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Madison Arnold Graphic Design FIDM Spring 2018

“Your choice of typeface is as important as what you do with it”

Madison Arnold Graphic Design

Let me introduce myself


he best thing about graphic design is the opportunity it gives me to express and explore my own ideas. There are no restrictions on my imagination, it’s a

topic that allows me the freedom to experiment and grow as a designer, with each experience I have giving me a better understanding of visual communication and the design process. My end goal is to one day become a qualified graphic designer. To me the design industry is full of exciting, challenging careers that involve using excellent artistic skills to communicate through visual media. For the time being however I am focused on obtaining a degree qualification and gaining relevant work experience. I want to enroll on a course that will empower me with the creative skills and knowledge that will enable me to join and contribute to the exciting, dynamic and constantly evolving world of media and design. I am a creative, detail-oriented, highly motivated individual who is extremely organized with the ability to learn concepts and programs quickly. I possess the ability to multi-task, can work to tight deadlines, and am flexible enough to react to developments in culture, concepts and technological change. I have the ability to think creatively, a willingness to experiment and take risks, and can express my ideas visually. My end goal is to one day become a qualified graphic designer and use my business background to create my own company and brand.

Table of Contents The




Typograohical Terms.................8 Character Studies..................12 Sketchbook.........................20 Ubiquitous Type....................24 Logo Design........................28 Brand Identity.....................32 Historical Typography Project......36 Newsletter Redesign................42 Pop! Project.......................44 Fonts Used.........................50

Typographical Terms


Grotesque Cursive 12 Pt. Rule Hairline Rule Slab Serif Blackletter Distressed Display Wood Type Calligraphy Stroke Drop Cap Glyph Tracking Small Caps Swash Bullet Reversed Type Dingbat Handletter Transitional Serif Ligature Oblique Kerning

Typographical grotesque


Te 1212


Cursive Is frequently used as a synonym with sans serif. Also used along with “Neo-Grotesque”, “Humanist”, “Lineal”, and “Geometric” to describe a subset of sans-serif typefaces. First to contain lowercase letters.

Cursive is a style of writing in which all the letters in a word are connected. It’s also known as script or longhand. Cursive comes from the past participle of the Latin word currere, which means “to run.”





This style of typeface is recognizable by its dramatic thin and thick strokes, and in some fonts, the elaborate swirls on the serifs. Blackletter typefaces are based on early manuscript lettering, such as the Bible, and is sometimes referred to as Gothic, Fraktur, or Old English.

Disstressed is a type of effect placed on a typeface. Some replicate the irregular contours of brush strokes and other writing implements or approximate the look of woodcuts, stencils and rubber stamps. A well-designed distressed face should look believably random.


drop cap

A point is a unit of measure a of a font. A point is equal t have traditionally specified a to indicate 12 point type



Display typography is a p design, where there is less c more potential for using typ display typeface is designed sizes such as headlines and r


&&& & A single linear element that forms part of a character; may be straight or curved. The main diagonal portion of a letterform such as in N, M, or Y is the stroke. The stroke is secondary to the main stem(s).

A drop cap is a document style in which the first capital letter of a paragraph is set in a larger point size and aligned with the top of the first line. Used to indicate the start of a new section of text, such as a chapter.



••••••••••••••••• A swash is a typographical flourish on a glyph, like an exaggerated serif. Capital swash characters, which extended to the left, were used to begin sentences.

In typography, a bullet is a typographical symbol or glyph used to introduce items in a list, and come in a variety of shapes and sizes, from points to symbols.



The bridge between Old Style and Modern serifed typefaces. It has a almost vertical axis and is very wide for their x-height. It is closely fitted with serifs that are less heavily bracketed, and are considered to have an increased contrast between the thick and thin strokes.

Serif ’s are semi-structural details on the ends of some of the strokes that make up letters and symbols. Main classifications of Serif type are: Blackletter, Venetian, Garalde, Modern, Slab Serif, Transitional, and Informal. Serifs are mainly used in books and newspapers.

The basic building block in letter, numeral, or symbol; are called fonts. One or mo design features m



Reversed type refers to text darker background. Reverse white. Reversed type is ofte


ffb ct

Two or more letters combin a single glyph) make a liga ligatures represent specific s primarily to make type more as the fl and


t. rule

also used to describe the size to 1/72 inch. Typographers a given type setting as 12/16, e with 16 point leading.



potent element in graphic concern for readability and pe in an artistic manner. A d for the use of type at large range between 16-72 points.


& &&&&

n typeseting is a glyph—a groups of glyphs together ore fonts sharing particular make up a family.


