concept of this research; it is the

the relationship between temperature

science that deals with the study of

and precipitation during the thirty years.

climate and its variations in a long

It concluded that there were significant

amount of time. Climatic factors include

climate changes, and our hypothesis

temperature, precipitation and humidity.

was accepted. There was a change in

The objectives of this research are to

precipitation of about 3 cm, while the

describe the climate changes for the last

average temperature was stable.

thirty years in the Cambalache Forest

INTRODUCTION: Among the most important concepts of this research is the weather. According to Meteorologist Odalys Martinez, to see changes in the weather it must be measured for a period of thirty years or more. "The weather elements are physical conditions that characterize the states of the atmosphere" (Conrad, 1944). Climatic factors include temperature, precipitation and humidity. The temperature is the amount of heat held by the atmosphere, depending directly from the solar energy, which is responsible for almost all the energy flowing in the earth. Precipitation is any kind of water from the atmosphere that falls on the surface of the Earth. 21


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Why it is so important to know about climate change? As these changes occur on the climate, whether global warming causes them, hurricanes or other natural phenomena, the vegetation of the forest depends on these factors. Tree growth is one of the main elements of the primary productivity of forests (Lugo MĂŠndez & DomĂ­nguez, 2005). Therefore it is very important that there is a steady growth of trees or vegetation. For thirty years, which is the period of time we chose to do our research, we expect changes to occur and ecological interactions. These changes may be caused by a number of different situations, such as hurricanes, floods or fires. Hurricanes also affect forests as strong winds, rain, and relative frequency extension cause great impacts to vegetation, wildlife and human populations (Weaver, 1994). When a change in the abundance of a species group with the same way of life, a discontinuity is seen in the landscape physiognomy. The altitudinal distribution of these species groups is mainly the result of the interaction between climate and vegetation (Squeo, Olivares, Arroyo & 2006). The problem for this research is: Will there be significant changes in climate, in terms of temperature and precipitation in the Cambalache Forest during the period of 1980 to 2010? In other words this problem is based in questioning the different climatic changes that can occur during this period in the forest. To answer to this problem the hypothesis created was: If climate change will significantly affect Cambalache Forest, it is expected a change in temperature and precipitation over the last 30 years.

PROCEDURE: Our research was conducted on The Cambalache Forest. The Cambalache Forest is located north of Puerto Rico between the municipalities of Barceloneta and Arecibo. It has an area of 1,600 strings. There are more than 150 trees and large shrubs representing 44 families of which at least 15 are endemic and 10 have been reported as rare or endangered (DNER, 2008). "Into the Woods Cambalache annual

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temperature records are 25.4 째 C (77.72 째 F) and an average annual rainfall of 129.54cm" (Silander, 1986). Despite the abundant rainfall in this area of the forest vegetation is facing dry conditions by the high rate of runoff that have calcareous soils (Rivera, 2007). Scientists Odalys Martinez, a meteorologist at the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and Pablo J. Hernandez, student in Ecology, helped in data collection and interpretation of these. Climatology was studied through summaries of historical data from various databases provided by NOAA. These data showed information on precipitation and temperature (maximum, minimum and average) per day, for thirty years, from 1980 until 2010 Cambalache Forest. The data collected totaled an estimated 17,442 of numbers in temperature and precipitation data. After obtaining all temperature and precipitation data these were organized in tables. First the average annual temperatures and precipitation was taken. These were separated into two graphs. A graph showed the relationship between temperature and age. The other showed the relationship between rainfall and the years. Later, the average of the 30 months of January, 30 months of February, and so on with every months (12 months of the year) were obtained. The same was done with the data of minimum temperatures, maximum and average of every month. We conducted a descriptive chart that relates the maximum temperatures, minimum, and average and precipitation in the same graph by month and year. These three linear regressions were performed to establish the same trends. Finally, there was a climate diagram. The climate diagram shows a summary of all temperatures and rainfall. This way you can see if they relate to each other.

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RESULTS

&

24

ANALYSIS:

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Precipitación vs. Temperatura en el Bosque Cambalache (1980-2010) 300

45.0 40.0

250

30.0 25.0

150 20.0 100

15.0 10.0

50 5.0 0

0.0

Precipitación, cm.

Temp. Promedio(°C)

Temp. Mínima

Temp. Máxima

Figure-6: The following is a climate diagram. This establishes what were the temperatures and rainfall in 30 years. It can be seen how the two of them relate, and the changes during the 30 years.

The graph above is a climate diagram showing a summary of the climate change during 1980 to 2010. The diagram presents precipitation and temperatures from the years presented. With the diagram it can be said that temperatures and precipitation are not related.

25

Temperatura (0C)

200

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Precipitación, cm.

35.0


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The temperature varied from 1980 to 2010. You can see that in the years 1980 and 1995 to 1998, which were the hottest years. From 1982-1993 temperatures were stable. But in 1995 there was a big drop in temperature. In 1995 there was a temperature of 22.8°C, and up to 26°C in 1998. Then in 2000 it decreases again to 23°C. According to these data this shows a variety between temperatures. During this time a linear regression showed that the temperatures had a slight tendency to increase. Analyzing the data of precipitation it was observed that the tendency of precipitation is gradually increased. Rainfall over the years grew. The highest rainfall year was 1999, with a total of 254cm in the year, while the year with the lowest rainfall was 204 cm in 1980. Among the rainiest months are April with a monthly rainfall of 26.8cm, and October with an average rainfall of 24.1cm. The months with less rainfall are January, February, March and December. In these months falls an average rainfall of 10.1 cm. The precipitation is stable between June and July with a 16.6 cm average of precipitation. The cooler months are from December to February with an average temperature of 22.5°C, while the hottest months are from May to October with an average temperature of 25.1°C. The linear regression done of this graph increases gradually as the preceding carries a continuous pattern. Sometimes the temperature is stable, as it is in the months of June to August. The temperatures were maintained between 15°-20°C. There was a large variation with the highest temperatures. Higher temperatures in June and July were 31.1°C, while the lowest are in January and February with 28.2°C. There is a slight increase by making a linear regression. Precipitation has increased about 3 inches since 1980. There is also a great elevation of precipitation in August of 1995. This period was one with plenty of rain. While right after, it appears that there was a lot of rain for the years 1997-1998. Maximum temperatures decreased by creating a linear regression, and minimum temperatures had a tendency to increase. The average temperature was stable.

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DISCUSSION

&

27

CONCLUSION:

The hypothesis of this investigation was accepted. Since the change was significant. There was an increase in the precipitation of approximately 3cm; the maximum temperatures also had a tendency to decrease, while the minimum temperatures increased. Therefore the average temperature was stable. There were a lot of changes in precipitation and temperatures. These changes were reflected in the graphs. Climatic factors that could affect that the hypothesis is true, was global warming. Future researches could extend coverage analysis, relating the effect of the range of temperatures and precipitation or behavior, with changes in the forest biomass. This biomass can be reflected in the communities of organisms, much as in vegetation cover. In future comparative studies that can be made with this research can relate to comparing this forest with another forest from a different area in Puerto Rico.

REFERENCES:

Conrad, V. (1944). Methods in Climatology (p.3) United States: Lancaster Press, Inc.

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DRNA. (2004). Inventario de Recursos de Aguas de Puerto Rico, pg.1 DRNA. (2008, July). Bosque Estatal de Toro Negro. Hojas de nuestro ambiente, p-030. Gonzalez, M., Jurado, E., Gonzalez, S., Aguirre, O., jimenez, J., & Navar, J. (2003, Summer). CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO MUNDIAL: ORIGEN Y CONSECUENCIAS. Ciencia UANL, VI, 377. Retrieved January 26, 2012, from http://eprints.uanl.mx/530/1/cambio_cl Humedad atmosférica - Diccionario de astronomía. (n.d.). Astronomía Educativa: Tierra, Sistema Solar y Universo. Retrieved March 12, 2011, from http://www.astromia.com/glosa Lugo, A., Domínguez, C., & Méndez, N. (2005). Efectos del Huracán Georges en el Crecimiento de árboles de un bosque secundario en el interior de Puerto Rico. Acta Científica, 19, 24.

Silander, S. (1986). Los Bosques de Puerto Rico. San Juan: Departamento de Recursos Naturales, Área de Investigaciones Científicas. Squeo, F., Cepeda, J., Olivares, N., & Arroyo, M. (2006). Interacciones Ecológicas en la Alta Montaña del Valle del Elqui. Interacciones Ecológicas, 1, pg.74. Varela, F. (n.d.). ¿Qué es el calentamiento global?. Portal Sepiensa.... por favor espere un momento, cargando nuevo portal. Retrieved May 9, 2011, from http://sepiensa.org.mx/contenidos Weaver, P. (1994). Effects of Hurricane Hugo on Trees in the Cinnamon Bay Watershed, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Caribbean Journal of Science, 30, 255.

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Inhibition ability of the extracts (COJ-1, COJ-2, COJ-3 and COJ-4) from the endemic plant Simarouba tulae (Aceitillo Falso) in MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines without harming benign MCF12A cell lines Authors: Andrés O. García Berrios and Yahel D. López Martínez University Gardens High School Seniors (Class of 2013)

Synopsis – Breast cancer is the one that affects most the women in Puerto Rico and the United States. This research aims to demonstrate whether extracts (COJ-1, COJ-2, COJ-3, and COJ-4) from the Simarouba tulae (Aceitillo Falso) plant are efficient in inhibiting the growth of MDA-MB-231 cancer cells without harming benign MCF-12A cells. It was expected that the Simarouba tulae extracts were effective inhibiting the growth of cancer cells without harming the benign cells. To carry out this research, the cells were cultured first. After that, the extracts were applied to both types of cells and to measure the absorbance a spectrophotometer was used. After analyzing the data, it was observed that two compounds were effective. It is concluded that the alternate hypothesis was accepted, since it stated that at least one of the compounds will cause a significant difference in the ability of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells, MDA-MB-231, without harming the benign MCF-12A cells. In this case the compounds COJ-1 and COJ-4 were efficient in inhibiting cancerous cell growth without harming benign cell growth. It is expected that

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in future experimentations these compounds continue to be purified and used to treat other types of cancer.

Introduction – Breast cancer is the erratic growth and proliferation of cells that originate in the mammary tissue. When cells divide rapidly they may form a tumor (Imaginis, 2008). Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death in women, among all cancers. One in eight women will be diagnosed with some cancer at some point of their life (Maughan, Lutterbie, & Ham, 2010). In Puerto Rico breast cancer is one of the most affecting the population. In women this cancer is the one that affects the most with a 31.9% of incidence and a 17.8% of mortality (Torres, et al., 2010). The type or types of therapies used to treat breast cancer varies depending of the location and stage of the tumor. A large number of plants used in traditional medicine have become part of the global health system (Saklani, & Kutty, 2007). Natural, original or derivative compounds are still having an important role as drugs and as role models for the development of synthetic molecules. For the detection of new drugs based on plants, it is required the extract detection to verify the presence of new compounds, and develop an investigation of their biological activities. The inherent diversity of the natural products’ extracts makes more attractive the evaluation of their biological activity. There are several reasons of why experimenting with natural products can be choose, these are: random sampling, the traditional use of plants or an etnofarmacological background, plants that are botanically related to plants used in medicine, plants that have been under studies

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about their genetic structures, and bye epidemiological studies (Vuorela et al., 2004). Quassinoids are a group of compounds extracted from plants from the family Simaroubaceae. Quassinoids have been used for a long time in traditional medicine. It has been found that the quassinoids have a variety of inhibitory effects as: antiinflammatory, antiviral, antimalarial, insecticides and antitumor among many others. At this time has been isolated and classified over 150 quassinoids based on their chemical structures and biological properties. It is expected that in the future, investigations about chemical modifications generate more active and less toxic natural derivatives of quassinoids (Fiaschetti, Grotzer, Shalaby, Castelleti, & Arcaro, 2011). To support the above on its inhibitory effects, it can be used as an example a study that was done to quassinoids Ailantinol E, F and G of the plant Ailanthus altissima. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the antitumoral capacity that the three quassionoids had against Epstein-Barr virus. The results showed that all three compounds have high antitumor activity with minimal cytoxicity (Tamura, et al., 2003). Since not all quassinoids can cure cancer, it’s necessary to demonstrate the effectiveness of these compounds isolated from the endemic plant of Puerto Rico, Simarouba. Besides this it is needed to consider human tolerance to toxicity (Ghelani, 2011), for this, a non-malignant breast cells model will be used. Bruceantin is a quassinoid obtained from plant species Brucea (Simaroubaceae). It has been found that Bruceantin is capable of inducing a lot of biological responses. Among these are anti-inflammatory and antileukemic effects in animal models (rodent). This works by preventing the development, growth or proliferation by inhibiting protein synthesis at the molecular level in cancer cells. Researchers at the University of Illinois conducted a study with the cell line HL-60 (leukemia), in which it was treated with

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bruceantin. Bruceantin treatment caused apoptosis in cells, creating a regression of tumors. This data suggests that the quassinoid bruceantin is a good candidate for chemotherapy of hematological malignancies (Cuendet, & Pezzuto, 2004). The research problem of this investigation is: How effective are extracts (COJ-1, COJ-2, and COJ COJ-3-4) from the Simarouba tulae (Aceitillo Falso) plant in terms of growth inhibition of cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 without harming benign cell lines MCF-12A? The working hypothesis was: Extracts (COJ-1, COJ-2, COJ-3 and COJ-4) from the Simarouba tulae plant be effective in inhibiting the growth of cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 without harming benign cell line MCF-12A. The Alternate hypothesis was: At least one of the extracts cause a significant difference in the ability of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells MDA-MB-231 cells without affecting benign MCF-12A. Finally, the null hypothesis being: There will be no significant difference in the ability to inhibit replication of MDA-MB-231 cancer cells without affecting benign MCF-12A cells Breast cancer is the one that affects most women in Puerto Rico and the United States. This cancer also has one of the highest mortality rates. It has been shown in several studies, that the use of natural compounds has had a significant and positive impact when used as a treatment to control the proliferation of cancer cells by several mechanisms. The Brueceantin quassinoid, from Brucea plant species (Simaroubaceae), has been quite effective in causing apoptosis in cancer cell lines. Because of this, the potential effect tulae Simarouba plant may be very significant in terms of growth inhibition of cancer cells.

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Procedure – I - Instruments, Materials and Reagents The instruments used were: Automatic pipettes to measure the amounts of the substances utilized,

biological

hood

to

avoid

contamination

during

sampling

and

a

spectrophotometer (Benchmark Plus) toobserve and calculate the number of cells in the 96-well plates. The materials used were: microtubes (1.5 mL), serological pipettes, goggles, lab coat, gloves and culture dishes (96 wells). Finally the reagents used during the experimental process were: Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), penicillin, streptomycin, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). II - Cell Lines and Extracts The cell lines which were used for experimentation were MCF-12A (normal) and MDAMB-231 (metastatic). The experimental groups are the extracts of the endemic plant from Puerto Rico Simarouba Tulae: COJ-1, COJ-2, COJ-3 and COJ-4, all at a concentration of 4 mg / ml. The difference between each compound is the natural solvent used. The extract COJ-1 is the raw leaf, the COJ-2 is the leaf extracted with hexane, the COJ-3is the leaf extracted with chloroform, and COJ-4 is the leaf extracted with ethyl acetate. The two control groups were the cells without any extract treatment and cells without any extract treatment only DMSO, in which the extracts were. III - Cell Culture

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To begin 2000 cells / well in 96-well dishes (1 plate / cell line) were plated in culture medium, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% bovine serum (FBS) and antibiotics. After this, cells were incubated for 24 hours at 37 ° C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2. Then the cells were treated with the different plant extracts from the Simarouba tulae plant (COJ-1, COJ-2, COJ-3, and COJ-4.) IV - Application of Extracts Extracts were applied at a concentration of 4 mg / mL and treated for 72 hours. After treatment, 20 ul of thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) was added to each well and incubated for 4 hours at 37 ° C; this was used to determine how many cells remained alive after treatment. V

-

Data

Collection

and

Statistical

Analysis After incubation, the cell culture medium was removed and 100 uL of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was added to each well, to dissolve the dark blue crystals (these crystals indicate the presence of live cells). The intensity of blue crystals (absorbance) is directly proportional to the amount of cells in the well. Finally, the absorbance of the dishes was measured at 570 nm (and 630 nm as a measure of background) in a spectrophotometer. The average absorbance of treated cells is normalized with the average uptake of control cells using the following formula: (Absorbance of treated cells) / (Absorbance of control cells) × 100 = "Percent of cell growth compared to with the control"

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We calculated the average percentage of growth of three independent experiments (lower average percent growth, the greater the inhibition). After having the results of absorbance the “Q-test” statistical analysis was used to identify and remove the values that were numerically distant from the others. The t-Test statistical analysis was used for the data, with an alpha of 0.05. The paper was presented using two bar graphs, one with the cell line MDA-MB-231 (metastatic) and the other is with the cell line MCF-12A (normal). The independent variables in both bar graphs are the extracts and the control. The dependent variable in both panels is the percentage of growth.

Results & Analysis –

Control and Applied Extracts DMSO (Control)

Cell Growth Average (%)

t-Test Results

100

COJ-1

79

0.150406790

COJ-2

92

0.123469017

COJ-3

85

0.095044002

COJ-4

92

0.169188008

Percentage of Cellular Growth (%)

Cell growth average of the MCF-12A cell line (Benign) 120

Cell growth average of the MCF12A cell line (Benign)

100 80 60 100 40

79

92

85

92

20 0 DMSO

COJ-01 COJ-02 COJ-03 COJ-04 Control and Extracts

Table #1 – Cell growth average of the MCF-12A cell line Figure #1 – Bar graph representing the average cellular growth by compound applied to the MCF12A cell line.

35


Cell growth average of the MDA-MD231 cell line (Metastatic) Control and Applied Extracts DMSO (Control)

Cell Growth Average (%)

COJ-1

76

0.01558702

COJ-2

55

0.12590356

COJ-3

56

0.09405886

COJ-4

80

0.00159714

t-Test Results

100

Percentage of Cellular Growth (%)

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120 100

36

Cell growth average of the MDA-MB231 cell line (Metastatic)

80 60 100 40

80

76

20 0 DMSO

COJ-01

55

56

COJ-02

COJ-03

Control and Extracts

Figure #2 - Bar graph representing the average cellular growth by compound applied to the MDATable #2 – Cell growth average of the MDA-MD-231 cell line MB-231 cell line.

Table # 1 shows the average cell growth with the extracts applied on the MCF12A benign cell line with their respective results of the "t-test". It shows that when applied the COJ-1, COJ-2, COJ-3 and the COJ-4 extracts there was no significant difference in cell growth. The DMSO control still had 100% of cell growth, the COJ-1 had a 79%, the COJ-2 a 92%, the COJ-3 a 85%, and the COJ-4 a 92% cell growth. This meaning that, the plant extracts Simarouba tulae (Aceitillo Falso) did not hurt the benign cell line MCF-12A. This was established with after conducting the "t-test", and after comparing the experimental values (the four extracts) with the control value (DMSO), none of the experimental values passed the t-test with an alpha 0.05. Figure # 1, like Table # 1 shows the average cell growth extracts applied in benign cell line MCF-12A

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COJ-04


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with their variances using a bar graph. It clearly shows the comparison between the different compounds and control. Table # 2 shows the average cell growth with the extracts applied on the cancerous MDA-MB-231 cell line with their respective results of the "t-test". It shows that when applied the COJ-1, COJ-2, COJ-3 and the COJ-4 extracts, two of them caused a significant difference in cell growth. These extracts were the COJ-1 with a 76% of cell growth and COJ-4, with a 80%. Although the compounds COJ-2 and COJ-3 caused a lower percentage of growth than that of the COJ-1 and COJ-4 extracts (55% and 56% respectively), these cannot be set as significantly different because they did not pass the "t-Test". The result of the "t-test" of COJ-1 was 0.01558702 and COJ-4 was 0.00159714. These values are less than the 0.05alpha established. Figure # 2 shows the cell growth average with the extracts applied in the cell line MDA-MB-231 with their respective standard deviations using a bar graph. It clearly shows the comparison between the different compounds and control. Looking at Figure #1 it can be observed that the standard deviations in the compound are high. Also in figure # 2 this phenomenon can be observed, but only in the compounds COJ-2 and COJ-3. This being, because the experiments were performed in various cell culture plates, and because of that they are treated as if they were individual experiments with factors affecting them individually. Comparing results from both cell lines it can be observed that the applying the compounds resulted in less cell growth in the MDA-MB-231 cancerous than the MCF12A benign cell line. The compound COJ-1 had an average of 79% cell growth in cell

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line MCF-12A (benign) whereas in MDA-MD-231 (cancerous) was 76%, thus presenting a 3% difference. The COJ-2 had an average of 92% cell growth in cell line MCF-12A while the MDA-MD-231 was 55%, which means a 37% difference. The COJ-3 had an average of 85% cell growth in cell line MCF-12A while the MDA-MD-231 was 56%, reflecting a 29% difference. Finally, COJ-4 had an average of 92% cell growth in cell line MCF-12A while the MDA-MD-231 was 80%, with a 12% difference.

ConclusionThe analysis lead to the conclusion that the alternate hypothesis was accepted as two Simarouba tulae (Aceitillo Falseo) plant compounds (COJ-1 and COJ-4) were effective in inhibiting the growth of the cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 without harming the benign cell line MCF-12A. This can be stated for both compounds because each had a significant difference of the average cell growth in cell line MDA-MB-231. The COJ-1 decreased to 76% cell growth and COJ-4 reduced it to 80%. In the cell line MCF-12A, there was no significant difference.

References – Cuendet, MC, & Pezzuto, JMP. (2004). Antitumor activity of bruceantin: an old drug with a new promise. Journal of Natural Products, 67, 269-271. Fiaschetti, GF, Grotzer, MAG, Shalaby, TS, Castelleti, DC, & Arcaro, AA. (2011). Quassinoids: from traditional drugs to new cancer therapeutics. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 18(3), 316. Ghelani, BG. (2011). How to treat cancer with simaruba quassinoids. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?How-to-Treat-Cancer-With-SimarubaQuassinoids&id=5715564 Saklani, AS, & Kutty, SKK. (2007). Plant-derived compounds in clinical trials. Drug Discovery Today, 13(3/4), 161, 170.

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Tamura, ST, Fukamiya, NF, Okano, MO, Koyama, JK, Koike, KK, Tokuda, HT, Aoi, WA, Takayasu, JT, Kuchide, MK & Nishino, HN. (2003). Three new quassinoids, ailantinol e, f and g from ailanthus altissima. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 51(4), 385. Vuorela, PV, Leinonen, ML, Saikku, PS, Tammela, PT, Ruha, JPR, Wennberg, TW & Vuorela, HV. (2004). Natural products in the process of finding new drug candidates. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 11, 1375, 1376,1378.

Title: Comparative study of the perception of women diagnosed and survivors of breast cancer of 40 years or more against the effect of factors (fixed or malleable) in treatment effectiveness Author: Angel R. Rivera and Daniel R. Sรกnchez. Credentials: High School Students.

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Synopsis: The general objective of the study was to establish which natural factor (unswerving or malleable) was more effective to better the treatment of breast cancer based on the opinion of surviving and diagnosed women over 40 years that lived in the try state area. The research is a study of court, this indicates that the population was specifically selected for this study and is the reason why there is no control group. The methodology of the project was to survey different women in the try state area who were diagnosed and survived cancer. The total of women surveyed was 30. The result was that 53% of women survivors were due to balanced diet and 27% was for breastfeeding. Meanwhile 40% of women diagnosed have a balanced diet and 20% had breastfed. The alternative hypothesis was accepted. Based on the previous results we can argue that women that have a balanced diet have more chance to survive after being diagnosed.

Introduction Breast cancer is one of the highest incidences worldwide. Also in Puerto Rico, breast cancer is the highest incidence and mortality among women. "Breast cancer is the growth and spread of abnormal cells without control in the breast." (Karen J. Ortiz, Javier Perez and Mariela Torres). In women aged 15-20 comprise separate the breast glands, which produce milk. These glands are called lobes. These lobes are connected to the nipple (through tubes) and are covered with fat and connective tissues. Tumors usually begin to develop in the ducts. This cancer is called "in situs". At this stage is small and is in the cell of origin to not penetrate the basement membrane is given a favorable prognosis. When the tumor tissue extends beyond called invasive cancer. This research found that natural method is best for use in the treatment of prevention in women diagnosed and survivors of breast cancer. As natural method you selected to a balanced diet and breastfeeding. The problem worked was: what is the perception of women diagnosed and survivors of breast cancer 40 years or more before the effect of factors (fixed or malleable) on the effectiveness of treatment for breast cancer? In this case, the fixed factor is breastfeeding and malleable factor is a balanced diet. The working hypothesis was: it is expected that the fixed 40


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factors have a more positive feedback than malleable factors surrounding the effectiveness of treatment. In contrast, the null said both factors are expected to have the same positive feedback on the effectiveness of treatment. And finally, the alternative we expect that malleable factors have a more positive feedback than fixed factors regarding the effectiveness of treatment. This research was conducted to know whether mothers who have had breast cancer in the breastfeeding process has helped to prevent it, and also to maintain a balanced diet is benefited against breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and the leading cause of death in women in many countries, including some other of Latin American countries. This type of cancer accounts for 31% of all cancers in women in the world. The incidence of this disease is increasing in Latin America and in other regions, such as Uruguay, Canada, Brazil, Argentina, Puerto Rico and Colombia, where the risk is intermediate. Breast cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death in the world, in females. In Puerto Rico, this cancer is the most diagnosed cancer in women, and is the leading cause of cancer death in them. Approximately, 1,540 women are diagnosed with this cancer each year. It is a cancer that needs urgent treatment because they could expand and be more dangerous, so we are investigating is in search for a natural remedy to see if it can reduce the possibility of women contracting breast cancer. Procedure This research was conducted through a questionnaire. We selected 30 women over 40 years diagnosed and survivors with breast cancer. Women were chosen from different places like hospitals, center of mammography, households, etc. The questionnaires were evaluated by a psychologist

to

avoid

any

problems

with

the

participant.

The survey was given to each woman, with their consent. In addition, they were given a consent form to know that the research was that they could voluntarily agree to participate in the study. The questionnaire or survey had 20 questions directed all toward the same goal. The questionnaire was anonymous. After you have collected all the data, we compared and found what is the most effective method for the treatment of breast cancer. The variables (methods) that were used to confirm which is more effective were breastfeeding (unswerving) and a balanced diet 41


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(malleable). Data were tabulated and then placed in tables and graphs to make the comparison clearly Result and Analysis In table #1, it shows diagnosed women as well as surviving women of breast cancer in regard of the unswerving factor, in other words, breast feeding. We knew that from the 15 women diagnosed, three (3) of them nursed, and the other twelve (12) did not. Never the less, from the 15 surviving women, six (6) nursed while nine (9) of them didn’t. With this we could see that breast feeding was beneficial for the treatment of breast cancer. Graph #1 makes reference to table #1, because it represents the total of women diagnosed and survivors who breastfed and those who did not use this method. It states that 20% of those diagnosed breastfed and 80% did not; it also shows that 40% of survivors used breastfeeding and 60% did not follow that method. However, table #2 tells us the use of the malleable factor, which means, healthy diet, in diagnosed and surviving women of breast cancer. It shows that four (4) women out of the 15 had healthy diets; the other eleven (11) did not follow a healthy diet. On the other hand, eight (8) of the surviving women, did follow a healthy diet while the other seven (7) did not. We could interpret that this malleable factor helped the treatment in which the women were submitted against breast cancer. In addition, graph #2 is similar, basically, to what table #2 shows. This let us know that 27% of the women diagnosed followed a healthy diet and the pother 73% didn’t. Also, in the surviving women, 53% used this method to contribute to the effectiveness of the treatment and 47% did not. In other matter, Table # 3 presents factor using both fixed and malleable, and both diagnosed and surviving women with breast cancer. It states that seven (7) of women diagnosed combined both factors while receiving treatment and the other eight (8) did not. Also, 14 of the survivors were able to use both factors, and only one of them could not combine both factors. Moreover, in Graph #3 can be clearly seen in the above Table # 3. It shows that 47% of women diagnosed both factors used to improve treatment and 53% did not. Also, 93% of survivors used both factors combined to effective treatment and 7% did not do the same. This chart’s purpose is that by using both, it will be the best alternative to fight against breast cancer.

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Finally, in Graph # 4 it shows the comparison of existing fixed factor and malleable factors on women diagnosed with breast cancer and survivors of breast cancer. It revealed that 20% of women diagnosed breastfed, and conversely 27% of women diagnosed followed a balanced diet. We also see that the method used by women diagnosed was the balanced diet. Never the less, 40% of the survivors were breast feeders, and, 53% used a balanced diet to improve their health while being treated. In conclusion, this is where the problem is solved, since it is clear that the malleable factor or balanced diet is more effective in treating breast cancer.

Graph #4: The use of fixed factor compared with malleable factor on diagnosed women and breast cancer survivors

9

53%

number of women

8 7

40%

6 5 4 3

27%

Diagnosticadas

20%

Sobrevivientes

2 1 0

Lactantes

Con dieta balanceada factor type

Discussion and Conclusion In conclusion, the alternate hypothesis that stated that malleable factors would have a more positive feedback than unswerving factors regarding the effectiveness of the treatment was approved. We can appreciate it clearly in graph # 4 that the malleable factor in this case, is the balanced diet, was more effective in treating breast cancer in the

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group of surviving women. The working hypothesis was rejected, because breastfeeding did not have a better effectiveness than balanced diet. Also, the null hypothesis was rejected since these factors did not have the same positive effect in treating breast cancer. This research work was done with the projection to find an effective method that can help prevent breast cancer, as this is the first cause of death in women in many parts of this dumb. Also, you can help these people to become aware that a healthy lifestyle is very important in life and that is why you have to know those conditions that cannot happen to healthy living. It will also help women who wear them this condition to know that using these methods will be able to beat this disease.

