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EUROPEAN ISLAND OPET CONSORTIUM INSULA, International Scientific Council for Island Development Co-ordinator c/o UNESCO, 1 rue Miollis. F-75015 Paris. FRANCE Contact: Cipriano Marin Tel.:+33-145684056 Fax: +33-145685804 E-mail: insula@insula.org

Energy, Environment, Sustainable development

Mission The European Island OPET Consortium operates as a node for information and dissemination of innovative EU energy solutions and RTD results in the field of renewable energies and energy efficiency, taking care of islands’ particular conditions. The EI OPET also operates as a centre for the identification of island priorities, opportunities and possibility to replicate successful projects adapted to islands’ variable needs. Among the priority areas and sectors, the following ones should be emphasised: promotion of 100% RES initiatives, implementation of new RES and RUE solutions in the tourist sector, and promotion of water-production technologies based on the use of RES.

Results RTD results: identification and consolidation of new initiatives and pilot projects on the line of “renewable energy islands”; establishment of successful tools to bring into contact RES market actors with insular end users within key sectors such as tourism or water production. Policy results: generation of far-reaching island agreements (Chania Declaration) for the promotion of RES in island territories and the defence of specific island policies, dissemination and analysis of the impact of EC documents and directives dealing with islands, as well as proposal of regulatory and legislative frameworks at a national and local scale.

ITER, Instituto de Tecnología y Energías Renovables Poligono Industrial de Granadilla - Parque Eólico E-38611 San Isidro - Tenerife. SPAIN Contact: Manuel Cendagorta Tel.:+34-922391000 Fax: +34-922391001 E-mail: iter@iter.rcanaria.es NTUA-RENES, National Technical University of Athens 9, Heroon Polytechniou Str. GR-15780 Zografu-Athens. GREECE Contact: Arthouros Zervos Tel.:+30-17721030 Fax: +30-17721047 E-mail: Zervos@fluid.mech.ntua.gr AREAM, Agencia Regional da Energia e Ambiente da Região Autonoma da Madeira Madeira Tecnopolo. P-9000-390 Funchal. PORTUGAL Contact: José Manuel Melim Mendes Tel.:+351-291723300 Fax: +351-291720033 E-mail: aream@mail.telepac.pt ANCIM, Associazione Nazionale Comuni Isole Minori Via dei Prefetti 46. I-00186 Roma. ITALY Contact: Franco Cavallaro Tel.:+39-090361967 Fax: +39-090343828 E-mail: frcavall@tin.it HIIU MAA VALITSUS, Hiiumaa County Government Department of Regional Development Leigri väljak 5, Kärdla 92401, Hiiumaa. ESTONIA Contact: Reet Kokovkin Tel.:+37 246 31132 Fax: +37 246 31089 E-mail: reet@mv.hiiumaa.ee


Summary of Activities 1. Renewable Energy initiatives: promotion of projects and actions aiming at large-scale implementation of renewable energy sources on EU islands. Promotion actions gave special importance to those initiatives characterised by a maximum exploitation of wind potential and to those ones characterised by integration of different renewable energy sources. 2. Sustainable energies for priority sectors: promotion of projects and initiatives aimed at the incorporation of the sustainable energy strategy and the adoption of solutions based on clean transports in the tourist sector, since the high importance of this activity on islands, and the need to support water production starting from RES in a large number of European tourist islands. 3. Policy-oriented and general dissemination measures: - promotion and dissemination of the EC Green Paper on Security of Energy Supply, EC White Paper for Energy, and related directives. – Maintenance of web site – publication of the EIO Newsletter “Renewable Energy Sources for Islands” - launching of campaigns of co-operation with island authorities and international organisations – dissemination of the agreements and declarations on inter-island co-operation in favour of RES that have been adopted to most European island institutions. 4. Conferences and declarations: celebration of three conferences with a special importance within the sustainable energy strategy of European islands, on specific subjects: Towards 100% RES, Tourism Tech-Island Forum, Energy and Water on Islands. Actions included the preparation of studies, reports pamphlets articles within island magazines, electronic documents, mailings, as well as promotion of EI OPET initiatives through the participation in various local, regional and international events. European Island OPET performs its promotional activities through: • Evaluation of island communities’ needs and difficulties to access the information on stateof-the-art energy technologies – analysis of projects that can be replicated – encouraging market actors and end-users to overcome barriers that hinder a maximum exploitation of RES in the privileged island situation. • Acknowledgement of the essential role played by local authorities and island institutions in the application of strategies, favouring the high potential and competitivity on new energy technologies in island territories. • Guaranteeing the implementation of achieved successful results by means of international and regional island’s networks and island related associations, and through a permanent and smooth access to main development bodies and island responsibles. • Development of its network of focal points for the promotion of RET and energy sustainability within the wide segment of the European Union made up by more than 300 islands. Distribution and specialisation of the EI OPET Consortium members allow to develop its activity as a network of focal points in the main regional areas of European island.

