Tourism and Sustainable Development putting theory into practice the island experience Luis Gortázar Cipriano Marín 1999
GOBIERNO DE CANARIAS CONSEJERÍA DE TURISMO Y TRANSPORTES VICECONSEJERÍA DE TURISMO
International Scientific Council for Island Development
Published by: Viceconsejería de Turismo Consejería de Turismo y Transportes Gobierno de Canarias c/ La Marina, 57 38071 Santa Cruz de Tenerife Edif. de Usos Multiples I Plaza de los Derechos Humanos 35071 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
and INSULA (International Scientific Council for Island Development) c/o UNESCO 1, Rue Miollis 75732 Paris, Francia
Authors: Luis Gortázar Cipriano Marín Coordination: Giuseppe Orlando Graphic desing: Luis Mir Photograph cover: Alberto Luengo Traductions: Gabinete Erasmus Printed by: Tenydea S.L. D. L.: TF-146/99 Printed on recycled paper
he time a hotel boiler takes to heat the hot water demanded by a customer who turns on the tap will have an enormous impact on an establishmentâ€™s balance sheet, both in water and energy savings.
The recommendations made in the Lanzarote Charter, agreed upon in the 1995 World Conference, have been essential in this task. For many years now, the Canary Island tourist authorities have been working firmly towards making sustainable development a reality, in order to set an example to the whole world of respect for the generations of the future, to whom we should leave the world in the best possible condition for the harmonious development of Mankind.
This is just a simple example of how important some strategies can be when talking seriously about sustainable development, like the development we promote in the Canary Islands, and which should attract all companies that want to enhance the reputation of our islands and continue to compete within the confines of quality that have been clearly laid down in the Canary Island Tourism Planning Act and its regulations.
Professionals in the industry will be able to use this work as a valuable tool that includes the minimum objectives that the Canary Island Government recommends today (and that they will undoubtedly demand in the future), not just for newly built facilities, but all who must constantly update their establishments if they want to remain competitive on the circuit of the best tourist destinations in the world.
The work being presented today by the Regional Ministry of Tourism and Transport assembles an interesting catalogue of actions that optimise the sustainable management of tourist accommodation establishments on environmentally fragile islands, such as the Canary Islands, where 40% of the total surface area has been declared a Protected Natural Area of one kind or another. It also gives us an interesting and very valuable insight into different fields of action, both in accommodation establishments (water, energy, waste), and tourist destinations (protected areas, infrastructure, bio-diversity).
Juan Carlos Becerra Deputy Minister of Tourism of the Canary Island Government.
Contents Towards a new tourism culture in islands Sustainable tourism, a new development model. Islands Putting theory into practice
Concepts and definitions
9 12 13 15 17 17 18 18 18 19 19 19 20 20 21 22 22 22 22 23 23
Sustainable Development Sustainable Tourism Responsible Tourism Rural Tourism Eco-tourism Green Tourism Other forms of tourism Eco-labels Environmental Management System Eco-audit Standards Quality Eco-tourist Quality Code of Ethics Best Practices Guidelines Carrying Capacity
Tools for managing sustainable tourism Codes of conduct Characteristics of tourist eco-labels Best Practice Guidelines, the first step Environmental Management Systems in the tourist sector Standards
Best practices in island tourist industry ENERGY Environmental objectives Actions Ideas and solutions Minimise energy consumption Maximise efficiency of energy sources The role of the renewables WATER Environmental objectives Actions Ideas and solutions 7
25 25 28 33 37 39 41 42 42 42 42 42 44 45 47 47 47 47
SOLID WASTE Objectives Actions Ideas and solutions EFFLUENTS AND EMISSIONS Environmental objectives Actions Ideas and solutions ELIMINATION OF FOCI OF CONTAMINATION AND ENVIRONMENTALLY PREJUDICIAL PRODUCTS Environmental objectives Actions Ideas and solutions BUILDING, ENVIRONMENT AND LANDSCAPING Environmental objectives Actions Ideas and solutions GOOD PURCHASING PRACTICES Environmental objectives Actions Ideas and solutions GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS INFORMATION AND SERVICES Objectives Actions Ideas and solutions
Estrategias de futuro para los destinos insulares Planificación del turismo sostenible La gestion integrada de zonas costeras El caso del Transporte El recurso a la telemática
Declarationsand documents Barbados Conference - Action Programme Berlin Declaration Charter for Sustainable Tourism European Island Agenda Rio Declaration
Bibliografía y direcciones de interés
50 50 50 50 53 53 53 53 54 54 55 55 56 56 56 57 58 58 58 58 59 60 60 60 60 61 61 64 64 66 67 67 69 70 73 75 79 79 80 81
Bibliografía Sitios WEB recomendados Direcciones de interés
Towards a new tourism culture in islands S
as a sign of maturity, is based on a recognition of the main points surrounding the tourist business. • Tourism is presently the largest industry in the world. According to the World Tourism Organisation (WTO), between 1995 and 1997, there has been an average increase in tourist arrivals of 4.5%, reaching a total of 596 million last year. To illustrate the turnover of the industry; in 1996 earnings from tourism, excluding air transport, were 423 billion dollars. These figures alone illustrate the need for a change in strategy for the world’s leading industry. It needs to conserve the very environmental values that underpin the activity and that justify a large part of the tourist product in many destinations. An activity of this size and importance could see its survival threatened in those areas where basic tourist resources are harmed or deteriorated.
ince the 1992 Rio Conference, the strategy of sustainable development has evolved as a real option that is increasingly impregnating political, technical and economic decisions in today’s world. In a few short years, what seemed like a longterm possibility has become a reality in many actions and decisions taken on an international scale. The idea that it is possible to conserve our natural and cultural capital without compromising the future and that this ambition is compatible with development in the present, is starting to be put into practise in the main areas of economic activity. The phenomenon of tourism, which some have compared in importance with the Industrial Revolution, can not ignore this trend. Tourism is maybe one of the industries where this new sensitivity has had the greatest effect, due to the convergence of tourism and the environment. Curiously, this is an activity that was labelled as aggressive to the environment and a destroyer of local cultures, until the eighties. Although, it must also be said that this is an extremely young industry; the concept of tourism as we know it today first appeared in the Oxford English Dictionary in 1811. The profound change that is starting to occur in international tourism, which could be interpreted
• Tourism demand is registering profound changes in the behaviour of consumers. In recent years, the tourist industry has undergone far reaching transformations in its corporate culture in response to the qualitative changes in demand. Traditional mass tourism, typified by the production and sale of rigid, standardised and mass products, is giving way to new forms of business, in
which flexibility and segmentation of products are the most outstanding features. We are currently witnessing the appearance of a whole range of diversified and innovative products that can adapt to new behaviour patterns.
environmentally-related aspects do not represent optional value added, they are essential specifications of the product that will have a decisive effect on their level of competitivity. These are essential aspects at a local level, because, despite its ambivalent nature, tourism provides employment for one out of every sixteen workers on Earth and accounts for 7% of capital investment.
â€˘ The destinations themselves, regardless of the policies dictated by operators, are starting to become aware of the active role that local social partners should have in the planning and decision-making aspects of the tourist business. Authorities, the hotel trade and other social representatives are seeking new ways of improving the quality of their areas and they are trying to cull forms of tourism that could jeopardise the sustainability of their resources. For what are currently mature tourist destinations, quality and
â€˘ Finally, tourism is becoming an integral part of the Information Society. The dizzy advances in telematics make in increasingly possible to maintain a direct relationship between consumers and the final product and to shape goods and services to the varied and specific requirements of demand.
TOURIST DEVELOPMENT AGENTS
Source: Guide for Local Planners - World Tourism Organization (WTO)
Islands - Sustainable Tourism
RESPONSIBILITIES AND OBJECTIVES OF THE TOURIST AND TRAVEL INDUSTRY ACCORDING TO AGENDA 21. - Towards environmentally sustainable development -
DEVELOPING A SUSTAINABLE TOURISM PROGRAM To establish systems and procedures aimed a taking on board the themes of sustainable development in the core of the management function and to identify necessary actions to make sustainable tourism a reality. PRIORITIES AND OBJECTIVES I
MINIMISATION OF WASTE Minimisation of the consumption of resources, maximisation of product quality and minimisation of waste outputs.
ENERGY CONSERVATION AND CONTROL Energy saving and reduction of potentially hazardous emissions. Introduction of the renewables.
CONTROL OF DRINKING WATER RESOURCES Protection of water resource quality and efficient and fair use of existing resources.
CONTROL OF WASTE WATERS Minimisation of waste water emissions in order to protect the aquatic environment, safe-guard flora and fauna and conserve and protect the quality of fresh water resources.
HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES Replace products containing potentially dangerous substances with environmentally-friendly products.
TRANSPORT Reduce and control dangerous emissions into the air and other effects of transport that are prejudicial to the environment.
Source: WTTC, OMT, Earth Council(1995) - Agenda 21 for the Travel and Tourism Industry.
LAND USE PLANNNING Address the multiple demand for land, ensuring that the development of tourism does not have a high visual impact, but rather that it helps to conserve the environment and culture, at the same time as it generates income.
PARTICIPATION OF THE PERSONNEL AND COMMUNITIES CONCERNED IN ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS. Protect and take on board community interests in development and ensure that what facilities, tourists and communities have learned about the environment is put into practice.
DESIGN FOR SUSTAINABILITY Ensure that tourist products and technologies used are designed to be less polluting, more efficient socially and culturally, as well as to make them appropriate and accessible throughout the world.
ASSOCIATIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Form associations to produce long-term sustainability in tourist matters.
IN TOURIST MATTERS, GOVERNMENTS, ALONG WITH LOCAL AND REGIONAL AUTHORITIES CAN: • ESTABLISH POLICIES, STANDARDS AND INCENTIVES TO FOSTER AND • SUPPORT CONSERVATION OF CULTURE AND NATURE. • ESTABLISH PROTECTED SITES AND AREAS
• Recreational, cultural and SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
• Outside exchange
educational experiences • Greater appreciation • Products
TOURISM CAN BENEFIT THE LOCAL COMMUNITY
THE COMMUNITY CAN PROVIDE:
THROUGH: • CULTURAL INTERACTION • ECONOMIC INFUSION
• CULTURAL INTERACTION • TOURIST SERVICES
• TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER • ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION
• LOCAL PRODUCTS
• BETTER LAND USE • IMPROVEMENTS IN INFRASTRUCTURE • EMPLOYMENT • DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL COMPANIES Source: OMT (1993) - Sustainable Tourism Development: Guide for Local Planners.
Sustainable tourism, a new development model.
come involved in actions and programs that have gradually put the theoretical message into practise. Strangely enough, the Rio Conference (1992), which gave international legitimacy to the sustainable development option, did not include tourism as one of its principle objectives, maybe due to the fact that the enormous complexity of the industry means it can be approached from many different areas of expertise and jurisdictions. After this period of international accords and declarations in favour of responsible tourism in which the foundations were laid for this new mentality, including initiatives like the Sustainable Tourism Charter approved in Lanzarote, a new scenario started to take shape in which the tourist
The resolutions of the World Tourism Conferences of Manila (1980) and Acapulco (1982) in matters of Tourism and the Environment were the first step, and managed to consolidate environmental interest in the Conference of the Hague, sponsored by the Inter-Parliamentary Union and the World Tourism Organisation. The Hague Conference was convened under the basic principle that the «integrity of the natural, cultural and human environment is a fundamental condition for the development of tourism». From then on, most international agencies with tourist activity-related competences started to be12
Islands - Sustainable Tourism
ism can claim a surprising number of successful experiences. But, what is the role of islands in this new vision of the world of tourism?
Islands Islands form an essential part of the sustainable development strategy. Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 (Rio 92) points out that islands are a special case, both in terms of the environment and development, and they have very specific problems in planning sustainable development. It is important to note that, although they are small territories when considered individually, all together, they exceed any territorial unit. But they tend to be ecologically fragile and vulnerable. Their small size, limited resources, geographical dispersion and their isolation all put them at a disadvantage. The real world of islands shelters a large proportion of the planet’s bio-diversity, hosts of the marine-terrestrial habitats catalogued as of interest and is the cradle of an extremely wide variety of almost unspoilt island cultures. All this heritage could be seriously threatened if tourism is not adequately planned. The fragile nature of island en-
industry itself started to take the initiative, on many occasions going beyond inter-governmental agreements and the guidelines laid down by international agencies. Companies, tourist industry trade associations, public administrations, investigators, NGO’s, governments and inter-governmental programs all started to mobilise in a surprisingly short period of time, demonstrating that the sustainability option in tourism was more than just high-flown theory. The United Nations Environment Program, in a very short space of time, carried out intense activity in favour of «eco-efficiency» in tourist development. Unesco supported the responsible tourism option in all its dimensions, both the cultural facet and the facet of natural heritage, sponsoring demonstration programs and projects through programs like MaB Programme and initiatives like the Cultural Decade. The Silk Route and sustainable tourism projects in biosphere reserves are all responses to the imperious need to get ahead of events. Many initiatives started to emerge from the tourist industry and from local communities. Simply by consulting the guide of environmentally sensitive projects drawn up by ECCONET, you will be left in no doubt as to the magnitude of the phenomenon. Even a product as specific as eco-tour-
coincidence. Islands are the second most important holiday destination after the category of historic cities. Islands, with a real and direct influence over one third of the Earthâ€™s surface, are not a reflection of the exotic worlds that were invented by romantic XIX century travellers. In reality, islands are an intense world defined by their need to survive in isolation. Territories that have been idealised by mainlanders, but often used as areas of intensive production of a single crop, where the sustainable development option of tourism becomes more of a pressing need than an option. This new scenario presents an ambivalent situation for islanders that must be faced with decision. On the one hand, the tourist industry is effectively a powerful vector for development and for breaching isolation, on the other, it is an unprecedented risk for the conservation of an islandâ€™s natural and cultural resources, its most valuable capital, and a particular repercussion on the islandâ€™s coastline and marine environment. Tourism is starting to become one of the leading economic sectors on most islands. To give us a territorial idea of the phenomenon of island tourism, we can take the example of the intensive island destinations of the European Union, where we find holiday accommodation densities that vary between 75 and 150 beds per square kilometre, very often exceeding conventional population densities of populated areas of any continent. The Mediterranean Blue Plan gave some spectacular figures for 1994: European islands have more than 1,800 km2 of tourist infrastructures. But if we make the comparison in terms of tourist flows, the results are even more striking: the Greek islands receive more international tourism than Brazil; the Balearic islands are host to the same number of tourists as Portugal; Hawaii is visited by more
vironments and the difficulties their economies have in tackling abrupt changes and specialisation make it necessary to define ex profeso development models for islands. This is the context that was highlighted in the United Nations Conference on Islands and Small Island States, held in Barbados in 1994, in which tourism was recognised as a strategic sector and the main driving force of development for many island regions. Including sustainable tourism as a key point in the Barbados Action Plan is no mere 14
Islas - Turismo Sostenible
Corfu Menorca Elba Rodas Tenerife
592 km2 720 km2 223 km2 1.398 km2 2.036 km2
sential. Our problems can not be solved in the same way as on the mainland, and it may well be a mistake to import technical and management solutions, without validating and adapting them to island conditions. With a view to helping to cover these deficits and to provide incentives for mutual contact between island experiences, Insula has developed an information system that includes environmentallyresponsible experiences and sustainable tourism planning initiatives on islands.
70.000 beds 82.000 beds 21.000 beds 80.000 beds 150.000 beds
people than Chile and Argentina together and twice the number of tourists visit the Canary Islands each year than the 5.5 million international tourists that go to the whole of South Africa, the great emerging destination of the African continent. These figures indicate the intensity and the degree of specialisation that the tourist industry has reached in island regions, and should serve as a warning about the environmental and social risks being faced by extremely fragile territories. The Conference on Sustainable Island Development in Europe (UNESCO-INSULA-Minorca 1997) called attention to these matters, recognising that it was time to set the right action strategies. Islanders do not want to remain as mere spectators of a process that, if not suitably controlled, will turn a source of wealth into a new crisis factor.