Illustrated hairline rule

slab serif

A hairline is the thinnest stroke found in a specific typeface that consists of strokes of varying widths. The Hairline rule is the thinnest graphic rule (line) printable on a specific output device.

A slab serif is a type of serif typeface characterized by thick, block-like serifs. Slab serif typefaces generally have no bracket. Some consider slab serifs to be a subset of modern serif typefaces.

wood type


Wood Type

Wood type is type made of wood; generally of cherry; nearly every imaginable size, from two-or three-line Pica, up to one-hundred-and-fifty-line Pica, and of a great variety of shapes and designs used for letterpress printing, as opposed to type that has been cast in metal.

The word calligraphy comes from two Greek words stuck together, kallos, meaning “beauty,” and graphein, meaning “to write,” literally meaning “beautiful writing.” Calligraphy is the art of producing decorative handwritting or lettering with a pen or brush.


small caps

Also called letter-spacing, refers to the amount of space between a group of letters. Tracking affects the overall character density of the copy. Tracking will help to eliminate widows and orphans in paragraphs.

Capitals which are a similair height to the lowercase, designed for abbreviation and emphasis in texts. Typically a font’s small caps are designed to rise up to somewhere around the font’s x-height.



e type ♥☞✞✈✿✌☎❄

t that has a light color on a ed type doesn’t have to be en used to emphasize text.


ct fl st

ned into one character (as ature. In typography some sounds. Other ligatures are e attractive on the page such fi ligatures.



A dingbat is an ornament, character or spacer used in typsetting sometimes more formally known as a printer’s ornament or printer’s character.

Hand-Lettering is a more specific subset of lettering that refers to the art of drawing letters specifically by hand and not creating them in a digital program.



Oblique type (or slanted, sloped) is a form of type that slants slightly to the right, used in the same manner as italic type. Oblique fonts are usually associated with sans-serif typefaces, as opposed to humanist ones whose design tends to draw more on history.

Also known as mortising is the process of adjusting the spacing between characters in a proportional font, usually to achieve a visually pleasing result. Kerning moves the letters closer together (negative spacing) vs. tracking which moves the letters further apart (positive).

Character Studies


& fon ts

fon ts & & fo nts &

& ts n fo

ts & fonts & n o f




o one knows why ‘A’ is the first letter of our alphabet. Some think it’s because this letter represents one of the most common vowel sounds in ancient languages of the western hemisphere.

Other sources argue against this theory because there were no vowel sounds in the Phoenician language. (The Phoenician alphabet is generally thought to be the basis of the one we use today.) Some say the Phoenicians chose the head of an ox to represent the ‘A’ sound (for the Phoenicians, this was actually a glottal stop). The ox was a common, important animal to the Phoenicians. It was their main power source for heavy work. Oxen plowed the fields, harvested crops, and hauled food to market. Some sources also claim that the ox was often the main course at meals. A symbol for the ox would have been an important communication tool for the Phoenicians. It somewhat naturally follows that an ox symbol would be the first letter of the alphabet.



Spring 2018

Th ont Didot eF The first Modern type face is attributed to French man Firmin Didot (son of Franรงois-Ambroise Didot), and first graced the printed page in 178 4. His types were soon followed by the archetypal Didone from Bodoni. The Italian type designer, punchcutter and printer Giambattista Bodoni drew his influence from the Romains du Roi (with its unbracketed, flat serifs) and the types of John Baskerville (high contrast), for whom he showed great admiration. The font is considered a neoclassical font with a similar style because of its increased stress high contrast typeface to a contemporary family of fonts of the time.




n its earliest years, the letter that evolved into our F was an Egyptian hieroglyph that literally was a picture of a

snake. This was around 3,000 B.C. Through the process of simplification over many years, the F began to lose its snakelike character, and by the time it emerged as

an Egyptian hieratic form it wasn’t much more than a

vertical stroke capped by a small crossbar. With a slight stretch of the imagination, it could be said to look like a nail.

This may be why the Phoenicians called the letter “waw,” a word

meaning nail or hook, when they adapted the symbol for their

alphabet. In its job as a waw, the character represented a semi-

consonant sound, roughly pronounced as the W in the word “know.” However, at various times the waw also represented the ‘v’ and

sometimes even the ‘u’ sound. Finally, the F found a permanent home as the very geometric sixth letter of the Roman alphabet.