References: Hurtado, J., Sotelo, N., Williams, C. & García, M. (2006). Lactancia Materna Exclusiva. Bol Clin Hosp Infant Edo Son. 23(1). 15-19. Recuperado el 23 de enero de 2011 de http://www.medigraphic.com/pdfs/bolclinhosinfson/bis-2006/bis061d.pdf Programa de actualización continúa en pediatría.

(sf).

Nutrición del lactante y

preescolar en la salud y enfermedad: Lactancia Materna. PAC. Libro 2, Parte A. 13-20.

Recuperado

el

23

de

enero

de

2011

de

http://www.drscope.com/privados/pac/pediatria/pal2/lacmat.htm Salud.com. (sf). Tipos de cáncer de mama. Recuperado el 20 de enero de 2011de http://www.salud.com/cancer/tipos-cancer-mama.asp Torres, L. & Vladislavovna, S. (2006). Cáncer de mama: Detección oportuna en el primer nivel de atención. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. 45(2). 157-166. Unidad de Investigación Epidemiológica y en Servicios de Salud, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Distrito Federal. Recuperado

el

18

de

enero

de

2011

de

http://www.medigraphic.com/pdfs/imss/im-2007/im072i.pdf

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Gómez, F. (2006). Evaluación cuantitativa del riesgo de cáncer de mama. Revista médica Clínica Las Condes, 17(4), 149-163. Recuperado el 10 de octubre de 2012. Mora, Edna M. (2010). El Cáncer de Mama en PR: Conceptos Generales e Investigaciones.

Recuperado

el

26

de

agosto

de

2012,

de

http://www.aeohpri.org/1/post/2010/10/el-cncer-de-mama-en-pr-conceptosgenerales-e-investigaciones-boletn-octubre-2010.html Ortiz, K. J., Pérez, J., Torres, M. (2008).

El Cáncer de Mama en Puerto Rico.

Departamento de salud, 1, 1-8. Recuperado el 10 de octubre de 2012. Robles, S. C., Galanis, E. (2002). El Cáncer de Mama en América Latina y El Caribe. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, 12(2), 98. Recuperado el 10 de octubre de 2012. DMedicina.com. (2010). Enfermedades: Cáncer de mama. Recuperado el 23 de enero de 2011 de http://www.dmedicina.com/enfermedades/cancer/cancer-mama

Title: Comparative study of the performance of short-term memory and its relationship to gender, in adolescents aged 14-17 years Author: Gabriela Zayas Alom

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Credentials: University Gardens Specialized in Science and Math High School student Synopsis: This study aims to demonstrate the difference, if any, in the performance of short-term memory and its relationship to gender, in adolescents aged 14-17 years. According to the literature, the females have more fibers in the brain than men, which facilitates the flow of information from one hemisphere to another. Therefore, they were expected to show higher returns on short-term memory. This performance was measured by a test on 19 participants, which consisted of the repetition of words. Participants could not have any disease, or could be under any medication that affected their memory. By analyzing the results, it was concluded that both women and men showed similar performance in short-term memory. However, 15 to 17 year-old females showed a superior performance than men. Also, 17 year-old females obtained the highest average, which was of 7 memorized words. Therefore, the working hypothesis was rejected, while the null was accepted. In conclusion, it was shown that there is no difference in the performance of short-term memory in adolescents aged 14-17 years, in terms of gender. Introduction: Memory is a mental process by which we encode, store and retrieve information (Feldman, 1997). Coding refers to the process by which information is initially registered so that it can be used. Storage is the maintenance of the material stored in the memory system. During recovery the stored material is located, brought to consciousness, and it is used to solve any problem. Although these are the basic processes of memory, experts describe a classification that explains the specific way in which material enters the memory. They suggest different systems or memory storage stages. These warehouses vary as to their functions and the amount of time that the information is retained. As a result of this classification, it is called sensory memory, short-term memory or working memory and long term memory. The short-term memory is best understood as a working memory divided into three parts: the central executive, which coordinates the material focused for reasoning and decision making. The central executive uses two subcomponents: the visuospatial notebook and the phonological spiral.

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The main objective of this research is to understand the performance of memory in humans. A better understanding about the functioning of memory, especially short-term memory, provides us an excellent opportunity to develop strategies, techniques and teaching processes much more efficient and productive. In this sense, knowing how our memory works, allows us to improve our own teaching and learning processes. The brain is organized differently in both men and women. It processes information differently, resulting in perceptions, priorities and behaviors that are not similar. In women, the division of functions between the two hemispheres is less defined which means that the amount of fibers connecting the two hemispheres is higher making easily the flow of information from one place to another, than in men (RodrĂ­guez Y. 2003). This is why the hypothesis of this research is based on that the females will have a better return on short-term memory. To prove it, a test on repeating words will be used to measure the short-term memory. Procedure: To begin the research, a Screening Sheet was handed to 24 University Gardens High School students. In this sheet, they were asked to answer if they suffered any physical or mental condition and which one. As a second question, the participant had to specify if he/she was under any type of medication and which one at the moment of completing the sheet. As a last question, the participant decided if he/she was interested to voluntarily participate or not in the investigation, after a brief explanation of the objectives of the study. After compiling and checking the Screening Sheet information, the next step was to make a random choice of individuals eligible to participate in the research. At these same participants, the informed assent and consent sheets were given. Assent sheet is directed to the individual and he/she had to accept or not to participate in the research. Since the participants were minors, the consent form is directed to the parents of the participants, who had to accept or not the participation of their son/daughter in the study. Both sheets had to be signed and approved. Before application, the test was validated by a licensed psychologist. This test consisted of repeating words. They were 2-4 syllables and were known to all participants. The investigator had to tell the individual a word and he/she had to repeat it. Then the investigator mentioned a second word and the participant had to mention the first and 47


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second, in order. The same applied to the next word. During the study, the researcher had to mark the words in the list to ensure that the participant said them in the correct order. The study culminated when the participant skipped a word, said it in the wrong order or he/she took too long trying to remember one. The list consisted of 10 words, and it

Gender Age (years)

Females

Males

14

4

4

15

5

5

16

5 Age (years) 5

5

19

19

was the same for all participants. The test was applied in a pleasant and comfortable place with a good temperature

and

a

lacking

noise

environment that couldn’t affect the

17 Total

performance of the individual.

5

Finally, after the investigation culminated, the last step was to collect, tabulate and analyze the results. They were presented in two (2) tables and two (2) graphics.

Results and Analysis: Table 1: Number of participants by gender and age Graph 1: Number of participants by gender and age

participants

Number of

6 5 4 3

Females

2

Males

1 0 14 15 16 17

Table 1 shows the number of individuals who participated in the research. They are presented classified by gender and age. Overall participation was of 19 individuals

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divided as follows: 4 females and 4 males of 14 years and 5 females and 5 males aged 15, 16 and 17. Graph 1 shows the data for Table 1, more clearly. Table 2: Number of memorized words by gender and age

6

6

15

6

5

16

5

6

17

7

6

Total

6

6

6 memorized words

14

Graph 2: Number of memorized words by gender and age

Number of

Age (years)

Number of memorized words by gender Females Males

5 4 3

Females Males

2 1 0 14

15

16

17

Age (years)

Table 2 shows the number of words memorized by the participants by gender and age. The 14 year-old women memorized a total of 6 words, like men. 14 year-old participants were the only ones who memorized the same amount of words.

In the age of 15, the women obtained a higher average than men. The same happened at the age of 16, however, was reversed. Males were able to memorize more than the females, although it was the only age where this happened. For 17 years, the women memorized, once again, more than men, but unlike in the age of 15, 17 year-old females were the ones that memorized the most.

It is proven that intelligence does not affect memory. One factor that may have influenced these results is the fact that despite the practice, it was noted that some participants were nervous. If the participant was not fully concentrated, it was more difficult to remember the words.

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Therefore, although in total both females and males memorized the same amount of words, at a more specific level, women performed better.

Discussion and Conclusion:

After reviewing the results, we see that the working hypothesis was rejected, but not entirely. On average, both females and males memorized the same number of words, however, the females of 17 years obtained the highest average among both genders and different ages. The null hypothesis was accepted, but as just mentioned, not entirely. There is still much work to do. For this, there are various ways in which this research could be improved for the benefit of future studies. Fist, it would be useful to do the project with a larger sample. This would give more validity to the research. Moreover, it would be more efficient that future studies evaluate the difference in memory performance in terms of age, including gender. In conclusion, there are many improvements that can be made to this research because this is only a part of the complex process of memory. References: Barreyro, J.P; Burin, D.I. y Duarte, D.A. (2009). Capacidad de la memoria de trabajo verbal. Validez y fiabilidad de una tarea de amplitud de lectura. Interdisciplinaria 26, 2, 207-228. Botanical Online (1999-2011). Pérdida de Memoria (Amnesia). Recuperado el 24 de enero

de

2011

de:

http://www.botanical-

online.com/medicinalsperdidadememoria.htm Feldman, R. S. (1997). Psicología con aplicaciones en países de habla hispana. México: McGraw-Hill. Gradisar, M; Terrill, G; Johnston, A. y Douglas, P. (2008). Adolescent sleep and working memory performance. Sleep and Biological Rhythms 6, 146-154.

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Hernández, C. y Bjorklund, D.F. (2001). El desarrollo de la memoria: Avances significativos y nuevos desafíos. Infancia y Aprendizaje 24, 2, 233-254. Higbee, K. L. y Kunihira, S. (1985). Cross-cultural applications of Yodni mnemonics in education. Educational Psychologist, 20, 57-64. Kyttälä, M. (2008). Visuospatial working memory in adolescents with poor performance in mathematics: variation depending on reading skills. Educational Psychology 28, 3. 273-289. Miller, G. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychology Review 63, 81-97. Miller, L.T. y Vernon, P.A. (1996). Intelligence, reaction time, and working memory in four to six year old children. Intelligence 22, 155-190. Molina, J. T. (2002). La Memoria y el Lenguaje. Recuperado el 24 de enero de 2011 de: http://www.molwick.com/es/memoria/133-memoria-corto-plazo.html Rodríguez, Y. (2003). La verdadera diferencia entre hombres y mujeres. Recuperado el 22 de enero de 2011 de: http://www.santiagoapostol.net/revista03/hombres.html Salusline (2007-2010). Memoria a Corto Plazo: Definición y Desarrollo. Recuperado el 23

de

enero

de

2011

de:

http://www.salusline.com/index.php?SEC=modulos&MOD=TERCERAEDAD& aid=1356 Sternberg, S. (1966). High-speed scanning in human memory. Science 153, 652-654. Zapata, L.F., De Los Reyes, C., Lewis, S. y Barceló, E. (2009). Memoria de trabajo y rendimiento académico en estudiantes de primer semestre de una universidad de la ciudad de Barranquilla. [Versión electrónica], Psicología desde el Caribe 23, 67-82.

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Title: Comparative study of the influence of the mode of delivery, natural or caesarean section, in the initial acquisition of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans and the influence of breastfeeding on the levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli in infants from 03 years.

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The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 1 Author:

Iván

A.

Padilla,

University

Gardens

High

School,

53 Rio

Piedras,

PR

Teacher and/or Mentor: Prof. Annia Calcaño/Dr. Elaine Pagán Credentials: University Gardens H.S. Seniors, DMD, FAAPD

Abstract: The bacterium Streptococcus mutans is the main cause of “Early Childhood Caries”. This study aims to determine which is the influence that has the mode of delivery, vaginal or c-section, in the early acquisition of this bacterium. Also, see if breastfeeding has any influence or not in the colonial amount of bacterium S.mutans and Lactobacilli. It was expected that infants by c-section had a mayor count of bacteria; and that breastfed infants had a lower risk of tooth decay. Thirty children from 0-3 years that had not taken any antibiotics a month prior to the study were evaluated. We used the kit "CRT bacteria by Ivoclar Vivadent" to measure the presence of the bacteria S.mutans and Lactobacilli. It was found that 75% of infants at high risk were by c-section, 13% of infants had a high risk in both bacteria, and 100% of these children were by c-section. You can see the trend that infants by c-section had a level of greater S.mutans. However, using the statistical tests Chi Square and t-student there wasn’t a significant difference with the mode of delivery but it was found that breastfed infants had a lower count in both bacteria.

Introduction: Caries on the primary teeth, also known as Early Childhood Caries or ECC, is among the most prevalent health problems in infants and toddlers. It is considered an epidemic in lower income families and in underdeveloped parts of the world. ECC is one of the

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major causes of hospitalization in young children, who often must receive general anesthetic for extractions or tooth restorations. Streptococcus mutans is the bacterium most pointed to as being partly responsible for causing ECC. Contrary to common belief, there is preliminary evidence that S. mutans may be found in the mouth prior to tooth eruption. Since caries risk increases with the earlier acquisition of S. mutans, finding that S. mutans can colonize predentate children is a significant finding in regards to the etiology of early childhood caries. Question: 1. Does the type of delivery, vaginal or c-section, have any influence in the initial acquisition of Streptococcus Mutans in infants 0-3 years? 2. Does the breastfeeding have any influence in the Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli counts in infants 0-3 years? Hypothesis: 

Hypothesis #1 o The infants born by c-section will have mayor counts of Streptoccocus mutans than the infants that were born through the vagina.

Alternative Hypothesis #1 o The infants born through the vagina will have mayor counts of streptococcus mutans than the infants that were born by c-section. Null Hypothesis #1 o There wouldn’t be any difference in the bacterial counts of streptoccocus mutans in infants born through the vagina or c-section. Hypothesis #2 o The infants that has been breastfed will have a minor presence of Streptoccocus mutans and Lactobacilli compared to the infants that has not been breastfed. Alternative Hypothesis #2

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o The infants that has not been breast fed will have a minor presence of Streptoccocus mutans and Lactobacilli compared to the infants that has been breastfed. Null Hypothesis #2 o There wouldn’t be any difference on the presence of Streptoccocus mutans and Lactobacilli in infants that has been breastfed or non breastfed.

Procedure: 

Sampling: We evaluated a sample of 27 individuals chosen randomly between the ages of 0 to 3 years. Data obtained from infants who have used some antibiotic with less than a month in advance of the appointment which the saliva sample was extracted were not taken into consideration.

Techniques : Each responsible for infants to be evaluated were required to complete a worksheet of consent with a number control that identified the youngest, to then be able to access your profile in the clinic. Profile where we checked the habits of dental care of the minor, socio-demographic data, practice of breastfeeding and the mode of delivery of the participating child.

Experimentation: It was a dental exam to the child following 'ICDAS' criteria for caries diagnosis. After dental exam was extracted a sample of saliva to each child. The sample was collected through a "swab" that was put under the tongue by approximately 1 minute for approximately 1 mL of saliva collection. The "swab" was used to inoculate a few specific agars for "streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus" (CRT

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kit Ivoclar Vivadent). Each agar was incubated for 48 hours at a temperature of 37áľ’ C.



Data: Gathering to spend 48 hours removed the agar of the incubator and moved to compare the result with the tables provided by the manufacturer. A value of 0-4 is you gave to each sample based on provided tables, also by the manufacturer. Values of 1 and 2 indicated one colonial bacteria amount less than 10 ^ 5 (low caries risk) and the values 3 and 4 indicated one colonial bacteria amount greater than 10 ^ 5, high risk of caries.



Analysis: Once all agars were classified with its proper score both streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli was passed to collect all that data into the #1 table. Based on that data, generated countless tables and graphs that make clear the conlcusion of the research. It was used for the statistical analysis tests of chi square and t-student; at the probability level of 0.05.

Results & Analysis: The objective of this study was to examine the influence that has the type of birth of the infant, in the initial acquisition of S. mutans. Based on the statistical analysis using "chi square" and "T - student"; the mode of delivery was not significant in the amount of S. mutans and lactobacilli. The chi square in terms of the relationship of the initial

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acquisition of S. mutans and the type of delivery (0.11), the T-student was (0.14) and the coefficient of relationship (0.14), as shown in the table #2. Table #2 Chi Square

T-student

0.11

0.14

Coeficiente de Correlaci贸n 0.14

The initial acquisition of the lactobacilli bacterium was not significant when is assessed with the t-student (0.13), but if it was when was assessed with chi-square (0.003). The coefficient of relationship was (0.04), as shown in the table #3. These data reveal that a difference or correlation marked between the levels of S. mutans and Lactobacilli in the studied population there is. Table #3: Chi Square

T-student

0.003

0.13

Coeficiente de Correlaci贸n 0.04

A significant correlation was found between both levels of bacteria and lactation in the two tests, chi square (0.012) and T-student (0.02). These correlation coefficients indicate that infants who are breast-fed displayed one lower count of bacteria and are at a lower risk of tooth decay than those who are not breast-fed (- 0.05), as you can see in the table #4. Table #4:

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T-student

0.012

0.02

58

Coeficiente de Correlaci贸n -0.05

We also found a significant association between the age of the infant and the levels of S. mutans (0.0013) and lactobacilli (0.0008). You could see a trend in terms of age, older, lower count of bacteria with a correlation coefficient of (- 0.36), see table #5. Table #5: S. mutans

Lactobacilli

0.0013

0.0008

Coeficiente de Correlaci贸n -0.36

The data show that 75% of infants at high risk of caries at an early age were by caesarean section. The numbers also indicate that 13% of infants had a high-risk count S. mutans, both bacteria and lactobacilli; being 100% of these children by caesarean section Discussion & Conclusion: Our results based in statistical test chi-square and t-student showed that the correlation between mode of vaginal delivery or cesarean section, and the acquisition initial Streptococcus mutans is not significant, which approves the hypothesis null #1. Although according to the percent that were obtained, infants by caesarean section had a much more risk of caries but not significantly, this is a trend that cannot be overlooked; This study at higher scales could reveal something much more concrete. It is worth mentioning that it cannot be concluded forceful way as a result of this study, since that is one of the

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problems facing to be a pilot project and have a number of limited sample. As for breastfeeding, according to statistical tests chi square and t-student, to greater breastfeeding; lower is the amount of Streptoccocus mutans and Lactobacilli bacteria; therefore approves the hypothesis #2. References: Alaki S, Burt B, and Garetz S (2008). Middle Ear and Respiratory Infections in Early Childhood and Their Association with Early Childhood Caries. J Pediatr Dent. 30:105-10. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Definitions. 29 julio 2012. www.aapd.com. Azevedo T, Becerra AC, and Ayrton de Toledo A (2005). Feeding Habits and Severe Early Childhood Caries in Brazilian Preschool Children. J Pediatr Dent. 27:28-33. Bedos C, Brodeur JM, Arpin S, and Nicolau B. (2005). Dental Caries Experience: A Two-generation Study. J Dent. Res 84(10):931-936 Berkowitz R (2006). Mutan Streptococci: Acquisition and Transmission. J Pediatr Dent 28:106-109. Boggess KA and Edelstein BL (2006). Oral health in women during preconception and pregnancy: implications for birth outcomes and infant oral health. Matern Child Health J: 10: S169-S174. Brambilla E, Felloni A, Gagliani M, Malerba A, Garcia-Godoy F, Strohmenger L. (1998). Caries prevention during pregnancy: results of a 30-month study. JADA: 129: 871-7 59


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Elias-Boneta AR, Crespo Kebler K, Gierbolini CC, Toro Vizcarrondo CE, Psoter WJ (2003). Dental caries prevalence of twelve year olds in Puerto Rico. Community Dent Health. 203: 171-176.

Gussy MG, Waters EG, Walsh O, Kilpatrick NM (2006). Early childhood caries: current evidence for etiology and prevention. J Pediatr Child Health: 42: 37-43. Klein MI, Florio FM, Pereira AC, Hofling JF and Goncalves RB (2004). Longitudinal study of transmission, diversity, and stability of Streptococcus mutans sobrinus genotypes in brazilian nursery children. Journal of Clinical Microbiology: 10.1128: 4620-4626. Law C (2007). Colonization of S.mutans in Young children . Aust Dent J. 52(4), 103106. Li Y, Caufield PW, Dasanayake AP, Wiener HW and Vermund SH (2005). Mode of delivery and other maternal factors influence the acquisition of Streptococcus mutans in Infants. Journal of Dental Research: 84 (9): 806-811. Li Y and Wang W (2002) Predicting Caries in Permanent Teeth from Caries in Primary Teeth: An eight-year cohort study. J Dent Res 81(8): 561-566 Lopez L, Berkowitz R, Spiekerman C and Weinstein P (2002). Topical Antimicrobial Therapy in the Prevention of Early Childhood Caries: A Follow-up Report. J Pediatr Dent 24:3, 204-206

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Slavkin, Harold C (1999). Streptococcus Mutans, early childhood caries and new opportunities. JADA 130.12: 1787-1792. Van Palestein Helderman, W. H., Soe W, and M.A. van’t Ho. (2006). Risk Factors of Early Childhood Caries in a Southeast Asian Population. J Dent Res 85(1): 85:88.

Wan AKL, Seow WK, PurdieDM, Bird PS, Walsh LJ and Tudehope Di (2001). Oral Colonization of Streptococcus mutans in six-month old predentate Infants. J Den Res 80 (12): 2060-2065. Wan, et. Al. (2003). A longitudinal study os srteptococcus mutans Colonization in Infants after tooth Eruption. J Dent Res 82(7): 504-508.

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TITLE: Alcohol consumption in young adolescents between the ages of 15-18 years of University Gardens High School. AUTHOR: Jinelys K. Quinones Acevedo and Esther Toledo CREDENTIALS: High School Student and High School Biology Teacher.

SYNOPSIS: The research is carried out on alcohol consumption in young adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 University Gardens School. This was observed whether alcohol consumption of students is higher than normal consumption of alcohol by an adult, based on previous studies that normal adult consumption per week is less than three times a week or the equivalent of 100g of alcohol. 50 students were chosen at random from the ages of 15-18 years of age between male and female sexes. Each student was given a consent form to authorize the charge to each student to conduct this survey. The survey consisted of 18 questions on the subject. In analyzing the results of the survey, there were several students who adopted behaviors regarding alcohol. Many respondents had tried alcohol on special occasions and family gatherings, with adult supervision. In the future it is hoped that this research will further expand with other students or even school dropouts and included other variables such as drugs.

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INTRODUCTION: Young people over the years have more freedom, this by opening doors to bring disciplines that are not yet age appropriate. In many parties appearing many young people end up in the hospital and most poisoning cases. In Spain, one of the leading causes of death in adolescents is the high consumption of alcohol, snuff and drugs (VillalbĂ­, Nebot and BallestĂ­n). The influences of the family may be vital for the growth of a young man in setting their own behaviors and habits. The normal adult consumption is less than 3 times a week or less than the equivalent of 100g of alcohol (Guibert, Marinez Guitierrez and 2005). Moreover, the existence of problems in the family relationship and its impact on the family atmosphere and various individual variables of the children, is one of the main triggers of increased frequency of drinking (Pons, 1998) . Alcoholics have, as a social group, one of the highest rates of marital separation and divorce (Garcia et. Al., 2004). By neglecting oneself, family neglect and can reach perderce by a single factor is not needed. Alcohol is one of the factors for which there are violations, violence, fighting, killing, among others, that occur in society. In a recent study indicates that alcoholism is a disease that affects more adult males, but its incidence is increasing among women and youth (Rupert 2001). The incidence that currently is having on our environment and alcohol abuse habitual use of snuff among young people is very important (Martinez and Robles 2001). Adema, although alcoholism in our country is at an early stage as a health problem, seek solutions. (Bolet 2000).

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Is it high, relative to normal consumption of alcohol in an adult who is at least 3 times a week or less the equivalent of 100g of alcohol, consumption of alcohol in University Gardens youth between the ages of 15 to 18 years? Alcohol use among adolescents between the ages of 15-18 years old University Gardens School will be higher than regular consumption of an adult who is at least 3 times a week or less the equivalent of 100g of alcohol that be due to the need of the adolescent to be seen by their peers as being mature. The purpose of this research is to determine the frequency with which young people aged 15 to 18 consume alcohol and the reason for performing this risky behavior. We sought to establish the relationship may have the influence they have with the young couple, and the desire for this teenager to be seen among their own as a mature and freedoms awarded to adults. PROCEDURE: To carry out this research was searched for information on alcohol and teens. In analyzing the data obtained with the help of a professional social worker and a science, a format was built with a survey to be administered to adolescents about alcohol and consume it. The sample group was chosen at random from a population of adolescents aged 15 to 18 year’s old University Gardens School chosen randomly. The sample was a group of 50 students between the ages of 15 and 18. Of these we selected six women and six men of each age. These were given a consent form to be signed by a parent or guardian to survey students. Upon receipt of the approved documents was given to each student so that they survey the answered. When students finished answering all questions, was tabulating the responses of each individual, organizing and distributing the answers in a data table. Then conducted data analysis through different graphs expressed

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in percent. After analyzing the data, perform the writing thereof to the conclusion of the investigation to be done. RESULTS & ANALYSIS: Each person has a different perspective on alcohol use in young people but most agree with the same thinking. Many think that this is harmful if consumed in excess and others think that alcohol is too good.

The graphs show the results made the two most important questions for conducting this research concluded. In figure 1 the illustrations in question 10 it was determined that the

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prevalence of alcohol consumption lies in the selection of never. Which means that most of the respondents by females has never consumed alcohol. Furthermore, and compared with males shows that there is a tendency to never drink or drink one to two weeks a month. These results show that most men never consumed or two weeks a month, but in the row of the women, even though most have never drunk, there is a small constant population has ingested drinks from all week up to two weeks a month. In line with the frequency of consumption, asked the respondent about the weekly frequency of alcohol consumption. The results presented that there are a lot of young people who did not drink, but those who have, maintain a high frequency of consumption of between one to three times a week. Still, a man who identifies himself consume four to six times per week, and a female who drinks consumed daily. The findings state that although there is a large population (74%) of adolescents who have never taken alcoholic beverages, there is a population of between 26% to 38% consumed alcohol at least once a month. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION: By the results we can conclude that our research hypothesis was rejected. This is because 74% of the students surveyed in University Gardens School consume alcohol less than average adult consumption of alcohol a week. It is hoped the school community to raise awareness about the effects of alcohol. In the future, research will improve the integration of more variables have more students to integrate this research. It is also hoped that this is not just about the school community University Gardens if not integrate people from other schools and / or school dissectors. This is expected to help in future research on this topic.

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REFERNCES: -Bolet Astoviza M. y Socarras Suarez M. (2003). El alcoholismo, consecuencias y prevención. Revista Cubana Invest Biomed. Vol. 22 (Nº 1). Pp. 25-31. -Espada Sánchez, J. P., Ramón Pereira J. y García-Fernández, J. M. (2008). Influencia de los modelos sociales en el consumo de alcohol de los adolescentes. Psicothema. Vol. 20 (Nº 4). Pp. 531-537. Doi. ISSN 0214 - 9915 CODEN PSOTEG. -Ferrer Lacosta C. (2009). El alcohol en los adolescentes. Contribuciones a las Ciencias Sociales. -Guibert Reyes, W., Gutiérrez Díaz, I. y Martínez Gómez, C. (2005). Comportamiento ante el alcohol de los estudiantes en las etapas de la adolescencia. Rev. Cubana Med. Gen. Integr. Vol. 21. (Nº1-2). -Martínez González, J. M. y Robles Lozano, L. (2001). Variables de protección ante el consumo de alcohol y tabaco en adolescentes. Psicothema. Vol. 13 (Nº2). Pp. 222-228. -Mora Rios, J., Natera, G. y Juárez F. (2005). Expectativas relacionadas con el alcohol en la predicción del abuso en el consumo en jóvenes. Salud Mental. Vol. 28. (Nº2). -Pascual Pastor F. (2002). Percepción del alcohol entre los jóvenes. Unidad de Alcohologia. Vol. 14. -Pons Diez J. (1998). El modelo familiar y el papel educativo de los padres en la etiología del consumo de alcohol en los adolescentes. Revista Española de salud pública. Vol. 72 (Nº 3). Doi. 10.1590/S1135-57271998000300010.

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-Ruperto J. C. (2001). Algunos determinantes del consumo de alcohol entre los menores de edad. http://ceterisparibus.uprm.edu/articulos/vol1/articulo_4.htm -Villalbí J. R., Nebot M. y Ballestín M (1995). Los adolescentes ante las sustancias adictivas: tabaco, alcohol y drogas no institucionalizadas. Medicina Clínica. Vol. 104. (Nº20)

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Title: Prevalence of Toxic Genes in DNA isolated from stool samples Authors: Rivera, L., DĂ­az, Z. Credentials: University Gardens H.S. Seniors. MS (1998) PhD (2001) Abstract: The intestinal flora is where harmless microorganisms that inhabit the intestinal tract live. They are essential for its normal functioning. Within it, inhabit certain toxic genes known as colibactin and gel E. Colibactin genes have been associated with toxicity against mammalian cells in vitro. Gel E genes can cause intestinal inflammatory response in mice. However, none of these genes has been detected directly from an excretion. This research aims to quantify, by some samples, which will be the chance to own one of the toxic genes. It was expected that the clinical laboratory samples contained more DNA corresponding to one of the toxic genes. Eight DNA isolated samples were chosen from stool samples of colibactin and gel E which were analyzed by the technique of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and electrophoresis to identify the presence of these genes. The results were analyzed and presented in two tables and two graphs. The working hypothesis was rejected. The null hypothesis was accepted, as it turned out to be no difference between the clinical laboratory samples and samples from random donors regarding the toxic genes. In future studies this same procedure will be performed using a larger number of samples and other toxic genes. 69


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Introduction Why is it so interesting to analyze the human body and all the functions it covers? Sometimes it is a bit boring but if we focus on specific and detailed functions of each part of our body, it becomes something great. Within our body there are different types of crew such as bacteria and viruses. Each one plays a specific role in some organ of our body. The intestine is an extremely crucial organ in the human body and performs a number of chemical reactions in what is known as intestinal flora. During the development of this research you will learn about two toxic genes called colibactin and gel E. They will be our investigative tools. The gastrointestinal tract is the main area of exchange and communication between the external and internal environment. Guarner said: "The gastrointestinal mucosa is endowed with structures and functions such as glands, secretions, sensors, receivers and mechanical activity that are specifically adapted to the recognition of analytical and biochemical substances that pass through the digestive tract. ." As a result of the activity of the gastrointestinal tract, the individual gets the benefit of nutrition, for the absorption and digestion of nutrients and also receives the benefit of defense for recognition of foreign elements and development of prevention system from attacks from the outside world. The intestinal microflora, is an organ, perfectly integrated into the physiology of the individual. Both the gut and the microflora are interdependent. (Guarner, 2007).