Putting theory into practice In the domains of planning, regulations covering tourism, the environment, and the generation of environmentally-friendly projects, islands have shown an extraordinary capacity for action. The number of practical cases is high, although the scattered position of islands prevents us from seeing the overall magnitude of the change in mentality. They are small building blocks that, one at a time, are constructing the edifice of sustainable island development within the framework of the new tourism culture. That is why the transfer of information and experiences between one island and another is es-
EVOLUTION OF A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR TOURISM IN ISLANDS
Concepts and definitions S
conserving our natural and cultural capital is possible without compromising the future and that this is compatible with development in the present. The global strategy for sustainable development was finally coined in 1992, at the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Earth Summit and the Rio Conference. Item three of the Rio Declaration states that «the right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably meet developmental and environmental needs of present and future generations». Of the many definitions of, and approaches to sustainable development, we would like to mention the definition put forward by H. Daly, economist of the World Bank: «for a society to be physically sustainable, its global material and energy inputs must meet three conditions: 1 The rate at which renewable resources are used must not exceed the rate at which they are regenerated. 2 The rate at which non renewable resources are used must not exceed the rate at which renewable substitutes are developed. 3 The rate of emissions of polluting agents must be in accordance with the environment’s capacity to assimilate them».
ince the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro (1992), much has been written about the international accords and declarations in which new concepts are mooted, all concerning the central idea of sustainable development. In the world of tourism this recent sensitive attitude has generated specific concepts that have varied according to the product or objective concerned. This has led to new practices being adopted by travel agents and tour operators and concepts dealing with planning strategies for the development of tourism. At the same time, quality and environmental policies have converged in the tourist industry to create new scenarios with more appropriate terms. The rapid growth of new terminology and the proliferation of literature on the subject make it necessary to clarify and define its meaning and scope as far as possible, in order to avoid confusion.
Sustainable development The concept of sustainable development emerged in the mid-80's, out of the Brundtland Report, as it is known, written at the request of the United Nations, by the Commission for Development and the Environment. The sustainable development option is based on the idea that
munities, enabling destinations to enhance their social and cultural heritage and improve the quality of life of their people. Within a strategy of environmental quality as a means of conserving destinations and satisfying customer needs, top priority has been given to promoting the participation of everyone involved in the tourist industry and opting for cultural, technological and professional innovation. Special priority will be given to covering environmental costs through a system of setting fairer prices and by paying special attention to ecologically sensitive and degraded areas; the role of transport, energy and waste management policies.
Responsible Tourism The very term places the emphasis squarely on assuming and recognising the responsibilities both the tourist industry and tourists themselves have to the environment and to the cultural heritage of each tourist destination, whilst maintaining the concept of sustainable development as the final goal.
Sustainable Tourism This concept is the consequence of the industry adapting the strategy of Sustainable Development to the world of tourism. On an international scale, it was formulated for the first time at the World Conference on Sustainable Tourism, held on the island of Lanzarote in 1995. It is generally accepted that sustainability in tourism means being ecologically acceptable in the long term and financially viable and fair from a social and ethical viewpoint, for local communities. Thus, tourism must become part of the natural, cultural and human environment, respecting the fragile balance that is characteristic of many holiday destinations, particularly on small islands and in environmentally sensitive areas. Sustainable tourism will place special emphasis on conserving the cultural heritage and traditions of local com-
Rural Tourism Rural tourism covers all tourism activities involving natural, social and cultural elements that operate in a rural environment. It is characterised by: integration in the local environment, complementarity to the main economical activities of the area, utilisation of local products and participation in local activities (e.g. open-air activities, local cuisine, etc.). The concept of rural tourism often encompasses a whole range of specialist market segments that are available in the countryside, such as agro-tourism, eco-tourism, green tourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism and sports tourism. 18
Concepts and definitions
Other forms of tourism
Eco-tourism is tourism that operates in natural protected areas. It is, therefore, a highly specialised form of tourism, in which priority is given to conservation, over any other variable. This kind of tourism attracts people who travel to unspoilt wilderness areas for the specific purpose of learning about and admiring the ecosystems and their components, and the cultural features of the region by observing and studying them. This is an aesthetic, scientific and even philosophical rather than a merely recreational approach to tourism. In eco-tourism, priority is given to conserving natural areas, so eco-tourism planning must be subordinated to conservationist interests. In fact, in most cases it is considered as a means of making the protected area in question economically sustainable and providing development for local communities. The positive aspects of eco-tourism do not eliminate the possibility of generating negative effects, such as the very fact of bringing visitors to virgin or extremely fragile areas. Curiously the term ÂŤeco-tourismÂť was first used in the Galapagos Islands.
The growth of the tourist industry has led to the appearance of new kinds of tourist activity, in response to very specific segments of demand. We could mention agro-environmental, cultural, adventure and sports tourism for their environmental influence. Agro-environmental tourism is a specialised form of rural tourism, in which visitors stay at farms and take part in agricultural activities, thus playing an integral part in the everyday life of the farm. Cultural tourism is based on using the areaâ€™s cultural heritage as a means of conserving and promoting it. Thematic routes, site museums, traditional fiestas and festivals are just some aspects of this kind of tourism, which can be found both in town and in the most out-of-the-way hamlet.
Green Tourism This is a form of tourism in which the landscape plays the leading role, as a meeting point where human and natural variables converge. It is a kind of tourism that is linked to a rural or natural setting, where the aim is to integrate visitors and the local population. In fact, the local population plays a vital role in receiving tourists. It is a term that is half way between rural tourism and ecotourism, mentioned above. In fact, it is term that is being increasingly ignored because of its vagueness in the face of the progressive segmentation of the tourism market. 19
The objective of green labels is to improve sales and the image of the product bearing the label; gradually increase consumer awareness; provide true and accurate information; force businessmen to accept responsibility for the effect their products have on the environment and, last but by no means least, to protect the environment. These same characteristics are also valid for tourist «ecolabels». The basic qualities of tourist eco-labels are: • Reliable environmental information for the consumer to facilitate his decision making process when acquiring tourist goods or services. • Improvements in supplier relations and management by reducing the environmental impact of establishments by adopting the necessary measures to meet the criteria of the label and gain a marketing advantage by enhancing supplier confidence. • Innovation in the industry, through joint commitment to continuous improvement and motivation for introducing technological innovation. As instruments of self-regulation, the tourist «eco-labels» should become attractive to both suppliers and consumers of tourist products and should become accepted as valid information instruments in the market.
Adventure tourism has proliferated recently as a way of generating a sense of discovery by using largely unspoilt areas with very little man-made infrastructure or facilities. Sports tourism is based on using rural or natural areas for practising open-air sports. It started out with traditional activities like sailing, cycling and skiing, but the range of activities has now increased to include high risk sports such as white water rafting, mountain biking, orienteering and survival.
Environmental Management System An appropriate business strategy requires equally appropriate implementation and integration of an Environmental Management System (EMAS), whose objective is to define and implement the environmental policy that is best suited to the activity, goods or services supplied by the company. It should prevent and minimise environmental impact, ensuring the system’s aptitude for controlling said impact and of being able to demonstrate this aptitude to those concerned.
Eco-labels These are the tourism version of green labels, which can be defined as instruments for informing consumers about goods or services that are environmentally friendlier than their competitors. 20
Concepts and definitions
An EMAS provides a framework for each company to constantly manage its environmental actions in an active and systematic manner, in order to: â€˘ Contribute to the development of an active approach in environmental matters. â€˘ Enable companies to set specific environmental objectives and targets.
Eco-audits can be internal or external, depending on who does them and what the objectives of the audit are. In the world of tourism, they are usually used as part of the Environmental Management System. Here, there are two types: Initial Environmental Review, which is an audit that tells us the companyâ€™s environmental situation and lays the foundations for an EMAS, and the Environmental Review, which is a periodic audit that is carried out to monitor progress and fulfilment of EMAS goals and objectives. The model for an eco-audit in the tourist industry should address, at the very least, the following sections:
EMAS are developed in four major steps: 1 Planning, which leads to objectives and targets being set and defines the strategies for achieving them. 2 Organisation, which seeks to establish an organisational structure with defined functions and responsibilities. 3 Application, which determines the results that will be obtained with varying environmental behaviour. 4 Monitoring, which is the necessary framework for assessing the results obtained, diagnose the whole process and improve it.
Eco-audit An audit is a review and verification of different aspects of a company or activity. Depending on the area under review, there are different kinds of audits; accounting, special and functional audits. An environmental audit, or eco-audit, comes into the category of special audits, like other management, safety or hygiene type audits. The eco-audit is a process carried out by a company with a view to finding out its environmental status at a given moment in time, encompassing a broad range of situations. There are different types of audit, depending on the subject to be audited (general or partial) and on its objectives (to study compliance with legislation or standards, accident audit, risk audit or general management audit). 21
Emissions and Effluents
Integration with the Landscape
Environmental impacts and Risks
Contractors and Suppliers
reliability or regular compliance with specifications, value for money and delivery of the product in appropriate conditions. These are all included in total quality approaches, as they are known.
This is a self-regulation instrument for the industry that consists in voluntarily adopting standards. Compliance is verified through a given procedure of assessment that has been designed to accredit compliance of a product or service. Standard practices have spread in a spectacular manner in the world of Quality, through the dissemination of ISO 9000 standards. Standards act as a means of complementing government inspection, and to make control more effective. It is done through private organisations that ensure the quality of goods and services in an independent and external manner.
Code of Ethics Also known as codes of conduct, these are voluntary instruments that establish guidelines and recommendations for lines of action, but have no coercive power. They can either be general or aimed at a specific sector, for example, a code of conduct for waste treatment or energy policy. They are normally used as an initial measure for raising
Quality This is the sum of all the properties and characteristics of a product or service that give it the ability to satisfy established or implicit needs. Quality was born in the world of industry, to guarantee safe products that meet certain specifications of useful life time, environmental impact, costs and deadlines. It could be said that the definition of quality implicitly includes the existence of a reference standard against which all goods and services that are supplied to customers will be measured. In the world of services, which encompasses the tourist industry, quality is the degree to which a company can meet the expectations aroused in the customer, that is to say the degree of customer satisfaction with the goods or services.
Eco-tourist Quality This concept encompasses both the environmental and cultural aspects of the goods or services, be it on a specific level (e.g. accommodation) or general (destination). Eco-tourist quality must consider the five areas of customer satisfaction: specifications of the product, compliance with specifications, 22
Concepts and definitions
Best Practice guidelines Best practice guidelines are instruments for improving environmental management of a company, establishment, or even a destination, by complying with a set of measures that are established as an example and objective of good practice. These guides are highly flexible instruments as they can be adapted to any particular situation and graduate the degree of compliance. They are frequently used as the first step for putting «eco-labels» in place as they can be gradually adapted to meet new environmental demands and to increasing management skills. This way, when the time comes, meeting and keeping standards is feasible and not too difficult.
Carrying Capacity This is a concept that refers to the «environmental capacity» of a territory, i.e., the capacity of an area to absorb man’s intervention and presence without starting an irreversible process of degradation. Obviously it is a very clear expression to understand, but it is very difficult to assess scientifically. In recent years, it has emerged as a tool to be used in conjunction with the concept of sustainable development, although its origins are to be found in agronomic studies of grazing capacity. The World Tourism Organisation (WTO) defined it in 1981 as «the maximum number of tourists that can visit a single site without provoking destructive physical, biological, economic or sociocultural effects on the environment, or an unacceptable deterioration in tourists’ satisfaction». There are many different variables involved in quantifying it: population numbers and density, density of tourist beds, attendance, infrastructure, terrain, protected areas, as well as sociological and economic factors.
awareness in a sector about a certain problem. The clearest example is the code of conduct of the chemical industry, which has managed to tackle some very serious environmental problems by adopting what they call a «Commitment to progress», a code of conduct whose final purpose is to anticipate legislative pressure by reaching a voluntary consensus within the industry rather than having to comply with regulations imposed on them by the government.
and societies and the different weight the factors to be measured have in local development policies. The concept is however, an excellent instrument for the tourist management of protected areas and fragile heritage habitats.
In recent years, the application of the concept to islands has been somewhat controversial. The classical formulations of carrying capacity from the scientific world, come across serious practical problems when they are applied to islands. This is due to the very complexity of island territories
Tools for managing sustainable tourism B
Codes of conduct
ringing the tourist industry on board the strategy of sustainable development is a truly complex task that must tackle a plethora of situations, promoting efficient systems of consensus between all the social partners involved. For the islands, this task is more of a necessity than an option. Such a general change of attitude requires commitments to be taken at all the different levels on which the tourist industry operates. In order to encourage and develop lasting commitments and to move tourism in the direction of sustainable behaviour, an extensive battery of instruments has been created. We have everything from declarations and codes of conduct, aimed at promoting a new mindset in tourist management, to best practice guides, designed to offer specific solutions that, on occasions, go into great detail. Although it is true that much progress has been made in recent years by many island governments in the area of regulations and legislation, we are going to focus on voluntary instruments that have often proved to be just as, if not more efficient than regulatory action.
There has been a wide variety of codes of conduct on an international scale since the early ’90s. These were all aimed at providing incentives for and promoting environmentally friendly and sustainable development friendly attitudes in the tourist industry. Depending on their specific objectives, codes of conduct have usually addressed general aspects of tourism, specific destinations, or the different players operating in the sector. In the latter case, there are: • General tourist industry codes • Codes that address specific sectors and activities. • Codes of conduct for tourists • Codes directed to the host populations. The scope of these initiatives varies according to who is promoting them. So, we have a broad variety of codes promoted by international organisations, governmental agencies, tourist industry associations (on a local, regional or international scale) and by NGO’s.
important international players in the tourism industry. Some of these general codes and declarations refer specifically to island regions, such as the Agenda 21 for the Baltic Sea region, the “Rügen Recommendations” (1997) that were elaborated on the island of Rügen for the Baltic region, or the Calviá Declaration (island of Majorca) on Sustainable Tourism in the Mediterranean.
The following are good examples of international and general codes of conduct: • Sustainable Tourism Charter (World Conference on Sustainable Tourism sponsored by UNESCO and held on the island of Lanzarote in 1995) • ICC Business Charter (International Chamber of Commerce). A general code for this sector of the industry. • Principles for Sustainable Tourism (World Wildlife Fund) • Cultural Tourism Charter - ICOMOS. Aimed at conserving cultural heritage. • Tourism Charter and Tourist Code adopted in Sofia in 1985 by the WTO (World Tourism Organisation) • Berlin Declaration on Biological Diversity and Sustainable Tourism (1997) • Agenda 21 for the Tourist and Travel Industry (1996), promoted by the WTO, the Earth Council and the WTTC (World Travel and Tourism Council), that encompasses a large number of
Concerning codes of conduct for tourists, the first initiatives emerged from the specific segment of eco-tourism. This was an obvious response, as the use of high-value, fragile wild areas and contact with particular local cultures has made it necessary to establish voluntary and eco-compatible behaviour guidelines. With regard to codes for tourists, there is a general set of recommendations: • Choice of tour operator, in aspects like employing local staff, support for conservation and the use of local suppliers. • Training and preparation for the traveller himself, on the local culture and activities that could have a negative impact on local communities or on the environment. • Act responsibly during the journey, following the recommendations of guides and tour representatives, showing respect for local customs and buying local handicrafts. The aim of codes of conduct for the tourist, in general, is to guarantee that a portion of the income generated by tourism goes to the local community and to avoid irreversible loss of cultural or ecological values. They also address the subjects of coming into contact with other religions and even the purchase of protected or endangered animals or products made from them. 26
Tools for managing sustainable tourism
One example of a code of conduct for travellers can be found in the Galapagos Islands, where the International Tour Galapagos Operators Association (ITGOA) passes on recommendations to its customers concerning their behaviour in the islands, which have been established by the authorities. Tour operators themselves call on their customers to behave in a way that is compatible with the ecological quality of the islands, avoiding unnecessary impacts that could disturb the wild life. They also lobby the government of Ecuador to enhance environmental protection in the islands, especially in marine areas, and reduce population pressure in the islands, in order to guarantee a lowimpact sustainable tourism that will continue to generate resources, both for conservation and to improve the quality of life for current residents. On many islands, this kind of code goes into detail about specific activities. This is the case of the Guide for Turtle Watching in Trinidad and Tobago. Initial codes, on many occasions, have evolved into legislation, such as for example, the Prevention Guide published by the Marine Parks Authority of the Cayman Islands, or the code of conduct for whale watching that has been elaborated by the Canary Island Government. At the other end of the spectrum, that is codes of ethics aimed at host populations, there are very few experiences, apart from the code drawn up by the island of Mauritius. For businesses, the proliferation of codes of environmental ethics or responsibility has become a widespread practice that has been used as a first measure to draw attention to these matters. In general, they are usually short documents that summarise the main points of eco-compatible practices in the tourist industry in a few basic principles. Their voluntary and general nature make them ideal for arousing interest in the sector and for cre-
ating a certain framework of competence. This category of documents includes the Pacific American Tourism Association (PATA)’s Code for Responsible Tourism. In just one page, this code is a true declaration of what a tourist company concerned about the environment and sustainability should be. It includes the following aspects: • Identifying environmentally compatible practices, with special emphasis on renewable energies. • Conserving ecosystems and development in protected areas. • Integrating local communities in tourism development. 27
Characteristics of tourist eco-labels
• Enforcing international, national and local environmental regulations. • Participating in the planning process, providing access to this for the local population. • Prevention of tourist activity-related environmental impact. • Implementing management measures, especially in waste, water and energy. • Environmental training for personnel working in the sector. • Providing customers with information about responsible environmental practices and behaviour. • Generating best practices guides for the different sectors of the tourism industry.