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Public Report for Year 2001/2002 Part 1: Renewable Energies 1.1. 100% RES initiatives WP 1.a. Towards 100% RES Supply The Chania Conference Objectives: • To promote 100% RES initiatives on islands. • To facilitate replication and knowledge about island projects and strategies aiming at a large-scale use of renewable energy sources on EU islands. Main activities: • Identification of most relevant projects carried out on European islands and analysis of the possibility to replicate them on other islands, taking into account the extreme singularity of situations available within island territories and activities with regard to energy supply. • Development of a Catalogue of island 100% initiatives on European islands, containing both experiences and promoter institutions. • Enlargement of the network of islands and island communities, aiming to incorporate projects with maximum use of RES in their energy strategy. • Analysis of the new energy technology state of the art and of the existing barriers to largescale implementation of RET. • Start of the project with the celebration of the Conference of Chania (Crete), where the Declaration “Islands – Towards 100% RES Supply” was approved, with the participation of island authorities, energy deciders, main market actors, and RET manufacturers. • Dissemination of the Chania agreements to the ensemble of island authorities and energy actors, promotion of common policies based on inter-island co-operation aimed at strengthening 100% RES initiatives.

Presentation of the Chania agreements with the presence of island authorities, EC representatives and members of the European Island OPET Consortium.

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Some 150 European islands’ representatives met in Chania (Crete) in order to consolidate the need for a large-scale strategy aiming to promote the maximum use of renewable energy sources on islands.

WP 1.b. Agreements in defence of islands’ specificity in the matter of energy supply and RET development. Objectives: • Involvement of Island Governments within the process. • Promotion of legislative initiatives. • Inclusion of 100% RES strategies in island development planning. Main activities: • Development of an agreement with the Italian Ministry of the Environment to carry out viability studies and establish investment funds for actions on Italian Smaller Islands in this field. • Inclusion of the objectives developed in Chania, and of a commitment to reach 100% RES Supply, within the sustainable development plans approved by the island governments of La Palma and El Hierro, both declared Biosphere Reserves by UNESCO. • Participation and promotion of legislative initiatives aimed at favouring RES in island territories, such as the non-legislative proposal prepared for the Spanish Parliament. WP 1.c. Campaigns for the promotion of renewables on islands. Objective: To take advantage of the existing tools and campaigns for RET promotion and 100% RES initiatives in European islands. Main activities: • Promotion of the Take-Off campaign and incorporation of new islands (El Hierro, La Palma, Campos-Majorca, Porto Santo, Ventotene...). • Consolidation of the insular dissemination centres specialised in RES and their valorisation as a network (ITER centre, Campos centre project,...) • Agreement with the UNESCO MaB programme for the establishment of dissemination campaigns on 100% RES strategies and pilot projects in those island territories declared Biosphere Reserves and considered as models of sustainable development.

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WP 1.d. Agreements for the promotion and execution of 100% RES pilot projects Objective: Identification of relevant projects and definition of the agreement frameworks for their fulfilment. Main activities: • Consolidation of the “El Hierro 100% RES” proposal (Canary Islands). • Integration and advising, with regard to the Campos-Majorca project proposal. WP 1.e. Software tool for an Island 100% RES strategy Objective: To establish a general guideline for the integration of RES Main activities: • Generation of a decisional model for the establishment of different scenarios of RES penetration in island systems, starting from actual data, under the direction of ITER. • Application of this model to the island of Tenerife, as a decision-making basis for the launching of the “Tenerife 100%” programme. • Dissemination of this initiative to other islands, as well as offer of assistance for the development of scenarios. Achieved results Policy impact: After the agreements of Chania and the development of several information campaigns, a high increase in the interest of local authorities and main islands deciders to incorporate projects on the line of 100% RES Supply has been detected. Island communities that joined in this initiative have already made up a large network, able to influence the ensemble of 13 million European citizens who live on islands. It is very significant to emphasise that the existing sensitivity within the island political scope, and even at the European Parliament level, pleads the establishment of specific policies for renewables on islands. RTD impact: The higher knowledge of RET’s state of the art, as well as the existence of very evolved reference projects and their viability, allowed to make a very important qualitative leap as regards big projects of energy supply from renewables. Main insular energy operators started to quickly change their attitude when they discovered the advantages of RET’s (wind energy in particular) in small and medium-sized islands. Another factor that starts to contribute to their success is the increased providers’ and operators’ awarenessof the existence of such a big market, when considered as a whole: the islands’ market.