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Following this research, we want to see what is the prevalence of toxic genes in the intestinal flora of the Puerto Ricans. Our working hypothesis was that clinical laboratory samples had more DNA corresponding to toxic genes rather than random donor samples. The alternative hypothesis was that random donor samples contained more DNA corresponding to toxic genes rather than laboratory samples. The null hypothesis was that there was difference between laboratory samples and random donor samples, in terms of both toxic genes. Within the human body, occur countless chemical reactions which sometimes we don’t know. None of these genes has been detected directly from an excretion. From this research we want to quantify, by some samples, which will be the chance to own one of these toxic genes. The obtained results will stand for future studies that will identify the possible association between these genes and the development of intestinal diseases. Procedure This investigation was analyzed and completed in a Biochemistry laboratory. We analyzed samples of DNA isolated from human faeces, to investigate whether any of the samples was positive for the toxic genes gel E and colibactin. Two populations were chosen to compare which of these was more prone to bacterial virulence factors. The population consisted of sixteen samples of DNA isolated from stool, of which eight were clinical laboratory samples and the remaining random samples. To analyze the samples we used the technique of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) which amplified DNA from each sample to specific "primers" for the genes colibactin and gel E. Then, by

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electrophoresis we evaluated whether the samples contained a band to be known positive for that gene. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Initially, in the technique of PCR ,a "master mix" was performed, which was added to each sample tool. In each "PCR-tube" DNA samples were added. It is necessary that the samples have a positive control, a negative control and a blank. It is called a positive control samples that is known beforehand that contains genes coding for the positive toxic gene. A negative control is the one that is known beforehand that does not contain the genes coding for virulence factor. The blank contains distilled water. These three "PCR-tubes" you do not add DNA samples because they are control groups. Samples were placed in a PCR machine, in which for a period of time changes of temperature constantly to amplify DNA from each sample. Electrophoresis To prepare the gel of the electrophoresis chamber we followed this procedure: the agarose was prepared, heated, was added Etilio bromide (EtBr) and deposited on the bed runner. In bed runner we added 10X TAE buffer until the gel was completely covered. Before placing the amplified DNA samples on the gel, we placed first two microliters of each sample in a paraffin paper. In the gel it was added a standard measurement (DNA size ladder). When the gel had run, we proceeded to place it in a UV chamber, where a photo was taken to observe the results of PCR.

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Results & Analysis Table #1: Prevalence of Toxic Genes in DNA isolated from fecal samples with the gene colibcatin Number of Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Type of Toxic Gene Colibactin Random Laboratory No prevalence No prevalence No prevalence No prevalence No prevalence No prevalence No prevalence Prevalence

No prevalence No prevalence No prevalence No prevalence Prevalence No prevalence No prevalence No prevalence

We analyzed our results in two tables and two graphs. Table number one shows that in the random samples, the sample number eight is prevalent for the colibactin gene. Also, that in the clinical laboratory samples, number five is prevalent for the colibactin gene.

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Graph #1

Number of samples

Colibactin Gene 8

7

7 Prevalence

6 4 2

1

1

No prevalence

0 LaboratoryRandom Type of samples

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#2: Toxic

DNA

Prevalence Type of Toxic Gene GelE

Number of sample

fecal

with

the

Genes

in

isolated Random

from

75

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Laboratory No prevalence No prevalence No prevalence No prevalence No prevalence No prevalence No prevalence No prevalence

samples gene gel E

Table number two shows that none of the clinical laboratory samples resulted prevalent for the toxic gene gel E.

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Graph #2

Number of samples

Gel E Gene 10 8

8

6

Prevalence

4 2 0 Laboratory Type of Sample

No prevalencia

Discussion & Conclusion Because no random sampling could be obtained for the toxic gene gel E, is not possible to reach a full conclusion for this gene. Based on table number one, we conclude that there is no difference between the clinical laboratory samples and random donor samples for the gene colibactin. Our working hypothesis was denied. In future studies we hope that this investigation will be developed with a major number of samples.

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References Cuevas- Ramos, G., Oswald, ( Eric. Escherichia coli induces DNA damage in vitro and

triggers genomic instability in

mammalian cells. PNAS vol. 107 no. 25. Escalante, A., (2001) El potencial de la manipulación de la flora intestinal por medios dietéticos sobre la salud humana. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología 21(3):106-114 García, H. (2000) Electroforesis en geles de poliacrilamida:

fundamentos,

actualidad

e

importancia.

Universo

Diagnóstico 1(2): 31-4. G.A Leotta, Miliwebsky, E., (2005) Validación de una técnica de PCR múltiple para la detección de Escherichia coli productor de toxina Shiga. Revista Argentina de Microbiología. Guarner, F., Papel de la flora intestinal en la salud y en la enfermedad. Nutrición Hospitalaria; may/jun2007 suppleme, Vol. 22, p14-19, 6p. Recuperado de la base de datos de la UMET (Sistema Universitario Ana G. Méndez).

Homburg, S., Oswald, E. (2007) Expression analysis of the colibactin gene cluster coding for a novel polyketide in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiology Letters. Vol. 275 (255-262). Miyoshi, S., Koyama, K. (2010). Defensive

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Effects of Human Antimicrobal Peptide Îą Defensins against Enterococcus faecalis. Journal of Health Science, 56(5) 618-622. Posso, D. (2009) Electroforesis de ADN en geles

de

Agarosa.

Available:

http://www.ivic.ve/ecologia/ueg/formatos/Electroforesis%20de%20ADN%2 0en%20geles%20de%20agarosa.pdf [6/september/2012]. Putze, J., Hennequin, C. (2009, agosto 31) Genetic Structure and distribution of the Colibactin Genomic Island among Members of the Family Enterobacteriaceae. Infection and Inmunity vol 77 no. 11 Roberts, R., Cowie, D., Studies of biosynthesis of Escherichia

coli.

Available:

http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/19562202756.html;jsessionid=16ABD0 D6FBF820C15325F2DB4D423909. [6/september/2012]

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The Geometric Interpretation of the Night Sky Melissa Bayona & Eva Romero University Gardens Senior Students

This research studies the relation that exists between the Constellations observed in the Night Sky and the mathematical concepts of the Theory Of Graphs. The Constellations correspond to those observed in the Northern Hemisphere, during the period that begins the day of the Vernal Equinox (March 21, 2012) and ends with the day of the Fall Equinox (September 22, 2012). Using monthly maps of the sky “The Evening Sky Map”, we obtained information of the Constellations that were visible month after month and classified them as Graphs, therefore achieving to interpret geometrically Our Night Sky. The results show that of a total of 50 Constellations that were observed, 48 were classified as Irregular Graphs, 2 as Regular Graphs, 45 as Incomplete Graphs, 4 as Complete Graphs, 43 as Bipartite Graphs, 31 as Cycles and 46 as Chains. With this information we were able to understand and demonstrate how much math is applied while reading our Night Sky whereas validating that there does exist a relation between the Constellations and the Theory of Graphs.

Introduction What’s out there? How did it all begin? Are we alone? There is no need to be an astronomer to be fascinated by the star’s brightness, be marveled by the elegant planet’s 79


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orbits or be impressed by the beautiful galaxies. The curiosity for everything that surrounds us is set in our genetic code and for that science should be considered as a passion to wonder, discover and understand. A thousand years ago a massive star distanced at million of light years exploded and formed what today is known as the Universe. The apparition of comets and stars, the occurrence of solar and lunar eclipses, from the first homo sapiens, it has given birth to all of the concepts of Astronomy which was born at the same time as humanity. Astronomy can be defined as the structure, composition and process of the stars and their laws of movement, including the planets and their satellites, comets and meteorites, stars and interstellar matter, powder systems and galaxies.

The Theory of Graphs is a field of study of math and science of computation, which studies the properties of graphs, structures consisting of two parts, the set of vertices or nodes and the set of edges or lines. A graph is a set of points and lines where every line joins a point with another one. There are different classes of graphs, such as Cycles, Regular Graphs, Irregular Graphs, Complete Graphs, Incomplete Graphs, bipartite Graphs and Chains. A Cycle is a closed road where only the first and last vertex are repeated. A Regular Graph is known as one where each of its vertices has the same number of lines. An Irregular Graph is antithetical to a Regular Graph, ergo the vertices do not have the same number of lines. A graph where any two vertices are joined by a line is know as a Complete Graph. On the contrary, an Incomplete Graph is one where not all of its vertices are united by a line. Also, a Bipartite Graph is one where its possible to separate it and still each of its parts continues being a graph. Lastly, it is called a chain

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a sequence of vertices that are united by a line. Graphs are named also depending on their degree.

A Constellation is a pattern of stars in the Night Sky. Therefore, how can geometrically interpret these patterns of stars? To sustain this problem we established three hypothesis: our working hypothesis, the patterns of stars in the Night Sky can be classified geometrically by points and lines; and our null hypothesis, the patterns of stars in the night sky cannot be classified geometrically by points and lines. Since ancient times, constellations have been part of daily life and they possessed great importance. They were used by explorers to guide themselves when navigating. Also, they were used to explain mythological and religious concepts, which in that era were extremely important since that was their history and culture. These days, constellations have lost their true value and are not used in daily life issues. However, constellations are useful for determining an area of the sky or pinpointing an object and there is not an instrument that can substitute their functions. Then, if constellations were so important in a past era, why can’t we give them importance nowadays? We can give importance to the Constellations by applying them to such and extense and important field like mathematics. To realize this we observed the constellations monthly.

Procedure We began classifying as graphs the Constellations observed in the Northern Hemisphere the day of the Spring Equinox (March 21, 2012) and ending the day of the Fall Equinox (September 22, 2012). An Equinox is known as an event that only occurs two times a 81


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year. There are two Equinox days where the day and night are the same, both poles are found at the same distance to the Sun. Sunlight falls equally on both hemispheres. The first is called the Vernal or Spring Equinox and the second one the Fall Equinox, since both mark Spring and Fall in the Northern Hemisphere. Additionally, the Spring Equinox is also known as the first point of Aries, meanwhile the Fall Equinox is known as the first point of Libra. This is so because 2.000 years ago the Equinoxes marked the beginning of these Constellations. Nevertheless, nowadays the Spring Equinox ocurrs in the Constellation of Piscis due to the change of direction. To obtain the information of the Constellations observed monthly, we used the monthly maps “The Evening Sky Map” from March to September. Initially, the Constellations were cataloged as open, closed or ajar, and we sought the number of stars per Constellation and its brightest stars. In the maps the open constellations were identified with the color pink, the closed Constellations with the color green and ajar Constellations with orange. Open Constellations are those where each vertex is united to countless lines. On the other hand, in closed Constellations, each vertex is united to two lines. Ajar or semi open Constellations are a combination of open and closed Constellations. We began this way to become familiar to the Constellations’ shapes that way we can apply the mathematical concepts of the Theory of Graphs. Once the Constellations were selected and organized during the indicating period, we initiated the classification using the Theory of Graphs. This method is similar to the previous only in this one we applied the mathematical concepts. Each pattern of stars was classified depending of the number of vertices (stars) and imaginary lines to identify the different types of Graphs. After this, all

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of the Constellations were organized in tables that indicated the different types of Graphs that are present in each Constellation.

Results and Analysis Once the results were obtained and organized into tables we were able to analyze and compare the mathematical reading of the Constellations that were observed monthly. In relation to the first set of results (shapes of the Constellations) we found that almost all of the 50 classified Constellations were semi open and open. In each month, except September, we found only one closed Constellation, which was Auriga. Nevertheless, in September we observed three closed Constellations, Piscis Austrinus, Summer Triangle and Circlet. The months March and May contained the same number of open, closed and ajar Constellations. The months where most of the Constellations were found in the same place were June and July (33 Constellations) and the lowest number of Constellations were observed during the month of August (28 Constellations). The Constellations Ursa Major and Ursa Minor were observed during the whole indicated period. In the second set of results (applying the Theory of Graphs) the majority of the Constellations were Irregular Graphs, Incomplete Graphs, Bipartite Graphs, Cycles and Chains. Also, the three degrees that were most common in the Constellations, in descending order, were nine Constellations with G7 (degree of seven vertices), six Constellations with G9 (nine vertices), and five Constellations with G5 (five vertices). The highest degree observed in the Constellations was G23 in Sagittarius and the lowest degree found was in Canes Venatici. An example of Constellations which contained a mix of various types of Graphs

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are the known Constellations of Andromeda, Hercules, Leo, Libra, Piscis, Ursa Minor, Ursa Major and Virgo.

Graph #1 Total of the shape of the Constellations in each month

Graph #2 Total of Constellation classified by Types of Graphs

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Discussion and Conclusion

As students of University Gardens High School and living the experience of researching as mathematicians and scientists do when they interpret their theories observing the Universe, is a great satisfaction. With the realization of this research, we were able to comprehend and evidence how much math is applied when reading the Night Sky. Our hypothesis, the patterns of stars observed in the Constellations can be classified geometrically, is valid. Therefore, there really does exist a relationship between the Constellations and the Theory of Graphs.

A thorough study in regards to this field of Constellations and math will offer a wider knowledge when interpreting the Night Sky mathematically. It will give a different perspective or more open point of how the Constellations can be perceived. This way, the Night Sky can be viewed in a mathematical way, something that is very uncommon. This type of research, “The Constellations and the Theory of Graphs�, will expose an unknown and not frequently studied to the scientific world.

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We invite you to continue this research by mathematically analyzing the 88 Constellations acknowledged by the International Astronomical Union, during the period of a whole year. Also, we suggest that other celestial objects like planets that are observed during an indicated period, this way continuing to read mathematically the Universe.

References

1. Bilbao, J. (2010). Teoría de Grafos. Recuperado de:http://www.blogseitb.com/ matematicas/2010/09/22/la-teoria-de-grafos/

2. Anónimo. (n.f). Introducción a la Teoría de Grafos. Recuperado de:http:// www.matediscreta.8k.com/grafos.htm

3. Bernardi, R. (n.f). La Investigación Empírica Sistemática: Qué métodos para cuáles preguntas. Recuperado de: http://www.apuruguay.org/bol_pdf/bolbernardi-2.pdf

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Anónimo. (2000). Lección 1:Introducción a la eExpression of the Base

Excision Repair Protein APE1 in a Huntington’s Disease In Vitro Model Melody Rivera-Hernández¹, Sulay Rivera-Sánchez², and Sylvette Ayala-Peña³ University Gardens High School¹; University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, Department of Biochemistry²; University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology³. Synopsis: Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal, neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation in the huntingtin gene. The mechanisms leading to HD remain unclear, however, studies support the role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in HD. The base excision repair (BER) pathway plays an important role in the repair of oxidative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lesions. Deficiency in APE1, the main endonuclease in BER, has been linked to increased oxidative stress. It was recently shown that silencing of APE1 leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and to impaired localization of APE1 into the mitochondria of mutant huntingtin-expressing mouse cells after an oxidative insult [4]. It is not known if protein expression levels of APE1 are associated to the accumulation of

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oxidative mtDNA lesions and mitochondrial dysfunction in HD. In this study, it was evaluated basal levels of APE1 in a HD in vitro model (Q7, WT cells; Q111, mutant cells) to determine the role of this protein in HD. Our results showed a significant increase (24 %) of APE1 in Q111 mutant cells compared to WT. These results correlate with increased mtDNA damage in these cells and suggest that APE1 and thus, BER may be associated to HD neurodegeneration. Supported by U54-NS039408, R25-GM061838, 2G12-RR003051 and 8G12MD007600. Introduction Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder with late onset. Many of the HD symptoms include: chorea (uncontrolled movements), cognitive malfunction, insanity, stiffness, weight loss and seizures [17].Despite much research in the HD field, a cure has not been found for this terrible condition. It is not yet established how the mutation in the HD gene causes failure of the function of neurons and cell death. Current drugs can control the symptoms but cannot slow down the progress of the disease. It have been suggested that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are strongly linked to HD neurodegeneration. APE1 is the principal AP endonuclease in BER. This enzyme is involved in DNA repair, transcriptional regulation, and redox signaling [8]. APE1 has been shown to be present in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm [37, 38, 39] and in low abundance in the mitochondria [10, 11, 40]. Evidence indicates that oxidative stress induces both APE1 gene activation and its localization to the mitochondria [11,41].

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In a need of better understand the pathological mechanisms related to HD, it has been created in vitro models [43]. In this study, it was used the conditionally immortalized striatal progenitor cell lines STHdhQ7 (Q7) and STHdhQ111 (Q111) that were derived from wild type and knock-in HD mice, respectively [43]. In this research, it was used Q7 and Q111 striatal cells to evaluate the expression levels of APE1 in HD cells compared to wild type. The role of APE1 levels in mtDNA damage and cell survival has not been addressed in HD. Determination of APE1 levels and its role in HD is crucial to better understand the scenario of HD neurodegeneration. In this study, it was evaluated for the first time the basal levels of APE1 in a HD in vitro model. It was hypothesized that the expression of APE1, the major BER endonuclease, will decrease in mutant huntingtin expressing cells. While, the alternate hypothesis said that APE1 will increase. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce many DNA lesions that are mainly repaired by BER [15]. One essential protein of the BER pathway is APE1. Deficiency of this protein has been linked to increased levels of oxidative markers [12], mutagenesis [13], and mtDNA lesions [16]. Recently, it was demonstrated in striatal HD cells that silencing of APE1 exacerbates mitochondrial dysfunction [4]. Considering that APE1 is critical for the maintenance of mitochondrial function in HD, it was desired to determine the basal expression levels of APE1 using the same HD in vitro model. To achieve the completion of this project, samples were introduced to a series of procedures, which will be described.

Procedure

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This project was initiated and completed in the University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus. It was done in the laboratory of the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, owned by Sylvette Ayala, Ph.D. Ayala and her doctoral student Sulay Rivera, contributed to make this task possible. The hazardous chemicals that were used are: liquid acrylamide and betamercaptoethanol. For a safety practice it was used double gloves to handle potentially hazardous chemicals and the management of these reagents was mainly done by the designated supervisor in a certified hood. Also, both researcher student and designated supervisor have approved biosafety training and are acquainted with the material safety data sheets and the standard operating procedures of the laboratory. In addition, personal protection was used, for example: lab coat and goggles. In case of an accident, the laboratory is equipped with a chemical spill kit, an eye flush station and emergency shower. Contaminated gloves and polymerized acrylamide were discarded in a tightly-closed container in the designated satellite area. Q7 and Q111 cells (kindly provided by Dr. Marcy McDonald, Massachusetts General Hospital) were cultured in supplemented Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM). Cells were grown at 33ºC in a 5% CO2 incubator. Briefly, cell lysis was done using RIPA buffer supplemented with protease inhibitors. Total protein was extracted and quantified using Precision Red. Proteins isolated from Q7 and Q111 were separated by molecular weight using SDS-PAGE. Proteins were transferred to a PVDF membrane using a wet system and APE1 was detected by a monoclonal antibody specific for this protein using the Western blot technique.

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Results and Analysis

1.4 Q7

APE1 expression levels relative to Q7 controls

1.2

Q111

*

α- tubulin

APE1

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

Q7

Q111

Figure1. APE1 levels are increased in mutant Q111 cells compared to wild type Q7. Levels of basal APE1 were determined in striatal cells by Western blot analysis. The results were expressed relative to Q7 and expressed as the mean ± standard error of the mean. Statistical comparisons were done by non-paired Student’s t-test using the computer program SigmaPlot. n = 4 independent experiments, *p = 0.002.

Total proteins were isolated from the conditionally immortalized striatal progenitor cell lines STHdhQ7 (Q7) and STHdhQ111 (Q111) that were derived from wild type and knock-in HD mice, respectively [43].

Proteins were quantified and APE1 protein

expression levels were determined in Q7 and Q111 striatal cells by Western blot analysis.

After the performance of four independent experiments, the results

demonstrated an increase of APE1 in mutant Q111 cells compared to WT Q7 cells. The increase was of 24 % and was significant as determined by the Student’s t-test analysis (p = 0.002).

These findings are consistent with preliminary data from Dr.

Ayala’s laboratory showing increased APE1 levels in HD postmortem brain. Moreover, 91


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the findings of this study correlate with high levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and increased mtDNA damage in Q111 cells compared to WT [4]. Discussion and Conclusion The role of APE1 protein expression levels in the accumulation of oxidative mtDNA lesions and mitochondrial dysfunction in HD is unknown. In this study, it was determined the basal levels of APE1 in a HD in vitro model. Interestingly, these results showed an increase of 24 % in APE1 expression in mutant Q111 cells compared to WT. These results support the alternate hypothesis and suggest that APE1 and thus, BER may be associated with HD neurodegeneration. These findings are critical to contribute to the elucidation of new mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of HD and therefore, explore new alternatives of treatment for this devastating disease. In a future, it can be studied in detail the mechanisms by which APE1 has a regulatory role in HD considering that this enzyme is not only involved in DNA repair but also in transcriptional regulation, and redox signaling [8]. Experiments are in progress to evaluate the effects of APE1 over expression in cell survival and mtDNA damage in a HD in vitro model. References Acevedo-Torres K, Berrios L, Rosario N, Dufault V, Skatchkov S, et al. (2009) Mitochondrial DNA damage is a hallmark of chemically induced and the R6/2 transgenic model of Huntington's disease. DNA Repair (Amst) 8: 126-136. Bogenhagen DF, Pinz KG, Perez-Jannotti RM (2001) Enzymology of mitochondrial base excision repair. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol 68: 257-271. Bossy-Wetzel E, Petrilli A, Knott AB (2008) Mutant huntingtin and mitochondrial dysfunction. Trends Neurosci 31: 609-616.

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Chattopadhyay R, Wiederhold L, Szczesny B, Boldogh I, Hazra TK, et al. (2006) Identification and characterization of mitochondrial abasic (AP)-endonuclease in mammalian cells. Nucleic Acids Res 34: 2067-2076. Croteau DL, Bohr VA (1997) Repair of oxidative damage to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem 272: 25409-25412. Frossi B, Tell G, Spessotto P, Colombatti A, Vitale G, et al. (2002) H(2)O(2) induces translocation of APE/Ref-1 to mitochondria in the Raji B-cell line. J Cell Physiol 193: 180-186. Fung H, Demple B (2005) A vital role for Ape1/Ref1 protein in repairing spontaneous DNA damage in human cells. Mol Cell 17: 463-470. Huamani J, McMahan CA, Herbert DC, Reddick R, McCarrey JR, et al. (2004) Spontaneous mutagenesis is enhanced in Apex heterozygous mice. Mol Cell Biol 24: 8145-8153. Kremer TM, Rinne ML, Xu Y, Chen XM, Kelley MR (2004) Protection of pulmonary epithelial cells from oxidative stress by hMYH adenine glycosylase. Respir Res 5: 16. Li M, Vascotto C, Xu S, Dai N, Qing Y, et al. (2012) Human AP endonuclease/redox factor APE1/ref-1modulates mitochondrial function after oxidative stress by regulating the transcriptional activity of NRF1. Free Radic Biol Med 53: 237-248. Marx J (2005) Neurodegeneration. Huntington's research points to possible new therapies. Science 310: 43-45. Meira LB, Devaraj S, Kisby GE, Burns DK, Daniel RL, et al. (2001) Heterozygosity for the mouse Apex gene results in phenotypes associated with oxidative stress. Cancer Res 61: 5552-5557. Mitra S, Izumi T, Boldogh I, Bhakat KK, Hill JW, et al. (2002) Choreography of oxidative damage repair in mammalian genomes. Free Radic Biol Med 33: 15-28. Shannon KM Huntington's disease - clinical signs, symptoms, presymptomatic diagnosis, and diagnosis. Handb Clin Neurol 100: 3-13. Siddiqui A, Rivera-Sรกnchez S, Castro MdR, Acevedo-Torres K, Rane A, et al. (2012) Mitochondrial DNA damage is associated with reduced mitochondrial bioenergetics in Huntington's disease. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. Vogel KS, Perez M, Momand JR, Acevedo-Torres K, Hildreth K, et al. (2011) Agerelated instability in spermatogenic cell nuclear and mitochondrial DNA obtained from Apex1 heterozygous mice. Mol Reprod Dev 78: 906-919.

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Vonsattel JP, Keller C, Cortes Ramirez EP Huntington's disease - neuropathology. Handb Clin Neurol 100: 83-100. Xanthoudakis S, Smeyne RJ, Wallace JD, Curran T (1996) The redox/DNA repair protein, Ref-1, is essential for early embryonic development in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93: 8919-8923. Xun Z, Rivera-Sanchez S, Ayala-Pena S, Lim J, Budworth H, et al. (2012) Targeting of XJB-5-131 to Mitochondria Suppresses Oxidative DNA Damage and Motor Decline in a Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease. Cell Rep. (1993) A novel gene containing a trinucleotide repeat that is expanded and unstable on Huntington's disease chromosomes. The Huntington's Disease Collaborative Research Group. Cell 72: 971-983.

4. pistemología de la ciencia. Recuperado de: http://www.aulafacil.com/cienciainvestigacion/Lecc-1.htm

5. Mayol, R. (n.f). Metodología de la Investigación: Introdcción a la Investigación Empírica. Recuperado de:http://www.slideshare.net/rnma/introduccin-a-lainvestigacin-emprica

6. Anónimo. (2010). Las Constelaciones. Recuperado de: www.astronomiamoderna.com.ar/ 2011/las-constelaciones/ 7. Ávila, H. (n.f.) Introducción a la metodología de la investigación. Recuperado de : http://www.eumed.net/libros/2006c/203/2i.htm

8.

Millis J. (n.f) What is Astronomy? Recuperado de: http://space.about.com/od/astronomybasics/a/Astronomy.htm

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de.:

http://www.astroelda.com/HTML/HISTORIA/HISTORIASTRONOMIA.htm

10. Carvajal C. (2001). Historia de la Astronomía. Recuperado de: http://almaak.tripod.com/temas/historia_astronomia2.htm

11. Bachiller (2009). Astronomia: De Galileo a los telescopios. España: Lungwerg.

12. Carvajal C. (2001). Las Constelaciones. Recuperado de: http://almaak.tripod.com/temas/constelaciones.htm

13. Anónimo (n.f). Las Constelaciones. Recuperado de: http://almaak.tripod.com/temas/constelaciones.htm

14. Anónimo (2002). Teoría de Grafos. Recuperado de: http://www.investigacionoperaciones.com/Libro/Teoria%20de%20Grafos.pdf

15. Chacón J. (n.f). Introducción a la Teoría de Grafos. Recuperado de: http://webdelprofesor.ula.ve/ciencias/jlchacon/materias/discreta/grafos.pdf

16. Giudichi & Bris (1997). Introducción a la teoría de grafos. Venezuela: Ediciones de la Universidad Simón Bolivar.

17. Cortese A. (n.f) Metodología de la Investigación. Recuperado de: http://www.tecnicas-de-estudio.org/investigacion/investigacion37.htm

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18. Anรณnimo (n.f). Hemisferio. Recuperado de: http://www.astromia.com/glosario/hemisferio.htm

19. Anรณnimo. (n.f.) Asterismos de la Agrupaciรณn Astronรณmica Aragonesa. Recuperado de: http://www.astrosurf.com/aragonesa/asterismos/

20. Schreiner, J. (2006-2010) La Constelaciรณn vs. El Asterismo. Recuperado de: http://www.jschreiner.com/spanish/stars/define.html

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Descriptive comparison of the prevalence of dental caries in children under 12 years of public and private schools in San Juan, Puerto Rico: 2010-2011 Naillil E. Torres Moreno, UGHS Senior Student Dr. Augusto Elias, Recinto de Ciencias Medicas

Synopsis: The overall objective of this project is to estimate the prevalence of dental caries in children of twelve years attending public and private schools in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The

research

designed for

this

study is

cross-sectional epidemiological

(prevalence measure). The methodology is suitable for obtaining information on the prevalence of various oral diseases. The population that was studied included all children twelve years of age enrolled in school during the survey period (20102011). A probability

sample was selected

from

the

population of

interest

to

provide estimates of the prevalence of dental disease and the knowledge and attitudes in this

age

group. We

schools. The average DMFT for

evaluated 9 public public

schools

schools was 2.42

and

7

private

and the private was1.64

(p <0.05) and no significant difference was observed between boys and girls. We fail the

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hypothesis that there is no difference in the rate of decay of children of public and private schools in San Juan. This finding indicates that there is a disparity in health among children in public and private schools that is attributed to socioeconomic differences.