For many years, management of the environment and natural resources in tourist areas was based on a legislative approach, focussing on issuing compulsory regulations. This method alone, however, has often proved to be inefficient. Environmental deterioration has continued, despite regulations, and can be seen in aspects such as use of resources, waste disposal, effluents and emissions. Having said that, regulations should not be underestimated as an excellent means of support for improving conservation and environmental quality, as the basic conditions for promoting tourism development in the future.
On the island of Borneo, the tour operator «Borneo Adventures» is applying the code in aspects like not organising «ex profeso» dances for tourists when they visit jungle villages, or closely monitoring the generation of garbage in tourist areas, as non-biodegradable products have become a dreadful consequence of tourist excursions, a phenomenon that has been accompanied by an increased capacity for consumption by the local population. Another example can be found in the New Zealand Federation of Tourist Industries, which has pioneered the elaboration of a code called Environmental Principles for Tourism, which places special emphasis on the aspects of monitoring, co-operation, co-ordination and education. There have also been interesting initiatives aimed at island destinations, that have emerged from the world of the major tour operators, such as the proposals and recommendations drawn up by TUI for the island of Fuerteventura. These are proposals that are in line with the European Tour Operators Association’s (ETOA) guides and recommendations. 28
Tools for managing sustainable tourism
and for reasons of marketing and corporate image, with the ever increasing awareness among consumers and the need to maintain good relations with local communities. Environmental management is becoming a fact of life in the tourist industry, which has always been a voracious consumer of natural resources and raw materials. There are clear advantages for a company that opts for making the effort to integrate the environmental element in to decision making: • Savings arising from improved efficiency in managing energy, water, waste and purchases. • Staff attraction and loyalty, improvements in training and reduction in rotation. • Anticipating market pressures and improved company image. • Compliance with and anticipating legal requirements. • Reduced risk for seeking insurance cover and financing. • Improvements in the environmental quality of the tourist destination or setting. But regulations should be supported by other, more effective, efficient and flexible tools. Selfregulation can play an essential and fundamental role. This has been seen from the progressive adoption of environmental management systems, first by sectors with the most serious environmental problems like industry. Really, it is a question of integrating the environment in the management of the business as another factor to be considered in the decision making process; for economic reasons, because of the major savings that can be made in energy, water and raw materials; for legal reasons, because of the gradual tightening up of environmental legislation; for market reasons, given increasing competitivity
In the tourist industry, the most commonly used instruments for starting up an environmental management system have been environmental quality labels (eco-labels), which have proved to be effective marketing instruments that can improve the environmental quality of tourist products and services. They have also proved to be effective in guiding purchase decisions made by potential customers. The first signs of environmental awareness in the tourist sector have emerged from ecolabels. They really started to take off in the mid-nineties. Despite differences, as they can cover tourist areas, boroughs, or a particular establishment, some common features of eco-labels include: 29
accepted as valid market information tools. To achieve this, they must not be seen as mere superficial «make up» measures aimed at increasing clientele or for attracting new market segments, i.e. they need to produce certain effects that can be seen both internally and externally:
• Accurate environmental information for customers, to facilitate his decision making process for acquiring tourist goods or services. • Improvements in management and in supplier relations by reducing an establishment’s environmental impact through adopting the necessary measures to meet the criteria of the label and marketing advantages due to enhanced supplier confidence. • Innovation in the sector, due to the inherent commitment to continual improvement and an obvious motivation to start a process of technological innovation.
• Widespread effect, that is not just limited to luxury or elite establishments. «Eco-labels» must win wide acceptance, both internally and externally, in order to motivate other potential participants and generate the effect of example setting. Requisites must not, therefore, be so demanding that they become obstacles to implementation, as a destination needs a critical mass of 10 or 20% of establishments that can meet the criteria. These establishments should address the basic aspects of reducing the environmental harm caused by the establishment and reducing the consumption of raw materials and non-renewable resources. Good advertising and public relations work is also necessary.
As self-regulation instruments, these tourist «eco-labels» must become attractive to suppliers and consumers of tourist products, so they become
• Profound effect, as was mentioned before, it is not a question of adopting «green» make up measures. The list of criteria should involve a real and acceptable effort that goes beyond a simple name change in management style. Achieving the profound effect should translate into increased motivation and a philosophy of continual improvement, in which staff commitment should be promoted as a corner stone of the system. • Long term effect, as this is not a circumstantial tactic or a marketing trick, but rather a development with a long time-scale. These environmental quality labels therefore require careful preparation, which, in turn, requires a preliminary effort devoted to both investment and in30
Tools for managing sustainable tourism
vestigation. A solid structure must be built as a foundation for social support. This should be sought in social and environmental type movements, getting them involved as elements of support and credibility. Manuals, check lists, training and technical assessment are essential. Furthermore, legal recognition, if achieved, can be a very useful instrument for the image of «ecolabels».
awards. But, this is also having a perverse effect. There is a whole mass of «eco» labels and «green» labels, all with different standards, scope and cover. This has meant that, at times, instead of helping tourists to make their holiday decisions, the profusion of eco-labels merely confuses them. Putting a tourist eco-label into place is a task that requires preparation, several stages must be covered if it is going to be really effective. Manuals have to be edited, voluntary agreements reached, then prizes and recognition awards and, the final step, the eco-label institution can become a working method. Nonetheless, constant developments in the sector make it impossible to establish a recipe
In the tourist industry, awards and recognition in the form of environmental labels have become highly popular. At the same time, competition is being increased between different environmental
Examples of advanced Eco-labels implemented on islands Biosphere Hotels After the Institute for Responsible Tourism was created at the end of 1996, an independent organisation that has the support of Unesco and other international agencies, a process was started to promote a system for certifying environmental quality for tourist accommodation. The requisites for obtaining the label have now become standards. The first area in which the Biosphere Hotels certificate has been widely implemented has been the island of Lanzarote, where a reasonable critical mass has been reached. The range of specific certificates, under the general denomination of Biosphere Hotels is wide and adapts to different situations. Apart from the general certificate, there are specific standards for destinations that have been declared Biosphere Reserves, or internationally recognised sensitive areas, as well as standards for historic cities that have been declared World Heritage Sites. Green Globe This is another eco-label with wide island acceptance, especially in Cyprus, Sri Lanka and the Caribbean. The Green Globe certificate is part of an environmental management programme for the travel and tourism industry, that has been developed by the WTTC (World Travel and Tourism Council).The SGS (Societé Générale de Surveillance S.A.) acts as the agency that verifies certification.
or even a general model. The first step is usually to elaborate a manual to provide specific help in carrying out environmentally friendly actions, generally starting from nothing. On an international scale, there are some good examples, such as the German Hotel and Restaurant Association (DEHOGA), which published a brochure in 1993, on how to do business in an environmentally friendly manner, all in a catalogue of forty points. But, although it may be relatively easy to apply these initiatives to an individual establishment, it is far more difficult to do for holiday destinations, as there are many different and interrelated factors to be considered. The next step is based on adopting voluntary agreements which go beyond being mere recommendations for each specific case. Other agents come into play here, not just an establishment the tourist company - but also the local populations, the whole tourist sector and also the tourists themselves. Thus, an individual tour operator or tourist business will inform its customers of the environmental impact of its products through a voluntary declaration. This kind of measures, aimed at ensuring openness in the market, are far easier to implement than a «label», for example, in the case of a tour operator that offers a broad range of individual products or trips. Environmental prizes and recognition awards are on a similar level. These can be especially effective instruments for organisations and associations whose members do not have much chance to improve the environmental quality of their products individually. This kind of initiative can be of great interest as part of a medium term strategy. In a first stage, access to recognition awards is restricted to those companies that have some kind of environmental certificate. An example of this kind of initiative can be found on the island of Ten-
erife, where an annual prize has been created by the local hotel association, which is awarded for the environmental quality of the accommodation sector, while, at the same time, the association itself has drawn up a manual of best practices and criteria for hotel management. Association agreements go beyond voluntary agreements and the above mentioned prizes. These can include some kind of badge or label of recognition of the environmental commitment of the establishment or tour operator, i.e., what is understood to be an environmental or «eco» label. For example, in the Asian Pacific area, the regional tourist organisation (Asian Pacific Travel Association, PATA) has drafted a code of environmentally responsible tourism, that forces the industry to meet minimum environmental standards. Variety is the common denominator of tourist labels. It is easy to see that the characteristics demanded by each one and the importance of criteria for awarding them vary enormously. Another element that varies is the geographical scope of each one. A third aspect that differentiates one scheme from another is the process for granting and monitoring the different schemes, from points systems, to juries and incognito visits. Hiiumaa Green Label Hiiumaa, Estonia. The Hiiumaa Green Label has emerged from an Eco-Islands project for six European islands as a product of their cooperation. It is named after one of the islands that has also been declared a Biosphere Reserve by Unesco. This is an international distinction applied to the area of tourist services and accommodation that places special importance on the customers’ perception of compliance with the label requisites.
Tools for managing sustainable tourism
The best way to set up an eco-label is probably by creating a foundation or trust, that includes the tourist sector itself, as well as social partners and the administration. It should at least have the explicit support of the authorities. The trust gives the system credibility, by setting up an open, transparent and stringent certification structure, with the possibility of appealing to an independent and professional third party to audit members’ compliance. All these conditions formed the initial basis of the Blue Flag (1987), one of the longest standing awards in Europe, aimed at rewarding environmental quality and services on beaches and coastal ports. Variety among labels can also be seen in their ability to influence specific tourist activities. In the tourist sector we have witnessed the consolidation of international environmental responsibility labels like: British Airways Tourism for Tomorrow (1990), IH&RA Environmental Award (1997), The David Bellamy Conservation Award (1996), Green Key (1994), Environmentally Sensitive Hotel & Restaurant (1991). Among the prizes awarded to island destinations, mention must be made of the European Prize for Tourism and the Environment, with labels awarded to Kinsale, the Historic Centre of Corfu and the island of Vido.
Financing and costs also vary in eco-labels, depending on whether they are publicly or privately sponsored, or whether they are dependent on a non governmental organisation. In fact, there are numerous different models that can be divided into three large groups: • Labels with no cost for participants. • Labels initially subsidised by the administration, with costs to be paid by participants once the scheme is established. • Labels with a cost for participants right from the beginning.
Best Practice Guidelines, the first step
In short, variety is motivated by: 1 Different levels of demand in criteria for granting the label. 2 Geographic area covered by the label. 3 Tourist sector or activity. 4 Granting procedure. 5 Cost. 6 Sponsor. 7 Duration.
The first step for putting in place any environmental management system is to have Best Practice Guides, i.e. to have the necessary tools for taking the first steps in identifying the environmental impacts of hotels and resorts and establish lines of action. The international agencies and organisations have given environmental action and management
an enormous boost, that has led to the appearance of an extensive literature of manuals and guides for developing and implementing Environmental Management Systems in the tourist industry. Thus, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) carries out specific actions directed to the tourist sector, promoting the concept of sustainability in the industry. In collaboration with the International Association of Hotels and Restaurants, the UNEP has published best practice guidelines for hotels, with some very interesting opinions on tourist management in protected areas. Each different best practice manual covers different concepts and addresses them in varying detail, depending on the characteristics of the industry and the region concerned. Nonetheless, there are some common areas in all of them, which form the base for any Environmental Management System. • • • • • •
Water Management Energy Solid Waste Emissions and effluents Environmental Impacts Noises
for taking the first steps in environmental management in a tourist accommodation establishment. Written by the United Nations Environment Programme, IHA and IHEI, the manual enables you to start tackling environmental matters in key departments of a hotel. Energy, solid waste, water, effluents and emissions, suppliers and contractors, are the different areas of environmental action proposed by the guide. The best thing about the guide are the initial questionnaires that are very useful for identifying the strong and the weak points of the hotel’s interaction with the environment and for planning actions by departments, setting targets and objectives. Its main virtue is that it can be used by the staff themselves, as no specific environmental training is necessary for putting it into practice. It is structured into successive steps to be taken in the process. First of all, a «green
We have selected some examples of different best practice manuals, with proven influence in island regions, to analyse how each one treats environmental problems. Some of the leading ones are the IHEI «Action Pack», the Best Practice Manual of the Australian National Eco-tourism Programme, the «Environmental Management for Hotels», also drawn up by IHEI, and the Guide for obtaining the «Biosphere Hotels» certificate. The «Action Pack for Hotels» is an excellent best practice manual because it is simple and comprehensible. It is conceived as a simple guide 34
Tools for managing sustainable tourism
health check» is done on the hotel, which gives you an idea of the environmental trajectory of the hotel and to establish first priorities. It offers a series of model targets and actions for each department, which can be adapted to each establishment in particular. Once the first assessment is done, the «Action Pack» offers an environmental action plan, which can be easily implemented in any average establishment. Once again, it is broken down into departments and it provides a whole repertoire of best practices, along with one table for setting targets and objectives and another for day-to-day tasks and for environmental management achievements. «Environmental Management for Hotels» is a more technical and complex guide, also drawn up by IHEI. This does require specific training in order to put it into practice. It is presented as a best practice guide for the hotel trade and, unlike the «Action Pack», it is not divided into Hotel Departments. It is divided according to the environmental impact an establishment may have. Rather than recipes for action, the guide explains different kinds of environmental problems, their impact, best practices for avoiding, reducing or eliminating
impact and a selection of real cases that have been successful. This system enables us to study the general characteristics of each problem, its impact on the tourist industry and appropriate measures to be taken to deal with it. «Environmental Management for Hotels» is a manual that requires a certain amount of experience in environmental management, as it analyses all potential problem areas in detail. Not just water, energy, waste, effluents and emissions, which are the most common ones, it also goes into detail on matters such as purchasing policies, fuel storage, internal air quality, asbestos problems, toxic and hazardous waste, noise, PCB’s, pesticides and herbicides. This manual also pays special attention to analysing the cost of the proposed environmental management measures, especially the rate of return on the necessary investment. The manual considers searching for alternatives in matters like energy supply and waste management, that require investment by the establishment and, therefore, there is a need for funding. Its main use lies in the fact that it enables you to gain detailed information about most environmental management related issues in a hotel and to generate the basic tools you will need to deal with them. Many of the recommendations, however, can not be implemented by the establishment on its own, as they require support from outside consultants and suppliers. The Australian manual «Best Practice Ecotourism» is specially interesting because of its scope of application. As has already been mentioned, eco-tourism is a kind of tourism associated with protected natural areas and environmental conservation as a priority. This manual was conceived as a guide for the National Eco-tourism Accreditation Programme, which 35
conditioning. In fact, architectural aspects are also given close scrutiny, both in terms of blending in to the surroundings and for the use of natural energy and lighting to avoid using energy consuming equipments. Basically, the manual focuses most on minimising water consumption, waste and energy, for which it even includes a test to assess the situation of each establishment or service. But, on listing the aspects to bear in mind for reducing the environmental impact of the establishment or tourist activity, there are 25 points, including aspects like the kitchens, laundry and office material. Although it was designed to be used by ecotourism establishments and operators, this manual of «Best Practices Ecotourism» will also be of great interest to more conventional facilities. In fact, its accuracy and the scope of its recommendations would act as a magnificent reference guide for any activity or establishment. Finally, the general Guide for Obtaining a certificate, «Biosphere Hotels», is an excellent compendium of the views expressed in the other manuals that have been mentioned. The set of requisites established for awarding a certificate constitute a genuine best practice guide focussing on tourist accommodation. It has a structure that is divided into objectives to be achieved, criteria to be used and requisites. The areas dealt with in «Biosphere Hotels» are the following: · Instruments of a company environmental policy · Energy related best practices · Water management related best practices · Waste related best practices · Reduction of environmental impact and risks · Noise related best practices · Surroundings, green areas and buildings · Information and services · Contractors and suppliers
awards «eco-labels» to organisations and products that meet a series of criteria. It includes similar areas as the two previous manuals, although it emphasises aspects that are either neglected or are given a very low priority. One example is the means of transport chosen, which will obviously have a high impact on remote areas, and in areas in which sea, river or lake transport is involved. It also pays special attention to the generation of waste from the standpoint of prevention and minimisation, when faced with a deficit in appropriate infrastructure in the tourist areas where it is generated. Landscaping and environmental integration of facilities is another aspect that is addressed, with special attention paid to the use of renewable energies and the efficiency of installed machinery, monitoring aspects like avoiding the use of water pumps or air
Tools for managing sustainable tourism
Environmental Management Systems in the tourist sector An Environmental Management System is just another part of a company’s system of management. Its objective is to reduce an organisation’s environmental impact, by defining an environmental policy. The final aim of the policy must be sustainable development, from a business standpoint, by attenuating negative impacts on a local, regional and even global scale. An Environmental Management System should include all aspects of the company that are related to compliance with environmental policy: the organisational structure, planning of activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources. In the specific case of tourism companies - we must not forget that Environmental Management Systems came from the area of industry in response to deterioration in the environment that was considered intolerable -, environmental quality is the key issue. As this is a sector that uses the surroundings (scenery, water and air quality, cleanliness, waste management, etc.) as one of its main assets, the quality of the environment is the corner stone of its product. Environmental management, therefore, must avoid the undesired effects of human activity. It is not excessively complicated to implement an Environmental Management System, but it does require a methodology and strict adherence to a series of steps, in order to build it on solid foundations and ensure that it is suitably adapted to the real situation of the company concerned. An Environmental Management System can be started up internally, by a company’s own staff, or externally, by consultants. The latter route is the most usual, especially if the objective is to win some kind of external certificate, be it an eco-la-
bel scheme or to join a standards system such as the ISO 14000 standards. However you do it, the implementation of an EMAS must have the support of the top management of the company, by shifting their business philosophy towards the environment. So, the first step is to make a commitment to a new management style and make this patent by drawing up an Environmental Policy. The document would include the organisation’s principles of environmental action, which will depend on just how committed the company is prepared to be and on the real situation of the company, as an Environmental Policy Document establishes guidelines for action and not a mere list of utopian intentions.
