Page 1


editorial by

Volcanic Islands

_

5

_

7

ANTONIOS POMONIS

dOSSIC''TUOlCanlCISlandS

Hellenic Aegean Active Volcanoes: Contrasting perspectives for sustainable development by

GEORGES

E. VOUGIOUKALAKIS

The Beauty and Threat of The Azorean Volcanoes by

J.L.

GASPAR, G.

QUEIROZ

& T.

~

13

FERREIRA

17

A brief natural history of Mount Etna by

DR. CLELlA BURGi,

DR. FRANCESCO MUSMECI

Montserrat under the threat of Soufriere HiIIs Volcano: Managing the crisis by

SIMON

20

---l!

R YOUNG

Eruption of Miyakejima and some problems of the volcanic activity on insularvolcanoes in Japan by

_

27

SHIGEO ARAMAKI

ISlanders or. uior+,

Virtual Polyclinic on the Cres-Iosinj Archipelago by

_

_ 33

Consortium of italian small islands schools: a challenge to isolation by

CRISTINA MOSTACCI,

GUARINO

ERMELlNDA

Rapa Nui. Te Pito OTe Henua: The Earth's Navel by

C!PRIANO

_ 41

JAVIER BUSTAMANTE

B7 -AStrategyforthe by

35

_

MARíN

Calvia Local Agenda 21. A sustainable strategy for a tourism destination by

31

ANAMARIJA MARGA N

Future

_

43

REET KOKOVKIN

CUlcure cno cradlCional

hnOWledQe

45

Canary Island Openwork. Tradition and Science __ by

LUIS BALBUENA CASTELLANO

MiIIsof the past, windsof the future Molinsde Campos

_

49

InSUlaS DaQe

Why and Howto Plan the Island's Information Society Euro-Caribbean RES Forum. An island alliance in favour of sustainable energies The State of the Art of Renewables in the Caribbean by

52 _ 53 _ 57

INDRA HARAKSINGH

Emergencywater managernent by

_

BRUCE DURHAM,

JEAN-Luc

.

63

_

65

SALL, LAuRE SIMON

Medisinitiatives Doñana Regeneration Project. A model for coastal wetlands recovery __

66

unesco s DaQe

UnderwaterCultural Heritage in danger Thirty Yearsof MaBj A new Biosphere Reserve Network The Small Island States before the Johannesburg World Summit OOOhreulews

_ _ _ _

announcemencs

_

--.JOIn and SUDDorc JnSUla

_

67 69 70

72 77


tnsula International

Journal ofIslandAffairs

ISSN 1021 - 08t.t July 2002 Year 11 N° 1 Back cover: Waha 'ula ~ís/lOr Cenler m Hawai 't ¡ólcanaes Nauonal Park burns from an advancing lava flow.

Editorial Board Editor:

Pier Giovanni d' Ayala Co-editor:

Cipriano MalÍn Scientific Advisory Committee:

Prof. Salvino Busuttil, Malta Dr. Ronald G Parris, Barbados Prof. Nicolas Margaris, Greece Prof. Patrick Nunn, Fiji ProfG Prakash Reddy.India Prof. Hiroshi Kakazu, Japan Dr. Henrique Pinto da Costa, Silo Tomé e Principe Prof. Lino Briguglio, Malta

Production coordinator:

Giuseppe Orlando The Pythons, scape Lucia,

Graphic designer:

Luis Mir Payá

outstandtng

land-

of the island of Saint venue of the Euro-Car-

ibbean RES Conference May 2002.

held in

Pholo by P G. d'Ayala

Published by INSULA, the lnternational Scientific Council for Island Development. with the support ofUNESCO. Articles published in this journal do not necessarily reflectthe opinions of INSULA or of UNESCO. Material appearing in this journal cannot be reproduced without the prior permission oíthe Editor.