Introduction:

Dental cavities have been identified as a major health problem in Puerto Rico. In 2000 the World Health Organization recommends that the DMFT for 12 years should not be greater than 3.0. In Puerto Rico, after water fluoridation, implemented in 1952, the DMFT (decayed missing filled teeth) was 4.2 (average of decayed, missed and filled) in children 6-15 years before fluoridation dmft water, was 5.8 (Sierra-Purcell PA, 1960). Unfortunately, the water was stopped blooming in late 1980 for tax reasons. Studies from 1970 to 1993 on Puerto Rican children have indicated the following DMFT: 4.8 in children (as) of 7-13 years (Aguiar AJ S and De Jesus., 1970), 3.52 in children (as) 6-12 years (Gonzรกlez S, Rose J, Elias Boneta, A., 1990), and DMFS of 5.2 in children aged 815 years (Elias Boneta, A., 1991). The age group of 12 years old is used as the global monitoring for dental caries. In Puerto Rico the last study assessing the prevalence of dental caries in children 12 years took place in 1997. For 1997, the average rate for esculas DMFT was 4.0 Public and private schools was 3.0. Therefore, significant and useful information about oral health conditions and specifically on dental caries for the population in Puerto Rico is still scarce.

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There is a need to examine public and private schools (a substitute in Puerto Rico oara socioeconomic status) and other variables such as gender, following standardized assessment criteria. These data are essential to accurately assess the oral health needs present and future population and properly plan the strategies needed to improve or implement health services for San Juan, such as fluoridation program and drinking water programs seyadores pit and fissure. It is noteworthy that for 1997 there was a disparity in oral health (caries index) among children attending public and private schools (NHANESIII, 2009). Is expected to see a reduction in the rate of tooth decay in children 12 years of public school due to the implementation of health reform in 2000.

In Puerto Rico have conducted several studies to estimate the prevalence of dental caries. The first epidemiological study was performed in 1948. This study revealed a rate of 8.6 DMFT caries in children 2.943 (KL Shourie, Hein, JW, Leung, SW, Simmons, NS, 1950). In 1952, another study reported a DMFT of 5.8 in a sample of 1974 children aged 6-15 (JB Giusti., 1987). In 1958, a subsequent study revealed a DMFT of 4.0. The reduction is attributed to water flowering program that was implemented in Puerto Rico for a period of five years (JB Giusti., 1987). During the period 1973-1992, several authors have reported the fluoride content of the water below 0.2 ppm. In studies conducted over the past twenty years (1970-1993) there has been a modest reduction in caries activity. This small decrease rate can be attributed to low levels of fluoride in drinking water because of inconsistencies in the fluoridation system. In 1970 it reported a DMFT of 4.8 in 549 children aged 7-13 years old in the municipality of San Juan (Aguiar AJ S and De Jesus., 1970). S. Gonzalez conducted a study (Gonzรกlez S, Rose J, Elias

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Boneta, A., 1990) in 793 children aged 5-14 years, randomly selected from the Municipality of San Juan. The average DMFT was 3.52. Fifty percent of the sample USA were caries free, compared with only 25% of the children included in the study of Puerto Rico. Elijah in 2003, released a study of the prevalence of dental caries among children (as) 12 years old in Puerto Rico with a sample of 1,435 subjects of public and private schools in the eleven health regions of Puerto Rico. The results indicated that the average was 3.8 DMFT. Caries prevalence for the population was 81%. Caries prevalence in children under 12 years in Puerto Rico is high according to the World Health Organization (WHO) and higher than that reported in the United States, Cuba, Jamaica, and Haiti.

Procedure: Tests were subjected to the study protocol to the Human Rights Committee of the Medical Sciences Campus for evaluation, approval and permission. Participants signed a consent sheet and parents consented to their children's participation in the study. After explaining the purpose of the study and provide time to read the consent, assent and ask questions, parents completed a medical history. We randomly selected 15 schools,7 private and 8 public from San Juan, Puerto Rico. At each school, children were identified of 12, among which were chosen randomly to 10 girls and 10 boys, for a total of 300 children. We excluded children who required the use of antibiotics prior to dental checkup.

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Oral examinations: Three examiners (dentists) trained examinations conducted following the criteria of the World Health Organization. The length of dental examinations was about 15 minutes. The examination was performed visually and by using a browser to detect caries. The test sequence must follow the forms for data collection, adapted from National recommended by the Institute of Health, 1991 (see Annex 5). Forms are arranged in quadrants, the examiner starts with the upper left central incisor and continues distally through the second molar in the same quadrant. The upper right, lower left, and lower right quadrants follow the same sequence.

To make evaluations, using 2 portable chairs, lamps, disposable instruments and supplies for infection control. There was also external lighting. They use a program called SAS to estimate the prevalence of caries (percent of Caries and DMFT index of all children tested) and to compare the mean DMFT by gender and public and private schools will use a T-Test (P = 0.05 ). Also made comparisons between children of public and private schools and by gender. Data were collected in tables representing evaluating each tooth of the children examined. Then these data are expressed in graphs for more effective comparisons between the data collected.

Results and Analysis: In the region of San Juan were studied nine public schools and 7 private schools (50% girls and 50% for school children). The DMFT in public schools was 2.42 and in private schools was 1.64. No statistically significant difference in the rate of tooth decay 101


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among children in the region of San Juan. The dmft say whether private schools is 1.64 The average public school could not be greater than 1.81 to be considered not no difference between the rate of decay of public and private schools. We conclude that public and private schools statistically significant difference (p <0.05) where children of private school (1.64) have a lower rate of caries than children of public school (2.42). It was expected that there was no difference between the decay rates between public and private schools since health reform was implemented between 1994-2000 giving access to the medically indigent population (much of children who attend public schools come from a lower socioeconomic status than the children who attend private schools). This difference in mean caries index in children in San Juan is a disparity in oral health attributed to a social determinant (socioeconomic status). This disparity is also observed in the United States.

Prevalencia de caries dentales (CPOD) en niños(as) doce años en escuelas públicas y privadas de Puerto Rico 2011

Promedio de dientes cariados, perdido y obturado

3.5 3 2.5

p>0.05

p<0.05

2 1.5 1

2.36

2.61

2.6

2.42 1.64

0.5 0 Niños (n=73)

Niñas (n=73)

Publico (n=9)

Privado (n=7)

Puerto Rico (n=1550)

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Discussion and Conclusion: In the region of San Juan were studied nine public schools and 7 private schools (50% girls and 50% for school children). The DMFT in public schools was 2.42 and in private schools was 1.64. No statistically significant difference in the rate of tooth decay among children in the region of San Juan. The dmft say whether private schools is 1.64 The average public school could not be greater than 1.81 to be considered not no difference between the rate of decay of public and private schools. We conclude that public and private schools statistically significant difference (p <0.05) where children (as) private school (1.64) has a lower rate of caries children (as) public school (2.42). It was expected that there was no difference between the decay rates between public and private schools since health reform was implemented between 1994-2000 giving access to the medically indigent population (much of children (as) who attend public schools come from a lower socioeconomic status than the children (as) who attend private schools). This difference in mean caries index in children in San Juan is a disparity in oral health attributed to a social determinant (socioeconomic status). This disparity is also observed in the United States.

We can conclude that we fail the hypothesis that there is no difference in the rate of decay of children (as) of public and private schools in San Juan. This finding indicates that there is a disparity in health among children in public and private schools that are attributed to socioeconomic differences. However there is no statistically significant difference in mean caries index by gender.

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References: Shourie K.L., Hein, J.W., Leung, S.W., Simmons, N.S. and Marshall-Day, D.C. (1950): A Dental Survey of Puerto Rican Children. Unpublished manuscript. Division of Dental Research, University of Rochester, New York. Sierra-Purcell PA. (1960): Fluoración de las Aguas de Abastecimiento Público en Puerto Rico. Rev. Co. Químicos de PR. 17, 23-25. Aguiar S and De Jesús AJ. (1970): Evaluación Plan Central Lloren's en el Área Metropolitana. San Juan-Servicios Odontológicos Distrito Noreste de Salud y Bienestar, Departamento de Salud. González S, Rose J; Elías-Boneta A. (1990) IADR Program and Abstract Number 1782, February 9, l0 in Chicago, Illinois: Prevalence of Dental Caries in San Juan, Elementary School Children (Abstract),. Elías-Boneta A. (1991):

Prevalence of Dental Caries in Selected Puerto Rican

Communities: A pilot survey. (Abstract). Proceedings of the First Conference on Hispanic oral Health in the United States, p. 27. Pan American Health Organization. (1990): Border Health Statistics, WHO-EI Paso Field Office, El Paso, Dec. The Valley Primary Health Care Review by the Indigent Health Care Review Committee of the Lower Rio Grande Development Council. (1989): UTHSC_H, August.

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M.M. Braga, L.B Oliveira, G.A.V.C Bonini. et al. (2009) Feasibility of the international Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS-II) in Epidemiological Surveys and Comparability with Standard World Health Organization Criteria. Giusti JB. (1987):.Evaluación del Medio Ambiente Externo: Análisis Estratégico de su Efecto en el Futuro de la Educación Dental y el Impacto en la Prestación de Servicios de Salud en Puerto Rico. Marzo. Báez, R., et.al. (1995): Oral Health Status of Culebra Puerto Rico, (Unpublished Data). Brunette JA and Carlos JP. (1982): Changes in the Prevalence of Dental Caries in U.S. School Children.. J Dent Res 61 (Special Issue): 1346-1351. Elías-Boneta, A, Crespo-Kebler, K., Gierbolini, C.C., Toro-Vizcarrondo, C.E., and Psoter, W.J. (2003): Dental Caries Prevalence of Twelve Year Olds in Puerto Rico, Community Dental Health 20: 171-176. Nizel

AE,

Papas

AS.

Nutrition

in

Clinical

Dentistry.

3rd

edition,

W.B. Saunders Company p. 277-

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Tunicamyin as a new treatment for triple negative breast cancer Neysharie SĂĄnchez Torres University Gardens High School Student

Synopsis The triple-negative breast cancer differs from other cancers because it does not express ER, PR and HER2 receptors (ER-/PR-/HER2-). In this investigation it was found that Tumicamicin inhibits the growth of a triple negative human breast cancer tumor cells (MDA-MB-231) and is hypothesized that if Tunicamycin inhibits cell cycle in triple negative breast cancer tumor cells (MDA-MB-231) causing apoptosis, then there will be a reduction in proliferation of these cells. The experimental group was treated with 1.0 Îźg/ml of Tunicamycin and the control group had no Tunicamycin. The result was a decreased cell numbers as a function of time, inhibition of colony formation and reduced expression of protein levels of Phospho Rb, ATF 4, 6 and IRE-1. The conclusion is that the cell cycle is not completed and the cells died as a result of unfolded protein responsemediated apoptosis. Introduction Breast cancer has become a global problem very worrying. Although mortality rates have decreased by 2.2% per year from 1990 to 2007 (DeSantis, Siegel, Bandi, and Jemal, 2011), excluding skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women (DeSantis et al, 2011) and the leading cause of death after heart disease

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(Banerjee, Lang, Hung, Sengupta, Banerjee, Baksi and Banerjee, 2011). The purpose of this research is to find a treatment for triple negative breast cancer. This cancer affects 15% of breast cancer patients and does not respond to the treatments used for other types of cancer and causes increased mortality rate. If the experimental treatment, Tunicamycin works, then it would be very close to getting a treatment for the triple negative breast cancer patients and save many lives. Tunicamycin, which is a glucosamine containing pyrimidine nucleosides (and an antibiotic), inhibits protein N-glycosylation by blocking the synthesis of lipid linked oligosaccharide (LLO) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) making glycoproteins not to fold correctly and causing an accumulation of unfolded glycoproteins in the ER. This saturation induces ER stress (Banerjee et al., 2011). The ER stress can induce directly a control response and prevents completing the cell division (Banerjee et al., 2011). This research sought what effect Tunicamycin will have on the triple negative breast cancer tumor cells (MDA-MB-231). The working hypothesis was if Tunicamycin inhibits the cell cycle of the triple negative breast cancer tumor cells (MDA-MB-231) causing apoptosis, then there will be a reduction of the number of these cancer cells. The alternative hypothesis was if Tunicamycin does not inhibit the cell cycle of the triple negative breast cancer tumor cells (MDA-MB-231) causing apoptosis, then there will be no reduction in these cancer cell numbers. The null hypothesis stated that Tunicamycin will accelerates the cell cycle of the triple negative breast cancer tumor cells (MDA-MB231), causing an increase in the number of cancer cells. Procedure

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This work was performed at the University of Puerto Rico, Medical Science Campus in the laboratory of biochemistry with the help of second year medicine student Coral Rivera and his Profesor Dr. Dipak K. Banerjee. It was used two groups of triple negative breast cancer tumor cells (MDA-MB-231). The experimental group received 1.0 μg/ml of Tunicamycin and the control group received vehicle only. Each group will be observed for seven days and the cells will be counted after every 24 hours. Culturing of human breast cancer cells: Stock cultures will be maintained in minimal essential medium with Earl’s salt (EMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, glutamine and antibiotics (penicilline-streptomycin-fungizone-nystatin) at 37oC in a CO2 incubator [5% CO2/95% air]. The cells will be synchronized by culturing for 24 hours in a serum-free media before starting the treatment with with Tunicamycin (1.0 μg/ml; Martinez JA, Tavarez JJ, Oliveira CM and Banerjee DK. (2006) Glycoconj J 23: 209220). Each group will be observed after every 24 hours. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting: Cells will be lysed by adding a boiling cell lysis buffer [10% SDS, 10 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5); Zhang Z, Banerjee A, Baksi K. Banerjee DK. Biocatalysis and Biotransformation 28:90-98 (2010)].

Proteins were quantified

spectrophotometically and resolved on 10% SDS-polyacrylamide gels, and then transferred to nitrocellulose membrane at 160 V. Targeted protein was probed after incubating at 4oC overnight with the indicated antibody and the HRP-conjugated secondary antibody.

Protein levels were visualized by chemiluminescence (ECL)

detection system (GE Healthcare; Banerjee DK, Carrasquillo EA, Hughey P, Schutzbach

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JS, Martinez JA and Baksi K. (2005) J Biol Chem 280: 4174-4181). The protein band intensities were quantified using the Chem. Doc Densitometer (BioRad Laboratories)

Results & Analysis

Figure # 1: The graph shows the results obtained in the process of Western Blotting. The x axis represents the number of days in which the groups were observed cancer cells. The y-axis represents the number of living cancer cells. The first day, after applying the treatment, there was a difference of 2x104 between the control and the experimental group. The second day, after applying the treatment, there was a difference of 2x104 between the control group and the experimental group. Tunicamycin treated cells decreased 0.5X104 cells and increased 1.5X104 control group. The third day, after applying the treatment, there was a difference between the control group 10X104 and the experimental group. Tunicamycin treated cells decreased 2x104 cells and 4x104 increased in the control group. The fourth day, after applying the treatment, there was a difference between the control group 15X104 and the experimental group. Tunicamycin treated cells decreased 1x104 cells and 4x104 increased in the 109


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control group. On the fifth day after applying the treatment, it was observed that the cells of the experimental group had died, whereas the cells in the control group increased 4x104. On the sixth day after applying the treatment, it was observed that the cells of the experimental group were killed and the cells remained in the control group increased 2.5X104. On the seventh day after applying the treatment, the cells were observed in the experimental group remained dead cells decreased 6X104 experimental group.

TM C

Figure # 2: Western Blotting presents a reduction Phospho Rb in the experimental group, this means that the cells do not continued their cell cycle.

TM C

TM C

Actin

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Figure # 3: The result of Western Blotting showed a reduction in protein levels ATF 6, ATF 4 and IRE1.

Conclusion The working hypothesis is correct because Tunicamycin has inhibited the cellular progression of the triple negative human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) causing apoptosis and thus a significant reduction of triple negative breast cancer tumor cells (MDA-MB -231). Decreasing triple negative cells in the experimental group was due to the reduced levels of protein Rb Phospho, ATF 4, ATF 6 and IRE1. This means that in these cells the process of homeostasis is not maintained. Therefore, the cell cycle is not completed and caused the cell death. In my opinion this research involves a move towards a treatment for triple negative breast cancer. Future research could be conducted in tumor tissue or even triple negative cancer in patients with this cancer. If Tunicamycin fails to clear the triple negative tumor in a patient without the patient being adversely affected, would lead to the conclusion of a new treatment or even a cure. This would be innovative and even the beginning of new therapies for other cancers. Future research could be conducted in tumor tissue or even triple negative cancer in patients with this cancer. References

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Baksi, K., Banerjee, A., Banerjee, D.K., Banerjee K.S., Hung, M., Lang, J. y Sengupta, K. (2011). Unfolded Protein Response Is Required in nu/nu Mice Microvasculature for Treating Breast Tumor with Tunicamycin. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.169771 Bandi, P., DeSantis, C., Jemal, A., y Siegel, R. (2011) Breast Cancer Statistics, 2011. Cancer Journal, 62, 409-418 Cell Lines Service. (2013). MDA-MB-23. Recuperado el 19 de enero de 2013 de: http://www.cell-lines-service.de Ma, H. (2006) Western Blotting Method. The of American Science, 2(2). Banerjee, D.K., Baksi, K. y Martinez J. A. (2007) Significance of protein N-glycoylation in breast tumor angiogĂŠnesis. Basic Science and Clinical Applications. 281-301 Berg, L.R., Martin, D.W. y Solomon E. (1999) Biology: Fifth Edition. Orlando, FL: Saunders

College Publishing.

Biocancer (2010) AngiogĂŠnesis Tumoral. Bio Cancer Research Journal. Recuperado el 19 de enero de 2013 de: http://www.biocancer.com Biocancer. (2010). VEGF. Bio Cancer Research Journal. Recuperado el 19 de enero de 2013 de: http://www.bioca

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twenty participants for research. By the TITLE: The effectiveness of a plan for

volunteers was given a questionnaire to determine the domain of biomedical waste

proper disposal of biomedical waste at home

issue and provide containers for a month

among diabetic adolescents in aged 12-18

that all waste deposited. When within a

years.

month, along with a specialist in biomedical material all containers were collected and

AUTHOR: SofĂ­a Antonia Ortiz Beyley

were given a second questionnaire. When all the data obtained was determined that only

CREDENTIALS:

University Gardens

three of twenty participants knew the term

Specialized in Math and Science High

of biomedical waste, but none performed a biomedical waste plan. For these results it

School student

was found that the working hypothesis was the right which held that it was expected that

SYNOPSIS. Currently Puerto Rico has no

the participants did not carry out a plan, but

law regulating biomedical waste at home for

to participate in the study if they implanted.

type I diabetic patients. This research began

Finally, it was a long extension project, but

with information collected by specialists in

in turn served as a guide to sensitize young

the field of endocrinology, biomedical and

diabetics to establish a plan of biomedical

visits to many hospitals. Then conveniently

waste at home.

chose between 12 to 18 years, a sample of Introduction: It is considered a biomedical waste as any solid waste generated in the diagnosis, treatment (medical services), or immunization of human or animal services, research, production or testing of biological or in embalming human bodies (Rule 580 Chapter V Waste No Hazardous JCA). Some types of biomedical waste: Crop strains and biologicals, wasting disease, human blood and blood products, sharps waste, animal waste, Waste Isolation The definition of biomedical waste that was established under the RCRA subtitle j is incorporated in Chapter V of the Regulations for the Control of Solid Waste Hazardous No Environmental Quality Board.

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Due to scientific advances and population growth, waste production has increased exponentially or has multiplied. Following some incidents in public places with biomedical waste,

the

Congress

of

the

United

States

of

America

(USA)

took

action

on the regulation of the same in "Medical Waste Tracking Act" (1998) under the heading j Act Waste recovery and conservation or RCRA (1976). After this the Government of Puerto Rico and Proponent Agency, Environmental Quality Board (EQB) Regulations promulgated under the Biomedical Waste Solid Waste Regulation No Hazardous. In Puerto Rico have a high incidence of Type I of Diabetes, actually in the ranges of 12-18 years old have 100,000 patients with the condition in Puerto Rico. But for the Environmental Quality Board of Puerto Rico (2007) the people who have this condition are minor for established a protocol for the disposal of biomedical waste in their home. With this serious problem that many people don’t know about it, propose a protocol for the learned. The main objectives of this research are to know if the participants know the term biomedical waste and if they have a plan for the disposal of biomedical waste in their home. Actually the problems in this research are the main objectives. And the work Hypothesis of the research is that the participant doesn’t know the term and neither don’t have a plan for the disposal of the biomedical waste. To prove it, two questioners and for one month bring the biohazard container to evaluate the weight. Procedure: This research was divided into three phases. The first of these phases was the Data Collection and Management Questionnaire number one. Some of the individuals who carry out in this phase are: visits to pediatric diabetes foundation and medical calls to the young pilot program will be voluntary and statistics collection. In addition to a sample of twenty participants will gather with their parents to bring the protocol due to sign the consent form and assent. Finally in the first phase was the number one administration of the questionnaire, which will identify the participant with a number control, in order to maintain the participant's name anonymous. With this questionnaire is then measured investigate data through tables one and two and also the graphs.

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The second phase of this project was experiment. At this stage there will be a pilot project which will aim to implement a plan of biomedical waste collected at home for a month. This is to ensure that you will be giving each participant a recipient of "Biohazard for the daily disposal of syringes and / or catheter. In addition, they will be giving participants a plastic bag for daily disposal of swabs, test strips and lancets. At the end of the month for research, each container was recovered by a private company regulated biomedical waste collection and cremation. Onsite will be collected by the consultant and researcher. Finally, the project culminates with the biomedical waste collected. Such materials are weighed individually (containers), (see photos of collected material), and projecting the results in tables and graphs. Also be given a second questionnaire where evaluate the comments and feel about the experience making the plan of biomedical waste at home. These results are placed in Tables three, four and displayed in the graphs three and four. After all the experimentation is performed Data Collection. After this procedure is performed for Data

Analysis.

Results & Analysis: Table #1: Demographic data of the participants

Gender Female Male

1 1 5 2 2 1 4

1 1 1 1 0

Age

Country

12 13 14 15 16 17 18

S.J. G. C. C.A. T.B. B. H. N. S.S. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

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Graph # 1: Demographics data of participants 20 years)

15

Female

10

Male

5

Ages

0 1

2

3

4 5 Ranges of aged

6

Table # 1 entitled as demographic of participant’s shows that female participation in the investigation was the busiest, not the male. Also females are highlighted between the ages of 14 and 18 years. Notably, the young participants in this research were highlighted between the ages of 12-17.Also in this table shows that there was a participation of about nine municipalities of the island. Most of the individuals were in the municipalities of San Juan, Carolina, Bayamón and San Juan. In the graph corresponds to number one demographic data shows the increase of the women in research and declining male in this research. Table#2: Amount of Biomedical waste generate by ages

Peso(L) 5.6 22.2 12.5 11.6 53.7

Graph # 2:Amount of Biomedical waste by ages

Amount

Range of ages (years) 12-13 14-15 16-17 17-18 Total: 20 participants

25 20 15 10 5 0

Weight 12_13 14-15

16-17 17-18 Ranges of ages 116


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Table # 2 identified as biomedical waste quantity generated ages. In this table shows that the largest number of such waste was generated by the ages of 14-15years, since these are the major participants in research. Instead the ages of 12-13 years was the lowest generation, they were two participants, although to be two generated about 3.0 pounds each, amount to many failed. On the other hand, The graph depicting the number two weighing waste generated shows that the age range of 14-15 years was the largest generator, but not the age of 12-13 years. Intervals 16-17 and 18 were the mean of this experimentation.

Table # 3: Knowledge of the term biomedical waste and the implementation of a plan of biomedical waste

Aged ( years)

Knowledge of Established the term the plan

12 13 14 15 16 17 18

0 1 0 2 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Amount of the participants that know and established the protocol

Graph #3: Knowledge of the term biomedical waste and the implementation of a plan of biomedical waste 3 2

Knowledge of the term

1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Age

Established of the plan

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The entitled Knowledge of the term as biomedical waste and the implementation of a plan of biomedical waste. This table shows that young diabetics examined had not implemented a plan of biomedical waste at home. Not so some of them were aware of the term, but most respondents. In term of graph generalized ignorance of individuals over the term of biomedical waste. It also highlights that these participants did not have a plan for proper disposal of waste generated

every

two

hours

which

Discussion & Conclusion: After analyzing the data presented it was determined that the working hypothesis was correct. This raised was expected to show that the young diabetics had no effective plan to dispose of biomedical waste at home. But after participating in the pilot project it will have a plan to dispose of biomedical waste at home. The reason for this determination of the participants is because many of them do not have a good education on the subject of biomedical waste. But to participate in this experiment, guides them to be agents of change for the environment and future generations of patients and diabetics to teach and develop a more effective plan. There is still much work to do. For this, there are various ways in which this research could be improved for the benefit of future studies. Would do this research but with a larger sample in order

to

give

validity.

Then

perform

in

different

regions

of

Puerto

Rico.

This experiment in order to compare a larger scale. In addition to research with a variety of ages would be very compelling and can clarify and teach the future of tomorrow to carry out an efficient plan of biomedical waste at home.

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References:

Solid Waste Authority. (1998 February).Recycling. Reduce Reuse Recycle obligation of all. Environmental Quality Board. Rules for handling. Nonhazardous solid waste. Ittagem, M., Gonzalez, F., Beyley, John. Waste Management Biomedical. Naquin, D. (1998). Medical Waste: Still Healthy After All These Years. Waste Age. 40-56 Forestier, F. (1992). General information on Regulation Management of Biomedical Waste. Justice, S. (2007). Another serious problem of garbage. First Time. Retrieved on 27 sept.of

2011. From http://primerahora.com/News / special

inform

/

news

/

another_problem_serious_of_... Rivera,T.(2004). Hazardous Waste and Pollution Biomedical by pharmaceutical industries.

Retrieved

on

27

of

September.

,

2011.

of

http://www.umbral.uprrp.edu/files/ contamination. University of Virginia. Diabetes and Other Endocrine and Metabolic. Retrieved on 27 sept.of

2009

from

http://www.healthysystem.virginia.edu

/

uvahealth

/

peds_diabetes_sp. Law for Biomedical Waste Management. Act No. 180 of the year 2008. Retrieved January 19,

2012 from http:// www. Lexjuris.com / lexlex laws 180.

XV National Congress of Sanitary Engineering, and Environmental Sciences. Chemical disinfection for Hazardous waste biological and infectious. Retrieved on February

29, 2012 in http://bva.colech.edu.mx /gsdl/ collect/bvaech/index/assoc/

HASH0161/adfe5e07.dir/doc.pdf

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Research Notes The UGHS Scientific Journal

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SHORT-TERM MEMORY PERFORMANCE IN ADOLESCENTS Agness H. Montes Torres Total of points: 25/25

Does short-term memory performance differ depending on the gender? Memory is a brain function in which the nervous system codifies, stores, organizes and recovers information. (Carrillo-Mora, 2010). The human brain works differently according to the gender, because the organization of the brain is different. (Rodríguez, 2003). There will be a difference in the performance of the brain because it is believed that the female brain has a better short-term memory. The study of the brain started over a century ago, giving us the knowledge that the brain is far more interesting that we think. It's a complex net of systems that work simultaneously for the same reason. The human brain encodes, which is the process in which the information is recorded. It also stores information, maintains the material stored in the system and regains information that was stored. The memory is classified in stages called short-term memory, sensory memory and long- term memory. The shortterm memory is the quickly available information on recent cognitive events. In 1956, George A. Miller lead studies that showed that the short-term memory was 7±2, but modern experiments estimates it between 4 to 5 items. This type of memory is divided in three branches: the central executive, a temporary storage for short-term memory, where information is kept available while it is needed for instant reasoning processes. The brain also uses the process that divides the information in three parts so in can be remembered easily, known as chunking. Loftus, et al (1987) found during a study that the female showed superiority in different types of memory measures. Rodríguez (2003) stated that the brain is organized and processes information differently, resulting in different behaviors, preferences and perceptions. In the female brain, the division of functions between the two hemispheres less defined which means that the quantity of fibers connecting the two hemispheres is higher, making it easier to flow the information from one location to another, than in men.

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Results and Analysis:

Table 1: Number of participants by gender and age Gender Age (years)

Females

Males

14

4

4

15

5

5

16

5

5

17

5

5

Total

19

19

Graph1: Number of participants by gender and age.

participants

Number of

Females, Males, Females, Males, 15,Females, Males, 16, 17, 15, 55 16, 55 17, 55 Females, Males, 14, 14, 44

Females Males

Age( years)

Table 1 shows the number of individuals who participated in the research. They are presented classified by gender and age. Overall participation was of 19 individuals

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divided as follows: 4 females and 4 males of 14 years and 5 females and 5 males aged 15, 16 and 17. Graph 1 shows the data for Table 1, more clearly.

words by gender and age

words by gender and age

Number of memorized words by gender Age (years) Females

Males

14

6

6

15

6

5

16

5

6

17

7

6

Total

6

6

memorized words

Graph 2: Number of memorized

Number of

Table 2: Number of memorized

Females, Males, Females, Males, Females, Males, Females, Males, 15, 15,516, 516,517, 517,5 5 14, 14,4 4 Females Males

Table 2 shows the number of words memorized by the participants by gender and age. Age (years)

The 14 year-old women memorized a total of 6 words, like men. 14 year-old participants were the only ones who memorized the same amount of words. In the age of 15, the women obtained a higher average than men. The same happened at the age of 16, however, was reversed. Males were able to memorize more than the females, although it was the only age where this happened. For 17 years, the women memorized, once again, more than men, but unlike in the age of 15, 17 year-old females were the ones that memorized the most. It is proven that intelligence does not affect memory. One factor that may have influenced these results is the fact that despite the practice, it was noted that some participants were nervous. If the participant was not fully concentrated, it was more difficult to remember the words. Therefore, although in total both females and males memorized the same amount of words, at a more specific level, women performed better.

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Like said earlier the memory is a mental process by which we encode, store and retrieve information (Feldman, 1997). It's believed that the female brain is superior in terms of shortterm memory. In my opinion, memory depends on the person, but it's shown that the female brain has a better memory. The question is, do you believe it's true?