The steps to be taken to implement an EMAS can be seen in the following diagram.
STARTINGUP AN EMAS
REGISTEROFLEGAL ANDENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
Once the Environmental Policy Document is drawn up, the company, or organisation should study its current environmental status, what impacts it produces, what the applicable legislation is and what is their current degree of compliance with this legislation. This register of legal and environmental aspects is essential for preparing an environmental audit of the company and for starting to identify strong and weak points. The audit is carried out, once the company’s initial situation is known, in order to collect all the relevant information and identify areas for improvement. With all the data collected, the audit report is elaborated, which covers the following aspects: • Applicable legislation and degree of compliance • Existing environmental management and quality policy • Description of the current situation • Proposed improvements • Assigning objectives and targets • Quantification and feasibility of improvements
sticks for measuring compliance with Environmental Policy and performance of the System. The EMAS is started up once the company has established its Environmental Policy, Objectives and Targets, as well as documented processes and procedures and system monitoring systems. Maintaining an EMAS requires periodic audits to be done, normally every one to three years, to monitor the progress of the system and update Objectives and Targets. Other key aspects of EMAS are training and communication policies, vital for involving employees and the co-operation of suppliers and customers. As an environmental audit method in the hotel industry, the experience of Grecotel, a major Greek hotel chain, is in the forefront. In the context of the Tourism and Environment project financed by the European Commission, the basic procedures were established from the accumulated experience of a series of hotels on the island of Crete. It must be pointed out that this structured procedure forms part of being awarded certain eco-labels. For example, to gain the Biosphere Hotels certificate, the first section contemplates establishing a company environmental policy, that obviously has to be audited on these aspects of implementing the system.
Once the audit report has been approved, endorsement is given to objectives, like tendencies to improve, and targets, quantifiable achievements with a specific time scale, which will act as yard38
Tools for managing sustainable tourism
The ISO 14000 family is made up of 18 different standards. The most important one is the ISO 14001, which is the real core of the system, as this is the one that enables an Environmental Management System to be developed and executed. With this one, all the other documents are a set of guides that help an organisation to understand how to start up a system. The other standards encompass aspects such as processes for auditing the system, terms and definitions, life cycle analysis, vocabulary, etc. One major advantage of this family of standards, which will allow a good fit in the tourist sector, is that it remains highly flexible and adaptable to a whole variety of situations. This will make it easier for the standard to become an international reference standard, whilst at the same time being able to adapt to the specific situation of each country and to the specific needs of both large and medium sized companies. In fact, many island hotels have already opted for the ISO 14000 route for certifying the quality of their environmental management. This is the case of the Hotel Shangri - La, in Hong Kong, which obtained the ISO 14001 certificate for its environmental management system. The hotel had previously taken part in a pilot project on Environ-
The increasing importance the environment is being given in the world of business can be seen from the fact that an international standard has been created to regulate environmental management systems. This the ISO 14000 family of standards, approved last year, which are destined to be the yardstick for business management in the XXI century. To a certain extent, the ISO 14000 is a step beyond the ISO 9000, because if the latter focussed on product characteristics and customer satisfaction, the ISO 14000 focuses on environmental characteristics and the demands of the community around the organisation. There is a certain consensus among experts, in that this standard is going to open up a new field in environmental protection, because, in contrast to the control and sanction standard model, the ISO 14000 is going to set a challenge for each organisation to accept its environmental aspects, set its targets and objectives, to make a commitment to applying efficient and reliable processes, based on continual improvement, in which staff and management join forces efficiently in assuming responsibility for the environmental behaviour of the organisation.
mental Management Systems, along with eleven other category Hong Kong establishments. This preliminary step was fundamental for the establishment to be able to work on the ISO 14001. The Shangri - La’s green committee identified about a hundred good environmental practices in the hotel. To do so, they needed outside consultants and had to assign resources to the job, especially human resources. The Shangri - La defined three basic elements for implementing the ISO 14001. First, strict compliance with current and potential future legal standards; then, in the more practical aspects, prevention of pollution as the basic principle of action; and, finally, placing the emphasis on continual improvement as the heart of the whole system. The steps taken by the Hotel Shangri - La were as follows: • Identify legal obligations and corporate requirements • Establish a Hotel «green committee» to set targets and strategies for environmental improvement. • Identify environmental responsibilities and appoint specific people. • Promote environmental training for staff, including a presentation video of the system
• Create an operational control department to monitor and maintain the technical parts of the Hotel • Six-monthly internal audits of best practices, under the responsibility of the Managing Director’s Office. In order to put the environmental management system into operation, the Hotel set up two control systems. One technical one, responsible for everything related to monitoring and controlling machinery and installations; and the other, devoted to management, to carry out internal audits. Since the ISO 14001 standard has been implemented in the Hotel, it has already shown an increase in staff responsibility, improvement in the use of best practices, greater certainty that environmental impacts are appropriately controlled, as well as proving to be a mechanism that has managed to achieve a genuine improvement in the establishment’s environmental quality. In fact, experiences like this one suggest that the future of environmental certification in the tourist sector is going to be linked to adopting standards and regulations like the ISO 14000, or others that have been mentioned. It must be pointed out that the option of eco-labels like «Biosphere Hotels» or «Green Globe», do not exclude the implementation of ISO standards, it is just that in the latter case, emphasis is placed basically on management procedures. As these standards and labels improve their efficiency and introduce suitable guides for the sector, we are going to see the same thing as has occurred with ISO 9000 and other quality instruments, certified companies will insist that their suppliers are also certified. How many business trips, how much conference tourism, how much incentive travel will be affected by these certificates? 40
Best practices in island tourist industry M
• Energy • Solid Waste • Managing water resources • Effluents and emissions • Landscape conservation and building integration • Environmental impacts
any of the environmentally responsible initiatives that contribute to the sustainability of a destination are implemented in tourist accommodation establishments and centres, the real centres of most activity and a very basic point in consumer expectations. That is why the initiatives taken in this area are essential elements for building an image and a category for an island destination. It is important to point out that not all establishments and centres would initially be in a position to adopt an integral policy in line with the principles of sustainable development, but we can also see that the package of suggested measures includes many that are a question of solutions and attitudes that affect management and therefore have a zero cost investment, whereas others do involve investments that will vary according to the size of the establishment. This way, companies and institutions can adopt good practices through a process of establishing an environmental policy with short and medium term objectives.
Another set of measures would be complementary measures, such as those mentioned in relation with contractors and suppliers, or those concerning information and training. In each case, sections have been divided into: • General objectives to achieve • Actions guaranteeing fulfilment of objectives • Management, choice, technological and investment solutions
The areas that have the greatest impact on the environment and that particularly affect sustainable development conditions in islands are:
Tourist centres and accommodation are large energy consumers. Depending on the size of the island, energy demand from tourist accommodation alone very often exceeds local consumption. This aspect has an enormous impact for small and medium sized islands, because, in the case of electricity, for example, it forces the authorities to build over-sized power stations and basic energy infrastructure, involving an extra cost which is especially serious for islands with a seasonal tourist industry.
Environmental objectives • Reduce outside energy dependence in islands. • Minimise energy infrastructure-derived impacts • Promote energy saving • Reduce pollution and contribute to protecting the air and the ozone layer.
Actions • Minimise energy consumption • Maximise efficiency of the energy sources used • Identify the most suitable energy vectors • Promote maximum use of renewable energy sourcrs out for different islands have shown that the cost of implementing passive solutions in buildings only affects the final cost by between 2% and 6%, depending on size.
Ideas and solutions Minimise energy consumption This involves all management solutions aimed at energy saving, the use of devices and constructive solutions that help to reduce consumption. Energy saving solutions in building will obviously only be feasible if they are introduced in the design process or when a building is being refurbished. This latter aspect is very important, as tourist facilities undergo complete refurbishment processes every 15 to 20 years. Studies carried
Adopting passive systems in buildings • Air circulation and heat insulation systems • Promote lay-out of spaces and volumes to allow maximum use of natural light. • Introduce building techniques and materials that allow an accumulation of solar radiation heat or air currents for cooling. • Include bio-climatic guidelines in the design 42
Best practices in island tourist industry
• Disconnection system for illumination, using sensors. This will prevent squandering energy in corridors and passing places when not in use. • Disconnect fridges in unused units and control of excessive cooling levels.
Hawaii Model Energy Code This is a magnificent example of a government initiative, with the active participation of all the sectors involved. The Hawaii experience was started in 1979, when energy efficiency codes were adopted for buildings in Honolulu. The initiative later spread to the islands of Maui and Kauai. The Energy Code is a standard adopted by the State of Hawaii, influenced by the ASHRAE 90.1 standard of California, but this one has incorporated particular specifications that are adapted to the peculiarities of the islands. The code has had a special impact on the tourist accommodation sector. The Hawaii Model Energy Code’s application manual lays out an exhaustive guide for architects, engineers, builders and contractors, covering the basic aspects of hotel buildings, such as: lighting, natural ventilation, heating, insulation and hot water supply. The objective pursued with this code, is to save 1.1 million dollars a year in energy consumption, which is the equivalent of 11,600 megawatts of electricity, or 21,000 barrels of oil a year.
Heating, air conditioning and hot water • Optimise temperatures in common spaces within acceptable limits that allow energy saving. • Disconnect heating or air conditioning in unoccupied areas. • Centralised disconnection or reduction to minimum levels of heating and air conditioning in accommodation units when unoccupied. • Use of thermostats for regulating air conditioning. • Use heating and air conditioning disconnection devices when outside terraces and windows are open. • Avoid overheating the water supply to bathrooms above clients needs and inform them of the repercussions of indiscriminate use of hot water for an excessive length of time. • All heat conduits, especially those for hot water for the bathroom (WAC) in the establishment should be appropriately insulated with suitable materials. Check that insulation materials do not contain asbestos or that CFC’s and HCFC’s are not used in the process of their manufacture.
Lighting • Control excessive levels of artificial lighting • Use paints and colours that facilitate savings in lighting. • Use of energy-efficient light bulbs • Use of suitable sleepers and maintenance of them • Reduction of unnecessary exterior lighting impact (advertisements, excessive illumination of the façade and balconies). • Proper maintenance of the lighting system. • Central disconnection system for the lighting in each accommodation unit, either with a card or switch, and information for the customer about the company’s saving policy.
Kitchen and Laundry • Clean heat exchange surfaces in fridges systematically, avoiding the formation of frost in the evaporator. • Systematic cleaning and maintenance of ovens, kitchen hobs, steam baths, etc. to ensure good heat transmission. • Use the central hot-water system in high capacity laundries, avoiding an independent system. 43
• Separate hot zones from refrigerated zones. • Guarantee air-tight closing of freezers and cold stores.
Club St. Lucia - Caribbean In Santa Lucia, hotels account for 35% of the island’s total energy consumption, a typical case of a small island holiday destination. 80% of this consumption is accounted for by air conditioning. In this complex an automatic air conditioning control system has been installed, which has reduced energy consumption by 35%. This is a simple measure that helps the island to avoid mortgaging its energy future.
Other savings measures • Monitor and adjust the operating times of all energy-consuming equipment. • In heated swimming pools, make sure they are equipped with a suitable cover to avoid heat loss at night. • When conditions allow, replace obsolete equipment with others that consume less.
1 Because of deficiencies in energy equipment, be it due to its concept and design, or due to obsolescence or lack of maintenance.
Maximise efficiency of energy sources Any energy saving and consumption reduction policy should be supported by solutions that enable an establishment to increase the efficiency of energy sources. On many occasions, most energy waste occurs because of energy efficiency problems. Basically for two reasons:
2 Because of not adapting energy vectors to the work to be done. For example, if we use electricity supplied by a power station to heat water, we are losing almost 40% of the original energy, whereas, if we burn gas directly to obtain hot water, we will loose no more than 10% in the worst case scenario. Efficiency measures • Choose the most appropriate energy source and vector for each task, also assessing the environmental impact of the energy source. • When size allows, implant residual heat energy re-use systems that increase the overall efficiency of the system (e.g. combined heat and power generation). • The basis of global ecological efficiency lies in eliminating the use of scarce or environmentally dangerous fuels (coal, fuel with a high sulphur content, scarce wood from the forest, etc.). • Replace obsolete or energy inefficient equipment. 44
Best practices in island tourist industry
The role of the renewables
The case of the islands of Sylt and Amrum
Most islands have abundant renewable energy resources, especially solar and wind energy. This circumstance identifies them as a priority objective in the world strategy for renewables. In fact, the World Solar Programme and INSULA, with the support of ITER, have launched a specific programme for islands and particularly for the tourist sector.
In these islands, located in the north of Germany, an interesting experience has been initiated, consisting of integrating photo-voltaic systems in tourist accommodation units designed in typical local style.
Bioclimatic building working scheme
• Wind energy. This is the fastest growing resource on islands. Current wind generators can supply electric energy to an island grid at a price advantage. There are currently more than forty tourist islands with established wind farms. Unlike photo-voltaic energy, the only technological problem is w h e n there is no electricity grid and stand-alone systems are wanted; energy surpluses produced are very expensive to store in batteries.
The advantage of renewables is that they adapt perfectly to the energy saving proposals and efficiency considerations mentioned above. Thus, we have: • Solar heating applications, with the help of solar collectors or panels, for producing hot air or water. This is a tried and tested technology that has proven to be profitable in hundreds of island hotels. • Photo-voltaic conversion, which transforms sunlight into electricity using semiconductor cells. This technology is presently more expensive than conventional electricity generating, but it is well adapted to the requirements for places that are isolated and distant from the grid, or where the impact of the grid is to be avoided (visitors centres, monument lighting, isolated services like telephones, etc.).
Recommendations • For large hotel and self-catering establishments, an energy saving and efficiency program, drawn up by an external auditor is recommended. • It is always a good idea to keep an energy register in all areas, in order to find out exactly which are the priority action tasks.
Best practices in island tourist industry
Environmental objectives • Avoid consumption that affects local renovation rates, creating critical situations in water tables and water courses. • Guarantee natural flows to fragile island ecosystems. A frequent situation on coasts and islands is the destruction of water resources associated with wet lands, because of tourist use. • Prevent tourist consumption from competing with traditional local activities. • Avoid pollution of water tables, water courses and coasts.