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Nevertheless, there is a big difference in the implementation process of other segments of RET applicability (such as solar thermal or PV) including solutions and technologies related with energy efficiency, in several island regions. The Chania Conference proceedings, as well as case studies, reference projects and the description of the 100% Software, are available in the EI OPET web site.

Part 2: Actions in Priority Sectors RES for Tourism and Water WP 1.f.

The Binomial EnergyWater Energy-W ater,, led by Fast – Punto d’Energia - Sassari (Italy)

Objectives: Identification of pilot projects and promotion of solutions regarding water production (desalination) based on RET application. Specific attention has been given to the solution of the seasonal freshwater shortage on tourist islands in Southern Europe. Main activities: • Co-organisation of the Conference “Energies and Water on Islands” held in Sardinia in November 2001. Dissemination of results and identification of pilot cases. • Dissemination of results of the projects carried out in the Canary Islands (ITER and ITC), and identification of new cases which can bring to the development of new demonstration projects (Porto Santo, Smaller Italian Islands, El Hierro, Island of Sal). • Participation in International Fairs related with water-production technologies and help in making agreements between RET sectors and Desalination Technologies. One of the sessions of the Conference “Energy and Water on Islands”, where more than 30 European islands participated, together with island energy bodies and manufacturers related with RET and water desalination technologies.

Participation of the European Island OPET Consortium in the International Fair of Water, in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (CANAGUA – 2001), with the presence of the Industry and Energy Minister of the Canary Islands Government.

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WP 2.a. The Tech Island Tourism Forum Objective: Launching of the Island-Tech Tourism Forum as an instrument for the promotion of new RET+RUE technologies and alternative transport innovation projects for the island tourist sector. Main activities: • Establishment of agreements for the promotion of RET’s and new technologies of clean transport in tourism, incorporating the concept of Renewable Tourist Destination. • Identification and analysis of gaps of information and contact existing between tourist organisations and RET market actors, with a succesive generation of proposals to overcome the barriers causing a low penetration of RES and clean transport solutions in a sector of an incredible potential such as the tourist sector on islands. • Design and preparation of the Forum of Island Tourist Destinations Authorities as a political support to the initiative. • Organisation of the International Conference “Lanzarote 2001” by the EI OPET Consortium, in collaboration with the Institute of Responsible Tourism (UNESCO) and other international and local associations representing the tourist sector both at destination and hospitality levels. The Forum was constituted during this Conference, defining also its functions, objectives and initial composition. • Participation in island destinations’ planning, in order to include guidelines on RES and efficient transports, such as in the cases of the POT (Tourist Plan for the Autonomous Region of Madeira) and the Sustainable Tourist Destination Plan of the island of La Palma. • Promotion of pilot projects on sustainable hotels as energetically efficient buildings (Madeira and Lanzarote).

Opening Session of the Conference “Lanzarote 2001” with the presence of the Ministers of Tourism and of Environment of the Canary and Cape Verde island regions , and of representatives of the European Island OPET, of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology, as well as members of IHEI (International Hotels Environment Initiative), of the Institute of Responsible Tourism and of the Biosphere Hotels World Network.

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WP 2.b. The Campaign “ A new Sun for Islands”, in cooperation “A with ICAEN Objective: Launching of a pilot campaign for the promotion of RET in the tourist sector. The campaign has been initially addressed to those tourist destinations catalogued as Island Biosphere Reserves by UNESCO, owing to their international qualification as privileged sites where to test pilot projects of sustainable development. Main activities: • Concretisation of support agreements with local authorities and representatives of the tourist sector of each island for the establishment of the campaign’s objectives and profile. The islands finally selected were: Guadeloupe, Lanzarote, El Hierro, Minorca and Galapagos. In each area an ensemble of campaign objectives and contents was differentiated, according with tourist end-users, land features and RETs to promote. • Launching of the campaign, development of contents and design of dissemination elements (displays, posters, brochures, cartels, information to media, interviews, TV programmes). • Placing of the dissemination elements in 6 airports (origin and destination), tourist centres and 34 hotels and resorts.

Left: Stand for information on the campaign at the airport of Minorca. Right: Presentation of the initiative in Crete, with the presence of Mechtild Rothe (member of the European Parliament), A. Zervos (EREC – European Renewable Energy Council), A. Garriga (ICAEN) and representatives of INSULA.