References Carrillo-Mora1, P. (2010). Sistemas de memoria: reseña histórica, clasificación y conceptos actuales. Primera parte: Historia, taxonomía de la memoria, sistemas de memoria de largo plazo: la memoria semántica. Salud Mental, 33, pp. 85-93. Clifford, B., and R. Bull. The Psychology oj Person IdentiJication. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978. Loftus, E.F., Banaji, M.R., Schooler, J.W., & Foster, R. (1987). Who remembers what?: Gender differences in memory. Michigan Quarterly Review, 26, pp. 64-85. Miller, G.A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. The Psychological Review, 63, pp. 81-97. Rodríguez, Y. (2003). La verdadera diferencia entre hombres y mujeres. Recuperado el 19 de marzo de 2013 de: http://www.santiagoapostol.net/revista03/hombres.html

Vocabulary 1. Memory- Memory is a brain function in which the nervous system codifies stores, organizes and recovers information. 2. Short-term memory- is the quickly available information on recent cognitive events. 3. Coding- is the process in which the information is recorded.

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4. The central executive- a temporary storage for short-term memory, where information is kept available while it is needed for instant reasoning processes. 5. Chunking- the process that divides the information in three parts so in can be remembered easily. 6. Sensory memory- the first level of memory, it retains the brief impression of a sensory stimulus after the stimulus itself has ended. 7. Long-term memory- the continuing storage of information. This information is largely outside of our awareness, but can be called into working memory to be used when needed. Some of this information is fairly easy to recall, while other memories are much more difficult to access. 8.

Memory storage- is the more or less passive process of retaining information in the brain, whether in the sensory memory, the short-term memory or the more permanent long-term memory.

9.

Memory retrieval- once the information has been encoded and stored in the memory; in order to be used, it must be retrieved. Memory retrieval is important in every aspect of daily life. There are many factors that can influence how memories are retrieved from long-term memory.

10.

Cognition- The mental process of knowing, including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning, and judgment.

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THE CONSUME OF ALCOHOL IN TEENAGERS Gabriela I. Oquendo Claudio Total of points: 25/25

Teenagers tend to consume large amounts of alcohol for many reasons; and the excessive consume of it harms the human body. Alcohol damages the cerebral cells, produces diseases and even causes death. Teenagers consume alcohol the most on weekends when they go out with friends. In some of the cases the family influences on their children, probably because their parents are alcoholics or consume large amounts of alcohol. The mayor reason for teenagers to consume alcohol is the responsibility of the parents. Alcohol is one of the most common problems in society. People tend to consume large amounts of it. What they don’t know is that it can cause damages to their body. Teenagers drink frequently just because they want to hang out and have fun. But this all depends on their parents; if they’re responsible about it or if they let their children consume it. Probably, they’re parents that don’t let their children consume alcohol, but they do it behind their backs; so that’s not their fault. But there are other cases in which kids copy parent’s attitude and imitate. So if the child’s parents consume alcohol they are going to want it too. Jinelys Quiñones, in her social science investigation, “The consume of alcohol in teenagers between 15 and 18 in the Specialized School University Gardens High School”, explains how alcohol affects teenagers and also the average of teenagers that consume it. This project takes to consideration the behavior, actions and decisions that teenagers make about alcohol. She made a poll, to teenagers between 15 and 18, with questions related to alcohol consume. She chose 6 females and 6 males of each age of the range and she noticed that most students’ teenagers don’t consume alcohol. Although some of the students do consume alcohol they don’t tend to do it frequently. Jinelys concludes that the 74% of the students surveyed don’t tend to consume alcohol like adults do, which means that her hypothesis was rejected.

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This investigation purpose is to find out if teenagers drink large amounts of alcohol. Although she thought that most of teenagers consume alcohol, she found out that most of them don’t. I always thought that teenager consume alcohol, but not that much. Probably they didn’t answer the poll sincerely or she chose students that have never tried it. I know people that have consumed alcohol since they were little because their parents allowed it. This means that they are many reasons why teenagers consume alcohol, but the most common is the responsibility of their parents. If a survey was made with a larger amount of teenagers it will be more accurate. Also, this is only one investigation; probably if more are done, it will be even more precise. In future investigations, one of the options that should be added to the survey should be “a few times” for the people that don’t consume alcohol that much. Also it should be with a greater amount of teenagers from other schools or communities other than University Gardens.

References: Bolet Astoviza M. y Socarras Suarez M. (2003). El alcoholismo, consecuencias y prevención. Revista Cubana Invest Biomed. Vol. 22 (Nº 1). Pp. 25-31. Espada Sánchez, J. P., Ramón Pereira J. y García-Fernández, J. M. (2008). Influencia de los modelos sociales en el consumo de alcohol de los adolescentes. Psicothema. Vol. 20 (Nº 4). Pp. 531-537. Doi. ISSN 0214 - 9915 CODEN PSOTEG. Ferrer Lacosta C. (2009). El alcohol en los adolescentes. Contribuciones a las Ciencias Sociales. Guibert Reyes, W., Gutiérrez Díaz, I. y Martínez Gómez, C. (2005). Comportamiento ante el alcohol de los estudiantes en las etapas de la adolescencia. Rev. Cubana Med. Gen. Integr. Vol. 21. (Nº1-2). Martínez González, J. M. y Robles Lozano, L. (2001). Variables de protección ante el consumo de alcohol y tabaco en adolescentes. Psicothema. Vol. 13 (Nº2). Pp. 222-228 Quiñones, J. (2012). The consume of alcohol in teenagers between 15 and 18 in the Specialized School University Gardens High School.

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Vocabulary: 1. poll- the result or quantity of such a voting 2. alcohol- a drink(s) containing this substance 3. behavior- manner of behaving or conducting oneself 4. survey- a report incorporating the results of such an 5. accurate- faithfully representing or describing the truth 6. affect- to move or disturb emotionally or mentally 7. average- the typical or normal amount, quantity, degree, etc 8. range- the limits within which any fluctuation takes place 9. tend- to have a general disposition 10. hypothesis- a suggested explanation for a group of facts or phenomena, either as a basis for further verification

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COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING THE CONCEPTS OF DIVISION TO FOURTH GRADERS THROUGH EDUCATIONAL GAMES VERSUS EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCES. Alex A. Rivera González Total of points: 25/25 Actually, we see how the development of students is dropping. Why this is happening in our society? Maybe, this is due to the traditional way of learning. The students, nowadays, are more attached to the technology. Is this could help the fact that students learn faster with a game than traditional way. This research was commissioned to check if a math game can be more effective. What do you think?

Traditional math classes help some students, therefore, do not help at all and must have variety of strategies and methods. There are different types of teachers with different teaching methods that can help students according to their ability. (Fernandez, 1991). The first is the traditional blackboard used only as a teaching method (Fernandez, 1991). Another technology is the teacher using the scientific method, in order to gain knowledge and skills in the discipline and methodology using audiovisual materials, newspapers, media, computer (Fernandez, 1991). Another type of teacher is the architect that uses interactive and spontaneous communication. The means used are different because depending on the subject chosen being handled (Fernandez, 1991). Besides the teacher researcher is characterized by using a methodology based on methods and projects and their priority is communication among students (Fernandez, 1991). Finally is the master builder that his approach is that the key to learning is the mind, it gives priority to the process, and the communication is directed by Professor but modified by students. (Fernandez, 1991). RESULTS & ANALYSIS:

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For purposes of interpreting data, to Group A is the group that was administered the digital game and Group B is the group to which the teacher taught them the traditional way. The first table that we made was a comparison of the time each student took to complete the pre-test in Group A and Group B with the percentage of each student of their respective groups. The second table is the same, but with the post-test. The Third table that we made was the ANOVA test on the pre-test that showed that the p value was higher than 0.05 which means that there is significant difference between Group A and Group B in the results of this test. The first graph that we made was a comparative bar graph; we compared the results of Group A and Group B in the pre-test. The Fourth table that we made was the ANOVA test on the post-test that showed that the p value was higher than 0.05 which means that there is significant difference between Group A and Group B in the results of this test. The second bar graph that we made was a comparative bar graph; we compared the results of Group A and Group B in the post-test. The fifth table that we made was the ANOVA test on both tests (Post-tests and Pre-Tests) that showed that the p value was lower than 0.05 which means that there wasn’t a significant difference between Group A and Group B in the results of both tests. The last bar graph compares the four groups, group A and pre and post-test and group B and pre and post-test and the results obtained were in Group A averaged 40% in Group B and an average of 44%. The last bar graph is the more important because it shows that both methods were effective in teaching mathematics. As mentioned before, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) determines if there was a significant difference between the two groups. The data was subjected this test, and it gives us a "p value", if that value is less than 0.05 then we can say that the difference is significant if not more significant.

Average percent of each group

60.00% 50.00%

Comparason between Pre and Post testB by group

B

40.00% 30.00%

A

A

20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Pre-A

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CONCLUSION: After seeing the information provided and the results of this research, we can say that the digital game math positively affects the academic achievement of students. Previous research also did the same research was carried out the same process and also concluded that the game was more effective digital. We can see, clearly, that technology nowadays is being important and positive to our children. We must take this into consideration and implement it into our schools. In this way, we can increase the percentage of our students' performance and we can reach a society of quality.

References: Çağiltay, K. (2006). Turkish prospective teachers’ perceptions regarding the use of computer games with educational features. Educational Technology &Society, 9(1), 308-321. Chuang,T., Chen, W. (2009). Effect of Computer-Based Video Games on Children: An Experimental Study. Educational Technology & Society, 12 (2), 1–10. De Guzmán, M. (2002) Enseñanza de las ciencias y la matemática. OEI. Disponible en línea en: www.groups.msn.com/cgj4ulm362gqklh4g4qtuud87/ [06/05/05] De la Paz, S., Hernández, P., Barrón, L. (2004). Multimedia Environments in Mathematics Teacher Education: Preparing Regular and Special Educators for Inclusive Classrooms. Ji. of Technology and Teacher Education, 12(4), 561-575. Fernández, J. (1991). ¿cómo hacer unidades didácticas innovadoras?. ¿cómo se hace una unidad didáctica? Jiménez, M. G. Trabajo cooperativo. Gamboa, S. (2010). El juego en el contexto escolar. Recuperado el 28 de noviembre de 2010

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Glendon, K. (2005) Using Games as a Teaching Strategy. Journal of Nursing Education, 44(7), 338-40.

Vocabulary: 1. Graph- A diagram that exhibits a relationship, often functional, between two sets of numbers as a set of points having coordinates determined by the relationship. 2. Mathematical- of, relation to, or according with mathematics. 3. Development- the act or process of developing; growth; progress 4. Methodology- A system of broad principles or rules from which specific methods or procedures may be derived to interpret or solve different problems within the scope of a particular discipline. 5. Deviation- An abnormality; a departure 6. Performance- The way in which someone or something functions 7. Experimentation- The act, process, or practice of experimenting. 8. Achievement- Something accomplished successfully, especially by means of exertion, skill, practice, or perseverance 9. Knowledge- Familiarity, awareness, or understanding gained through experience or study. 10. Discipline- Training expected to produce a specific character or pattern of behavior, especially training that produces moral or mental improvement.

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RELATION BETWEEN THE MMR VACCINE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF AUTISM Zalimech T. Díaz Carrasquillo Total of points: 25/25

Autism is a neurological disorder that is usually diagnosed in early childhood. The main signs and symptoms of autism involve communication, social interactions and repetitive behaviors. The cause of autism is not known. Autism lasts throughout a person's lifetime. There is no cure, but treatment can help. There have been studies which show that the MMR vaccine has a direct relationship with the development of autism in early childhood. The MMR vaccine is a vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella. This vaccine is supposed to be applied the first dose between twelve to fifteen months of age and the second dose between four to six years of age. In the research entitled “Correlational study between the MMR vaccine and autism disorder developing in children vaccinated at an early age” wanted to know how the MMR vaccine influences the development of autism in children vaccinated at an early age. The researcher used as a working hypothesis suggesting that the MMR vaccine is a direct cause for the development of autism in children vaccinated at an early age. For the purposes of these investigation were used thirteen participants, who were parents of children containing this neurological disorder. Data were collected through a questionnaire that was reviewed by a psychologist to make sure that none of the questions presented any harm to the participants. The variables that were considered in the questioner was: the age at which the child with autism disorder was vaccinated for the first time; if the MMR vaccine was administrated to the child; if this vaccine was administrated; did it cause changes in the child’s behavior; and other questions regarding the research. The data was analyzed with the help of a graphs. In the first graph “Age of first vaccination”, the age that prevails in the first vaccination is two months after being born. On the second graph “MMR vaccine administration”, a sixty two percent of the children did have administrated the MMR vaccine. A twenty three percent did not have administrated the vaccine and a fifteen percent does not know if the child had administrated

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the vaccine. On the third and fourth graph both addressing “Changes in the Behavior”, most of the children did show changes in their behavior after the administration of the MMR vaccine, making a forty six percent of the population. For a sixty one percent of the population, these changes were related to the autism disorder symptoms. The results indicated that the majority of the participants saw changes in the children behavior after the MMR vaccine administration. In the investigation the working hypothesis was accepted which indicated that “It is expected that the MMR vaccine has a direct relation with autism disorder development”. These results demonstrated that a number of children diagnosed with autism were vaccinated with the MMR vaccine early childhood. The autism is a neurological disorder that is in constant progress in Puerto Rican society. There should be more studies with a larger population and publish those results to the benefit of our society. It is very important that people take care when applying the MMR vaccine in children at an early age due to side effects it could have on them.

References: (2013).Vaccines

and

autism:

Separating

fact

from

fiction.

[On

line].

Available:

http://www.babycenter.com. [March, 17 2013]. (2012).

Possible

Side-effects

from

Vaccines.

[On

line].

Available:

http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/side-effects.htm. [March 17, 2013]. Baker, J.P. (2008). Mercury, Vaccines, and Autism: One Controversy Three Histories. Public Health Then and Now, 98(2), 244-253. Echevarría, K. (2013). Correlational study between the MMR vaccine and autism disorder developing in children vaccinated at an early age. [From paper] The UGHS scientific journal vol page 1 to 4. [March 18, 2013]. Mannheim, J K., ARNP, Medical Staff, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Health, Seattle Children's

Hospital.(2012).

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Available:http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/ency/article.htm.

[March

18,

2013].

Vocabulary: 1. Autism- is a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. 2. Vaccine- is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. 3. MMR vaccine- is an immunization shot against measles, mumps, and rubella. The vaccine is a mixture of three live attenuated viruses, administered via injection. 4. Neurological disorder- is any disorder of the body's nervous system. Structural, biochemical or electrical abnormalities in the brain, spinal cord or other nerves can result in a range of symptoms. 5. Virus- is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses can infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea. 6. Measles- is an infection of the respiratory system caused by a virus, specifically a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus. 7. Mumps- is a viral disease of the human species, caused by the mumps virus. 8. Rubella- is a disease caused by the rubella virus. This disease is often mild and attacks often pass unnoticed 9. Repetitive behaviors - repetitive behaviors are physical or verbal behaviors that a child engages in repeatedly. 10. Side effects- whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.

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ABORTION AND IT’S PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT ON WOMEN Kimberly Alicea Total of points: 25/25

The abortion is the termination of a baby fetus before 20 weeks of gestation. There are two types of abortion, natural and induced. The natural occurred spontaneously either because of a health condition or by a poor pregnancy. Instead, the miscarriage is a controversial problem in the moral, religious and political view. Although it is a very personal decision for women as it relates to your body, they must consider what the consequences of that act are before taking a final decision. There have been several studies on this topic and I would like to highlight information on a specific study entitled "Induced abortion vs. miscarriage and Their Psychological Relationship with Post Abortion Syndrome” by the researcher Ambar Torres. This study compares two treatments and their relationship with Post Abortion Syndrome, also known by its acronym PSA. This syndrome causes in women who abort naturally, depression, anxiety, insomnia, guilt, fear, and other negative thoughts, while women who have an induced abortion at first they feel relieved, but then they start to feel guilt, anxiety, depression, drug use, but mostly aggression. To begin this investigation the random sample was divided into two groups, A, representative sample of the induced abortion and the natural abortion will be the sample B, each one with 24 women aged 20 to 40 years. The measurement instruments were two questionnaires for each sample. When the questionnaires were administered, a psychologist was present for any eventuality when answering the questions. Results were tabulated to create a comparison between the two variables. It was expected that the natural abortion will be more related to the PSA but the data proved the opposite when she evaluated the use of drugs, rest, repentance, what reason to take such a decision, suicidal thoughts, psychological treatment and mood. Data analysis demonstrated that women with natural abortion suffer more than women with induced abortion because of her ages and particular situations. The data that help her reach that conclusion was that in sample A, 8 women aborted for fear, 6 for health problems, 5 out of obligation, 3 for being the youngest, 1 by economic problems and 1 because she have other alternatives. In the case of Sample B, 8 female aborted because of the bad fetal development, 4 by the age and high drug use, 3 for accidents and 2 by diseases. Both samples show regular drug

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use. In sample A, 20 and in the sample B, 21, this data compared with the irregular use of drugs represented by 4 females in sample A and 3 in B. Showing that women who induced her abort used more drugs than those of natural abortion. In addition, 14 of the sample B were repented for not taking proper care while in sample A, 9 didn’t repent. 9 of the sample A and 5 of the B experienced suicidal thoughts. 54% of women with natural abortion knew the consequences that were in line, while 75% of the females who induced abortion didn’t knew and therefore are more at risk of psychological problems. Note that the sample A result is greater in rest disorders while B focuses on the feelings of depression. This explains why 38% of the sample experience suicidal thoughts, however 21% of the sample B, attempt it. Besides, every time they see a pregnant woman, 54% of the sample A, feels bad and 35% of the B, just well. It is for these reasons that 32% of the sample A and 30% of the sample B suffer the symptoms of PSA. So we can conclude that the hypothesis was rejected. Induced abortion is the most associated with the Post Abortion Syndrome. Mental health in humans is very precious because it depends enforceable in how you work with your family, work and social aspects. Understanding this point, my recommendation is that anyone whose facing an abortion either natural or induced have to look for psychological help before, during and after the process to avoid future problems. Natural abortion is justified but I completely disagree with the induced abortion because the woman doesn’t have to spend so many psychological trauma and emotional pain by simply taking the birth control measures. A life doesn’t have to pay for his mother's negligence. However, I agree with the abortion if it is thanks to a violation or if the parents already knew that the child would come with multiple health conditions. I also agree with the investigation but I will add to it that as a consequence it may leave the women infertile. There are many modern methods of control that if you abort is just because you want it. This research expands your knowledge about abortion and the consequences. The decision cannot be taken lightly. Remember that you are solely responsible for your actions. Seeking through this investigation, do you still believe that abortion is the right method to use?

References

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Coleman, P. (2008). Induced abortion and axiety, mood, and substance abuse disorders: Isolating the effects of abortion in the national comorbidity survey. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 45(8), 6-7. Kulier, R. (2007). Medical methods for first trimester abortion (Review). Willey, 1(4), 1. Retrieved January 23, 2013, from http://apps.who.int/rhl/reviews/CD002855.pdf Vinudas, v. (1990). miscarriage with history of elective abortion. University of Washington, 1, 12-13.

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January

23,

2012,

from

http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a221175.pdf Saraiya, M. (1999). Spontaneous abortion-related deaths among women in the united states1981-1991. Obstet Gynecol, 94, 172-173. Retrieved January 23, 2012, from http://journals.lww.com/obgynsurvey/Abstract/1999/11000/Spontaneous_Abortion_Rela ted_Deaths_Among_Women_in.16.aspx Steinberg, J. (2010). Examining the association of abortion history and current mental health: A reanalysis of the National Comorbidity Survey using a common-risk-factors model. Social Science and Medicine, 72(1), 2-5.

Vocabulary 1. Miscarriage- the expulsion of a fetus before it is viable, especially between the third and seventh months of pregnancy; spontaneous abortion. 2. Fetus- The unborn young of a viviparous vertebrate having a basic structural resemblance to the adult animal. 3. Embryo- An organism in its early stages of development, especially before it has reached a distinctively recognizable form. 4. Eugenics- The study of hereditary improvement of the human race by controlled selective breeding. 5. Post-Abortion System (PAS)- Post-abortion syndrome (PAS), post-traumatic abortion syndrome and abortion trauma syndrome, are terms used by opponents of abortion to describe a collection of psychopathological characteristics which are proposed to occur in some women following a therapeutic abortion.

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6. Psychosomatic- is an interdisciplinary medical field studying the relationships of social, psychological, and behavioral factors on bodily processes and well-being in humans and animals. 7. Psychopathological- The study of the origin, development, and manifestations of mental or behavioral disorders. 8. Denote- To mark or indicate. 9. Repentance- Remorse or contrition for past conduct or sin. 10. Uterus- A hollow muscular organ located in the pelvic cavity of female mammals in which the fertilized egg implants and develops.

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DEPRESSION IN THE ELDERLY LIVING IN A RURAL AREA AND OTHER RELATED FACTORS Melissa Bayona Total of points: 25/25 Depression is a condition of mental disorder typically with lack of energy and difficulty in maintaining concentration or interest in life. This illness is quite common among people, especially the elderly. Depression in older adults is often linked to physical illness, which increases the risk of depression. There are studies that want to determine the prevalence of depression in the elderly population, who live in rural towns and are free from cognitive damage. The investigation wants to evaluate related factors of late life depression. The lifestyle and environment are influential in the elderly’s state of mind. For this reason, there were chosen 265 patients residing in rural towns, such as Proaza, Quiros and San Adriano (Asturias). The evaluation included sociodemographical and clinical aspects, as well as the Mini-Mental State Examination Spanish version (MMSE), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), the Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire (OSQ), the CAGE Questionnaire, the Goldberg General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument (WHOQLI-BREF). These evaluations have their own measuring scales and, in general, they all help determine the physical and mental state of the patients. The MMSE was used to evaluate cognitive status. On the other hand, the GDS was used to detect depressive status in the elderly. Also, the OSQ helped diagnose insomnia and hyper insomnia disorders. The CAGE questionnaire was used to detect alcohol abuse or dependency. And the GHQ was used to identify current psychiatric disorders. The results show some interesting facts about the population and their response to depression. In the results there were 23 subjects excluded from the sample because they scored less than 18 in the MMSE. The final sample included 242 subjects. The prevalence of probable depression was 23.1% (30.1% females vs. 12.5% males). Depression was statistically associated with a higher number of physical diseases, higher psychiatric comorbidity, less cognitive

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impairment measured by MMSE and higher prevalence of sleep disorders. There is a relation between depression and other mental and physical diseases. Also, the quality of life evaluated was worse with the disease. Depression is a mental disorder which makes it difficult to concentrate and keeping interest in life. It is sad to see people in their elderly years suffering from depression. For this reason it is very important to find the causes to this disease, to try and prevent it from happening. Depression must be in constant investigations because if this disease becomes uncontrollable, the patient may turn suicidal. We are always saying that it is vital to take care of the youth because they are the future of our society, but the elderly are those who fill the young with their knowledge, so we have to take care of them as well.

References: Fenandez, C. & Cabeller, J. (2006) Depression in the elderly living in a rural area and other related factors [From Paper] Available: http://www.unioviedo.es/psiquiatria /publicaciones/documentos/2006/2006_Fernandez_Depression.pdf [March 17,2013] Smith, M., Robinson, L. & Segal, J. (2012) Depression in Older Adults and the Elderly [On line] Available: http://www.helpguide.org/mental/depression_elderly.htm [March 17, 2013] Duckworth, K. (2009) Depression in Older Persons Fact Sheet [On line] Available: http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=By_Illness&template=/ContentManagement /ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=7515 [March 12, 2013] Macnair, T. (2013) Causes for depression [On line] Available: http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/emotional_health/mental_health/disorders_depressionelderl y1.shtml [March 17, 2013]

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Anonymous. (2013) Depression [On line] Available: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/depression.html [March 12, 2013]

Vocabulary: 1. Depression: A condition of mental disturbance, typically with lack of energy and difficulty in maintaining concentration or interest in life. 2. Sociodemographic: of, relating to, or involving a combination of social and demographic factors. 3. Comorbidity: the presence of one or more disorders (or diseases) in addition to a primary disease or disorder, or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. 4. Cognitive impairment: affects the ability to think, concentrate, formulate ideas, reason and remember. 5. Insomnia: habitual sleeplessness; inability to sleep. 6. Hypersomnia: a large group of disorders characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). 7. Elderly: old or aging. 8. Prevalence: the percentage of a population that is affected with a particular disease at a given time. 9. Suicide: the action of killing oneself intentionally. 10. Chronicity: in medicine, a chronic disease is a disease that is long-lasting or recurrent.

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MEDICAL PLANTS AND DRUGS IN CONSTIPATION OF CHILDREN Julio M. Cuevas Cruz Total of points: 23/25 Have you ever felt abdominal pain and don’t know where it comes from? Constipation is a very common problem in children. Every parent should be conscious to know how to help his child. Pills usually have second effects that aren’t good, also they are never completely efficient or their results aren’t the expect ones. There is another way to deal with stomach pains; it consists in the utilization of natural medicine that comes from herbs and medical plants. These medical plants also cause secondary effects but not as often as medicine. It is important to remember that the excess of use is dangerous on everything and with herbs the case isn’t any different. This type of medicine was used by ancient societies because it was the only method they knew. They also got sick so they had to look for ways to fight the different diseases and they found their answer in plants. With the new discoveries and time, technology and medicine evolved. Nowadays synthetic medicines are use very often. Around 25 percent of medicine is made from plants. Medicine plants are more chipper than synthetic medicine and much easier to get. A lot of these plants can be planted at home and you will not only see the difference in your health but also in the economic way. This is way it is more convenient and efficient the use of medicine plants to relieve stomach pain like constipation. Every plant consists of a substance that helps to get rid of viruses, bacteria or whatever makes you fill pain. The result may take longer with the use of medicine plants but the use is safer. You will see a notable deference in a long term with the use of medical plants, because its secondary effects are less and your health will not be affected like with some synthetic plants. To complete this investigation some parents were interviewed with the use of questioners to find out which method of medicine they used with frequency. The result of this investigation was that the method used more often was synthetic medicine. But in the other hand, it was found that the use of medicine plants was not utilized because parents lack of the information. The goal of this investigation was fulfill because even tough parents don’t use the method they made

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1 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 comments about how can they look for information to know what is better for their children. Have you asked yourself why doctors prefer synthetic medicine? Is it a medical reason or economic reason? Medicine has not completely developed and we can find amazing things. In the future we can interview doctors to find out he specific reason of why they prefer synthetic medicine if they are so dangerous for human body. In my opinion, people need look for more information knowledge is infinite and people need to explore every single aspect.

References: 1. Bermúdez, A., Oliveira, M. & Velázquez, D. (2005). La investigación etnobotánica sobre plantas medicinales: Una revisión de sus objetivos y enfoques actuales. Inteciencia, 30(8). 2. Cué, M. & Morejón, M. (1998). Antibacterianos de acción sistemática. Parte I. Antibióticos Betalactámicos. Revista Cubana de Medicina General Integral, 14(4), 347361. 3. Dugdale, D. & Zieve, D. (2010). Estreñimiento. Medline Plus: Información de salud para usted. Recuperado el 22 de enero de 2011. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/ency/article/003125.htm 4. Fresquet, J. (2000). Plantas y medicinas. Revista de Fitoterapia, 1, 49-57. 5. Rosell, A. Actitud ante el dolor abdominal recurrente. Poniendo un poco de orden. Recuperado el 19 de enero de 2011. http://www.sepeap.org/imagenes/secciones/Image/_USER_/MR_dolor_abdominal_orden .pdf

Vocabulary: 1. Constipation- infrequent or difficult evacuation of the bowels, with hard feces, caused by functional or organic disorders or improper diet.

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2 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 2. Herbs- any of various usually aromatic plants, such as parsley, rue, and rosemary, that are used in cookery and medicine. 3. Synthetic- made artificially by chemical reaction. 4. Conscious- aware of and giving value or emphasis to a particular fact or phenomenon. 5. Stomach- the enlarged muscular saclike part of the alimentary canal in which food is stored until it has been partially digested and rendered into chime. 6. Bacteria- a very large group of microorganisms comprising one of the three domains of living organisms. They are prokaryotic, unicellular, and either free-living in soil or water or parasites of plants or animals. 7. Viruses- any of a group of submicroscopic entities consisting of a single nucleic acid chain surrounded by a protein coat and capable of replication only within the cells of living organisms: many are pathogenic. 8. Diseases- any impairment of normal physiological function affecting all or part of an organism, especially a specific pathological change caused by infection, stress, etc., producing characteristic symptoms; illness or sickness in general. 9. Drug- any synthetic, semisynthetic, or natural chemical substance used in the treatment, prevention, or diagnosis of disease, or for other medical reasons. 10. Substance- a specific type of matter, especially a homogeneous material with a definite composition

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THE INFLUENCE OF THE GROUP IN THE CONFORMISM OF EACH INDIVIDUAL Lyanne M. Rivera Vélez Total: 23/25 The human beings are social beings which desire to be accepted and appreciated by others. The social psychology is a new scientific branch that explores the interaction between the individual and social conscience and its influence amongst each other. The persons tend to get together and maintain surrounded by others. Sometimes these influences create conducts where the persons decide to conform to a group or modify their conduct and way of thinking in accordance to the group. The individual, changes his conduct in accordance to the way the group thinks. However, what amazes while performing the observation is the social impact in the voluntary submission of the individual. The American Psychologist Association defines conformity as an adjustment of opinion or judgment, or actions in a way that it is in agreement with other persons or the norm of the situation or social group. In the majority of the cases, people tend to adapt to the beliefs, conducts, and abilities of the majority of the group, even if they make it unconscious. Sometimes we rely on what is called conformity. We all conform or accommodate to others and not always it’s comfortable or pleasant. The problem formulated in this investigation was to determine if conformity is caused by the pressure of a group as a factor to change the way an individual thinks. The hypothesis was to prove if the individuals are pressured by a group it is expected that the way of thinking changes with the presence of the group, which will cause the percent of conformity to be greater. The sample of this investigation consisted in twenty-four students between the ages of 17 and 18. The questionnaire had two types of questions, some were personal and others had to with the historic knowledge of the individual. Once the investigators collected the questionnaires, the data was tabulated and a comparison was done of the results obtained individually and the results obtained in group.