Actions • Promote all possible measures that tend to save water. • Implant water re-use systems. • Induce changes in attitude in tourist behaviour. WATER
Ideas and solutions
For most islands, water is a scarce and strategic resource. The development of tourism in many island destinations has increased consumption to levels that are way above water renovation rates and availability. In fact, desalination of sea water is becoming a normal option for many islands. The risks of the tourist industry over-exploiting water resources are obvious: exhaustion of water tables, deterioration in water quality, competition with local activities like farming, increasing water prices for the native population. All too often this generates serious conflicts between tourist centres and their island surroundings. The volume of water needed by a hotel can very often exceed 200 m3 per unit of accommodation per year; as both direct and indirect consumption by tourists must be counted, such as bathrooms, general services, kitchen, laundry and swimming pools.
• Adjust discharge volumes in toilets to the minimum level at which they do their job. Most cisterns discharge far more water than necessary. • Fit flow metres or automatically opening and closing devices to the water pipes, limiting flow time in the establishment’s common services. • Fit low-consumption heads in showers. These should be cleaned periodically to maintain efficiency.
• Use drought-resistant plants in gardens. Many islands have xerophytic species that are specially adapted to support water shortages, and halophytic species that are resistant to brackish and even salt water. • Adjust watering times in the garden to the minimum necessary. • Fit rain water collection systems in the building, on roofs and flat surfaces. • Re-use waste waters for other purposes. For example, by establishing an independent circuit for toilets, fed from recycled soapy water, or water gardens with these same waters, after simple treatment. • Inform clients and encourage them to save water. Suggest measures they can take and promote a reasonable use of water in their activities. • Establish recommendations on how often towels and sheets are changed. For example, leaving a towel on the floor means it should be changed, or a sign to be left on the bed when sheets do not need changing. The frequency with which sheets and towels are changed in many hotels can not be justified from the point of view of cleanliness, but it does represent a large consumption of water in the laundry.
An example of co-operation The Hotel Nikko Hong Kong has drawn up an excellent guide called “Water and energy conservation in hotels” in co-operation with the Polytechnic University of Hong Kong and the Department of Building and Engineering, which has been sponsored by the “Shell Better Environment Award Scheme”, which is administered by the International Organisation Friends of the Earth. The results arising from this initiative show that a 24% reduction in water consumption has been achieved per guest staying at the hotel, excluding laundry services.
• Monitor and maintain water pipes and circuits in good condition to avoid losses. • Fit time switches and flushes in collective toilets and showers, or flushes activated by photoelectric cells. • Fit high-efficiency irrigation systems: drip irrigation or porous pipes. On some islands, using the imagination to solve the problem of high water consumption levels in gardens has had surprising results. This is the case in Lanzarote, where water is obtained by condensation from water vapour in the air by spreading a layer of volcanic cinders (lapilli) over the soil.
The Maho Bay Campground complex in St. John’s (Virgin Islands) has to be supplied with drinking water from tankers. This has had an influence on designing a high-efficiency system for distributing and consuming water. But the most interesting thing is that used water is treated in a low energy consumption plant, and these treated waters are then used for watering in greenhouses, allotments and a small fish farm.
Best practices in island tourist industry
The case of a luxury hotel The Gran Wailea complex, on the island of Maui (Hawaii), is an excellent example of how luxury and highly complex services can be compatible with implementing an environmental quality system. With the support of consultants like the Rocky Mountain Institute and architects of great prestige, they decided to face what they call «design the problem of sustainability». The result of this environmental management engineering operation in a large accommodation complex has been a 21% reduction in electricity costs, 48% in propane, 45% in drinking water consumption and a 34% reduction in solid waste. These measures represent an operational expenses saving for the complex of nearly one million dollars.
Desalination There are many island tourist complexes that now produce drinking water from an inverse osmosis desalination plant. The case of the island of Lanzarote is possibly the maximum expression of this phenomenon, as practically all island and tourist consumption comes from desalinated sea water. The most interesting aspect of this solution however, lies in the fact that part of the energy used in the process comes from the wind, i.e., from electricity generated in wind farms. One example that closes the desalination cycle can be found in the Bay Point Resort (Malta), where, after producing water in a desalination plant, a system has been added that enables soapy waters to be re-cycled to the toilets and, after treatment, for irrigating the gardens.
• Minimise renewal of swimming pool water by optimising filter and treatment systems. • Re-use swimming pool water for other purposes. • In coastal resorts, use sea water in swimming pools, depending on energy costs. • Adjust water consumption in the laundry by establishing minimums in machines or by acquiring more efficient equipment. 49
The generation of waste is a real nightmare for small and medium-sized islands that have large numbers of tourist arrivals. On island holiday resorts, average waste generation rates often double the figures of the countries of origin of these tourists. This is basically due to the fact that they import the same consumption patterns, without considering that this involves additional packing. Furthermore, in many cases the ratio between the tourist population and the local population is so high that some islands behave practically like a mainland «resort». The situation becomes even worse when we see that the return system is practically impossible because of transport costs, which even rules out some of the usual recycling options, which in the end are governed by the market laws. So, it is hardly surprising that rubbish dumps, formal or informal, on many islands cover unacceptable extensions of land. In summary, this side of tourist development is threatening to turn some islands into non-returnable material sinks.
• Safeguard the landscape and scarce island land space, minimising the progressive escalation of cemeteries of island waste. • Avoid permanent sources of contamination that can substantially alter delicate and fragile island ecosystems. • Foster a mentality in the sense that island consumption models have to be different. This applies both to locals and visitors.
Actions • • • •
Prevent the generation of waste from the origin Recover and recycle Re-use Reduce waste production to the strictly necessary minimum.
Ideas and solutions The waste generated by a tourist establishment varies enormously and solutions will depend basically on the kind of waste that needs to be treated. The different fractions of solid waste include: • Organic waste from food, kitchens and gardening. • Non-organic waste from establishment services: bottles, cans, packing, plastics and wrappings in general. In this context, one can divide the waste into the following fractions: glass, plastic, paper, cardboard and special paper like tetra-brick cartons. • Contaminating or hazardous waste and products: remains of containers with chemicals, fuels, ash, batteries, pesticides, insecticides, solvents, varnishes and paints. • Office material and establishment information waste: paper, toner, plastics, inks and office computer consumables. • Maintenance and alteration waste: inert waste, metals, wires, panels and glass. 50
Best practices in island tourist industry
Reduce waste production • Supply bathroom products in refillable dispensers. There is already a wide range of utensils available on the international market. • Eliminate or reduce the use of disposable products in all services: cutlery, serviettes, mats, table cloths, glasses and trays • Reduce as much as possible, the use of small individual portions of products, as these represent one of the main sources of solid waste. • Promote the use of returnable containers, basically for drinks: glass, recycled and returnable containers. • Use refillable and ecologically compatible systems in office material: inks and toner cartridges. • Drastically reduce communiqués and printed circulars concerning customer information and activities. Electronic and telematic media and fixed panels and notice boards are a good alternative.
Hotel Nikko Hong Kong • Reduce both in-house and external advertising, on disposable supports: leaflets, stickers and labels. • Use returnable bags (cloth or other materials) for clothes being sent for laundry or ironing. • When direct or auxiliary services require the use of bags or containers, these should be returnable. • Establish adjusted calculations for food supplies to avoid unnecessary leftovers, even if prices are insignificant within the overall budget of the company. • In general, try to adjust purchase estimates to real demand, monitoring best-by dates carefully. • Maintain a policy of total use of all consumables, including maintenance materials: paint, chemicals, oils, fuel and building material.
The environmental management code of practice developed by the Hotel Nikko Hong Kong includes, under the initials «6R», the establishment’s policy for waste management. Six basic lines of action have been identified: • • • • • •
Reduce Re-use Replace Repair Re-fill Recycle
Recycling Recycling policies can be applied directly or indirectly in a tourist establishment, i.e., recycling and facilitating the recycling of materials, or by consuming recycled products. • Separation of organic waste at origin, either to be delivered to separate containers in the local processing plant, or to be treated and turned into compost by the establishment itself or to be used in some previously agreed agricultural activity. • Separation of glass and storage in dedicated containers for delivery. • Collection of batteries in a special recipient. Do not forget that these should be delivered to a specialised operator accredited for this purpose. This aspect constitutes a serious problem on many islands, especially when collection campaigns are mounted without identifying who the competent manager is for this type of waste. They often end up at the island rubbish tip, creating a very powerful focus of contamination because they are concentrated in one spot.
• The same considerations are established for recycling chemicals (photographic products, insulation). • Separation at origin of plastic materials to be treated and re-used. Try to recover materials both internally and externally: stone, wood or soil • Separation of metal items for melting down. Very few islands have the size and infrastructure for melting these metal products down, so, sometimes, intermediate re-use solutions must be sought, such as those established in the waste management programme designed for the Shetland Islands. • Collection and delivery for recycling, of used engine oil. • Establish and standard practice, the use of recycled paper, checking that polluting agents like chlorine based bleaching agents have not been used in the manufacturing process. • The same practices should be applied to bottles, packaging and recycled cardboard recipients. • As far as possible, it is advisable to install compacting machines, with a view to delivering a minimum volume of the different waste fractions. This leads to savings for the collection service and for the establishment.
Composting and re-use The Hotel Jardin Atlantico, on the island of Madeira, composts the whole organic fraction of all waste generated in situ. This is done with a chemical additive-free system that is also odourless. Another interesting alternative along these lines, is the experience put into practise by The Excelsior Hotel that belongs to the Mandarin Group of Hotels. In this case, the hotel has rented a field where organic produce is grown, fertilised with the compost generated from the hotel rubbish. The produce is consumed in the hotel, thus closing the recycling cycle.
Best practices in island tourist industry
• Elimination or drastic reduction of apparatus and consumables that contain halons or CFC’s, compounds responsible for destroying the ozone layer. • Monitor quality and composition of untreated waters disposed of into the network or directly into the surrounding environment, with a view to taking appropriate measures. • Monitor the emissions of boilers, combustion equipment, etc. in order to take the necessary measures to reduce NOx, solid particle, CO2, SO2 and CO emissions.
EFFLUENTS AND EMISSIONS
The activities of a hotel, taken together, always produce emissions of undesirable particles that pollute the air. They also produce effluents which, when discharged, can affect water tables, water courses and seas. The most frequent sources of risk come from the disposal of untreated effluents and emissions: effluents of hazardous chemical products, emissions of fossil fuels and CFC’s.
Environmental objectives • Reduce the pollution of air, water resources and surrounding land. • Increase the environmental health of the area around the establishment.
Ideas and solutions • Check that aerosols used in the establishment do not use CFC’s as propellants, and that this is duly accredited on the product. • Replace fire extinguishing equipment that uses halons, with other harmless ones, such as those based on controlled atmosphere (CO2, argon) or micro-springs. • Choose cooling equipment that does not use CFC’s, or halogen combinations. When old equipment that uses these substances has to be disposed of, do not forget that they must be delivered to specialised companies that know how to eliminate the risk to air quality. • Install active carbon filters in kitchen extractor fans. • Carry out periodic reviews of boilers and apparatus that uses burners, maintaining them in good working order. This will drastically reduce emissions. • Install waste water treatment systems if the general network does not do this. There are many different technical solutions, depending upon the willingness of the establishment. • Maintain fuel and high pollution risk substance storage tanks in perfect condition, preventing any possible leaks into the environment.
Actions • Total elimination of the disposal of oils, fats and high-risk materials down general or kitchen drains.
ELIMINATION OF FOCI OF CONTAMINATION AND ENVIRONMENTALLY PREJUDICIAL PRODUCTS
In 1992, the construction of the Kandalama luxury hotel in a rural area of Sri Lanka led to much controversy about the establishment’s impact on the natural and social environment. In response to criticism, an impact study was carried out on the hotel. The study laid down the following principles: 1 Due to high unemployment levels in the area, a well conceived and executed development would have less environmental and sociological impact than existing unemployment levels. 2 Concerning the area where the hotel was to be built, the study concluded that the zone had undergone clearing for agriculture and that the original jungle had been replaced with eucalyptus plantations. 3 With regard to polluting the nearby lagoons, the study claimed this could be avoided with appropriate measures and precautions. What must also be added is that most of the water in these lagoons comes from the irrigation network and there was no risk of upsetting the balance of natural flows.
Hotels and tourist centres are often consumers of products that are directly or indirectly harmful to the environment and to health. Environmental aggressions of this kind can be direct or indirect. That is, when harmful products are used, or when the obtaining of these products and materials affect the environment.
Environmental objectives • Eliminate foci of contamination generated by tourist centres • Protect the health of guests and employees • Maintain a policy of global responsibility with the environment • Contribute to conserving bio-diversity.
The Hotel Kandalama was approved and opened in 1994. As a consequence of all the attention paid to the environmental problem, environmental management techniques were applied right from the beginning. These included integral design, avoiding soil erosion and allowing rain water to flow; a landscape restoration of the area around the complex, planting 3000 native tree species; Hotel water supply does not affect the nearby lagoons and waste waters are monitored and re-used for watering the gardens; waste management through composting and a recycling centre. A green committee has also been set up with staff and environmental information about the area is given to clients.
Best practices in island tourist industry
Actions • Eliminate or restrict to the maximum, the use of contaminating or dangerous products. • Do away with the use of objects and products whose manufacture involves an appreciable environmental impact. • Advise against and do away with tourist activities that cause serious alterations to the environment. The Hanauma Bay Reserve, in the Hawaiian Islands, was suffering from a process of environmental degradation, due to its popularity among tourists. An average of 13000 people visited the Reserve every day. The final result was damaged coral reefs and seas contaminated with rubbish and waste waters. In short, the ecological and tourist potential of the area was disappearing. In 1990, a local conservation group reached an agreement with the authorities to create a management plan for the zone, to make tourism and conservation compatible. To achieve this a series of measures were put into effect: •Tour buses can only park for a limited period of time, away from the bay. •The protected zone is closed one day a week for maintenance. •The beach is cleaned four times a year with the help of volunteers. •An information point has been created and manning levels have been increases.
• Collaborate with local associations to protect and correct environmental management of potential tourist sites and areas.
Ideas and solutions • Draw up a list of all potentially contaminating products used and identify harmless or low impact alternatives that are available on the market. • Seek the support of consumer associations, local authorities and NGO’s that have information on the subject. • Eliminate all products that contain CFC’s. • Stop acquiring food that contains harmful preservatives. • Minimise the use of chemical fertilisers, weed killers and pesticides. Look for ecological alternatives in the market or implement organic gardening methods. • Check that all paper and cardboard used is of the TFC (Total Chlorine Free) type. • Do away with using asbestos in construction and eliminate any elements containing this material, guaranteeing an appropriate collection and final destination for it. • Use natural or environmentally harmless air fresheners.
As a result of these measures, rubbish has diminished, as has the problem of waste waters. This has made it possible for coral to grow again and for degraded areas to improve. To a large extent, because the pressure of visitors has been reduced, from three million a year to one million, two hundred thousand.
BUILDING, ENVIRONMENT AND LANDSCAPING
• Softeners and detergents used in cleaning and laundry services should be of the ecological kind, without chemical additives. • Establish a stringent storage and disposal system for harmful or hazardous products that have to be used in the establishment. • Check that furniture and decorative elements are not made from woods or materials obtained from protected or endangered forests or species (specially those included in the CITES Convention). • Eliminate the use of plants, in gardening and decoration, that could alter local ecosystems because of their colonising nature. • Try to use the highest possible proportion of local plant species in hotel gardens. • Advise against and inform clients of the negative effects of environmentally unfriendly tourist activities and provide clients with the codes of conduct that have been drawn up for visiting protected areas. • Avoid and reduce sound pollution generated by the establishment: monitor and insulate discotheques and bars, limit noise levels of telephones, radios and televisions and impose periods of silence.
The fact that the main island holiday resorts experienced a major boom on the back of the growth in air transport, from the sixties onward, led to the rapid spread of building and planning models imported from other latitudes. In general, these imported solutions were highly inappropriate for the fragile island conditions where they were applied. Admiration for imported models meant that the need to adapt both infrastructure and tourist facilities to their surroundings was often forgotten, and formal reference points of local architecture and territorial culture, often full of rich and wise means of adapting to the setting, were lost. The need to categorise island holiday destinations forces us to reconsider many actions taken in the past and to promote a new individual sensibility for each island. This is a task of re-conversion that is starting to bear fruit in many regions of the Earth, very often driven by new habits and desires of tourists.
Environmental objectives • Integrate tourism infrastructure and make it compatible with its immediate environment. • Conserve the landscape. • Create harmony with local aesthetic and cultural patterns.