Spring 2018

The Font Fette Fraktur This font is one of the most used broken letter fonts today. Fette Fraktur is used to invoke a nostalgic or rustic feeling and found often on restaurants with ‘hearty homemade food’ or breweries who use the ‘good old recipes’ of the founder. The font was designed in the 19th century and from the beginning intended as an advertisement typeface. The lower case letters have a gothic character with only the ornamental flourishes making them broken letters, while the capital letters are more characteristic of broken letter typefaces. One could say Fette Fraktur font is a true mix of styles, not unusual for typefaces created at the turn of the 19th century.


? ? ? ?



ather fittingly, the origins of the question mark are clouded in myth and mystery. One of the most appealing stories links the curve of the question mark to the shape of an inquisitive cat’s tail. This feline connection is either attributed to the ancient Egyptians (who were, of course, famed for their worship of cats), or to a monk who took inspiration from his curious pet cat, and included the symbol in his manuscript. A parallel story suggests that the exclamation mark derives from the shape of a surprised cat’s tail! Sadly, like many of the most charming and amusing origin stories, there is no evidence to back up this tale. Another possibility links the question mark with the Latin word quaestio (‘question’). Supposedly, in the Middle Ages scholars would write ‘quaestio’ at the end of a sentence to show that it was a question, which in turn was shortened to qo. Eventually, the q was written on top of the o, before steadily morphing into a recognisably modern question mark. However, just like our cat friends above, there is no manuscript evidence for this theory. The story accepted by most involves Alcuin of York, an English scholar and poet born in 735, who was invited to join the court of Charlemagne in 781. Once there, Alcuin became one of Charlemagne’s chief advisors, and wrote a great number of books, including some works on grammar. In the early Middle Ages, punctuation was limited to a system of dots at different levels. Recognizing the limitations of this system, Alcuin created the punctus interrogativus or ‘point of interrogation’. This mark was a dot with a symbol resembling a tilde or ‘lightning flash’ above it, representing the rising tone of voice used when asking a question. This new punctuation mark spread rapidly from the court of Charlemagne to other centres of learning. However, its use still remained haphazard, and it was often interchanged with the exclamation mark, or omitted entirely. It wasn’t until the 17th century that the question mark gained the familiar form and rules of use that we know today, and not until the mid-19th century that it first began to be referred to as a ‘question mark’.



Spring 2018

The Font Arial An icon of the Swiss school of typography, Helvetica swept through the design world in the ’60s and became synonymous with modern, progressive, cosmopolitan attitudes. With its friendly, cheerful appearance and clean lines, it was universally embraced for a time by both the corporate and design worlds as a nearly perfect typeface to be used for anything and everything. “When in doubt, use Helvetica” was a common rule.







Madison’s Sketchbook

The Letter “a”

The Letter “f”

Ubiquitous Type



ypography makes at least two kinds of sense, if it makes any sense at all. It makes visual sense and historical sense. The visual side of typography is always on display, and materials for the study of its visual form are many and widespread. The history of letter-forms and their usage is visible too, to those with access to manuscripts, inscriptions and old books, but from others it is largely hidden. This book has therefore grown into some-thing more than a short manual of typo-graphic etiquette. It is the fruit of a lot of long walks in the wilderness

instructions? Surely typographers, like others, ought to be at liberty to follow or to blaze the trails they choose. Typography thrives as a shared concern - and there are no paths at all where there are no shared desires and directions. A typographer determined to forge new routes must move, like other solitary travelers, through uninhabited country and against the grain of the land, crossing common thoroughfares in the silence before dawn. The subject of this book is not typographic solitude, but the old, well-traveled roads at the core of the tradition: paths that each of us is free to follow or not, and to enter and leave when we choose - if only we know the paths are there and have a sense of where they lead. That freedom is denied us if the tradition is concealed or left for dead. Originality is everywhere, but much originality The presence of typography both good and bad, can be seen everywhere. is blocked if the way back to earlier discoveries is cut or overgrown. If you of letters: in part a pocket field guide to use this book as a guide, by all means leave the living wonders that are found there, the road when you wish. That is precisely and in part a meditation on the ecological the use of a road: to reach individually principles, survival techniques, and ethics chosen points of departure. By all means that apply. The principles of typography break the rules, and break them beautifully, as I understand them are not a set of dead deliberately, and well. That is one of the conventions but the tribal customs of the ends for which they exist. magic forest, where ancient voices speak Letter forms change constantly, from all directions and new ones move to yet differ very little, because they are unremembered forms. alive. The principles of typographic One question, nevertheless, has clarity have also scarcely altered been often in my mind. When all rightsince the second half of the fifteenth thinking human beings are struggling to century, when the first books were remember that other men and women printed in roman type. Indeed, most of are free to be different, and free to the principles of legibility and design become more different still, how can explored in this book were known and one honestly write a rulebook? What used by Egyptian scribes writing hieratic reason and authority exist for these script with reed pens on papyrus in 1000 commandments, suggestions, and B.C. Samples of their work sit now in