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The results present that there was a significant difference between the general answers in the individual and group manner. Also, the results showed that the conformity of the masculine sex was proved when there were certain answers which had a noticeable difference. In terms of the feminine sex, there was no significant difference in the answers. From the results we can conclude that there was a significant difference in the answers obtained individually and in group. In conclusion, we can say that the hypothesis was accepted. The persons conform or accommodate because they want to be accepted and want to blend with the crowd without being judged, there are other variables, such as the gender, which influence the degree of compliance of the individual. The experiences are different for men and women therefore, the influence occurs in a different mode. Let’s stop getting influenced by others and start being us, only us.

References: Adam Cash. (2002). Chapter 14: Conforming like a Contortionist: Social Psychology. Psychology for dummies. (pp. 175-178). New York: Hungry Minds, Inc. Alison Thomas-Cottingham Ph. D. (2004). Chapter 14: Social Psychology, Influence. Psychology made Simple. (pp. 181-182). New York: Broadway Books, a division of Random House, Inc. Frederic Munné. (2008). El proceso del desarrollo. La psicología social como ciencia teórica. (pp. 18 – 40). España: Universidad de Barcelona. Kendra Cherry. (2010, 2004). Social Interactions and Interpersonal Behavior, Conformity and Peer Pressure. The everything psychology book. (pp. 205-206). MA, USA: Adams Media, a division of F & W, Inc. Serge Moscovici, Tomas Ibañez Gracia. Jean-Claude Abric. (1984, 1985). Conformidad y

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5 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Obediencia. Psicología social, l Influencia y cambio de actitudes, Individuos y grupos. Barcelona: Ediciones Paidós Ibérica, S. A.

Vocabulary: 1. Conform- comply with rules. 2. Accommodate- provide sufficient space for. 3. Conscience- inner feeling 4. Adapt- make suitable for a new use or purpose. 5. Conduct- the manner in which a person behaves. 6. Interaction- reciprocal action or influence. 7. Ability- the capacity to do something. 8. Beliefs- an acceptance that a statement is true. 9. Submission- the action or fact of accepting or yielding to a superior force or to the will or authority of another person. 10. Influence- The capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behavior of someone or something, or the effect itself.

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THE PUERTO RICAN PERCEPTION OF THEIR OWN RACIAL IDENTITY: YOUTH 14 TO 18 VS. ADULTS 60 YEARS AND OVER Charlie Pérez Jiménez Total: 23/25 Have we lost our identity? As time passes, the Puerto Rican society has undergone changes in its identity. When we talk about identity, we refer to all the traits of an individual or a community. Identity is also the awareness that you have about yourself and what makes us different from other individuals; includes hereditary physical traits. Is it true that the Puerto Rican’s racial perception differs from the racial categories of the population census?

Based on a study of mitochondrial DNA, it exposes the importance of American Indian heritage in the genetic composition of contemporary Puerto Rican population. This is a great example of racial identity. Racial identities are social and cultural dynamics based on concepts of race and ethnicity, drawn and manipulated by subjects based on various social contexts. As part of the racial identity, social perception is denoted as the study of social influences on perceived similarities and differences between humans. It is of great importance to understand more thoroughly, the generational differences in terms of racial identity, especially between the groups of 14 to 18 year olds and adults 60 years old and over.

Their research tool was a questionnaire, which contained questions on demographics (gender, age, etc..) and racial classification criteria. Two generations were compared, one composed of people between 14 to 18 years old, and another 60 years thereafter. The population was of 50 people, belonging to two age groups. The sample of people between 14 and 18 years was took randomly from the classrooms in the Specialized School of Science and Mathematics University Gardens High School in Rio Piedras, PR. The sample of people 60 years and older was took from the leadership of the Police Association in Guaynabo, PR.

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7 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Finally, surveys were collected, results analyzed and presented in forms of tables and graphs.

“In group A the respondents pursue the highest level of academic education.”

“However, in group B it was found that 72% of women and men over 60 were able to achieve higher education.” “The only difference being that those in group B received less education because by that time there were no relevant resources required that are needed now for this generation where there are many scientific and mathematical advances.” Additionally, group B showed a tendency to identify within white racial continuum. “Due to lack of knowledge should exalt that Puerto Ricans are not "white" or "black".” “That is why there is a discrepancy with the racial classifications used in Census population.” Finally the investigators main hypothesis, which established that the Puerto Ricans racial perception differs from Census racial categories of the population, was rejected. In my opinion, we need to proud of what we are. I invite all the schools and teachers to deepen in our roots, which lead to a good progress in cultural knowledge.

References 

Duany, J. (1998, Mayo). Reconstructing Racial Identity: Ethnicity, Color, and Class among Dominicans in the United States and Puerto Rico. Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 25, No. 3, 147- 172.

Godreau, P. I. (2003, Agosto). Dinámicas de Genero en la Representación del Folclor Puertorriqueño Negro. Vol. 1, 88-95.

Godreau, P. I. (2008). Slippery Semantics: Race Talk and Everyday Uses of Racial Terminology in Puerto Rico. Centro Journal, Vol.XX, num. 2, 5-33.

Godreau, P. I. (2009). Scripts of Blackness and the Racial Dynamics of Nationalism in Puerto Rico. Cuadernos de Investigación, núm. 6, 1-30.

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8 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 

Gravlee, C. C. (2005, March). Ethnic Classification in Southeastern Puerto Rico: The Cultural Model of “Color”. Social Forces, 83(3), 949- 970.

Gravlee, C. C. et al (2009, September). Genetic Ancestry, Social Classification and Racial Inequalities in Blood Pressure in Southeastern Puerto Rico, Vol. 4, Issue 9, 1-8.

Martínez, C. J. (2001, Agosto). Mitocondrial DNA Analysis Reveals Substantial Native American Ancestry in Puerto Rico. Human Biology,Vol. 73, no.4, 491-511.

Quiñones, M. (2006). From Trigueñita to Afro- Puerto Rican. Intersections of the Racialized, Gendered, and Sexualized Body in Puerto Rico and the U.S Mainland. Vol 7, no. I, 162-182.

Vargas, C. (2005). Shifting Racial Identification among Puerto Ricans. 267- 285.

Vargas, C., Godreau, P. I. (2009). “Which Box am I?” Toward a Culturally Grounded, Contextually Meaningful Method of Racial and Ethnic Categorization in Puerto Rico. Cuadernos de Investigación, 1-33.

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NEAR THE CURE Neysharie Sánchez Torres Total of points: 18/25 Breast cancer has become a global problem that is very disturbing. Triple negative breast cancer differs from other types of cancer because it is negative to ER, PR and HER2 receptors. In addition, it tends to have less favorable survival rates regardless of the stage of breast cancer. They have no treatment or cure, but not everything is lost, thanks to the technology and scientific minds, we are near to the cure. A triple negative breast cancer is really delicate, because it is negative to the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2 (growth factor), this makes everything more difficult. The latest technologies with brilliant scientific minds created new treatments, like Tunicamycin, an antibiotic, that can cause the cell cycle of the triple negative tumor cells causing apoptosis. The treatment has been proved in mice and has been worked excellently. The next phase was to prove it in human cell, and it has worked excellent. In four days the scientists saw that the triple negative breast cancer cells died, based on a recent study at University of Puerto Rico, Medicine School Campus. The scientists, Dipak K. Banergee and colleagues are working to make this antibiotic a selective treatment. If the Tunicamycin works properly we will find a cure for the triple negative breast cancer and it will also be an open door for different diseases. This new treatment gives the community a bright light in the darkest room of their lives. It’s not only a scientific advance; it’s opening of a new era, of new types of treatments where the patient

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10 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 suffers of massive pain. This is the start for the new century. We are near to hope, near to win this fight, near to the cure.

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Review Articles The UGHS Scientific Journal

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GET UP AND GET ACTIVE Daniel Sánchez Candelaria Total of points: 25/25 Do you prefer to run a mile or eat a donut? Generations by generation people are becoming lazier and less active. You can blame technology for this behavior, because since it’s been advancing at an exponential rate people have been less interested in going out to break a sweat, as they say. Studies have shown that if you develop your physical endurance since childhood it can help you reduce illness like, osteoporosis, heart failure, etc. you must encourage young kids as well as yourselves to stay active for a better health and the well being of people. Exercising has always shown great results for the person that does it. It can help with many conditions such as, depression, anxiety, addiction, work productivity, and enhance mental capacity along with much other. There is a previous study that shows that if you start exercising at a young age the results that exercise alone already shows can double in benefit. The study says: "According to study, exercise interventions in childhood may be associated with lower fracture risks as people age, due to the increases in peak bone mass that occurs in growing children who perform regular physical activity," said lead author, Bjorn Rosengren, MD, PhD of Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden. When you want to get rid of a problem, or start taking care of it, you begin with the root. In this case the roots of the problem are the children, since if they don’t exercise regularly they will become more prone to diseases. They must be taught to stay active and enjoy going outside to play with friends, not just stay home and play videogames and other electronic devices. Because before they had Playstation, Xbox, Wii, etc. we had soccer balls, jump ropes, bicycles, etc they had toys that required them to go outside and play and get active with other friends. Also it’s good if they join a sport like, baseball, soccer, basketball, volleyball, etc. this way they will learn about discipline, teamwork and leadership. We must deal with, rather than worry about, our young ones health. Since the study conducted by Dr. Rosengren says: “Increased activity in the younger ages helped induce higher bone mass and improve skeletal size in girls and boys without increasing the fracture risk.” This shows the importance that is the exercise that kids do daily. Not only is it good for them right now, it’s

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13 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 good for them in the future, to prevent health problems like osteoporosis, heart failure, etc. if you do not act know, later it might just be too late. In conclusion, if you are a kid reading this stand up, get out and exercise some more; if you’re an adult then encourage kids you know to do so as well. In my most personal opinion I can say, that since I started working out daily I am better at every aspect of my life. Everything that the study has found and discovered I can second it because I have felt it. As George Elliot said: “It’s never too late to become what you might have been.’’

References: 10 Surprising Benefits of Exercise | Healthy Living - Yahoo! Shine. (n.d.).Yahoo! Shine Women's Lifestyle | Healthy Living and Fashion Blogs. Retrieved March 24, 2013,

from

http://shine.yahoo.com/healthy-living/10-surprising-benefits-of-

exercise-2431570.html Exercise news, articles and information:. (n.d.). Natural health news. Retrieved March 24, 2013, from http://www.naturalnews.com/exercise.html Fitness News - Read the Latest Weight Training Articles, Healthy Fitness Headlines, Gym Advice and Exercise Routines| NBC News. (n.d.). Breaking News & Top Stories World News, US & Local | NBC News. Retrieved March 24, 2013, from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/3034511/ Freytag, C., & Member, F. E. (n.d.). American Council On Exercise. American Council on Exercise

|

ACE

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ACE

Fit.

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http://www.acefitness.org/acefit/fitness_programs_article.aspx?id=2927 Medical News Today: Health News. (n.d.).Medical News Today: Health News. Retrieved March 24, 2013, from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/

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THE DIABETES AND OBESE, A GOOD EFFECT? Sofía Ortiz Beyley Total of points: 25/25

From the beginning of the XXI century, begins a series of changes in terms of humanity and its behavior. Perhaps many of these changes were created by man to satisfy them needs to find new places and new ways of style life. But not all the changes are usually for the better, it can create problems or diseases. One change that creates diseases in this century is the uncontrolled eating of our children and youth. This situation is most at risk when a child has juvenile diabetes and in turn has obese. In these years the Obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disease in people of less than 20 years old (Raquel Burrows, Vivien Gattas, Laura Leiva, Gladys Barrera, Medardo Burgueño, 2001). For that reason is that youth diabetic have to be prevent with their condition to no have the side effects of live with diabetes juvenile and obese. Juvenile Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by the presence of chronic hyperglycemia accompanied by greater or lesser impairment in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The origin and etiology of DM (Diabetes Mellitus) can vary greatly but always include defects in either insulin secretion or response or in both at some point in the course of disease (Ignacio Conget, 2002). For that accomplished condition, is the reason that the youth have to be responsible of their health. Although despite that educates youth for no convert to an obese teenagers or diabetic obese, they still consume more foods full of lipids, junk food and farinaceous, which is the result that now have an exponential population of juvenile diabetics, because they suffer from obesity. The diabetes can be more risk when have the diabetes syndromes that produced by the two single gene mutations, obese (ob), and diabetes (db) are identical when both genes are expressed on the same inbred background, whereas on different backgrounds the syndrome changes from a severe obesity, moderate-diabetes to a severe life-shortening diabetes (D.L Coleman, 1977). On the other side, we have another condition could be occur in diabetic that may have type I this are insulin resistance (Catherine Le Stunff and Pierre Bougnères, 1994). The insulin resistance is a glucose uptake is characteristic of individuals with impaired glucose intolerance or

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15 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 non-insulin-dependent diabetes, and it also occurs commonly patients with high blood pressure. Also when you have obesity with diabetes, you sugar blood always is too high, the health of your heart is convert in a poor health, no have much resistance when you work or study and in the horrible cases you can dead by the obesity combined with diabetes. Finally, the diabetes with obese is not a good combination. In this time we have to look too good alternative of lifestyle and good own health. Also in these years we have many recreational activities and electronics games of exercise to no take off the home and are on shape. Also we don’t want in the world has more diagnoses of diabetes by obesity, because you can control your appetite and be a change agent to guide other young people(specially juvenile diabetic) to develop good nutrition (Raquel Burrows, Vivien Gattas, Laura Leiva , Gladys Barrera, Medardo Burgueño, 2001). Remember the diabetes and obese don’t control you, you control them.

References Burrows, R., Gattas, V., Leivas, L., Barreras, G., & Burgueño, M. (n.d.). Características biológicas, familiares y metabólicas de la obesidad infantil y juvenil. SciELO - Scientific electronic

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http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-98872001001000007. Bouwman, L. H. (n.d.). Elevated Levels of Mannose-Binding Lectin at Clinical Manifestation of Type 1 Diabetes in Juveniles. Diabetes . Retrieved March 10, 2013, from http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/gca?allch=&submit=Go&gca=diabetes%3B54%2F10. Coleman, D. L. (n.d.). Obese and diabetes: Two mutant genes causing diabetes-obesity syndromes

in

mice.

Home

-

Springer.

Retrieved

March

12,

2013,

from

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00429772?LI=true# Ignacio Conget. 2002. “Diagnosis, classification and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus”. Updated. From Pediatric Diabetes Foundation.

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16 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Reaven, G. M. (n.d.). An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie. Role of Insulin Resistance in Human Disease (Syndrome X): An Expanded Definition. Retrieved March 16, 2013, from http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10. Stunff, C. L., & Bougnères, P. (n.d.). Early Changes in Postprandial Insulin Secretion, Not in Insulin Sensitivity, Characterize Juvenile Obesity. Diabetes. Retrieved March 12, 2013, from http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content.

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WAYS TO AVOID CANCER Alexandra Peña Total of points: 24/25

Cancer is a very known disease that can attack anyone. We must not be afraid of cancer, because it can be prevented. There are a lot of ways to improve or even avoid cancer to get to you. How can we do that? People can prevent cancer by having healthy habits. Healthy habits include: the way you eat, exercises, your physical health, and very important the elimination of tobacco. Not all health problems are avoidable but you can control them. By saying that, cancer can be avoided, and next you’ll see how and why. The way people eat is a key factor on how their health is going to be. Healthy eating must be a way of life, because as the quote says: “You are what you eat”. This means that basing on what we eat or how we eat, that same way is going to be your lifestyle. By eating healthy you can prevent a lot of dangerous diseases, especially cancer. Cancer can be caused by a numerous of unhealthy habits. One of these unhealthy habits is the way of eating of a person. In a study made in 1981 it was said, “Dietary factors might account for approximately 35% of cancer deaths”. As you can see the diet that you have has a powerful effect on your body and health. The first step is to change your eating habits and eat healthy foods. But, what are healthy foods? Healthy foods are any foods that are natural. For example: vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. The key to having a healthy of eating is to eat balanced meals, eat small portions six times a day, use vitamins, control the use of red meats, and drink a lot of water. By doing all these you’ll be eating healthy and may prevent having cancer. Another way to prevent cancer is to have physical activity. Physical activity helps to reduce weight, decreases the chances of having high blood pressure, and promotes psychological health. A study done by The Journal of American Medical Association said: “There is reason to believe that physical activity might extend survival in women with breast cancer.” Why is this? In the case of breast cancer if a person has physical activity at least 3 to 5 hours a week, it can lower the levels of circulating ovarian hormones. This shows a link to the breast cancer. Another

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18 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 reason why physical activity is so important to prevent cancer is that without having any physical activity you may get obese, and obesity is another cause of cancer. Last but not least avoid the use of tobacco. “A 30% percent of cancer deaths are due to tobacco”. The use of tobacco is one of the biggest causes of cancer in the world. That is why to avoid cancer; tobacco must be eliminated or never used. Tobacco is the main cause of lung cancer. Cigars contain carcinogens, which are cancer-causing substances. These substances are very dangerous for your body, they not only cause cancer, and they also cause risks to having heart attacks. To avoid this damage to your body you must avoid tobacco. Cancer can be caused by a numerous of things. The good way of seeing it is that it can be prevented by taking good care of yourself. The key is to have a healthy way of life. It may not be easy, but it is possible. Eat well, do exercises, and avoid tobacco and you’ll be the healthiest person alive.

References Anti-Cancer Diet: Cancer Prevention Nutrition Tips. (n.d.). Helpguide helps you help yourself and others. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www.helpguide.org/life/healthy_diet_cancer_prevention.htm Doll, R., & Peto, R. (n.d.). The Causes of Cancer: Quantitative Estimates of Avoidable Risks of Cancer in the United States Today . Oxford Journals | Medicine | JNCI J Natl Cancer Inst. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/66/6/1192.short Holmes, M. D., Chen, W. Y., Feskanich, D., Kroenke, C. H., & Colditz, G. (n.d.). Physical Activity and Survival After Breast Cancer Diagnosis. The Journal of the American Medical Associaton. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=200955 Physical Activity and Cancer. (n.d.). National Cancer Institute. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/prevention/physicalactivity

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19 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Stellman, S., & Resnicow, K. (1997). Tobacco smoking, cancer and social class. Social inequalities and Cancer, 138, 1-17. Willet, W. C. (2000). Diet and Cancer. The Oncologist, 5, 1.

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NATURAL COMPOUNDS USED TO TREAT DISEASES Andrés García Berríos Total of points: 25/25 Is there a way that some type of natural compound may hold the cure to one of the worlds’ most mortal disease? Various studies suggest that natural compounds have a real strong and sustained potential to treat breast cancer and other life threatening illnesses. For example, breast cancer is the erratic growth and proliferation of cells that originate in breast tissue. When cells divide too rapidly they can form a tumor (Imaginis, 2008). Because of this, natural, original or derivate natural compounds are used as models to follow to create synthetic molecules. Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death in women, among all cancers. One in eight women will be diagnosed with some cancer at some point of their life (Maughan, Lutterbie, & Ham, 2010). In Puerto Rico breast cancer is one of the most affecting the population. In women this cancer is the one that affects the most with a 31.9% of incidence and a 17.8% of mortality (Torres, et al., 2010). The type or types of therapies used to treat breast cancer varies depending of the location and stage of the tumor. Radiation therapy and breastconserving surgery is commonly used in the first and second stage of breast cancer. In the third stage of breast cancer it is required the use of induction chemotherapy to reduce the tumor size, and breast- conserving surgery. In the fourth stage, which is the metastasized cancer, is treated with radiation therapy and with endocrine therapy or chemotherapy (Maughan, et al., 2010). A large number of plants used in traditional medicine have become part of the global health system (Saklani, & Kutty, 2007). For the detection of new drugs based on plants, it is required the extract detection to verify the presence of new compounds, and develop an investigation of their biological activities. The inherent diversity of the natural products’ extracts makes more attractive de evaluation of their biological activity. There are several reasons of why experimenting with natural products can be choose, these are: random sampling, the traditional use of plants or an etnofarmacological background, plants that are botanically related to plants used in medicine, plants that have been under studies about their genetic structures, and bye epidemiological studies (Vuorela et al., 2004).

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21 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 In conclusion, natural products may contain the treatments and even the cure for many illnesses specifically breast cancer. What is needed to be done is to do much more research in this area. This is something that can do so much for the entire world. To avoid people get radical treatments like radiation, chemotherapy and removal of the affected tissue, it must be taken into consideration these treatments as options. Are you willing to contribute to the development of new natural compounds?

References: Imaginis. (2008). What is breast cancer? Retrieved from http://www.imaginis.com/breasthealth/what-is-breast-cancer-1 Maughan, KLM, Lutterbie, MAL, & Ham, PSH. (2010). Treatment of breast cancer. American Family Physician, 81(11), 1339-1344. Saklani, AS, & Kutty, SKK. (2007). Plant-derived compounds in clinical trials. Drug Discovery Today, 13(3/4), 161, 170. Torres, MTC, Ortiz, APO, Pérez, JPI, Soto, MSS, Figueroa, NRFV, De La Torre, TTF, Ortiz, KJO, Calo, WAC & Suarez, ESP (2010). Incidence and mortality of the leading cancer types in Puerto Rico: 1987-2004. Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal, 29(3), 317-319. Vuorela, PV, Leinonen, ML, Saikku, PS, Tammela, PT, Ruha, JPR, Wennberg, TW & Vuorela, HV. (2004). Natural products in the process of finding new drug candidates. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 11, 1375, 1376,1378.

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USING COCONUT WATER FOR ELECTROLYTE RECOVERY José A. Pagán Muñoz Total of points: 22/25 Coconut water is a drink that has been widely recognized for its health and nutritional benefits. Not to be confused with coconut milk, this liquid is actually the endosperm of a coconut plant. It is a drink commonly consumed in the Caribbean, South America, South Asia and other countries for its refreshing taste. A peculiar characteristic of coconut water is that it has an increased amount of electrolytes, which are ions that are lost when you get dehydrated. This characteristic has led investigators to conclude that coconut water can be used for electrolyte recovery. “Electrolytes are responsible for maintaining health and functions in all body systems.” (Speakman, & Weldy, 2002). They transport glucose into cells, regulate body fluids, generate electric impulses in nerves and muscles, along with other important bodily functions. These compounds are easily lost when the body gets dehydrated, usually by means of sweat. Sodium and potassium, for example, are two electrolytes that are found in great quantities in sweat. Also, calcium and magnesium are other common body electrolytes that are lost when dehydration occurs and that are extremely necessary for body functions. Coconut water contains many of the electrolytes that are lost during dehydration. In just 100mL of coconut water, 250mg of potassium, 40mg of sodium and 24mg of calcium can be found. These amounts, compared to what sports drinks have to offer are impressive. On the other hand, common sports drinks have about 28mg of potassium and about 105mg with sodium, and less than 5mg of other electrolytes. The clearly significant difference in amounts between these beverages goes to show that coconut water can be used for standard electrolyte recovery. In conclusion, coconut water can be, in my opinion, an excellent substitute of sports drinks and a good source for rehydration. Its major chemical components, electrolytes, are in very large quantities that benefit the human body. Being this said, coconut water can now also be known for its chemical properties, and not just for its good taste.

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23 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 References Burke, L. (2010). Nutrición en el Deporte: un enfoque práctico. Madrid, España: Editorial Panamericana S.A. Challem, J. (2009, mayo). Crazy for coconut water: quench your thirst with this refreshing and healthful tropical beverage. Better Nutrition, 7(5), 46-48. Coronel, C. (2003). Agua de Coco: Una solución alternativa en la terapia de rehidratación oral. Revista Mexicana de Pediatría, 70 (3), 118-122. Gennaro, A.R. (2003). Remington Farmacio Tomo I. Buenos Aires: Editorial Médica Panamericana. Lizano, M., De Jesús Vanegas, M., Galámanez, A., Baiza, V., Tobar, C. & Cruz Amaya, E. (2001, Marzo). Boletín del Mercado del Coco. Programa Nacional de Frutas de El Salvador, 1(1), 2-15. Mao, I., Chen, M. & Ko, Y. (2001). Electrolyte Loss in Sweat and Iodine Deficiency in a Hot Enviroment. Enviroment, 56 (3), 271-276. Speakman, E. & Weldy, N.J. (2002). Body fluid & electrolytes: a programmed presentation. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby, Inc. Trujillo Santacoloma, F.J. (2004). Soluciones Acuosas: teorías y aplicaciones: Modulo de apoyo académico en química. Medellín, Colombia: Editorial Universidad de Medellín. Williams, M.H. (2002). Nutrición para la salud, la condición física y el deporte. Barcelona: Editorial Paidotribo.

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BREAST CANCER Angel Rivera Rosario Total of points: 22/25 Everyone is at risk of developing cancer. For many types of cancer is easier to treat and cure if caught early. If the risk is genetic it can have early detection and better treatment. Breast cancer is one that is changing the lives of women worldwide. This cancer is growing and is killing those women who do not follow a healthy lifestyle routine. Thus, for this reason that many women die because they are said to be the most damaging tumor in women. "The enormous health problem that means today breast cancer is reflected in the fact that in Latin America and the Caribbean nearly 300,000 women die annually from this disease." (Sylvia C. Robles and Eleni Galanis) Breast cancer is one of the highest incidences worldwide. Also in Puerto Rico, breast cancer is the highest incidence and mortality among women. "Breast cancer is the growth and spread of abnormal cells without control in the breast." (Karen J. Ortiz, Javier Perez and Mariela Torres) in women 15 to 20 make up the breast separate glands that produce milk. These glands are called lobes. These lobes are connected to the nipple (through tubes) and are covered with fat and connective tissues. Tumors usually begin to develop in the ducts. This cancer is called: in situs. At this stage is small and is in the cell of origin to not penetrate the basement membrane is given a favorable prognosis. In P.R. approximately 72 diagnosed cases of breast cancer per 100,000 women per year. These cases are among women aged 40 years or more. This amounts to 56%. The cases have been increasing. Studies show that the increase in cancer is "in situs" compared to invasive cancer. "The incidence of breast cancer is increasing worldwide." (Fernando Gomez) The prognosis, survival and treatment will depend on the stage of the tumor. Treatment is most effective when it is detected early. The death rate is 48.1% in women 40 to 64 years 48.1% in women 65 years or older and 3.7% in children under 40 years. Based on current incidence can say that the risk of developing cancer is 1 in 13 women that amounts to 7.7%. Puerto Rico has developed a comprehensive cancer plan which aims to reduce the incidence, morbidity and

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25 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 mortality from cancer. "Breast cancer is the most common cancer and that more women die in Puerto Rico." (Edna M. Mora) As we have seen breast cancer is a process that develops through different stages and there are many risk factors by which we can get the disease worldwide is at risk. It is a long and complicated process with many methods and treatments that can be carried out in order to heal and to cure the disease. "Despite efforts aimed at early detection campaigns, the incidence is increasing by about 1% per year and the death rate continues to hold steady." (A. San Miguel, I. Gonzalez, et. Al) There many investigations which seek remedies to help prevent and protect against breast cancer.

Reference: Gomez, F. (2006). Quantitative assessment of breast cancer risk. Medical journal Clinica Las Condes, 17 (4), 149-163. Retrieved: January 17, 2013.

Mora, Edna M. (2010). The Breast Cancer PR: General Concepts and Research. Retrieved on January 17, 2012, from http://www.aeohpri.org/1/post/2010/10/el-cncer-de-mama-en-prconceptos-generales-e-investigaciones-boletn-octubre-2010.html

Ortiz, K. J., Perez, J., Torres, M. (2008). Breast Cancer in Puerto Rico. Department of Health, 1, 1-8. Retrieved: January 17, 2013.

Robles, S. C., Galanis, E. (2002). Breast Cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean. American Journal of Public Health, 12 (2), 98. Retrieved: January 17, 2013.

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26 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 San Miguel, A., Gonzalez, I., et. al. (2006) Prognostic factors of breast cancer and HER2/neu. Electron Biomedical Journal, 2:72-88. Retrieved: January 17, 2013.

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"ALCOHOLISM, POWERFUL WEAPON AGAINST GOOD HEALTH" Jinelys K. Quinones Acevedo Total of points: 21/25 "Love is the healing of a nation, alcohol is the destruction." Alcoholism among young people, this problem has passed to generation and is one of the major problems in society. Whenever the number of young children who pass it without thinking about the problems they can cause. This may affect negatively our physical and mental health. When drinking, do not think about the consequences that can bring us, let alone if we do too much. The effects caused by alcohol on health may be immediate and long term. In health we really can cause many serious problems that undermine young people have always answering when advised, "That does not happen to me". One problem that can cause alcohol is memory loss as it affects some of the cells of the mind. Another problem, and one very important so is the heart, the alcohol circulating around the damaged blood vessels and this makes the heart grow and makes you work harder. Alcohol increases the risk of developing cancer of the esophagus, pharynx, larynx, mouth and breast. Some of the other diseases that can cause cancer are, gastritis, liver cirrhosis, nutritional deficiencies leading to protein-energy malnutrition, atherosclerosis, among others (Bolet and Sacorraz 2003). Intoxication is something serious happens many times with young and often with little ones as they do not have much experience or much knowledge about alcohol. Alcohol is an addictive substance and is the leading cause of traffic accidents in the United States, because it slows reaction time and impairs judgment of people (Terra, 2008). Violent deaths among young people are growing more and many of these are due to alcohol and that 50% occur because of this and this 50% are suicides of addicted to this (Ferrer 2009). Many of these deaths are due to accidents on the road besides they’ve killed innocents also lost their lives with nothing to do. Other deaths are poisoning, which is one of the most common in young people. This happens because many addicts become so young that sometimes cannot stop drinking alcohol and need by any means without thinking that what they do is get hurt and that if unchecked may lose their lives.