Actions • Reduce impact on the landscape. • Try to minimise infrastructure and facilities in the environment. • Restore degraded zones around the tourist centre. • Introduce rational and efficient building criteria that are appropriate for islands. 56
Best practices in island tourist industry
Two examples of mimicry The Network of Tourist Centres of the island of Lanzarote is a fine example of environmentally integrated design. From the sixties until 1992 the brilliant island artist, Cesar Manrique conceived some twenty tourist projects, mainly visitors’ centres, in all of which the emphasis is firmly placed on the surrounding geology and environment. The design is based on a simple fact: Mother Nature has already created the architectural style in the local geology. These centres presently receive more than two million visitors a year and, strangely enough, they do not have an appreciable impact on the island. The Jean Marie Tjibaou Cultural Centre project, conceived by architect Renzo Piano in New Caledonia, is another excellent example of cultural heritage integration, inspired by the forms and building materials used in «kanaks» - traditional local huts.
Ideas and solutions • Use screens of vegetation to minimise visual impact. Preferably based on local species. • Respect fragile environments of natural interest in the area around the establishment and consider bio-diversity conservation-related aspects. • Help to rescue and restore degraded zones close to complexes, through concerted action taken in collaboration with the local agents involved. • Use local materials adapted to the environment and the setting, provided this does not involve aggressions to protected species or generating high impact quarries. • Use colours that mimic the surroundings. • Foster styles based on local architecture as the key to integrating the establishment into the environment. • Promote decorative elements that are relevant to local culture. • Eliminate static advertising and install low-impact sign-posting systems. • Carry out environmental impact studies before starting any building or alteration project. • Incorporate passive architectural solutions and use bio-climatic building criteria.
• Identify, promote and protect natural and heritage resources that exist in the landscape, integrating them as the main subjects in the conception of the project. • As far as possible, site new facilities in zones that are already degraded or altered by man, including restoration of the area in the design.
GOOD PURCHASING PRACTICES
Ideas and solutions
Any environmental management strategy for tourist establishments that has the backing of suppliers and contractors will be far more complicated to implement. It is therefore essential to establish a system that guarantees supply that is coherent with the good practices implemented by the company.
• Establish a system for selecting suppliers and products to be used. • Inform suppliers and contractors of this decision • Draw up a purchasing guide to be respected by all company departments. • Establish ecological criteria for purchasing (hazard, pollution, bottles, etc.) • Reduce superfluous and unnecessary products.
Environmental objectives To guarantee efficiency and integral application of the environmental solutions adopted by the tourist establishment or centre.
An example of a practical application of the concept in a destination can be found on the German island of Borkum, in the North Sea, which, since 1990, has a tourist eco-label. One of the outstanding features of this is a good purchasing guide, closely linked to waste management, for members of the eco-label. One of the main objectives of the catalogue of criteria for being awarded the eco-label focuses on the purchasing guide. The impact of the recommendation is mainly aimed at small auxiliary tourist establishments, where the emphasis is put on voluntarily giving up the sale of canned drinks, in the gradual elimination of nonreturnable one use products and preference is given to ecological and regional products, both for the reduced environmental impact involved in their production and their packaging and distribution. Another curious experience in drawing up a good purchasing guide, that illustrates this section, is one produced in Canada for the events of the G-7, a group of the most powerful countries on Earth, when they tried to create an environmentally friendly atmosphere by establishing coherent measures in the welcome. One of the key points in the organisation of the meeting, from an environmental stance, was «green» supplies. To achieve this, a list of requisites was drawn up on two levels: one to check the ecological quality of the product and the other to check the environmental history of the supplier.
Actions Choice of products and services that are compatible with the company’s environmental policy, assessing the possible alternatives available to the company. With special emphasis on: • Food supply • Cleaning products • Equipment and maintenance • Cosmetics and toilet articles • Office and advertising consumables • Auxiliary or sub-contracted tourist services (excursions, transport and other recommendations)
Best practices in island tourist industry
centives for new ideas and initiatives to arise from those in charge. One must remember that a management policy of this kind is essentially based on participation. • Build alliances with local associations and NGO’s involved in the environment. They can always provide complementary solutions and greater coherence for company initiatives. • Maintain a special register of all legal regulations and findings concerning the environment in all facets of tourist management. Familiarity and compliance with these regulations is the minimum threshold of the establishment’s responsibility. • Build fluid relations with local authorities and administrations with responsibility for tourism and the environment, either directly or through tourism associations, with a view to implementing the process harmoniously. Many decisions in matters of waste, water, training and information should complement local administration initiatives and legislation, should these exist.
The criteria were: 1 Draw up an environmental check list for suppliers, in order to objectively establish the situation of each one, from the check list. 2 Design criteria and standards for each service and product, always giving preference to those registered with a recognised environmental label. 3 Establish the supplier’s degree of commitment, especially from the point of view of the life cycle of the product or service being supplied. 4 Give preference to local products, or, where applicable, to local suppliers, with emphasis on reducing packing and transport costs. In all, a code of 34 minimum questions was drafted to assess the ecological quality of each service or product that had to be presented by suppliers in order for their goods to be accepted. The first question was whether the product was necessary, or whether it could be replaced by an existing one. From this premise, extraction, production, distribution, transport, marketing, use and handling, recycling potential and final destination were checked. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
For implementing the process of good practices in reality, with tangible results, the following support measures are recommended: • Maintain registers to provide data on the progress and implementation of initiatives, including savings and profit results. Without this kind of control, it would be very difficult to assess the strong and the weak points of the company’s environmental policy. • Involve the staff in decision-making. This can be done through training and information actions, appointing people in charge, and providing in59
INFORMATION AND SERVICES
Implementing an environmental management strategy in tourist establishments requires that all actions are backed up with sufficient information for customers and by a minimum level of coherence in the supply of auxiliary services.
Objectives Publicise the company’s environmental policy and its commitment to sustainable development.
• Supply information and suitable indications to enable clients to make an efficient contribution to initiatives taken by the company. • Include local dishes and produce in the food served in the establishment. • Provide information about collective means of transport and low-impact alternatives that exist on the island. • Equip the establishment with a fleet of bicycles to give clients this alternative form of transport, right from the front door. • Information on pedestrian accesses and routes of interest. • Provide information about codes of conduct and necessary guidelines dealing with desirable tourist behaviour at different sites. • Information on the importance and unique nature of the island’s natural and historic heritage.
Actions • Provide customers with suitable information about the environmental and cultural aspects of the island. • Foster a supply of responsible services, in line with these guidelines.
Ideas and solutions • Eliminate advertising related to tourist products that are prejudicial to the environment or to the sensitivity of local culture. • Foster advertising and information on responsible and environmentally-friendly tourism products. 60
Estrategias de futuro para los destinos insulares L
acciones de planificación más comunes en las islas se refieren a: • Estrategias territoriales y de conservación de recursos • Gestión integrada de las zonas costeras • Sistemas de gestión de áreas protegidas • Planificación sectorial
a apuesta por nuevos modelos de turismo sostenible en las islas debe contar forzosamente con iniciativas y estrategias a nivel de todo el ámbito de la isla. La fuerte interrelación territorial, económica y cultural del fenómeno turístico, nos enseña que muchas de las medidas específicas en sectores concretos, sólo tienen validez si se plantean de forma complementaria a las estrategias insulares. Este es el caso de las políticas en materia de residuos, agua, transporte e incluso de energía. Por ejemplo, existen varios casos de experiencias insulares sobre la separación y recogida selectiva en origen de los residuos sólidos en centros turísticos, muy bien intencionadas, pero que ante la ausencia a nivel local o de gobierno insular de una solución que permita el reciclaje y recogida en las mismas condiciones, termina convirtiéndose en un fiasco, en un esfuerzo inútil.
Algunos de estos planes logran traducirse en instrumentos jurídicos y reglamentarios que establecen condicionantes al desarrollo turístico, ya sea desde el punto de vista urbanístico o adoptando estándares relativos a las diversas actividades relacionadas con la industria turística. En otras ocasiones, la planificación se concreta en documentos estratégicos que establecen una guía útil para autoridades y responsables del sector, sobre las principales líneas alternativas de actuación y sobre las debilidades o fortalezas detectadas. Este es el caso del proyecto ECOMOST, «La Planificación del Turismo Sostenible», desarrollado para las Islas de Mallorca y Rodas con el concurso de la Federación Internacional de Tour Operadores (FITO). Constituye un trabajo ya
Planificación del turismo sostenible Los instrumentos de planificación territoriales, sectoriales o estratégicos se manifiestan como poderosos aliados en la consolidación de modelos insulares de desarrollo sostenible del turismo. Las
clásico que demuestra cómo, a partir de un documento de prospectiva, se suministran valiosos instrumentos y reflexiones a las autoridades y gestores locales para establecer las bases de sus decisiones en materia de planificación. ECOMOST aportaba, además, ciertas innovaciones frente a otros proyectos. Teniendo en cuenta que la relación de expectativas y percepciones se encuentran en la base de la validación de cualquier producto turístico, centró una gran parte de su trabajo en interrogar a los turistas para averiguar si tenían consciencia de cómo podría protegerse en medio ambiente. El resultado fue sorprendente, aunque obvio, ya que al no existir pautas claras en el destino sus respuestas y percepciones se encontraban mediatizadas por los patrones culturales medioambientales en origen, registrándose así importantes elementos de disparidad. Este mismo método de trabajo sobre expectativas y percepciones fue utilizado años más tarde en la isla de Lanzarote en un estudio titulado «Bases para la definición de un producto sostenible». También aquí los resultados fueron sorprendentes. Lanzarote ya tenía una muy buena imagen ambiental a nivel internacional y, por ello, los planificadores y gestores locales trataban de afianzar esta imagen introduciendo nuevos productos relacionados con la naturaleza. Pero al profundizar en el resultado de las encuestas se descubría otra realidad. Si bien el medio ambiente representaba la segunda expectativa en importancia tras el alojamiento, cuando se preguntaba más detalladamente sobre las actividades en la naturaleza, se descubría que la potencialidad de este segmento era extraordinariamente baja. La respuesta estaba en los gaps que se producían entre expectativas y percepciones, donde uno de los mayores era la calidad ambiental de los centros
turísticos. Es decir, los turistas que visitaban la isla no demandaban nuevas actividades y productos en el medio natural, sino que básicamente esperaban encontrar un entorno bien cuidado en los centros turísticos. Quiere esto indicar la importancia que tiene para las islas el contar con bases sólidas y datos fiables para la planificación, en el caso descrito tal circunstancia desaconseja provocar nuevas colonizaciones de espacios frágiles y no demandados y centrar los esfuerzos en la mejora de la calidad ambiental de los centros y asentamientos turísticos. Una estrategia que ha dado muy buenos resultados por ejemplo en Calviá, municipio turístico de la isla de Mallorca que constituye uno de los primeros casos de ciudades turísticas en dotarse de una Agenda 21 Local. Siendo ésta una via realmente interesante para muchos municipios insulares de alta especialización turística. Si consideramos la isla en su globalidad como destino, es preciso destacar dos iniciativas ciertamente ambiciosas en materia de planificación. Se refieren a las islas de Lanzarote y Menorca. Ambas fueron declaradas Reservas de la Biosfera por la UNESCO en 1993. La declaración se concedió en base a sus valiosos recursos naturales y patrimoniales y, fundamentalmente, por la excelente posibilidad que presentaban estos territorios como laboratorios del turismo sostenible. Haciendo honor a esta designación, en ambas islas se vienen desarrollando experiencias de planificación integral que constituyen hoy un excelente modelo de acción insular. En Menorca, se ha desarrollado y aprobado a nivel del gobierno local el llamado «Plan de Desarrollo Sostenible» y, en Lanzarote, el plan de similares características denominado «Lanzarote en la Biosfera»; estando ambas iniciativas cofinanciadas en el marco del Programa Life de la Comisión Europea. Pero 62
Estrategias de futuro para los destinos insulares
tampoco podemos olvidar dos experiencias pioneras en esta línea: el Ecoplán de la Isla de La Gomera (1987) y el plan de las islas de Ouessant, declaradas también reserva de biosfera. En el amplio panorama de experiencias insulares de planificación conviene resaltar algunos otros ejemplos de interés: • Maldivas: «Un Modelo de Desarrollo Sostenible del Turismo», elaborado en cooperación con la Organización Mundial del Turismo (OMT). • Plan de Desarrollo de Infraestructuras turísticas de Praham Harbour (Antigua), en cooperación con la Organización de Estados Americanos (OAS). • Proyecto de Ecoturismo de Fiji, elaborado en cooperación con el Consejo Económico de Cooperación del Pacífico (PECC), destinado a crear un plan director de desarrollo orientado a la conservación de los recursos naturales y culturales de la zona. • Iniciativa de planificación turística en el mar de Waden, que constituye un excelente ejemplo de cooperación transnacional sobre turismo sostenible en el rosario de pequeñas islas que bordean este tramo de la costa europea.
hiperdimensionado de colonización infraestructural, y al final siempre termina venciendo este último, a causa de su mayor presión. Por ejemplo, no pueden dimensionarse aeropuertos para recibir diez millones de turistas al año, cuando el máximo previsto en la planificación sostenible del territorio se sitúa en un millón. La planificación de las infraestructuras en el marco de la concepción de productos sostenibles constituye uno de los mayores desafíos actuales. Como referente de metodología a aplicar resaltamos el caso del proyecto de centro de visitantes en Teno, magnífico paraje natural situado en la costa norte de la isla de Tenerife que sufría un rápido proceso de degradación ante el continuado aumento de la frecuentación. El proyecto integra tres aspectos esenciales: planificación sostenible de los usos, integración de las infraestructuras en el territorio y definición de un producto turístico cualificado y sensible. Se emplean elementos tecnológicos de alto nivel como transporte eléctrico, arquitectura de mimetización en base a los materiales del medio, automatización y diseño pasivo en la concepción del centro de visitantes, sumergido en el terreno, recuperación de los elementos patrimoniales y masivo recurso a la electrónica en los aspectos interpretativos. Se consigue así cualificar la experiencia turística, concentrar los usos, valorizar el patrimonio cultural y mantener intacto el paisaje terrestre y marino. Esta forma de actuar es lo que se ha dado por llamar por algunos arquitectos como proyectos «astutos», capaces de cumplir los requisitos de sostenibilidad en zonas de alta frecuentación. Un magnífico ejemplo de esta concepción infraestructural lo encontramos en la isla de Lanzarote, donde el genial arquitecto de lo insólito César Manrique logró diseñar una decena de centros de visitantes absolutamente integrados en
Un aspecto esencial a contemplar en las propuestas de planificación sostenible del turismo insular radica en el diseño y concepción de las infraestructuras insulares. Con demasiada frecuencia nos encontramos con planes de ordenación territorial que restringen los niveles de ocupación del suelo y el número de alojamientos, pero que olvidan dimensionar apropiadamente aspectos como las infraestructuras de comunicaciones (aeropuertos y puertos), el viario o el suministro energético. Se produce en muchos casos la convivencia entre un sistema proteccionista del territorio con un sistema 63
el medio, imponiendo un modelo insular que hoy representa uno de los principales activos turísticos de la isla. Tal concepción se expresa en una de sus declaraciones: «yo trato de ser como la mano libre que forma la geología».
protagonismo y valor actualizado de este gran recurso insular. Un importante ejemplo de gestión integrada de la zona costera, centrado básicamente en el desarrollo de una propuesta de usos sostenibles de litoral, lo encontramos en Tenerife. En esta isla se ha concebido desde el gobierno insular, en cooperación con los agentes locales y particularmente con la industria turística, un ambicioso programa denominado Tenerife y El Mar. A través de esta iniciativa se está procediendo a la recuperación del espacio costero, introduciendo nuevas pautas turísticas, recuperando el patrimonio natural y cultural del mar, y creando formas de coexistencia, por ejemplo entre el turismo y la pesca, capaces de generar una oferta adaptada a las singulares características de esta isla.