biquitous Type

“Typography is the craft of endowing human language with a durable visual form, and thus with an independent existence.�

museums in Cairo, London and New York, still lively, subtle, and perfectly legible thirty centuries after they were made. Writing systems vary, but a good page is not hard to learn to recognize, whether it comes from Tang Dynasty China, The Egyptian New Kingdom typographers set for themselves than with the mutable or Renaissance Italy. The principles that unite these distant schools of design are based on the structure and scale of the human body - the eye, the hand, and the forearm in particular - and on the invisible but no less real, no less demanding, no less sensuous anatomy of the human mind. I don’t like to call these principles universals, because they are largely unique to our species. Dogs and ants, for example, read and write by more chemical means. But the underlying principles of typography are, at any rate, stable enough to weather any number of human fashions and fads. Typography is the craft of endowing human language with a durable visual form, and thus with an independent existence. Its heartwood is calligraphy the dance, on a tiny stage, of. It is true that typographer’s tools are presently changing with considerable force and speed, but this is not a manual in the use of any particular typesetting system or medium. I suppose that most readers of this book will set most of their type in digital form, using computers, but I have no preconceptions about which brands of computers, or which versions of which proprietary software, they may use. The essential elements of style have more to do with the goals the living, speaking hand and its roots reach into living soil, though its branches may be hung each year with new machines. So long as the root lives, typography remains a source of true delight, true knowledge, true surprise.

Logo Design


Personal Logo: Madison Arnold

Graphic Design



Graphic Design

M a d iso n

A r n o l d

Graphic Design

Museum Logo:

museum of modern typography

Brand Identity




Los Angeles, California | (858) 880-8831 |

Madison Arnold Graphic Design Instagram: madison.arnoldd (858) 880-8831

History Type Project


“Design is so simple that is why it is so complicated� -Paul Rand



Often referred to as the International Typographic Style or the International Style, the style of design that originated in Switzerland in the 1940s and 50s was the basis of much of the development of graphic design during the mid 20th century. Led by designers Josef Müller-Brockmann at the Zurich School of Arts and Krafts and Armin Hofmann at the Basel School of Design, the style favored simplicity, legibility and objectivity. Of the many contributions to develop from the two schools were the use of, sans-serif typography, grids and asymmetrical layouts. Also stressed was the combination of typography and photography as a means of visual communication. The primary influential works were developed as posters, which were seen to be the most effective means of communication. Cleanliness. Readability. Objectivity. Just a few key words that describe the driving force behind Swiss Style. The 19th century marked the separation of design from fine

art, and with it, the birth of grid-based design. These grids are considered to be the “most legible and harmonious means for structuring information.” Using a grid for design makes creating a hierarchy for the content much easier. Grids are flexible, consistent and easy to follow. They are clear-cut and work well with ratios (Rule of Thirds, Golden Ratio, etc.). In addition to the grid, Swiss Style usually involves an asymmetrical layout, sans serif typefaces and the favoring of photography over illustrations. When Max Miedinger and Eduard Hoffmann created Helvetica in 1957, did they know their work would result in what is arguably the most ubiquitous sans serif typeface in the world? Probably not. Did they think, for just a moment, their typeface would inspire a film? Again, probably not. But here we are, nearly 60 years later, with an 88% fresh rating on Rotten Tomatoes, and Simon Garfield regarding Helvetica as “ubiquitous because it fulfills so many demands for modern type.”

max miedinger


hen Max Miedinger was 16, he was

urged by his father to begin his career

in visual design as an apprentice

typesetter at a book printing office

for Jacques Bollman. From 1930 to

1936, he was trained as a typographer and then attended night classes

at the School of Arts and Crafts in

Zurich. Several years later, Miedinger joined the Globus department store’s advertising studio as a typographer and improved his skills through the

work. After working there for 10 years, he became a customer counselor

and typeface sales representative

for the Haas’sche Schriftgießereiin Münchenstein.

In 1954 he created his first typeface

design: Pro Arte, a condensed slab serif. At 1956, he decided to go for freelance

graphic artist and advertising consultant, like his brother, and gain a certain

amount of success over time. Being

prompted by Edouard Hoffman, who

believed in Miedinger’s talent, Miedinger was asked to design a new sans serif typeface for their advertisement to

represent the company–Haas Type

Foundry. During that time, Miedinger made his mark on the design history

by creating the most used typeface

of the 20th century, the Neue Haas

Grotesk, which known as Helvetica.