•ms ula ,Ole lnternational

Journal oflsland Affairs is distributed free to INSULAs individual and institutionalmembers. For subscriptions and infonnation. please "lile lo:

Insula c/oUNESCO 1, rueMiollis 75732 Paris, FRANCE Te!.:+33145.68.40.56,Fax:

+33145.68.58.04

E-mail: insula@unesco.org

Produced

4

by: TENYDEA

International

Journal

S.L. Canary

IsIands

of IsIand Affairs

Cava:

The Island af Slrambab.

GOllache pamling

byananymalls.

19; Cenlllly.


Volcanic Islands by

o

ne hundred years ago. the town of Saint Pierre on Ihe Caribbean

island of

Martinique was devastated by an eruption of the Mount Pelée volcano. Saint Pierre was at the time the "pearl ofthe West Indies", a town proud ofits electric light, bustling port, rum distilleries, and its theatre that was an exact copy ofthe Grand Theatre in Bordeaux. Despite some warning in the form of loud explosions and ashfall in the two weeks leading to the day of the disaster, nothing could prepare the people of Sai nt Pierre for what happened when the town was waking up for Ascension Day on May 8. At 8:02 in the morning there was a blinding flash, and then a sound Iike the roar of thousands of cannons. A burning hot cloud of gases and other materials rushed down from the volcano and reached the town in less than t'IVO minutes, Ofthe 26,000 inhabitants only two survived lo Iive and tell what happened. To commemorate the 10001 anniversary ofthese events TNSULA is dedicating this issue to volcanic islands. Most volcanic islands are found near the tectonic plate boundaries of our planet. The majority and most populous of the world's volcanic islands are found at the subducting edges of the Pacific plate (in Japan, Aleutian islands, New Zealand, Tonga, Vanuatu, Papua-New Guinea, Indonesia. the Philippines, as well as the Mariana, and Izu islands). Other subduction zones with volcanic islands are found in the Caribbean (Lesser Antilles) and the Mediterranean

(in Italy and Greece). Volcanic islands are also found in the

Atlantic Ocean where the sea floor is spreading (Iceland. Azores, Ascension and Tristan da ,-

Cunha). Finally there are the numerous "hotspot" volcanic islands located far from plate boundaries but formed by the extrusion of magma rising from chambers that lie deep beneath the sea floor (among these are the Hawaiian, Cook, Marshall, Réunion and Galápagos islands). In the articles prepared for this dossier we read about the experiences of three islands in Japan (Miyake and Oshima) and the Caribbean (Montserrat), in managing the threats posed by erupting volcanoes. There is also an article about the volcanic islands of the Azores, as well as articles about the Mediterranean

volcanic islands addressing the relationship be-

tween the volcanoes and sustainable development strategies. Each inhabited volcanic island has a unique set of circumstances depending on its morphology, historie pattern of settIement and eruptive history ofthe volcanoes that are responsible for their existence. The spectacular volcanic forms add to the attractions

of these

islands but the threat of eruptions makes these beautiful ecosystems more vulnerable and in constant need of thoughtful and sustainable rnanagement.

ANTONIOS

POMONIS


International Conference

lhe Fire between Air and Water

Volcanic Islands in Science and Myth Preservation and Valorisation lipari, 29th September to 02nd October 2002 The Italian National Commission for

Suggestions

and

UNESCO - with the collaboration ofthe

proposals \ViII allow

Region ofSicily - is organising the In-

to solve

ternational

concerning

Conference The Fire be-

problems volcanic

tween Air and Water - Volcanic Islands

parks

a11 over the

in Science and Myth: Preservation and

world. Such important

Improvement.

The conference will be

contributions will be

held in Lipari Castle, in the Aeolian Is-

regarded as tools for

lands. recently admitted to the UNESCO

the conservation and

World Heritage List.

irnprovcrnent ofWorld Heritage.

The Lipari Castle, a Spantsh fortifica/IOn

dated of 16'h Century.