Informative display – Associated logo “Biosphere Hotels”

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• Evaluation of the campaign impacts both on the tourist sector of each destination (local authorities, services, hospitality, transport sector) and on the tourists’ perception and demand of RES utilisation in each destination. • Agreements with the Institute of Responsible Tourism to include the requirements regarding implementation of RET and energy efficiency solutions in the hotel sector and the permanent placing of the Campaign elements in the establishments belonging to the “Biosphere Hotels International Network”. Achieved results Policy impact: Identification of an improvement of the destination’s image associated with the use of RES in the sector, with the promotion of new transports and the promotion of new measures of energy efficiency and clean water production (sustainable and renewable destination), demonstrated to be an excellent combination to break the traditional inertia of this sector. The Forum allowed the integration of market actors and most relevant tourist users, but it also favoured political support by local authorities, which perfectly understood that improvement and competitivity of each destination has to be progressively associated with an image of energy sustainability. An important step within this initiative was the acknowledgment by the World Tourism Organization, and also an unconditional support by important tour operators such as TUI. RTD impact: Effects associated with the Forum’s activity, conferences and workshops, as well as the campaign itself, produced the appearance of demand and pilot projects a lot higher than expected in several destinations. It is worth mentioning the implementation of solar systems in the Biosphere Hotels Network, the suggestion for a Green Hotel project in Madeira, the implementation of energy saving systems in La Palma and Minorca, the expectations created in Hiiumaa. A case of interest that shows some of the barriers existing in this field is given by the development of a solar programme by Asolan, in Lanzarote, which generated a demand for more than 3000 m2 of solar panels, with the resulting difficulties for local provider companies and technicians to supply and install them.

First meeting of Tourist Municipality Mayors associated to the Forum in favour of renewable, with the presence of the representatives of Erice (Sicily), Hersonissos (Crete), Campos (Majorca), La Palma (Canary Islands), and the UNESCO, INSULA and ANCIM.

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Part 3: Policy-oriented General Dissemination Measures and Co-operation WP 1.h. General dissemination activities Objective: To act as a focal point for information about initiatives launched within the EI OPET, as well as relevant information about technologies and related projects, and basic documents of EC’s policy regarding energy and transports. It includes the establishment of agreements for technological information updating, such as the cooperation with EREC. Main activities: • Dissemination of conference results, agreements and workshops, both in the web and through the preparation of .pdf documents (Chania Conference, Island 100% cases, Tech-Tourism Island Forum..). Dissemination also of political agreements dealing with islands carried out by other relevant international Forums. • Maintenance and enlargement of the website of the initiative, as well as inter-links with the Consortium’s websites (ITER, INSULA) and with those of the cooperating institutions (ITR, EREC, ASOLAN, La Palma BR, ICAEN). • Publication of the EIO Newsletter “Renewable Energy Sources for Islands”, and its distribution to a large network of island centres and authorities.

Covers of the EIO Newsletter and of the CD containing the conclusions and contributions of the Chania Conference

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Achieved results Policy impact: Dissemination activities and campaigns contributed to overcome the traditional barriers existing on islands in the matter of energy policy caused by mutual ignorance of experiences and initiatives successfully carried out in this field, both at a technological and a political and legislative level. Incidence has been especially relevant among local authorities and island governments. RTD impact: Dissemination of experiences and technologies had a special incidence on the generation of new viability plans for 100% RES projects, bringing to a large demand of contacts. In the case of the Tourist Forum, incidence was greater with regard to solar thermal and energy efficiency, and it generated a demand of clean transports, which until this moment lacked of significant experiences in the island territories of the European Union.

WP 1.i.

General dissemination – OPET Cooperation

Objective: Cooperation with other concurrent activities of the OPET network. Main activities: • Participation in the OPET MERCOSUR Roadshow. This initiative allowed the establishment of new cooperation paths for the development and assistance to projects with an European participation, in particular those regarding isolated rural electrification in Chile and Argentina, as well as the new 100% RES initiatives in the small islands at Mar de Plata (Argentina) and Easter Island (Chile). • Collaboration with TERI (India) allowed us to introduce European island experiences that can be replicated in isolated areas, and in particular to help in the design of a Sustainable Development Plan and 100% RES project for Lakshadweep islands.

Presentation of EI- OPET’s activities and initiatives in Santiago de Chile, jointly with ICAEN.

Presentation of the island initiatives at the Conference organised by TERI in New Delhi.

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European Islands OPET