La gestion integrada de zonas costeras El capítulo 17 de la Agenda 21 de Rio reconoce explícitamente la enorme importancia que tienen las islas en la protección de los mares y zonas costeras. Pero resulta curioso que cuando se desarrollan instrumentos de planificación en las islas, el litoral no suele ser tratado con la dignidad que merece. Es cierto que los insulares viven en muchas ocasiones de espaldas al mar y que ante la aparición del turismo, la costa se convierte simplemente en un lugar destinado al desarrollo de esta actividad, con muy pocos criterios de estrategia territorial. Un simple recorrido por las áreas insulares protegidas en el mundo nos indica claramente que la proporción de parajes litorales y marinos incluidos es ciertamente baja en proporción con las áreas terrestres. Frente a ello surge la necesidad de recuperar el
El caso del Transporte El desarrollo de la industria turística lleva aparejado el surgimiento de infraestructuras de viario importantes y cambios sustanciales en el esquema de movilidad tradicional de las islas. Los viarios de colonización costera han sido una nefasta
Estrategias de futuro para los destinos insulares
El caso de Maldivas
dra seca. Estas reflexiones condujeron a cuestionarse seriamente las nuevas demandas de comunicación que planteaban algunos sectores. De nuevo, los datos técnicos mostraron la incongruencia de tal opción desde la óptica turística. El análisis de la accesibilidad demostraba que era muy elevada (ningún punto de afluencia turística distaba de otro más de 60 minutos), pero además las encuestas a turistas indicaban su rechazo a vías rápidas de corte continental, entendiendo que el viario tradicional satisfacía mucho más sus expectativas de paseo y disfrute de la isla. Otro frente de acción que se está abriendo en las estrategias sostenibles de transporte viene de la mano de la innovación tecnológica. Hablar hoy en día de transportes colectivos, silenciosos y de emisiones ultrabajas o emisión cero, como los eléctricos, es ya una realidad. Las islas de Rügen y Jersey están experimentando la introducción de vehículos eléctricos colectivos. También en Jersey se han tomado medidas ejemplares de transporte: la velocidad máxima permitida a los vehículos de
Se trata 26 atolones que contienen 1190 islas bajas y 200 de ellas habitadas. Se han desarrollado un conjunto de estándares que conciernen a la capacidad máxima de ocupación territorial por isla en funcíón de la superficie y de las áreas sensibles. Se establece un control de la arquitectura e inclusión en el medio ambiente, adecuación tipológica de los embarcaderos, equipamientos para la gestión de residuos y recogida de aguas integradas en la arquitectura. Se introduce, además, un aspecto importante el control de la calidad en la percepción paisajística de los turistas en el diseño y ubicación de los equipamientos.
consecuencia en multitud de islas que se abren al turismo y, según datos de ISLENET, el coste energético del transporte representa el 60% del total en las áreas aisladas. Ante esta situación, la planificación sostenible del transporte se impone como una apremiante necesidad en los procesos de desarrollo turístico. Un caso nos puede ilustrar bien este problema. En el marco del Plan de Desarrollo Sostenible de Menorca se detectó que el impacto aparente de la red viaria era ciertamente más bajo en comparación con otras islas turísticas del entorno Mediterráneo. Sin embargo, los datos indicaban lo contrario, la densidad de 0,53 km/km2 de viario era mucho más alta que las medias de las otras islas. La respuesta estaba en el trazado, en Menorca el viario no había cambiado sustancialmente su esquema tradicional, a pesar de que se contabilizan 45 núcleos turísticos en una isla de 800 km2. Fruto de la especial sensibilidad insular, no se desarrollaron sustancialmente nuevos viarios turísticos y, además, desde las instituciones insulares se sigió manteniendo la misma tipología del camino tradicional apoyado en pared de pie-
motor es de 65 km/h, se impulsa actualmente un programa de alquiler de vehículos eléctricos con una autonomía de 200 km y se establecen medidas importantes para dar Skye prioridad a las bicicletas. En la reciente Conferencia de Salamanca sobre energía, transporte y telemática en las ciudades patrimonio Îles (1998), se han puesto de du Ponant relieve los grandes avances en los territorios insulares en materia de transportes turísticos Madeira alternativos hacia los centros y lugares históricos. Destaca por su complejidad la propuesta de movilidad para el conjunto de islas de Venecia, basada en un diseño combinado de transporte de bajo impacto terrestre y acuático.
El recurso a la telemática La incorporación de las islas a la sociedad de la información, permitirá a buen seguro romper muchas de los problemas y barreras asociadas a desarrollos turísticos inducidos desde el exterior. En el marco de un mundo tendente a la globalización, las islas pueden curiosamente incorporar nuevos elementos diferenciales y de valor añadido a su producción turística. Fundamentalmente: • Consolidando ofertas horizontales interinsulares • Estableciendo relaciones directas con el cliente
• Accediendo a segmentos turísticos específicos de mercado • Abriendo nuevas ventanas a la valorización del patrimonio Se trata pues de una opción que permitirá afianzar las estrategias de planificación turística que desee cada isla, acercando la oferta y la demanda en un contexto de cualificación de servicios. En esta línea, Insula con la ayuda de la DGXIII de la Comisión Europea ha lanzado un ambicioso programa telemático para las islas denominado Teleinsula, donde el turismo ocupa un papel importante, junto a la enseñanza y la salud pública. Como dato curioso de los resultados obtenidos en la primera fase sobre un conjunto de islas piloto, baste resaltar el caso de Lipari. En las escuelas de la isla se propuso que los alumnos desarrollaran, para su inclusión en internet, el diseño de las distintas visitas a la isla 66 según su particular óptica. El resultado de este
Declarations and documents
United Nations Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (Barbados 1994)
Action Programme Tourism resources
Basis for action
2 Capital investment in tourism, particularly for the necessary infrastructure, is costly. There is usually also great competition for land resources between tourism, agriculture and other land uses. Large increases in tourism and overdevelopment of tourism in particular areas or in whole islands could be environmentally and culturally disruptive and detrimental to other valuable sectors, such as agriculture. It is imperative, therefore, that the development of tourism be carefully planned, particularly in relation to compatible land uses, water management, coastal zone management and the development of parks and protected areas. Tourism, like all forms of development in the coastal zone, needs to be carefully integrated within the existing cultural and environmental constraints and opportunities present within small island developing States. Eco-tourism, linking areas of high ecological value
1 Tourism has contributed much to the development of small island developing States and, as one of only a few development options for small island developing States, will continue to be very important for their future growth. It could also stimulate the development of other sectors. However, if not properly planned and managed, it could significantly degrade the environment on which it is so dependent. The fragility and interdependence of coastal zones and the unspoilt areas on which eco-tourism depends calls for careful management. One of the special tourist attractions of small island developing States is the distinctiveness of their cultures. The diversity and fragility of their environments are reflected in the diversity and fragility of their cultures. The protection of the former is an important condition for the protection of the latter.
to low-impact tourism, may present important and environmentally sustainable opportunities for tourism development in small island developing States.
Regional action (i) Ensure that tourism and the environment are mutually supportive in cooperation schemes at the regional level including, where appropriate, harmonization of standards and regulations. (ii) Encourage the assessment and development of potential complementarities among small island developing States including the development of packaged options covering several islands and encouraging joint marketing and training programmes. (iii) Establish or strengthen regional mechanisms for the exchange of information in the development of a safe and sustainable tourism sector, using, as appropriate, the capacities of regional tourism organizations.
National action, policies and measures (i) Ensure that tourism development and environmental management are mutually supportive. (ii) Adopt integrated planning and policies to ensure sustainable tourism development, with particular attention to land-use planning and coastal zone management, requiring environmental impact assessments for all tourism projects; continuous monitoring of the environmental impact of all tourism activities; and the development of guidelines and standards for design and construction taking into account energy and water consumption, the generation and the disposal of wastes and land degradation, the proper management and protection of ecotourism attractions, and the carrying capacity of areas for tourism. (iii) Identify and develop facilities to meet specific niche markets, particularly in eco-tourism, nature and cultural tourism, and involve local populations in the identification and management of natural protected areas set aside for eco-tourism. (iv) Adopt measures to protect the cultural integrity of small island developing States.
International action (i) Promote recognition of the value of tourism in small island developing States to the international community as well as the fragility of the resources on which tourism in small island developing States depends and of the need therefore for international support to encourage its sustainable development. (ii) Facilitate efforts at the national and regional levels to assess the overall impact of the economic, social and ecological aspects of tourism, to plan sustainable tourism and to develop eco- and cultural tourism.
Declarations and documents
Berlin Declaration Biological Diversity and Sustainable Tourism We, Ministers, assembled in Berlin for the International Conference on Biodiversity and Tourism from 6 to 8 March 1997 :
• Aware that tourism is an important source of economic wealth and one of the fastest growing sectors in the world economy; • Considering that tourism is a world-wide phenomenon involving a growing number of people undertaking more long-distance journeys; • Recognizing that a healthy environment and beautiful landscapes constitute the basis of long term viable development of all tourism activities; • Observing that tourism increasingly turns to areas where nature is in relatively undisturbed state so that a substantial number of the world’s remaining natural areas are being developed for tourism activities; • Concerned that while tourism may importantly contribute to socio-economic development and cultural exchange, it has, at the same time, the potential for degrading the natural environment, social structures and cultural heritage; • Taking into account that sustainable forms of tourism generate income also for local communities, including indigenous communities, and that their interests and culture require particular attention; • Recognizing also that tourism may generate or increase a demand for wild animals, plants or products made thereof for souvenirs, and thus endanger species and effect protection measures;
• Further recognizing that there is a need to value and protect nature and biological diversity as an essential basis for sustainable development; • Convinced that nature has an intrinsic value which calls for the conservation of species, genetic and ecosystem diversity to ensure the maintenance of essential life support system; • Furthermore convinced that sustainable forms of tourism have the potential to contribute to the conservation of biological diversity outside and inside protected areas; • Bearing in mind that vulnerable areas, including small islands, coasts, mountains, wetlands, grasslands and other terrestrial and marine ecosystems and habitats of outstanding beauty and rich biological diversity deserve special measures of protection; • Convinced that achieving sustainable forms of tourism is the responsibility of all stakeholders involved, including governments at all levels, international organisations, the private sector, environmental groups and citizens both in tourism destination countries and countries of origin; • Determined to work together with all who are involved in the elaboration of international guidelines or rules that harmonize the interests of nature conservation and tourism, that lead towards sustainable development of tourism, and, thus, contribute to the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the objectives ofAgenda 21.
Charter for Sustainable Tourism
We, the participants at the World Conference on Sustainable Tourism, meeting in Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain, on 27-28April 1995,
Recalling previous declarations on tourism, such as the Manila Declaration on World Tourism, the Hague Declaration and the Tourism Bill of Rights and Tourist Code. Recognizing the need to develop a tourism that meets economic expectations and environmental requirements, and respects not only the social and physical structure of destinations, but also the local population. Considering it a priority to protect and reinforce the human dignity of both local communities and tourists. Mindful of the need to establish effective alliances among the principal actors in the field of tourism so as to fulfil the hope of a tourism that is more responsible towards our common heritage.
Mindful that tourism, as a worldwide phenomenon, touches the highest and deepest aspirations of all people and is also an important element of socioeconomic and political development in many countries. Recognizing that tourism is ambivalent, since it can contribute positively to socio-economic and cultural achievement, while at the same time it can contribute to the degradation of the environment and the loss of local identity, and should therefore be approached with a global methodology. Mindful that the resources on which tourism is based are fragile and that there is a growing demand for improved environmental quality. Recognizing that tourism affords the opportunity to travel and to know other cultures, and that the development of tourism can help promote closer ties and peace among peoples, creating a conscience that is respectful of the diversity of culture and life styles. Recalling the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the GeneralAssembly of United Nations, and the various United Nations declarations and regional conventions on tourism, the environment, the conservation of cultural heritage and on sustainable development. Guided by the principles set forth in the Rio Declaration on the Environment and Development and the recommendations arising fromAgenda 21.
APPEAL to the international community and, in particular, URGE governments, other public authorities, decisionmakers and professionals in the field of tourism, public and private associations and institutions whose activities are related to tourism, and tourists themselves, to adopt the principles and objectives of the Declaration that follows: 1 Tourism development shall be based on criteria of sustainability, which means that it must be ecologically bearable in the long term, as well as economically viable, and ethically and socially equitable for local communities. 70
Declarations and documents
Sustainable development is a guided process which envisages global management of resources so as to ensure their viability, thus enabling our natural and cultural capital, including protected areas, to be preserved.As a powerful instrument of development, tourism can and should participate actively in the sustainable development strategy. Arequirement of sound management of tourism is that the sustainability of the resources on which it depends must be guaranteed.
6 Quality criteria both for the preservation of the tourist destination and for the capacity to satisfy tourists, determined jointly with local communities and informed by the principles of sustainable development, should represent priority objectives in the formulation of tourism strategies and projects. 7 To participate in sustainable development, tourism must be based on the diversity of opportunities offered by the local economy. It should be fully integrated into and contribute positively to local economic development.
2 Tourism should contribute to sustainable development and be integrated with the natural, cultural and human environment; it must respect the fragile balances that characterize many tourist destinations, in particular small islands and environmentally sensitive areas. Tourism should ensure an acceptable evolution as regards its influence on natural resources, biodiversity and the capacity for assimilation of any impacts and residues produced.
8 All options for tourism development must serve effectively to improve the quality of life of all people and must influence the socio-cultural enrichment of each destination. 9 Governments and the competent authorities, with the participation of NGOs and local communities, shall undertake actions aimed at integrating the planning of tourism as a contribution to sustainable development.
3 Tourism must consider its effects on the cultural heritage and traditional elements, activities and dynamics of each local community. Recognition of these local factors and support for the identity, culture and interests of the local community must at all times play a central role in the formulation of tourism strategies, particularly in developing countries.
10 In recognition of economic and social cohesion among the peoples of the world as a fundamental principle of sustainable development, it is urgent that measures be promoted to permit a more equitable distribution of the benefits and burdens of tourism. This implies a change of consumption patterns and the introduction of pricing methods which allow environmental costs to be internalised. Governments and multilateral organizations should prioritize and strengthen direct and indirected aid to tourism projects which contribute to improving the quality of the environment. Within this context, it is necessary to explore thoroughly the application of internationally harmonised economic, legal and fiscal instruments to ensure the sustainable use of resources in tourism.
4 The active contribution of tourism to sustainable development necessarily presupposes the solidarity, mutual respect and participation of all the actors, both public and private, implicated in the process, and must be based on efficient cooperation mechanisms at all levels: local, national, regional and international. 5 The conservation, protection and appreciation of the worth of the natural and cultural heritage afford a privileged area for cooperation. This approach implies that all those responsible must take upon themselves a true challenge, that of cultural, technological and professional innovation, and must also undertake a major effort to create and implement integrated planning and management instruments.
11 Environmentally and culturally vulnerable spaces, both now and in the future, shall be given special priority in the matter of technical cooperation and financial aid for sustainable tourism development. Similarly, special treatment should be given to zones that have been degraded by obsolete and high impact tourism models. 71
12 The promotion of alternative forms of tourism that are compatible with the principles of sustainable development, together with the encouragement of diversification represent a guarantee of stability in the medium and the long term. In this respect there is a need, for many small islands and environmentally sensitive areas in particular, to actively pursue and strengthen regional cooperation.
sustainable tourism development and establish programmes to support the implementation of such practices. They shall monitor achievements, report on results and exchange their experiences. 16 Particular attention should be paid to the role and the environmental repercussions of transport in tourism, and to the development of economic instruments designed to reduce the use of non-renewable energy and to encourage recycling and minimization of residues in resorts.
13 Governments, industry, authorities, and tourism-related NGOs should promote and participate in the creation of open networks for research, dissemination of information and transfer of appropriate knowledge on tourism and environmentally sustainable tourism technologies.
17 The adoption and implementation of codes of conduct conducive to sustainability by the principal actors involved in tourism, particularly industry, are fundamental if tourism is to be sustainable. Such codes can be effective instruments for the development of responsible tourism activities.
14 The establishment of a sustainable tourism policy necessarily requires the support and promotion of environmentally-compatible tourism management systems, feasibility studies for the transformation of the sector, as well as the implementation of demonstration projects and the development of international cooperation programmes.
18 All necessary measures should be implemented in order to inform and promote awareness among all parties involved in the tourism industry, at local, national, regional and international level, with regard to the contents and objectives of the Lanzarote Conference.