The education of young people will

to the conference

be discussed on the fourth day of the

the 30th anniversary ofthe World Her-

will be able to contribute to the defini-

coníerence. The latter will also include

itage Convention on the protection and

tion of such parks in a multidisciplinary

the awarding of a prize to the winner of

conservation of the World cultural and natural Heritage, through an inter and

perspective. A photo exhibiíion by E.S.A. on the

creation of a poster symbolising the

multidisciplinary approach at the issue

observation of the Earth from space,

new UNESCO Pilot Project World Her-

in the light of sustainable development.

as well as an exhibition on territorial

itage and Dialogue amongst Cultures.

The conference intends to cclebrate

The participants

\

thc International

Competition for the

landscape planning in the Sicily Re-

On the same day the intemational fo-

stand how the cultural, natural and an-

gion, will be organised.

Some well-

film Open Doors to Young People on

thropological heritage of oceanic and

known movies shot in the Aeolian Is-

UNESCO Heritage Preservation and Im-

Mediterranean

islands is viewed and

lands (Vulcano, L'avvcntura, 1Ipostino,

proverncnt, and a round table on vol-

used by the local population: how it is

Stromboli. Kaos. Caro diario) will have

canic and volcanic-archaeological

managed. preserved and irnproved by

a late-night showing. There will also

parks will be held.

local authorities, according to the spirit

be a show of the Opera Siciliana dei

ofthe convention and the principIes of

Pupi, which bclongs to UNESCO In-

Steering

tangible Heritage.

Italian National

The cvent aims primarily to under-

sustainable dcvclopment.

Committee

of Conference:

Commission

for UNESCO

(CNI). P zza Firenze 27·00186 Tel.: Fax:

++ ++

Roma

3906.68.73.723 3906.68.73.684

E·mail: cecilia.preziuso@esteri.it Organising

Committee:

Assessorato

Beni Culturali e Ambientali

Pubblica

Istruzione.

Via delle Croci, 8·90143

Palermo.

Tel.:

++

3909169.61.17.02

Fax:

++

39091 69.61. 705

E·mail: sta.ciav@regione.sicilia.it

6

International

Journal

of Island Affairs

e


Hellenic Aegean Active Volcanoes: Contrasting perspectives for sustainable development b,

Introduction

stretch and dip large portions of the

The islands of Santorini and Nisyros

Aegean continental crust.

are two marvelous active volcanoes of

GEORGES

E.

L

U (]5 (j)

O O

VOUGIOUKALAKIS'

The last and most famous eruption was manifested between 16-l0-1625BC.

1n the same ti me. volcanoes come to

during the Late Bronze Age. when a

the Aegean Sea, which present very

reinforce the battle of the land against

marvelous civilization.

interesting differences as well as com-

the sea. The magma generated in the

Minoan civilization ofCrete. was Ilour-

related to the

mon aspccts, concerning the point of

South Aegean area due to the subduc-

ishing on Santorini. For this reason this

view of vlnsula".

tion of the African lithosphere, finds

eruption has been called "the Minoan

The first island, Santorini, is world-

outpouring paths in three broader ar-

eruption". Archaeological diggings that

wide known, with increased tourist in-

cas: The Saronic gulf, where it builds

started in 1967 have unveiled thc main

terest. without this fact to be correlated

up 1110stof the Egina island and the

settIement on the island at the time of

directIy and in a catalytic manner with

Methana península: the central Aegean

the eruption.

the existence of the active volcano.

area wherc it builds up the island

Akrotiri village, This ancient settlement

Nisyros, on the other hand is almost

groups ofMilos and Santorini, and fi-

was buried underneath

unknown and undeveloped, but in re-

nally in the eastern Aegean where it

tephra layers and is thus very well pre-

cent years is experiencing a significant

creates the Nisyros and neighboring

served. Today visitors can marvel in

near the present-day the volcanic

increase in tourism activity due to the

islets as well as the western.part ofKos

the wonders unveiled underneath the

existence of an active volcano on the

island.

ash by walking around this ancient set-

island.

Santorini and Nisyros are the two

Both islands are facing the challenge of íollowing the way of sustainable de-

veloprnent, a way that nowadays seems to be like Iollowing the rough way of virtuc, which is proving to be the only possible way, for any kind of further devcIopment.