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28 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Alcohol is harmful to health, either large or small lots. Taking too much can be harmful to your health considerably. Moreover, chronic or excessive consumption of alcohol can lead to alcoholism, a major social and health problem in the United States. This problem is really serious and should raise awareness and advise young people not to make him and there are better things than alcohol. We need to care so much for our health, and leave happy and healthy every day.

References 1. Bolet Astoviza M. y Socarras Suarez M. (2003). El alcoholismo, consecuencias y prevención. Revista Cubana Invest Biomed. Vol. 22 (Nº 1). Pp. 25-31. 2. Ferrer Lacosta C. (2009). El alcohol en los adolescentes. Contribuciones a las Ciencias Sociaes. 3. Pascual Pastor F. Percepción del alcohol entre los jóvenes. Unidad de Alcohologia. 4. Pons Diez J. (1998). El modelo familiar y el papel educativo de los padres en la etiología del consumo de alcohol en los adolescentes. Revista Española de salud pública. Vol. 72 (Nº 3). Doi. 10.1590/S1135-57271998000300010. 5. Terra, L. (2001). Algunos determinantes del consumo de alcohol entre

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Communications The UGHS Scientific Journal

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SULAY AS A SCIENTIST WORTHY OF EMULATION Melody Rivera Hernández Total of points: 25/25 She was recognized as one of the best doctoral students of University of Puerto Rico at the Medical Sciences Campus. Yes, I am very proud to say that Sulay Rivera Sánchez is a very important scientist and my mentor. I have the distinct pleasure of having the opportunity to speak about this great scientist and amazing woman. As Sulay’s student, I had the opportunity to meet with her since I was looking for help with my science research. From the very beginning Sulay struck me as a mature and serviceable individual. Her determination is impressive and she has shown herself to be a responsible, giving individual who is multi-talented and highly motivated. As part of her college preparation, Sulay has been part of the Río Piedras and Medical Sciences Campus, which are the most prestigious and competitive. Sulay also has research experience since she started her Chemistry B.S., now she is known to be as one of the first persons to research on the role of mitochondrial DNA in Huntington’s disease. She is an excellent scientist; this has been demonstrated through all her over twenty publications and professional experience. Of her many hallmark qualities, her desire to help others is only second to her professional performance. Sulay’s sense of giving has helped me in my improvement of math and science skills. She has been the most important piece and key of my improvement with my science research. In addition to this, Sulay has demonstrated incredible mentoring skills, giving all her time to my doubts and explaining me all the techniques practiced in a laboratory. She has a huge heart and personality that gives joy to those that need to move forward. I have actually seen only few people with a heart as big as hers. Sulay has definitely touched and improved the lives of others through her unselfish spirit. She is an open human being and participates in every opportunity available to her. Sulay is completely dedicated to her profession and studies, demonstrating to be an excellent scientist. All the people surrounding her and I see her as a leader and scientist worthy of emulation. ‘

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31 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 References: I personally know the scientist and another resource could be her curriculum vitae.

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DR. RODRIGUEZ: AN EXCELLENT PROFESSOR AND AN AMAZING HUMAN BEING Gabriela Zayas Alom Total of points: 25/25 It’s amazing how people can gain respect. Simply by doing their job and share it with society, Scientifics are admired by many people. This essay aims to demonstrate the esteem and deference there is towards Wanda Rodriguez, Doctor in Psychology. Beyond being an excellent human being, she has always expressed a great interest for her profession. Her amazing job as a student counselor and later on as a Psychologist is worth emulating. Before being certified as a Psychologist, Rodriguez had decided to be a Student Counselor because she wanted to dedicate herself to help solve the difficult situations in which people get involved. As a Student Counselor, she had the opportunity to work both in universities and public schools and she received numerous acknowledgements for her hard work. Also, she wrote articles that lead to her interest in Psychology, like: “Hacia una práctica reflexiva de la consejería psicológica en Puerto Rico”. Further on, she realized that what she really liked was Psychology, because she could work with other types of social problems. Her solid base from student counseling, was of big help when she decided to make both Master’s Degree and Ph.D. in Psychology. Dr. Rodriguez has been most recognized as a professor of the University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras campus. For her, the biggest satisfaction it’s the fact that her students continue in academic and educational areas of Psychology, in which she specializes. Rodriguez, has also written many articles like “El enfoque sociocultural en el diseño y construcción de una comunidad de aprendizaje” or “El concepto de calidad educativa: Una mirada crítica desde el enfoque históricocultural”. She has received acknowledgments like: “Premio Una Vida de Logros de la Asocioación de Psicología de Puerto Rico” and “Psicóloga del Año” in 2001. On the other hand, she was named “Secretaria General de la Sociedad Interamericana de Psicología”

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33 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 from 2002 to 2006, but as it was mentioned before, her biggest achievement was to be a professor. In conclusion, Professor Wanda Rodriguez is worth admiring. Her desire for helping others through her job is a quality that not everybody has. Her achievements and awards have been deserved thanks to the effort and commitment she applies to everything she does. I hope that, just like me, other people have the opportunity to know and meet this very important contributor of Psychology.

References Rodriguez Arocho, W.C. (s.f.). Los conceptos de vivencia y situación social del desarrollo: Reflexiones en torno a su lugar en el modelo teórico de Lev S. Vygotski. Available in: http://www.slideshare.net/c.meza/conferencia-wanda-rodrguez. Rodriguez Arocho, W. C. (s.f.). Transfondo histórico de la Consejería. Hacia una práctica reflexiva

de

la

consejería

en

Puerto

Rico.

Available

in:

http://www.buenastareas.com/ensayos/Transfondo-Historico-De-LaConsejeria/6553843.html (s.f.). Universidad de Costa Rica. Revista Actualidades Investigativas en Educación. Available in: http://revista.inie.ucr.ac.cr/autores/controlador/Article/accion/articlesByAuthor/autor/wandarodriguez-arocho.html

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ISAAC NEWTON Naillil Torres Total of points: 25/25 Who was Isaac Newton? Isaac Newton was a physicist and mathematician who did great discoveries and many advances to the world. Personally I’m very interested in Isaac Newton’s jobs and achievements because they say that he is the father of the physics. In this expository essay I will briefly talk about who is Isaac Newton and I will state my admiration and respect toward him. To begin it is necessary to mention important facts about Isaac Newton. First he wrote the book "Principia," which summarizes his laws of classical physics and calculus, published in 16787, is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science. In this work, Newton describes universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. He built the first reflecting telescope and developed a theory of color based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into a visible spectrum. In mathematics, he has the credit for the development of the differential and integral calculus. He also demonstrated the generalized binomial theorem, developed the “Newton’s method” for approximating the zeroes of a function, and contributed to the study of power series. Newton’s stature among scientists remains at the top and in a study realized in Britain he was deemed much more influential than Albert Einstein.

In conclusion I have grate admiration and respect toward Isaac Newton because he is considered the father of Physics. He discovered many things that left important legacies in the world of science, mathematics, astronomy, etc. With all that great discoveries he gave structure to all that field mentioned before. Personally I think that he is one of the persons who most influenced the world in the areas that he specialized and he is worthy of admiration. References: Nosotro, R. (n.d.). Newton, Isaac.HyperHistory.net. Retrieved March 19, 2013, from http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/bios/b2newtonca.htm

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35 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Privately. (n.d.). Isaac Newton's Life.Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences. Retrieved March 19, 2013, from http://www.newton.ac.uk/newtlife.html What are the contributions of Isaac Newton in physics. (n.d.). The Q&A wiki. Retrieved March 19, 2013, from http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_contributions_of_Isaac_Newton_in_physics

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ALBERT EINSTEIN Melanie Quiñones Santiago Total of points: 25/25 On our world, through the years, there has been many big minds that changes the way we used to see the things. Some of them gave contributions to the arts, music, history and one of the most important, the science. For me, there’s a gentlemen that will never be forget by the humanity. A man that discover the modern physics, and has a very peculiar way to think. I should express my admiration and respects to the Professor Albert Einstein. Albert Einstein's contribution to modern physics is simply unique. He played a crucial role in establishing the two pillars of 20th century physic. That’s why I will present some of their most important works and my sincerely appreciation to this incredible scientist. In 1905, he wrote three very important papers. The first is about the nature of the motion of particles that are suspended in water, called Brownian motion. He explained in precise detail how the motion that Brown had observed was a result of the pollen being moved by individual water molecules. This explanation of Brownian motion served as definitive confirmation that atoms and molecules actually exist. The second paper covered the photoelectric effect, the discharge of electrons (negatively charged subatomic particles) from metal that has been exposed to light. This won him the 1921 Nobel Prize in physics. The third, and most famous paper, was the special theory of relativity. According to this theory, time and space are not fixed, but change depending on the position of the observer. He introduced the idea of a space-time continuum that the universe consists of the three dimensions of space, plus time. Einstein's general theory of relativity, which described gravity as a curvature in the space-time continuum, was published in 1916. He said at ones: “Gravitation is not responsible for people fallen in love” (To Fred Wall, 1933.). Besides his contributions on the physics Einstein made a big impact in the society hearts. Einstein became an active leader of the international anti-war movement. Also, he wrote a famous letter to U.S. President Roosevelt in which he urged him to initiate an American nuclear research program. With the onset atomic era, Einstein realized that nuclear weapons were a risk

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37 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 to humanity and could bring an end to civilization. During the last decade of his life, he was tireless in his efforts to create effective international cooperation to prevent war. I considerate that he is one of the most incredible human that the Earth had. The quality of his work is irreplaceable. Now, on the 21’ century we still talk about his contributions. How only one person can made so many things on his life? The answer is his enthusiasm for what he do. My biggest respects to him, I wish all the people could think and act like him. Albert Einstein will always be in the humanity’s mind and heart.

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EINSTEIN, A MAN WORTH KNOWING AND ADMIRING Ambar Torres Molinari Total of points: 25/25

“Happy is he who gets to know the reasons for things” (Vergilius Maro, 19 BC). There have been many remarkable scientists that have applied this quote in their lives. From Archimedes who started the beginning of Science to Isaac Newton who established the base of Classical Mechanics and then there is Albert Einstein one of the most inspirational and popular scientists from the 20th century with his contributions to physics. He is also a figure that represents knowledge and progress. Everything started when his father showed him a compass and the unseen force that was moving the needle fascinated him. Einstein was a curious boy since his early years; he had science in his veins since then. Furthermore, when he was only 15 years old he learned calculus on his own and when he turned 17 he pursued his studies in Physics, never giving up. Later on, Einstein’s work paid off greatly, graduating as a professor in Math and Science being awarded with work immediately as a intellectual. Soon in 1901 he completes his first scientific paper about the capillary forces of a straw, which is one of the forces that a liquid contains that permits it to move that straw. Then in 1905 when he was more developed as a scientist he creates the Theory of Relativity and applies it to mass and energy creating the famously known equation e = mc2, which explains the equivalence between mass and energy. On 1907, he applies the laws of gravity to his Theory of Relativity, finally publishing it on 1915. Earlier on 1913 he became a professor of Theorical Physics. At the same time he was developing his Theory of Gravity, this theory was part of his theory of relativity; it explained that particles travel in parallel paths, but collide at some point, because of gravity, which Einstein declared to be a curve in space – time. Moreover, his last important years of recognition where from 1927 to 1952. First on 1927, he begins to develop the foundation of quantum mechanics with Niels Bohr. Quantum mechanics is an important branch in Physics, which is teached today in every high school in the world and is known to be an important contribution to humanity itself. Aside from this, on 1934 he published “The world as I see it” an essay that consists of a social approach mixed with science, EAGLES 2013

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39 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 art and politics. Later, when World War II started Albert warned President Roosevelt about a German atomic bomb being developed at the time, recommending nuclear research. Subsequently, he became a researcher on ammunition and explosives in the U.S Army, because of his extraordinary scientific capacity. When World War II came to an end he was also appointed as chairman of the Emergency Committee for Atomic Scientists on 1943. As if this was not enough, finally in 1952 he was offered presidency of the state of Israel. In conclusion, Einstein died at the age of 73, but he died leaving a piece of him in this world that lacked and still lacks of a sense of discovery. I personally admire him for being so intrigued by the mystery of a phenomenon and the world itself. Also, I respect him for emerging himself in every area possible and helping mankind in a time of need being able to integrate his scientific abilities at the same time. All in all, he was a man that left us many aspects to investigate and also, much knowledge. “Any intelligent fool can make things bigger, more complex, and more violent. It takes a touch of genius –and a lot of courage — to move in the opposite direction.” (Einstein)

References:

http://einstein.biz/photos.php http://www.albert-einstein.org/.index2.html http://www.proverbia.net/citasautor.asp?autor=327

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ALBERT EINSTEIN Ivan Padilla Martinez Total of points: 24/25

Albert Einstein, everyone has heard this name sometime in his life. Many have just heard it, few know who he is and others admire him as a person and as an example worth following. The most interesting of all is that he wasn't a "normal" case at his early age. No one would say that he would do what he did when they saw him in his youth, one of slow development. It is a clear example that appearances are deceiving. This human being born on March 14, 1879 in Württemberg, Germany made great contributions to the human knowledge.

In 1905, he published five works to “Annalen der Physik”, the first one made him get the PhD in University of Zurich. The other four works changed radically the way in which the human being sees the universe. The first two works were about “Brownian movement” and the “Photoelectric effect”, respectively. The last two works were about the famous relativity theory and the very well known equation “

” where c is the light velocity what is supposed to

be constant. Once he made all these works he became very popular and famous in the science society, he was very recognized after all.

He received the most important award for his work in 1921 when he got the Physics Nobel Prize. The society compared him with Newton, calling him the new Newton. He became very famous, traveling the world, giving conferences about his works and his way to see the world. Always carrying his violin under his arm, one of his favorites hobbies. Albert Einstein was professor in very recognized Universities in Germany and in the United States. He ended his life in the United States because he had to give up on his German citizenship when Hitler was in charge in Germany.

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41 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Finally, I really admire Albert Einstein because of his important contributions to the science. His strange case is one that can call the attention of anyone. One of my favorites quotes is one of him: The politics acquire a temporary value while the equations value last for the eternity. He left us very important equations and theories that are very studied in nowadays.

References: Nobelprize.org. Albert Einstein - Biography. Retrieved from http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1921/einstein-bio.html Einstein Archives Online. Einstein Archives Online. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www.alberteinstein.info/ Albert Einstein | Albert Einstein Official Site. Albert Einstein | Albert Einstein Official Site Bio. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://einstein.biz/biography.php

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42 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

ISAAC NEWTON ONE OF THE MOST INFLUENTIAL SCIENTISTS OF ALL TIME Cristian Rodríguez Montañez Total of points: 24/25 May a person think that with a development can change what a world think about something? “Newton was the greatest genius that has existed and the most fortunate, since it can only be found once a system governing the world”. This is what the mathematician and mathematical physicist Joseph Louis Lagrange thinks about Isaac Newton. Through this essay you will go to read why he thinks this about this big figure of the physics, specifically classic mechanic. But first let’s make a brief review of Newton’s early life. He born on December 25, 1642 at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire and died on March 20, 1727 in London. From the age of twelve until he was seventeen, Newton was educated at The King's School, Grantham. In October 1659, he was moved to Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth. In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1665, he discovered the generalized binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became infinitesimal calculus and obtained a degree in August of that year. But later the university closed as a precaution against the Great Plague. But this doesn't stop Newton. As an example of someone who wants to learn and develop new formulas, math and science application, etc, Newton continues studying in his house, where he developed his calculus theories. Isaac cultivated the Physics. Newton gave the first analytical determination of the speed of sound in air accounted for the precession of the equinoxes as a result of the Moon's gravitational attraction on the Earth's oblateness, initiated the gravitational study of the irregularities in the motion of the moon, provided a theory for the determination of the orbits of comets, and much more. Also he creates three famous laws that describe the world behavior. This is a great development because thanks to this the world can advance.

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43 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 In conclusion, Newton was one of the most successful scientific because, actually, no one can refute his approaches. In physics is very important study three Newton’s laws to understand the others themes. No doubt that his discoveries are a system governing the world.

References "Isaac Newton. Biografía.." Biografias y Vidas .com. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. < http://www.biografiasyvidas.com/monografia/newton/>. "Newton summary." MacTutor History of Mathematics. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. <http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Mathematicians/Newton.html>. Weisstein, Eric W. . "Newton, Isaac (1642-1727) -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography."ScienceWorld.

N.p.,

n.d.

Web.

10

2013. <http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Newton.html>.

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44 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

ALEXANDER FLEMING Nattalia Rosario Total of points: 24/25 Throughout history the world has experienced many different and very important discoveries. These discoveries wouldn’t exist if it wasn’t for the important scientists that discovered them. Alexander Fleming is one of those scientists. His great discovery and achievements made him famous and known worldwide. Alexander Fleming was a Scottish biologist and inventor. His work on immunology, bacteriology, and chemotherapy is considered groundbreaking and highly influential. He is widely regarded for his discovery of penicillin. This all started when he assisted in battlefield hospitals during World War I. While he was there he observed that even though many soldiers survived their initial wounds, they died a few years later because of an infection. After the war was over he kept looking for any type of medicine that could fight against those infections. After a lot of time trying and searching, he finally discovered the penicillin, a drug that is used to kill harmful bacteria. This discovery is one of the most important achievements in the medicine history. Because of his discovery many lives were saved and are still been saved. I admired Alexander Fleming because he changed the course of history and science. He is known to be one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century. His discovery has saved millions of lives and that is something to be proud of and worthy of admiration.

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45 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

GALILEO GALILEI Almaris Figueroa Total of points: 22/25

Some names in the history of inventions can never be forgotten as they bless us with their numerous creative inventions that have now become a need of every man. Among such great personalities one name that is always remembered is that of Galileo Galilei. Galileo Galilei born on February 15 of 1564.

Italian scientist who supported

Copernicanism, the idea that Earth orbits the sun. Galileo defended his views in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. For doing so, he was tried by the Roman Inquisition, was found "suspect of heresy" and spent the rest of his life under house arrest. Galileo Galilei provided a number of scientific insights that laid the foundation for future scientists. His investigation of the laws of motion and improvements on the telescope helped further the understanding of the world and universe around him. Both led him to question the current belief of the time; that all things revolved around the Earth. His discoveries were the result of developments in knowledge of his time. Galileo Galilei was more than a scientist; he was a man who fought and saw beyond the ordinary. I admire and respect him because he had a great mind, full of questions and imagination. His contributions define us today and without them perhaps we wouldn’t have all the advances that we have. His findings changed our world view for all time.

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46 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Appendix The UGHS Scientific Journal

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47 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Appendix: Rubrics Used

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48 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Category Headline 2 pts Abstract 5pts Introduction 8pts Report of Research 8pts Methods 5pts Results 4 pts Discussion and Conclusion 7pts Bibliography 4pts Grammar Format 4pts Punctuality 3pts

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date.  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words.  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3)  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3)  All methods and experiment details are presented.

Points 2 5

8

8 5

Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented.

 

7 The most important research findings are restated. (4) Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2) No new information is introduced. (1) 4 A single page annotated bibliography is provided.

    

4

-1 for every grammar mistake -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, 4 conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) 3  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) 50 Total

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49 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

APA Review Article Rubric

Category

Scoring Criteria

Headline 2 points

Title page consists of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. A thesis statement makes the research topic clear.

Introduction 3 points

Body 4 points Report 3 points Conclusion 3 points

Relation to SocialSciences 2 points References 4 points

Grammar Format 2 points Punctuality 2 points

Points Committee Teacher Evaluation Evaluation 2

2

Background information is provided to establish the importance of the topic.

1

Presents the development of the ideas in a clear and precise way. Presents the results of the investigation and the analysis. The most important details are restated.

4

Student's final thoughts about the topic are stated.

1

Projection, suggestion or thought-provoking question at the end.

1

It shows clear relationship to a SocialSciences investigation.

2

At least 5 references, following APA format. Vocabulary - a single page with at least 10, defined. -1 for every grammar mistake

2

Follows a persuasive essay format.

1

Maximum 2 pages.

1

Student turned it in on time

1

Both hard copy and digital copy

1 Total

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2

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50 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Literary Review Rubric

Category

Scoring Criteria

Points

Title

Relevant title that is related to the content of the argumentative essay.

1

Introduction

Body/structure

Conclusion

Quotes Bibliography

The introduction is alluring, contains background information that explains the importance of the topic, includes a hook and a clear thesis statement. It contains transitional words. The body is organized according to the degree of importance or chronologically. It includes transitional words and relevant and logical information (Who, what, when, where, why, and how). Gives information to sustain the thesis statement. The most important points are restated. The student’s final thoughts about the topic are stated. Included projections quote or thought provoking question at the end. The student integrates transitional words. The student includes 5 – 10 quotes (In the introduction, body or conclusion). The quotation is in the correct structure. The student must include 5 – 10 sources of information. It has to be in APA format.

References

Committee Evaluation

3

3

3

2

2 2

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Teacher Evaluation


51 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Clarity Format

Topic Grammar Punctuality

The ideas are expressed in an understandable way. The essay is written in prose, introduction, body and conclusion. Follows instruction: Font( Arial), spacing(1.5) and size(12). It consists of medicine or arquitecture.

2

-1 for every grammar mistake. -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper. Student turned it on time Both hard copy and digital copy.

2

2 1

2

Communications Rubric

SCORING CRITERIA COMUNICATION Must have an Introduction, Body Conclusion (Max two pages)

POINTS

COMMITTEE EVALUATION

TEACHER EVALUATION

and

5

Meets the requirements of an expository essay

5

Has a chronological order and it has no mistakes.

5

Presents facts about the scientist and his work

5

Gives personal opinions and presents admiration WITH RESPECT towards the professional.

TOTAL

5

25

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52 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Evaluated Rubrics per Section

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Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Agness Montes and José Pagán Tittle: Demonstration of the strong Goldbach Conjectures in the numerical range of 10^4 to 10^7 Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

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Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


54 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Alex A. Rivera Tittle: The impact of herbivory on seed production of the tree Lagerstroemia speciosa (Reina de las Flores) Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

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Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


55 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Alexandra Peña Tittle: Long-term climate study in Cambalache Forest from 1980 until 2010.

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

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Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


56 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Almaris Figueroa Tittle: The Arthropods Associated with Galls formed by the Harrisia Cactus Mealybug in Puerto Rico

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

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Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


57 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Ámbar Torres Tittle: Induced abortion vs. miscarriage and their psychological relationship with Post Abortion Syndrome

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

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Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


58 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Andrés O. García Tittle: Inhibition ability of the extracts (COJ-1, COJ-2, COJ-3 and COJ-4) from the endemic plant Simarouba tulae (Aceitillo Falso) in MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines without harming benign MCF-12A cell lines

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

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Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


59 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Ángel Rivera and Daniel Sánchez Tittle: Comparative study of the perception of women diagnosed and survivors of breast cancer of 40 years or more against the effect of factors (fixed or malleable) in treatment effectiveness

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

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Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


60 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Cristian Rodriguez Tittle: Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of Alga Sargassum and calcium alginate beads (C6H7Ca12O6) in the removal of trivalent chromium from aqueous solutions

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

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Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


61 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Gabriela I. Oquendo Tittle: Comparison of the effectiveness of teaching the concepts of division to fourth graders through educational games versus educational conferences.

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

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Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


62 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Gabriela Zayas Tittle: Comparative study of the performance of short-term memory and its relationship to gender, in adolescents aged 14-17 years

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

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Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


63 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Iván Padilla Tittle: Comparative study of the influence of the mode of delivery, natural or caesarean section, in the initial acquisition of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans and the influence of breastfeeding on the levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli in infants from 0-3 years.

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez

Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


64 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Julio M. Cuevas and Charlie Pérez Tittle: The Influence of the Group in the Conformism of each Individual

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez

Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


65 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Kimberly Solivan Tittle: Use of Rhizobium bacteria to maximize the effectiveness of hydroponics crops increasing their protein levels.

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez

Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


66 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Kimberly Alicea Tittle: Comparative study on the effect of acupuncture and hyperbaric chamber as a treatment for healing diabetic foot ulcers in elderly patients

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez

Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


67 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Lyanne Rivera and Zalimech Díaz Tittle: Prevalence of Toxic Genes in DNA isolated from stool samples

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez

Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


68 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Melanie Quiñones Tittle: Synthesis and Characterization of Transition Metals Polypyridine Compounds (M(HDHBP)N [2X]) for Light Harvesting Applications

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez

Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


69 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Melissa Bayona Tittle: The Geometric Interpretation of the Night Sky

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez

Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


70 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Melody Rivera Tittle: Expression of the Base Excision Repair Protein APE1 in a Huntington ’s disease In Vitro Model

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez

Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


71 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Naillil Torres Tittle: Descriptive comparison of the prevalence of dental caries in children under 12 years of public and private schools in San Juan, Puerto Rico: 2010-2011

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez

Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


72 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Nattalia Rosario Tittle: Qualitative analysis of the abundance of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria in drinking water in urban and rural regions of Puerto Rico

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez

Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


73 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Sofía Ortíz Tittle: The effectiveness of a plan for proper disposal of biomedical waste at home among diabetic adolescents in aged 12-18 years.

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez

Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


74 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Rubric for Scientific Article Student’s Name: Neysharie Sánchez Tittle: Tunicamyin as a new treatment for triple negative breast cancer

Category Headline

Scoring Criteria  Title page consists only of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Abstract  Separate page abstract clearly summarizes the essential research findings and conclusion in less than 200 words. Introduction  A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. (4)  Background information is provided to establish the importance of the research topic. (3) Report of Research  Scientific terms and concepts are properly used. (5)  At least one research reference is "quoted". (3) Methods  All methods and experiment details are presented. Results  Statistics, graphs and/or percentages are presented. Discussion and  The most important research findings are restated. (4) Conclusion  Student's final thoughts about the research topic are stated. (2)  No new information is introduced. (1) Bibliography  A single page annotated bibliography is provided. Grammar  -1 for every grammar mistake  -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper Format  Paragraph format- topic sentence, supporting details, conclusive. (2)  Follows all instructions- font, size and spacing. (2) Punctuality  Student turned it in on time. (1)  Both hard copy and digital copy. (2) Total

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez

Points 2 5

8

8 5 4 7

4

4

3 50


75 Category

The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Scoring Criteria Points Committee

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez

Teacher


76 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Evaluation Evaluation Title page consists of: a descriptive title for 2 2 Scoring Criteria Points Committee Teacher the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. 2 Introduction A thesis statement makes the research topic 2 clear. 3 points Background information is provided to 1 1 establish the importance of the topic. Headline Category 2 points

Body 4 points Report 3 points

Conclusion 3 points

Relation to SocialSciences 1 point References 4 points

Grammar Format 3 points

Punctuality 2 points

Presents the development of the ideas in a clear and precise way. Presents the results of the investigation and the analysis. It needs to be supported with at least 5 quotes. The most important details are restated.

4

4

3

3

1

1

Student's final thoughts about the topic are stated. Projection, suggestion or thought-provoking question at the end. It shows clear relationship to a SocialSciences investigation.

1

1

1

1

1

1

At least 5 references, following APA format. Vocabulary - a single page with at least 10, defined. -1 for every grammar mistake Follows a persuasive essay format. Introduction (3-4 sentences): hook (1), supporting detail (1-2), thesis statement (1; opinion+argument). The purpose of the essay is to defend the opinion/facts with arguments. Maximum: 2 pages, Font: Arial, Size: 12, Spacing: 1.5, Spacing between paragraphs: 6 pt. Student turned it in on time

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

Both hard copy and digital copy

1

1

25

25/25

Agness Montes

Total

EAGLES 2013

ŠVelåzquez


77 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Evaluation Evaluation Title page consists of: a descriptive title for 2 2 Scoring Criteria Points Committee Teacher the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. 2 Introduction A thesis statement makes the research topic 2 clear. 3 points Background information is provided to 1 1 establish the importance of the topic. Headline Category 2 points

Body 4 points Report 3 points

Conclusion 3 points

Relation to SocialSciences 1 point References 4 points

Grammar Format 3 points

Punctuality 2 points

Presents the development of the ideas in a clear and precise way. Presents the results of the investigation and the analysis. It needs to be supported with at least 5 quotes. The most important details are restated.

4

4

3

3

1

1

Student's final thoughts about the topic are stated. Projection, suggestion or thought-provoking question at the end. It shows clezar relationship to a SocialSciences investigation.

1

1

1

1

1

1

At least 5 references, following APA format. Vocabulary - a single page with at least 10, defined. -1 for every grammar mistake Follows a persuasive essay format. Introduction (3-4 sentences): hook (1), supporting detail (1-2), thesis statement (1; opinion+argument). The purpose of the essay is to defend the opinion/facts with arguments. Maximum: 2 pages, Font: Arial, Size: 12, Spacing: 1.5, Spacing between paragraphs: 6 pt. Student turned it in on time

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

Both hard copy and digital copy

1

1

25

25/25

Alex Rivera

Total

EAGLES 2013

ŠVelåzquez


78 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Evaluation Evaluation Title page consists of: a descriptive title for 2 2 Scoring Criteria Points Committee Teacher the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. 2 Introduction A thesis statement makes the research topic 2 clear. 3 points Background information is provided to 1 1 establish the importance of the topic. Headline Category 2 points

Body 4 points Report 3 points

Conclusion 3 points

Relation to SocialSciences 1 point References 4 points

Grammar Format 3 points

Punctuality 2 points

Presents the development of the ideas in a clear and precise way. Presents the results of the investigation and the analysis. It needs to be supported with at least 5 quotes. The most important details are restated.