After the development of Helvetica, Miedinger continued his freelance career

and even though he was respected for his aesthetic work, he had not

gained much attention for himself, unlike the fame that Helvetica acquired.


Who is

Newsletter Redesign


April 23 - May 4 The Industry Club Welcomes:



Celebrity Fashion Designer

Self Defense Class

Confidence Workshop

Intrested in being a fashion designer and entreprenuer? Hear from celebrity designer, Walter Mendez, whose creations have been featured on celebrities like Beyonce, Britney Spears, Selena Gomez, Mel B, Jennifer Lopez, Camila Cabello and more.

Join PTK for this safety workshop led by Peace Over Violence. Empowerment self-defense is a set of awareness, assertiveness, verbal confrontation skills, safety strategies, and physical techniques. These enable one to successfully prevent, escape, resist, and survive violent assaults.

You got what it takes, you just haven’t realized it yet. Learn impactful ways to let your confidence speak for you. Whether your’e asking someone out on a date, going to an interview, networking or asking for a raise, confidence is key.

Tuesday, April 24 2:45 p.m. - 3:30 p.m. Room 425

Friday, April 27 11:15 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. Room 500

Wednesday, May 2 11:15 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. Room 425


FIDM MODETM Magazine Hosts:

DIY Air Plants

Denim Day

A Look Behind the Magazine

We’re celebrating Earth Month! Add more greenery to your apartment by decorating your own plant pottery to take home with you. Supplies will be provided.

Wear denim with a purpose, support survivors, and educate yourself and others about sexual assualt and rape! Sign our pledge to support survivors. #endrapeculture

Interested in learning what it takes to put a magazine together? Join FIDM MODETM Magazine for our first photoshoot of the quarter, a make-over!

Tuesday, April 24 11:15 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. Student Lounge Patio

Wednesday, April 25 All Day

Thursday. April 26 10:30 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. Room 425

the industry club hosts:

FIDM MODETM Magazine Hosts:


Pinkies Up: An email ettiquette workshop

FIDM Tote Bag Challenge!

Girl Power Day

Looking for a way to get involved in MODE™ Magazine? Here’s your chance to showcase your talent. MODE is looking for fun and creative designed FIDM Tote Bags to feature in their upcoming issue. Take the classic FIDM Tote and transform it with fabric, paint, patches, beads, rhinestones or anything that inspires you. 10 lucky winning designs will get chosen! Stop by Student Activities, Room 425 for more details to apply.

Ladies! Let’s have a serious (and fun) chat about our bodies. Remove the stigma that comes with being a woman. Embrace your femininity and feel empowered with PTK. Who runs the world?!

Lost for words when you have to send a professional email? No worries, we got you! Join us for tea time and learn the unwritten rules of email etiquette to make the best impressions.

Tuesday, May 1 2:45 p.m. - 3:30 p.m. Room 425

Sketches are due May 3. Contest ends May 25.

Tuesday, May 1 11:15 a.m. - 12:00 p.m. Room 425








literary journal volume seven issue one in this issue:

ayn rand lil peep picasso frida kahlo frank ocean

Project Rules: One typeface. Two Sizes. One Weight. 10pt. Helvetica Neue Regular/ 36 pt. Helvetica Neue Regula

f k lp a r f o p it i v s rida

ahlo il






icasso n






i ol j p ne iterary ournal op!

Project Rules: One typeface. Two Sizes. Two Weights. 10pt. Helvetica Neue Regular and Bold/ Second Size Optional

literary journal volume seven issue one in this issue: pop!

ayn rand lil peep picasso frida kahlo frank ocean

Project Rules: One typeface. Two Sizes. One Weight. Rule Lines - Vertical and Horizontal. 10pt. Helvetica Neue Regular/ Second Size Optional

pop! picasso

frank ocean ayn rand lil peep frida kahlo

pop! literary journal issue one volume seven in this issue:

Project Rules: One typeface. Open Size. Open Weight. Repetition of Content Allowed/ Different Opacities Allowed

literary journal volume seven issue one in this issue:

ayrn rand lil peep picasso frida kahlo frank ocean

pop! pop! pop! pop! pop! pop! pop! pop! pop! pop!

Project Rules: One typeface. Open Size. Open Weight. Repetition of Content Allowed/ Different Opacities Allowed/ Color Allowed

Fonts Used


Fette Bauersche Antiqua Futuristic Fixedwidth Letter Gothic Std Century Gothic Onyx Helvetica Neue Molluca Morbodoni Slow Dance Arial Black Bondoluo Peek Futura Fette Fraktur Cambria Didot Goudy Stout

Madisonarnold single  
Madisonarnold single