15 The travel industry, together with bodies and NGOs whose activities are related to tourism, shall draw up specific frameworks for positive and preventive actions to secure
Declarations and documents
EUROPEAN ISLAND AGENDA Minorca 1997 Chapter 3 TOWARDS A NEW TOURIST CULTURE IN ISLANDS A. Basis for action • European island resorts have developed very rapidly in a short period of time. They currently receive more than 40 million tourists a year. • Tourism is one of the mainstays of the economies of 70% of European islands. In a third of these, it accounts for more than 50% of G.D.P. • Environmental degradation can be highly detrimental to tourist products, forcing them to pay the price of all products that are no longer competitive. This is something island economies and territories could not bear. • Tourism on many islands is highly seasonal, which means they need solutions and products that maintain employment and economic activity in the low season. • A lack of integration of the tourist industry in the natural, cultural and human environment can easily upset the fragile balance that characterises island tourist resorts, making them economically and ecologically vulnerable. • The area of conserving, protecting and promoting the natural and cultural heritage of the islands is ideal ground for an alliance between tourism and sustainable development. Maintaining resources will guarantee greater diversity of economic activity and tourist products, helping them, therefore, to become more competitive and profitable. • A balance between the development of tourism and the capacity of existing infrastructures, facilities and services
must be ensured, in order to prevent irreversible territorial distortions and environmental impacts. • It is essential to opt for an integrated approach to environmental care in the tourist industry.An immediate objective of the islands is to adopt environmental criteria in the Management of Tourism Quality. • Special attention must be paid to areas that have become deteriorated by obsolete or inappropriate tourist actions, because of the negative consequences they have on how quality is perceived in tourist resorts. • Qualifying and integrating facilities and services, using criteria of environmental integration and recovering local culture, represents one of the main technical and managerial challenges for the current tourist industry.
B. Priorities • Develop reinforcement actions to improve the common image of European island holiday destinations. • Foster agreement between all the players involved in the planning of tourism: the tourist industry, public institutions, local population and NGOs. • Develop specific planning tools for developing sustainable tourism. • Define and implement specific indicators for island tourism schemes.
• Promote the creation of eco-tourism quality labels by the islands themselves. • Develop island networks and routes, with joint promotion and management systems between different island regions of Europe. • Promote a local Agenda 21 among the local authorities and people of tourist resorts.
• Promote responsible codes of conduct and good practise guides aimed at both the tourist industry and at tourists themselves. • Develop co-operation projects based on the enormous potential of the new telecommunications systems and information technology.
Declarations and documents
Rio Declaration on Environment and Development The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development,
Principle 3 The right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably meet developmental and environmental needs of present and future generations.
Having met at Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992, Reaffirming the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, adopted at Stockholm on 16 June 1972 and seeking to build upon it, With the goal of establishing a new and equitable global partnership through the creation of new levels of cooperation among States, key sectors of societies and people, Working towards international agreements which respect the interests of all and protect the integrity of the global environmental and developmental system, Recognizing the integral and interdependent nature of the Earth, our home, Proclaims that:
Principle 4 In order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be considered in isolation from it. Principle 5 All States and all people shall cooperate in the essential task of eradicating poverty as an indispensable requirement for sustainable development, in order to decrease the disparities in standards of living and better meet the needs of the majority of the people of the world.
Principle 1 Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainabledevelopment. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.
Principle 6 The special situation and needs of developing countries, particularly the least developed and those most environmentally vulnerable, shall be given special priority. International actions in the field of environment and development should also address the interests and needs of all countries.
Principle 2 States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental policies, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyondthe limits of national jurisdiction.
Principle 7 States shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earthâ€™s ecosystem. In view of the different contributions to
global environmental degradation, States have common but differentiated responsibilities. The developed countries acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the international pursuit of sustainable development in view of the pressures their societies place on the global environment and of the technologies and financial resources they command.
Principle 12 States should cooperate to promote a supportive and open international economic system that would lead to economic growth and sustainable development in all countries, to better address the problems of environmental degradation. Trade policy measures for environmental purposes should not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade. Unilateral actions to deal with environmental challenges outside the jurisdiction of the importing country should be avoided. Environmental measures addressing transboundary or global environmental problems should, as far as possible, be based on an international consensus.
Principle 8 To achieve sustainable development and a higher quality of life for all people, States should reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of production and consumption and promote appropriate demographic policies. Principle 9 States should cooperate to strengthen endogenous capacity-building for sustainable development by improving scientific understanding through exchanges of scientific and technological knowledge, and by enhancing the development, adaptation, diffusion and transfer of technologies, including new and innovative technologies.
Principle 13 Statesshalldevelopnationallawregardingliabilityandcompensation for the victims of pollution and other environmental damage. States shall also cooperate in an expeditious and more determined manner to develop further international law regarding liability and compensation for adverse effects of environmental damage caused by activities within their jurisdiction or control to areas beyond their jurisdiction.
Principle 10 Environmental issues are best handled with the participationof all concerned citizens, at the relevant level. At the nationallevel, each individual shall have appropriate access to information concerning the environment that is held by public authorities, including information on hazardous materials and activities in their communities, and the opportunity to participate in decision-making processes. States shall facilitate and encourage public awareness and participation by making information widely available. Effective access to judicial and administrativeproceedings, including redress and remedy, shall be provided.
Principle 14 States should effectively cooperate to discourage or prevent the relocation and transfer to other States of any activities and substances that cause severe environmental degradation or are found to be harmful to human health. Principle 15 In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by States according to their capabilities. Where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation.
Principle 11 States shall enact effective environmental legislation. Environmental standards, management objectives and priorities should reflect the environmental and developmental context to which they apply. Standards applied by some countries may be inappropriate and of unwarranted economic and social cost to other countries, in particular developing countries.
Principle 16 National authorities should endeavour to promote the internalization of environmental costs and the use of economic instruments, taking into account the approach that the polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of pollution, with due 76
Declarations and documents
Principle 22 Indigenous people and their communities and other local communities have a vital role in environmental management and development because of their knowledge and traditional practices. States should recognize and duly support their identity, culture and interests and enable their effective participation in the achievement of sustainable development.
regard to the public interest and without distorting international trade and investment. Principle 17 Environmental impact assessment, as a national instrument,shall be undertaken for proposed activities that are likely to have a significant adverse impact on the environment and are subject to a decision of a competent national authority.
Principle 23 The environment and natural resources of people under oppression, domination and occupation shall be protected.
Principle 18 States shall immediately notify other States of any natural disasters or other emergencies that are likely to produce sudden harmful effects on the environment of those States. Every effort shall be made by the international community to help States so afflicted.
Principle 24 Warfare is inherently destructive of sustainable development. States shall therefore respect international law providing protection for the environment in times of armed conflict and cooperate in its further development, as necessary.
Principle 19 States shall provide prior and timely notification and relevant information to potentially affected States on activities that may have a significant adverse transboundary environmental effect and shall consult with those States at an early stage and in good faith.
Principle 25 Peace, development and environmental protection are interdependent and indivisible.
Principle 20 Women have a vital role in environmental management anddevelopment. Their full participation is therefore essential to achieve sustainable development.
Principle 26 States shall resolve all their environmental disputes peacefully and by appropriate means in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.
Principle 21 The creativity, ideals and courage of the youth of the world should be mobilized to forge a global partnership in order to achieve sustainable development and ensure a better future for all.
Principle 27 States and people shall cooperate in good faith and in a spirit of partnership in the fulfilment of the principles embodied in this Declaration and in the further development of international law in the field of sustainable development.
Bibliografía y direcciones de interés Turismo sostenible - Hall, C.M., Jenkins, J. and Kearsley, G. (eds.), Tourism, Policy and Planning inAustralia and New Zealand: Issues and Cases, Irwin Publishers (a Division of McGraw-Hill), Sydney, 1997 - Hall, C.M. & Alan A. Lew (eds.) Sustainable Tourism Development: A Geographical Perspective Addison Wesley Longman, Harlow, 1998. - Hughes, Peter. Planning for sustainable Tourism. International Federation of Tour Operators (IFTO). - Marín, Cipriano y Mendaro, Ceferino. Turismo y desarrollo sostenible. El desafío ante el siglo XXI. Comité Español del Programa MAB. - Industry and Environment on Sustainable Tourism Development, Vol 15, No. 3-4, 1992. - IUCN, Tourism, , ecotourism and protected areas, Gland, Switzerland, 1996. - LyonDahl,Arthur.Conservationplanningandenvironmental monitoring for tourism development. p. 125-128. In D.G. Pearce (ed.), Tourism in the South Pacific: the contribution of research to development and planning. Proceedings UNESCOTourismWorkshop. N. Z. MAB Report 6. 1980. - McIntyre, George. Sustainable Tourism Development: Guide for Local Planners, WTO - OMT, Estudio sobre la contribución del Turismo a la conservación del MedioAmbiente, 1983. - UNEP / WTO, Workshop sobre aspectos del medio ambiente relacionados con el turismo, 1983. - UNEP, Industry and Environment review, n.1, vol. 7 -Tourism and the Environment, 1984. - UNEP, Industry and Environment review, n.1, vol. 9 - Carrying capacity for tourism activities, 1986.
- Rein, Hartmut and Wolfgang Strasdas, Tourism Development and Conservation of Biological Diversity in Coastal Regions. - Tourism Focus, the bi-annual newsletter produced as a supplement to the Industry and Environment review. - UNEP IE, Ecolabels in the tourism industry, 1998. - UNEP IE / Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol, How the Hotel and Tourism Industry can Protect The Ozone Layer, 1998. - UNEPIE / WTO / FEEE,Awards for Improving the Coastal Environment: the Example of the Blue Flag, 1997. - WTTC, European Union Travel and Tourism, Towards 1996 and beyond, Brussels 1995. - WTTC, WTO, Earth Council, Agenda 21 for the travel and tourism industry – towards sustainable development, 1996. Guías de buenas prácticas - Ecotourism Association of Australia. Best Practice Ecotourism,Australian Tourist Commission. - IHEI, IH&RA, UNEP. Environmental Action Pack for Hotels. - IHEI. Environmental Management for Hotels, Butterworth Heinemann. - Environmental Codes of Conduct for Tourism, UNEP IE Technical Report No. 29, 1995. - GreenAudit Kit. Rural Development Commission, UK. - Naturalmente exitoso. Schweitzer Hotelier-Verein & Schweitzer Wirteverband. - UNEP IE / WTO, Guidelines: Development of National Parks and Protected Areas for Tourism, 1994.
Casos y proyectos - Calviá,Agenda local 21.Ayuntamiento de Calviá - Hamele, Herbert. The book of environmental seals and ecolabels. Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation & Nuclear Safety.
- Case Studies on Environmental Good Practice in Hotels UNEP IE/IHRA, 1997. - De Meyer, Kalli, How tourism can help protect the environment: a case study of the Bonaire Marine Park, UNEP, in Tourism FOCUS n. 9, 1997.
Sitios WEB recomendados sobre turismo y medio ambiente
UNEP IE - Tourism Programme http://www.unepie.org/tourism/prog.html
ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) http://www.iso.ch
The International Hotels Environment Initiative (IHEI) http://islands.org/ihei.htm
Guide to Best Practice http://www.oneworld.org/pwblf/ihei/practical/envhot1.htm
Environmental Action Packs for Hotels http://www.oneworld.org/pwblf/ihei
Sustainable Tourism Self-Audit Workbook. http://www.destination-ns.com/tians/balance.htm
World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) ECoNETT http://www.wttc.org
Traveler’s Code for Traveling Responsibly Guidelines for Individuals. http://www2.pirt.org/pirt/travelcode.html
Pacific Asia Travel Association http://www.pata.org
The Eco-source http://www.podi.com/ecosource
The Ecotourism Society http://www.ecotourism.org
Baltic21 Tourism http://www.surfnet.fi/agenda21 Office of National Tourism - Australia. http://www.dist.gov.au/tourism
Guide to Energy and Water Conservation in Hotels. http://hotelnikko.com.hk/energy
Directrices para el ecoturismo http://www.ecotourism.org/textfiles/spanguid.txt
Biosphere Hotels http://www.newtourism.com
Bibliografía y direcciones de interés
Direcciones de interés • UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) Industry and Environment, Tour Mireabeau, 39-43 Quai André Citroën, F-75739 Paris Cedex 15. Tel. +33 1 44371450 - Fax +33 1 40588874
• PATA (Pacific Asia Travel Association) - Operational Headquarters, Unit B1, 28th Floor, Siam Tower, 989 Rama I Road, Pratumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. Tel. +66 2 6582000 - Fax. + 66 2 6582010
• World Tourism Organisation (WTO), Capitán Haya 42, E-28020 Madrid. Tel. +34 91 571 0628 - Fax +34 91 5713733.
• Hotel Nikko, 72 Mody Road Tsimshatsui East Kowloon Hong Kong. Tel. +852 27391111 - Fax +852 23113122, e-mail: email@example.com
• AIEST (International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism), Varnbüelstrasse 19, CH-9000 St. Gallen. Tel. +41 71 2242530 - Fax +41 71 2242536.
• ISO (International Organization for Standardization) Central Secretariat, 1 rue de Varembé, Case postale 56, CH-1211 Genève 20. Tel. +41 227490111 - Fax +41 22 733 34 30, e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org - WWW http://www.iso.ch
• ECONETT Project Office, c/o WTTC. Tel. +44 171 2352135 - Fax +44 171 2352445, e-mail: email@example.com.
• TIANS (Tourism Industry Association of Nova Scotia), World Trade and Convention Centre, 1800 Argyle Street, Suite 402, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, B3J 3N8. Tel. +902 4234480 - Fax +902 4220184, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
• Green Globe office, c/o WTTC. Tel. +44 171 2352135 – Fax +44 171 2352445 • IFTO (International Federation of Tour Operators), 170 High Street, GB-Lewes BN7 1YE. Tel. +44 1273 477722 – Fax +44 1273 483746 • IHA (The International Hotel Association), 80 rue de la Roquette, F-75544 Paris, Cedex 11. Tel. +33 1 47008457 – Fax +33 1 40588874
• South Australia Tourism Commission, 7th and 8th floors, Terrace Towers, 178 North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia, 5000. Tel. +61 8 3032222 - Fax +61 8 3032339
• IHEI (International Hotels Environment Initiative), c/o The Prince of Wales Business Leaders Forum, 5 Cleveland Place, St. James’, GB-London SW1Y 6JJ. Tel. +44 171 3216407 (direct), 44 171 9252933 (switchboard) Fax +44 171 3216480
• The Earth Council Secretariat, Apartado 2323-1002, San José, Costa Rica. Tel. +506 2561611 - Fax +506 2552197, e-mail: email@example.com • IH&RA (International Hotel & Restaurant Association), 251 rue du Faubourg St-Martin 75010 Paris, France, Tel. 33 1 44899400 - Fax 33 1 40367330.
• INSULA (International Scientific Council for Island Development), c/o UNESCO, 1 rue de Miollis, 75015 Paris -France. Tel.: +33 1 45 68 40 56 - Fax: +33 1 45 68 58 04 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
• The Responsible Tourism Institute, Apdo. de correos 11052 Santa Cruz de Tenerife o Apdo. de correos 54048 Madrid Tel. +34 902 11 77 25 - Fax +34 91 738 46 86 e-mail: email@example.com Internet: www.newtourism.com
• IUCN European Office, 219 Huntington Road, GB-Cambridge CB3 0DL. Tel. +44 1223 277802 - Fax +44 1223 277175 • WTTC (World Travel and Tourism Council), 20 Grosvenor Place, GB-London SW1X 7TT. Tel. +44 171 8399400 - Fax +44 171 8389050
• ACTA (Associazione Cultura Turismo Ambiente) via Scarlatti, 27 , Milano, Italy. Tel. +39 026709862 - Fax +39 0266716371, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
• The Ecotourism Society, P.O. Box 755 North Bennington, VT 05257, Tel. +1 802-447-2121 - Fax.+1802-447-2122 email: email@example.com
• ECOTRANS e.V., Berliner Promenade 7, D-66111 Saarbrücken, Germany. Tel. +49 681 374679 - Fax +49 681 374633, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
• Baltic Sea Tourism Commission, Tel. +46 11 123 503 - Fax +46 11 103 103, e-mail: email@example.com
• International Centre for Tourism & Hospitality Research, Box 2816, Poole BH12 SYT, University P.O.,UNITED KINGDOM. Tel. + 44 1202 595158 - Fax + 44 1202 595228
• Sustainable Development Institute MicronesianArea Research Center, University of Guam, MARC-UOG, 303 University Drive, UOG Station, Mangilao, Guam 96923, USA. Tel. +1 671 7352150 - Fax +1 671 7347403
• CIRAD (Ecoregional Island Development Network), BP 5035, 34032 Montpellier FRANCE. Tel. +33 4 67593872 - Fax +33 4 67593799
• Conservation International, 2501 M Street, NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC, 20037 USA. Tel. +1202 4295660 Toll-Free +1800 4295660 Fax +1 202 8870193
• Research Institute for Subtropics, 1 Asahimachi, Naha, Okinawa 900, JAPAN. Tel. +81 98 8667500 - Fax +81 98 8667533 • Route Méditerranéenne de l’Histoire et de la Culture des Iles, 8 rue de Diamants, 75013 Paris, FRANCE. Tel. +33 1 45801862 - Fax: +33 1 45810800.