Iife and culture in Santorini that flour-

along the South Aegean Active VolcanicArc.

ished 3.600 years ago (Fig. 1).

Santorini began to build-up approximately 700,000 years ago. The huge shield volcanoes from basaltic andesite and

the

of the islands

of Geology

Researcher and

Mineral

in the Institute Exploration

of

Greece.

with

thick lava Ilows, were cre-

Five million years ago, the land of Aegies,

ated from the quasi-con-

the subaerial Alpine mountain chain that

tinuous

occupied the area of present-day Aegean

canic activity, and were

Sea. was fragmented and sunk below the

demolished every 20,000

waters of a beautiful blue sea.

years during tremendous

The push ofthe Anatolian lithospheric

• Volcanologist.

rhyodacitic

dome compIcxes

The birth

tIement, gaining an insight about the

youngest and 1110stactive volcanoes

effusive

vol-

explosive eruptions. Vol-

block, which slips westward along the

canological studies have

North Anatolia fault, and the uplifting hot

established

currents which are triggercd by the north-

such events

ward subducting African lithosphere,

curred on Santorini.

that twelve have oc-

Fig. 1. A par/ present-day underneath

of the La/e Bron:e Age settlement,

near the

Akrottrt village, ve/y well preserved by the burial the Minoan eruptton volcanic tephra layers.


Nca and Paica Karneni post-Minoan Intracaldera centers

an area of 41.2 square kilometers and reaches a height of 698 metres. It is surrounded by -l other small uninhabited islands, the largest ofwhich is Yali. followed by Pyrgousa (or Pergousa), Pahia and Strongyli. Despite its rugged outline and rap-

THI~"

idly shifting contours, access is possi-

"'"-'-.... /

ble to almost every part of the island.

/

As well as an adequate network of

,/

roads, there are dozens of paths lead-

THIRASIA

ing to every comer of the island. The large number of trees is another characteristic feature ofNisyros,justifying Fig. 2. A bird's eye view topography northwest).

showing

VIG

a 3D computer

the caldera

model of the present

day Santorini

and the nearby isl ands (note that the vielV

(a.k.a. Thira) IS

[rom the

its description as the only 'green' active volcano in the Aegean. A few of these are what remains ofthe original indigenous

vegetation

(Quercus

The Minoan eruption shaped the is-

geothermal fluids that are hosted in the

macrolepsis - the semi-evergreen and

land group of Santorini in it's present

Nisyros substratum, over the present

smaller

variety

of the Turkey oak:

state (Thira. Tirasia and Aspronisi is-

shallow magma chamber, trigger hydro-

Quercus coccifera - a shrub-sized oak

lands) creating a huge caldera that has

thermal explosions, blasting the cover-

which is the host plant of the coccid

been invaded from the sea in it's big-

ing fonnations. Ten impressive craters of

insects from which important red dyes

gest parto composing a landscape of

hydrothermal explosions decorate the

were extracted in antiquity; Pistacia

unique beauty and great geological in-

southeast part of the caldera floor (Fig.

terebinthus - the turpentine

terest (Fig. 2).

4). The last ofthem was created in 1887.

terebinth from whose yellow-marked

tree or

'violet galls that Ilower in winter, a deep

Following the Minoan eruption, volcanic activity continued with calm ex-

Physiography

trusive activity focused at the central

The island ofNisyros is situated in the

for coloring silk material imported from

part of the caldera, building up a sub-

southeasternAegean

the Orient and O/ea europaea sy/vestris

yellow dye was produced and was used (longitude 36°35'

marine volcano. The submarine vol-

north, latitude 27°10' east) in the Do-

- the wild olive or oleaster). We know

cano emerged for the first time in 197

decanese group of islands. It covers

of the latters

existence on Nisyros

Be. Since then, eight effusive calm eruptions built up the islets of Palea and Nea Kameni. The last eruption was manifested in January 1950, creating on Nea Kameni the youngest land on the Eastem Mediterranean. Nisyros

is even

younger

than Forrnancns 1. submenne lavas 2 First subaenal cone 3 Tephra from the two large explosive eruptions