4

4

3

3

1

1

Student's final thoughts about the topic are stated. Projection, suggestion or thought-provoking question at the end. It shows clear relationship to a SocialSciences investigation.

1

1

1

1

1

1

At least 5 references, following APA format. Vocabulary - a single page with at least 10, defined. -1 for every grammar mistake Follows a persuasive essay format. Introduction (3-4 sentences): hook (1), supporting detail (1-2), thesis statement (1; opinion+argument). The purpose of the essay is to defend the opinion/facts with arguments. Maximum: 2 pages, Font: Arial, Size: 12, Spacing: 1.5, Spacing between paragraphs: 6 pt. Student turned it in on time

2

2

2

0

2

2

1

1

1

1

Both hard copy and digital copy

1

1

25

25/25

Zalimech Díaz

Total

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez


79 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Evaluation Evaluation Title page consists of: a descriptive title for 2 2 Scoring Criteria Points Committee Teacher the paper, author's name, and paper Evaluation Evaluation completion date. 2 Introduction A thesis statement makes the research topic 2 clear. 3 points Background information is provided to 1 1 establish the importance of the topic. Headline Category 2 points

Body 4 points Report 3 points

Conclusion 3 points

Relation to SocialSciences 1 point References 4 points

Grammar Format 3 points

Punctuality 2 points

Presents the development of the ideas in a clear and precise way. Presents the results of the investigation and the analysis. It needs to be supported with at least 5 quotes. The most important details are restated.

4

4

3

3

1

1

Student's final thoughts about the topic are stated. Projection, suggestion or thought-provoking question at the end. It shows clear relationship to a SocialSciences investigation.

1

1

1

1

1

1

At least 5 references, following APA format. Vocabulary - a single page with at least 10, defined. -1 for every grammar mistake Follows a persuasive essay format. Introduction (3-4 sentences): hook (1), supporting detail (1-2), thesis statement (1; opinion+argument). The purpose of the essay is to defend the opinion/facts with arguments. Maximum: 2 pages, Font: Arial, Size: 12, Spacing: 1.5, Spacing between paragraphs: 6 pt. Student turned it in on time

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

Both hard copy and digital copy

1

1

25

25/25

Gabriela Oquendo Total

EAGLES 2013

ŠVelåzquez


80 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Title page consists of: a descriptive title for 2 2 the paper, Scoring author's Criteria name, and paper Points Committee Teacher completion date. Evaluation Evaluation 2 Introduction A thesis statement makes the research topic 2 clear. 3 points Background information is provided to 1 1 establish the importance of the topic. Headline 2 points Category

Body 4 points Report 3 points

Conclusion 3 points

Relation to SocialSciences 1 point References 4 points

Grammar Format 3 points

Punctuality 2 points

Presents the development of the ideas in a clear and precise way. Presents the results of the investigation and the analysis. It needs to be supported with at least 5 quotes. The most important details are restated.

4

4

3

3

1

1

Student's final thoughts about the topic are stated. Projection, suggestion or thought-provoking question at the end. It shows clear relationship to a SocialSciences investigation.

1

1

1

1

1

1

At least 5 references, following APA format. Vocabulary - a single page with at least 10, defined. -1 for every grammar mistake Follows a persuasive essay format. Introduction (3-4 sentences): hook (1), supporting detail (1-2), thesis statement (1; opinion+argument). The purpose of the essay is to defend the opinion/facts with arguments. Maximum: 2 pages, Font: Arial, Size: 12, Spacing: 1.5, Spacing between paragraphs: 6 pt. Student turned it in on time

2

2

2

0

2

2

1

1

1

1

Both hard copy and digital copy

1

1

25

25/25

Kimberly Alicea

Total

EAGLES 2013

ŠVelåzquez


81 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Title page consists of: a descriptive title for 2 2 the paper, Scoring author's Criteria name, and paper Points Committee Teacher completion date. Evaluation Evaluation 2 Introduction A thesis statement makes the research topic 2 clear. 3 points Background information is provided to 1 1 establish the importance of the topic. Headline 2 points Category

Body 4 points Report 3 points

Conclusion 3 points

Relation to SocialSciences 1 point References 4 points

Grammar Format 3 points

Punctuality 2 points

Presents the development of the ideas in a clear and precise way. Presents the results of the investigation and the analysis. It needs to be supported with at least 5 quotes. The most important details are restated.

4

4

3

3

1

1

Student's final thoughts about the topic are stated. Projection, suggestion or thought-provoking question at the end. It shows clear relationship to a SocialSciences investigation.

1

1

1

1

1

1

At least 5 references, following APA format. Vocabulary - a single page with at least 10, defined. -1 for every grammar mistake Follows a persuasive essay format. Introduction (3-4 sentences): hook (1), supporting detail (1-2), thesis statement (1; opinion+argument). The purpose of the essay is to defend the opinion/facts with arguments. Maximum: 2 pages, Font: Arial, Size: 12, Spacing: 1.5, Spacing between paragraphs: 6 pt. Student turned it in on time

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

Both hard copy and digital copy

1

1

25

25/25

Melissa Bayona Total

EAGLES 2013

ŠVelåzquez


82 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Title page consists of: a descriptive title for 2 2 the paper, Scoring author's Criteria name, and paper Points Committee Teacher completion date. Evaluation Evaluation 2 Introduction A thesis statement makes the research topic 2 clear. 3 points Background information is provided to 1 1 establish the importance of the topic. Headline 2 points Category

Body 4 points Report 3 points

Conclusion 3 points

Relation to SocialSciences 1 point References 4 points

Grammar Format 3 points

Punctuality 2 points

Presents the development of the ideas in a clear and precise way. Presents the results of the investigation and the analysis. It needs to be supported with at least 5 quotes. The most important details are restated.

4

4

3

3

1

1

Student's final thoughts about the topic are stated. Projection, suggestion or thought-provoking question at the end. It shows clear relationship to a SocialSciences investigation.

1

1

1

1

1

1

At least 5 references, following APA format. Vocabulary - a single page with at least 10, defined. -1 for every grammar mistake Follows a persuasive essay format. Introduction (3-4 sentences): hook (1), supporting detail (1-2), thesis statement (1; opinion+argument). The purpose of the essay is to defend the opinion/facts with arguments. Maximum: 2 pages, Font: Arial, Size: 12, Spacing: 1.5, Spacing between paragraphs: 6 pt. Student turned it in on time

2

2

2

0

2

2

1

1

1

1

Both hard copy and digital copy

1

1

25

23/25

Lyanne Rivera

Total

EAGLES 2013

ŠVelåzquez


83 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Title page consists of: a descriptive title for 2 2 the paper, Scoring author's Criteria name, and paper Points Committee Teacher completion date. Evaluation Evaluation 2 Introduction A thesis statement makes the research topic 2 clear. 3 points Background information is provided to 1 1 establish the importance of the topic. Headline 2 points Category

Body 4 points Report 3 points

Conclusion 3 points

Relation to SocialSciences 1 point References 4 points

Grammar Format 3 points

Punctuality 2 points

Presents the development of the ideas in a clear and precise way. Presents the results of the investigation and the analysis. It needs to be supported with at least 5 quotes. The most important details are restated.

4

4

3

3

1

1

Student's final thoughts about the topic are stated. Projection, suggestion or thought-provoking question at the end. It shows clear relationship to a SocialSciences investigation.

1

1

1

1

1

1

At least 5 references, following APA format. Vocabulary - a single page with at least 10, defined. -1 for every grammar mistake Follows a persuasive essay format. Introduction (3-4 sentences): hook (1), supporting detail (1-2), thesis statement (1; opinion+argument). The purpose of the essay is to defend the opinion/facts with arguments. Maximum: 2 pages, Font: Arial, Size: 12, Spacing: 1.5, Spacing between paragraphs: 6 pt. Student turned it in on time

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

Both hard copy and digital copy

1

1

25

23/25

Julio Cuevas

Total

EAGLES 2013

ŠVelåzquez


84 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Title page consists of: a descriptive title for the paper, author's name, and paper completion date. Introduction A thesis statement makes the research topic clear. 3 points Background information is provided to establish the importance of the topic.

2

2

2

2

1

1

Presents the development of the ideas in a clear and precise way. Presents the results of the investigation and the analysis. It needs to be supported with at least 5 quotes. The most important details are restated.

4

4

3

3

1

1

Student's final thoughts about the topic are stated. Projection, suggestion or thought-provoking question at the end. It shows clear relationship to a SocialSciences investigation.

1

1

1

1

1

1

At least 5 references, following APA format. Vocabulary - a single page with at least 10, defined. -1 for every grammar mistake Follows a persuasive essay format. Introduction (3-4 sentences): hook (1), supporting detail (1-2), thesis statement (1; opinion+argument). The purpose of the essay is to defend the opinion/facts with arguments. Maximum: 2 pages, Font: Arial, Size: 12, Spacing: 1.5, Spacing between paragraphs: 6 pt. Student turned it in on time

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

Both hard copy and digital copy

1

1

25

23/25

Headline 2 points

Body 4 points Report 3 points

Conclusion 3 points

Relation to SocialSciences 1 point References 4 points

Grammar Format 3 points

Punctuality 2 points Charlie Pérez

Total

EAGLES 2013

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85 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Literary Review Rubric : Andres Garcia

Category

Scoring Criteria

Points

Committee Evaluation

Title

Relevant title that is related to the content of the argumentative essay.

1

1

3

3

3

3

3

3

2

2

2

2

2 2

2 2

Introduction

Body/structure

Conclusion

Quotes Bibliography

The introduction is alluring, contains background information that explains the importance of the topic, includes a hook and a clear thesis statement. It contains transitional words. The body is organized according to the degree of importance or chronologically. It includes transitional words and relevant and logical information (Who, what, when, where, why, and how). Gives information to sustain the thesis statement. The most important points are restated. The student’s final thoughts about the topic are stated. Included projections quote or thought provoking question at the end. The student integrates transitional words. The student includes 5 – 10 quotes (In the introduction, body or conclusion). The quotation is in the correct structure. The student must include 5 – 10 sources of information. It has to be in APA format.

References Clarity

The ideas are expressed in an understandable way.

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez

Teacher Evaluation


86 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Format

Topic Grammar Punctuality

The essay is written in prose, introduction, body and conclusion. Follows instruction: Font( Arial), spacing(1.5) and size(12). It consists of medicine or arquitecture. -1 for every grammar mistake. -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper. Student turned it on time Both hard copy and digital copy.

EAGLES 2013

2

2

1

1

2

2

2

2

ŠVelåzquez


87 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Literary Review Rubric : Daniel Sanchez

Category

Scoring Criteria

Points

Committee Evaluation

Title

Relevant title that is related to the content of the argumentative essay.

1

1

3

3

3

3

3

3

2

2

2

2

2

2

Introduction

Body/structure

Conclusion

Quotes Bibliography

The introduction is alluring, contains background information that explains the importance of the topic, includes a hook and a clear thesis statement. It contains transitional words. The body is organized according to the degree of importance or chronologically. It includes transitional words and relevant and logical information (Who, what, when, where, why, and how). Gives information to sustain the thesis statement. The most important points are restated. The student’s final thoughts about the topic are stated. Included projections quote or thought provoking question at the end. The student integrates transitional words. The student includes 5 – 10 quotes (In the introduction, body or conclusion). The quotation is in the correct structure. The student must include 5 – 10 sources of information. It has to be in APA format.

References

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez

Teacher Evaluation


88 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Clarity Format

Topic Grammar Punctuality

The ideas are expressed in an understandable way. The essay is written in prose, introduction, body and conclusion. Follows instruction: Font( Arial), spacing(1.5) and size(12). It consists of medicine or arquitecture.

2

2

2

2

1

1

-1 for every grammar mistake. -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper. Student turned it on time Both hard copy and digital copy.

2

2

2

2

EAGLES 2013

ŠVelåzquez


89 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Literary Review Rubric : Sofia Ortiz

Category

Scoring Criteria

Title

Relevant title that is related to the content of the argumentative essay.

Introduction

The introduction is alluring, contains background information that explains the importance of the topic, includes a hook and a clear thesis statement. It contains transitional words.

The body is organized according to the degree of Body/structure importance or chronologically. It includes transitional words and relevant and logical

Committee Teacher Points Evaluation Evaluation

1

1

3

3

3

3

EAGLES 2013

ŠVelåzquez


90 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Conclusion

Quotes

Bibliography

information (Who, what, when, where, why, and how). Gives information to sustain the thesis statement. The most important points are restated. The student’s final thoughts about the topic are stated. Included projections quote or thought provoking question at the end. The student integrates transitional words. The student includes 5 – 10 quotes (In the introduction, body or conclusion). The quotation is in the correct structure. The student must include 5 – 10 sources of information. It has to be in APA format.

References Clarity

The ideas are expressed in an

3

3

2

2

2 2

2 2

2 2

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez


91 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Format

Topic Grammar

Punctuality

understandable way. The essay is written in prose, introduction, body and conclusion. Follows instruction: Font( Arial), spacing(1.5) and size(12). It consists of medicine or arquitecture. -1 for every grammar mistake. -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper. Student turned it on time Both hard copy and digital copy.

2

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

EAGLES 2013

ŠVelåzquez


92 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Literary Review Rubric : Alexandra Pena

Category

Scoring Criteria

Points

Committee Evaluation

Title

Relevant title that is related to the content of the argumentative essay.

1

1

3

3

3

3

3

3

2

1

2

2

2

2

Introduction

Body/structure

Conclusion

Quotes Bibliography

The introduction is alluring, contains background information that explains the importance of the topic, includes a hook and a clear thesis statement. It contains transitional words. The body is organized according to the degree of importance or chronologically. It includes transitional words and relevant and logical information (Who, what, when, where, why, and how). Gives information to sustain the thesis statement. The most important points are restated. The student’s final thoughts about the topic are stated. Included projections quote or thought provoking question at the end. The student integrates transitional words. The student includes 5 – 10 quotes (In the introduction, body or conclusion). The quotation is in the correct structure. The student must include 5 – 10 sources of information. It has to be in APA format.

References

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez

Teacher Evaluation


93 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Clarity Format

Topic Grammar Punctuality

The ideas are expressed in an understandable way. The essay is written in prose, introduction, body and conclusion. Follows instruction: Font( Arial), spacing(1.5) and size(12). It consists of medicine or arquitecture.

2

2

2

2

1

1

-1 for every grammar mistake. -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper. Student turned it on time Both hard copy and digital copy.

2

2

2

2

EAGLES 2013

ŠVelåzquez


94 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Literary Review Rubric : Angel Rivera

Category

Scoring Criteria

Points

Committee Evaluation

Title

Relevant title that is related to the content of the argumentative essay.

1

1

3

3

3

3

3

2

Introduction

Body/structure

Conclusion

Quotes Bibliography

The introduction is alluring, contains background information that explains the importance of the topic, includes a hook and a clear thesis statement. It contains transitional words. The body is organized according to the degree of importance or chronologically. It includes transitional words and relevant and logical information (Who, what, when, where, why, and how). Gives information to sustain the thesis statement. The most important points are restated. The student’s final thoughts about the topic are stated. Included projections quote or thought provoking question at the end. The student integrates transitional words. The student includes 5 – 10 quotes (In the introduction, body or conclusion). The quotation is in the correct structure. The student must include 5 – 10 sources of information. It has to be in APA format.

1 2

2 2 2

References

2

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez

Teacher Evaluation


95 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Clarity Format

Topic Grammar Punctuality

The ideas are expressed in an understandable way. The essay is written in prose, introduction, body and conclusion. Follows instruction: Font( Arial), spacing(1.5) and size(12). It consists of medicine or arquitecture.

2

1

1

-1 for every grammar mistake. -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper. Student turned it on time Both hard copy and digital copy.

2

1

2

2

EAGLES 2013

2 2

2

ŠVelåzquez


96 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Literary Review Rubric : Jose Pagan

Category

Scoring Criteria

Title

Relevant title that is related to the content of the argumentative essay.

Introduction

The introduction is alluring, contains background information that explains the importance of the topic, includes a hook and a clear thesis statement. It contains transitional words.

The body is organized according to the degree of Body/structure importance or chronologically. It includes transitional words and relevant and logical

Committee Teacher Points Evaluation Evaluation

1

1

3

3

3

3

EAGLES 2013

ŠVelåzquez


97 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Conclusion

Quotes

Bibliography

information (Who, what, when, where, why, and how). Gives information to sustain the thesis statement. The most important points are restated. The student’s final thoughts about the topic are stated. Included projections quote or thought provoking question at the end. The student integrates transitional words. The student includes 5 – 10 quotes (In the introduction, body or conclusion). The quotation is in the correct structure. The student must include 5 – 10 sources of information. It has to be in APA format.

References Clarity

The ideas are expressed in an

3

3

2

0

2 2

2 2

2 2

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez


98 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Format

Topic Grammar

Punctuality

understandable way. The essay is written in prose, introduction, body and conclusion. Follows instruction: Font( Arial), spacing(1.5) and size(12). It consists of medicine or arquitecture. -1 for every grammar mistake. -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper. Student turned it on time Both hard copy and digital copy.

2

1

1

1

2

2

2

2

EAGLES 2013

ŠVelåzquez


99 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Literary Review Rubric : Jinelys Quinones

Category

Scoring Criteria

Points

Committee Evaluation

Title

Relevant title that is related to the content of the argumentative essay.

1

1

3

3

3

3

3

3

2

1

Introduction

Body/structure

Conclusion

Quotes Bibliography

The introduction is alluring, contains background information that explains the importance of the topic, includes a hook and a clear thesis statement. It contains transitional words. The body is organized according to the degree of importance or chronologically. It includes transitional words and relevant and logical information (Who, what, when, where, why, and how). Gives information to sustain the thesis statement. The most important points are restated. The student’s final thoughts about the topic are stated. Included projections quote or thought provoking question at the end. The student integrates transitional words. The student includes 5 – 10 quotes (In the introduction, body or conclusion). The quotation is in the correct structure. The student must include 5 – 10 sources of information. It has to be in APA format.

References

2 2 2

EAGLES 2013

1

©Velázquez

Teacher Evaluation


100 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Clarity Format

Topic Grammar Punctuality

The ideas are expressed in an understandable way. The essay is written in prose, introduction, body and conclusion. Follows instruction: Font( Arial), spacing(1.5) and size(12). It consists of medicine or arquitecture.

2

1

1

-1 for every grammar mistake. -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper. Student turned it on time Both hard copy and digital copy.

2

0

2

2

EAGLES 2013

2 2

2

ŠVelåzquez


101 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Literary Review Rubric : Jinelys Quinones

Category

Scoring Criteria

Points

Committee Evaluation

Title

Relevant title that is related to the content of the argumentative essay.

1

1

3

3

3

3

3

3

2

1

Introduction

Body/structure

Conclusion

Quotes Bibliography

The introduction is alluring, contains background information that explains the importance of the topic, includes a hook and a clear thesis statement. It contains transitional words. The body is organized according to the degree of importance or chronologically. It includes transitional words and relevant and logical information (Who, what, when, where, why, and how). Gives information to sustain the thesis statement. The most important points are restated. The student’s final thoughts about the topic are stated. Included projections quote or thought provoking question at the end. The student integrates transitional words. The student includes 5 – 10 quotes (In the introduction, body or conclusion). The quotation is in the correct structure. The student must include 5 – 10 sources of information. It has to be in APA format.

References

2 2 2

EAGLES 2013

1

©Velázquez

Teacher Evaluation


102 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Clarity Format

Topic Grammar Punctuality

The ideas are expressed in an understandable way. The essay is written in prose, introduction, body and conclusion. Follows instruction: Font( Arial), spacing(1.5) and size(12). It consists of medicine or arquitecture.

2

1

1

-1 for every grammar mistake. -5 for every "first person" statements in the paper. Student turned it on time Both hard copy and digital copy.

2

0

2

2

EAGLES 2013

2 2

2

ŠVelåzquez


103 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Literary Review Rubric : Neysharie Sánchez

Category

Title

Scoring Criteria

Points Committee Teacher’s Evaluation Evaluation

The title is relevant and related to the content of1the essay.

1

The introduction is alluring, contains background Introduction information that explains the importance of the 4topic, 4 includes a hook and a clear thesis statement. It contains transitional words and fraises. The body is organized according to the degree of importance or chronologically. It includes transitional Body/ StructureWords and relevant and logical information (Who, 4 What, when where, why). Gives information to sustain the thesis statement.

4

Conclusion

The most important points are restated. The student’s final thoughts about the topic are stated. Included 4 Projections, quote or thought provoking question at the End. The student integrates transitional words.

4

Quotes

The student includes 2 – 3 quotes (In the introduction, Body or conclusion). 2 The quotation is in the correct structure.

0

Bibliography/The student identifies all sources used. It is in APA 2 format. Sources

0

Clarity

The ideas are expressed in an understandable way. 2

2 1

Format

The essay is written in prose, introduction, body1 and Conclusion. Follows instructions: Font, spacing and size. It consists of medicine or arquitecture.

1

1

2

-1

2

2

Topic

Grammar

-1 for 2 grammar mistakes.

Punctuality Student turned it on time.

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez


104 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Both hard copy and digital copy. Total

25

EAGLES 2013

18

©Velázquez


105 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 Communications Evaluations SCORING CRITERIA COMUNICATION Must have an: (Max two pages)

POINTS

COMMITTEE EVALUATION

5

5

Meets the requirements of an expository essay. Must be informative; present the facts and its evidence.

5

5

Has a chronological order

3

5

and

2

2

Presents at least 5 important facts about the scientist and his work. If necessary, quote. Present the resource of information (at least 3)

5

5

Gives personal opinions and presents admiration WITH RESPECT towards the professional.

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

Introduction (hook, statement, supporting transitional sentence).

thesis details,

TEACHER EVALUATION

Body (Information) Conclusion

(personal

opinion)

Has no grammatical orthographic mistakes

Font: Arial Size: 12 Spacing: 1.5

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez


106 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

TOTAL

25

25

NAILLIL TORRES

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez


107 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

SCORING CRITERIA COMUNICATION Must have an: (Max two pages)

POINTS

COMMITTEE EVALUATION

5

5

Meets the requirements of an expository essay. Must be informative; present the facts and its evidence.

5

5

Has a chronological order

3

5

and

2

2

Presents at least 5 important facts about the scientist and his work. If necessary, quote. Present the resource of information (at least 3)

5

5

Gives personal opinions and presents admiration WITH RESPECT towards the professional.

2.5

2.5

Font: Arial Size: 12 Spacing: 1.5

2.5

2.5

TOTAL

25

25

Introduction (hook, statement, supporting transitional sentence).

thesis details,

TEACHER EVALUATION

Body (Information) Conclusion

(personal

opinion)

Has no grammatical orthographic mistakes

EAGLES 2013

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108 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

TOTAL AMBAR TORRES

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©Velázquez


109 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 SCORING CRITERIA COMUNICATION Must have an: (Max two pages)

POINTS

COMMITTEE EVALUATION

5

5

Meets the requirements of an expository essay. Must be informative; present the facts and its evidence.

5

5

Has a chronological order

3

5

and

2

2

Presents at least 5 important facts about the scientist and his work. If necessary, quote. Present the resource of information (at least 3)

5

5

Gives personal opinions and presents admiration WITH RESPECT towards the professional.

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

25

25

Introduction (hook, statement, supporting transitional sentence).

thesis details,

TEACHER EVALUATION

Body (Information) Conclusion

(personal

opinion)

Has no grammatical orthographic mistakes

Font: Arial Size: 12 Spacing: 1.5

TOTAL MELANIE QUIテ前NES

EAGLES 2013

ツゥVelテ。zquez


110 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 SCORING CRITERIA COMUNICATION Must have an: (Max two pages) Introduction (hook, statement, supporting transitional sentence).

thesis details,

POINTS

TEACHER EVALUATION

5 5

Body (Information) Conclusion

COMMITTEE EVALUATION

(personal

opinion)

Meets the requirements of an expository essay. Must be informative; present the facts and its evidence.

5 5

3 Has a chronological order

3 2

Has no grammatical orthographic mistakes

and

2

Presents at least 5 important facts about the scientist and his work. If necessary, quote. Present the resource of information (at least 3)

5

Gives personal opinions and presents admiration WITH RESPECT towards the professional.

2.5

Font: Arial Size: 12 Spacing: 1.5

5

2.5

2.5

2.5 25

TOTAL

25

GABRIELA ZAYAS ALOM

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez


111 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 SCORING CRITERIA COMUNICATION Must have an: (Max two pages) Introduction (hook, statement, supporting transitional sentence).

thesis details,

POINTS

5

COMMITTEE EVALUATION

TEACHER EVALUATION

5

Body (Information) Conclusion

(personal

opinion)

Meets the requirements of an expository essay. Must be informative; present the facts and its evidence.

5

Has a chronological order

3

3

and

2

2

Presents at least 5 important facts about the scientist and his work. If necessary, quote. Present the resource of information (at least 3)

5

Gives personal opinions and presents admiration WITH RESPECT towards the professional.

2.5

Has no grammatical orthographic mistakes

Font: Arial Size: 12 Spacing: 1.5

TOTAL

5

5

2.5

2.5

2.5

25

25

MELODY RIVERA HERNÁNDEZ

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez


112 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 SCORING CRITERIA COMUNICATION Must have an: (Max two pages) Introduction (hook, statement, supporting transitional sentence).

thesis details,

POINTS

COMMITTEE EVALUATION

5

4 (hook) -quote -question

Body (Information) Conclusion

(personal

opinion)

Meets the requirements of an expository essay. Must be informative; present the facts and its evidence.

5

Has a chronological order

3

3

and

2

2

Presents at least 5 important facts about the scientist and his work. If necessary, quote. Present the resource of information (at least 3)

5

Gives personal opinions and presents admiration WITH RESPECT towards the professional.

2.5

Has no grammatical orthographic mistakes

Font: Arial Size: 12 Spacing: 1.5

TEACHER EVALUATION

5

5

2.5

2.5

EAGLES 2013

2.5

©Velázquez


113 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

TOTAL

25

24

NATTALIA ROSARIO

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez


114 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

SCORING CRITERIA COMUNICATION Must have an: (Max two pages) Introduction (hook, statement, supporting transitional sentence).

thesis details,

POINTS

5

COMMITTEE EVALUATION

TEACHER EVALUATION

5

Body (Information) Conclusion

(personal

opinion)

Meets the requirements of an expository essay. Must be informative; present the facts and its evidence.

5

Has a chronological order

3

5

and

2

1

Presents at least 5 important facts about the scientist and his work. If necessary, quote. Present the resource of information (at least 3)

5

Gives personal opinions and presents admiration WITH RESPECT towards the professional.

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

Has no grammatical orthographic mistakes

Font: Arial Size: 12 Spacing: 1.5

5

5

EAGLES 2013

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115 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

TOTAL

25

24

CRISTIAN RODRIGUEZ

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez


116 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 SCORING CRITERIA COMUNICATION Must have an: (Max two pages) Introduction (hook, statement, supporting transitional sentence).

thesis details,

POINTS

COMMITTEE EVALUATION

5

4 (hook) -quote -question

Body (Information) Conclusion

(personal

TEACHER EVALUATION

opinion)

Meets the requirements of an expository essay. Must be informative; present the facts and its evidence.

5

Has a chronological order

3

3

and

2

2

Presents at least 5 important facts about the scientist and his work. If necessary, quote. Present the resource of information (at least 3)

5

Gives personal opinions and presents admiration WITH RESPECT towards the professional.

2.5

Has no grammatical orthographic mistakes

Font: Arial Size: 12 Spacing: 1.5

TOTAL

5

5

2.5

2.5

2.5

25

24

IVAN A. PADILA MARTINEZ

EAGLES 2013

©Velázquez


117 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 SCORING CRITERIA COMUNICATION Must have an: (Max two pages)

POINTS

COMMITTEE EVALUATION

5

5

Meets the requirements of an expository essay. Must be informative; present the facts and its evidence.

5

5

Has a chronological order

3

5

and

2

2

Presents at least 5 important facts about the scientist and his work. If necessary, quote. Present the resource of information (at least 3)

5

3

Gives personal opinions and presents admiration WITH RESPECT towards the professional.

2.5

2.5

2.5

2.5

25

22

Introduction (hook, statement, supporting transitional sentence).

thesis details,

TEACHER EVALUATION

Body (Information) Conclusion

(personal

opinion)

Has no grammatical orthographic mistakes

Font: Arial Size: 12 Spacing: 1.5

TOTAL ALMARIS FIGUEROA

EAGLES 2013

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118 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

KIMBERLLY SOLIVAN. SHE NEVER SENT THE PIECE.

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119 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Vocabulary Sources (Dictionaries)

1. http://dictionary.reference.com/ 2. http://www.merriam-webster.com/ 3. http://www.yourdictionary.com/ 4. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/ 5. http://www.wordreference.com/ 6. http://oxforddictionaries.com/

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120 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

Table of Contents The UGHS Scientific Journal

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121 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2 DIVISSION

PAGE

Index 1 Scientific Articles 3-163 Research Notes 164-10 Review Articles 11-28 Communications 29-45 46 Appendix: 47-51  Rubrics Used  Evaluated Rubrics per 52-118 section Vocabulary Sources 117

VOLUME Vol. 1 Vol. 1 Vol. 1 & Vol. 2 Vol. 2 Vol. 2 Vol. 2

Vol. 2

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122 The UGHS Scientific Journal, Vol. 2

The UGHS Scientific Journal Prepared by: José A. Pagán Muñoz Neysharie Sánchez Torres

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The UGHS Student Scientific Journal-Issue I Vol.2