Santorini! The oldest subaerial volcanic rocks ofthe island have an age less than

4 Lavas

150.000 years. During a 100,000 years

between

period a 600-meter high stratovolcanic

/

cone has been built up, with a 7-km diam-

Recent

two

deposrts

Fault Calderanm

O Hydfothermal

eter at its base. After this, two large ex-

,

plosive eruptions demolished the cen-

erater

Fumalole

Hotspnng

,_

Topographlc

tral part ofthe volcano creating a circular

J.. 'X'

Quarry

ICII

Monastery

caldera with a diameter of 4 km. A huge

r'

M31nroad

helght

(m)

Port

Roo'

dome complex then filled up most ofthe caldera depression (Fig. 3). This volcanic

tbe

largee~¡ons 5 Younger lavas 6

""'" 3D Slmplilied

~ological

map 01 Nisyros

Ishmd

activity is roughly estimated to have ended al about 30,000 -15,000 years before present. Since then the superheated

8

Inlernalional

Journal

of lsland Affairs

Fig. 3. A 3D computer model of the present day Nisyros island's present-day settlement s and the caldera thot (western part).

topography showtng locauon of the partly filled by a dome complex

IS


30,000 years ago: its fossilized leaves

found steep rocky cliffs with small

have been identified in layers of ash

sandy beaches at the bottom that

from that date. Most ofthe trees grow-

can only be reached by boat. In

ing on the island now were introduced

the outer perimeter of the island

by settlers (olive, fig, almond, oak and

are developed extensive low pro-

terebinth). In total more than450 indig-

file sandy beaches.

enous species make up the dense flora

The mean, minimum and maxirnum annual temperatures are al-

of this beautiful island.

most the same to those in Nisyros. Even though rainfall on Santorini

L iIJ

The morphology of the island coast

is really limited (Iess than 400 mm/

is directly dependent on the kind of rock

year), the lowest layers of the

O O

of which it is composed. AJmost all the

Minoan tephra host an opening to

western and southeastern coastline is

the sea aquifer, which is today

steep with thick lava reaching down to

heavily exploitcd

Ofthe same range and variety as the flora is the fauna of the island.

en(f)

from a large

fue water 's edge. The northern and east-

number of wells. Hot springs are

em shores are more even, with a number

found on fue Kameni shoreline and

of sandy coves. Along the southern

in 3 other sites on the shores.

coast small bays alternate with cliffs. The mean annual

temperature

is

Brief

historie

note

17yc. with the lowest (l0°C) during

Santorini as well as Nisyros have a his-

February and the highest (26°C) dur-

tory of many centuries.

ing July.

lands, signs of Neolithic settlements

The island has no reserves of drinking water, as the rains are scarce (Iess than 500 mrn/year). The only spring is

On both is-

dating from the 5UI century BC, have

Fig. 4. Stefanos,

the biggest

of the ten im-

presstve craters of hydrothermal explosions, wht ch decorate the southeast pan of the Nisyros

The

caldera floor.

famous

delicious

wine

of

Santorini was the basic product. The

been recorded. It seems that on Nisyros, habitation

quarrying ofpumice during the 19uI and 20U1 century was another economic ac-

on the eastern slopes, near the Mon-

has been uninterrupted

astery of Panayia Kyra, and the water

centuries. Life on the island flourished

tivity. The waterproofing

it produces is negligible. Cisterns col-

Canal slopes was materialized with the

lecting rainwater have solved the prob-

during the 4uI century BC, and in the 12ul_13ul century BC.

lem in the past. This is why one en-

Its population at the end of the 19uI

counters them everywhere

on one's

over these 25

century was around 5,000 inhabitants

of the Suez

ash of the Minoan eruption. However, the main wealth-producing activity remained the conunercial navy.

walks, most of them abandoned now.

and has since been diminishing to the

Today, a modern sea water desalination

present-day population of927. The ag-

shipmasters

unit has made the problem less acute.

ricultural production (almonds. grapes.

concerns the transport and distribution

The role of Santorini merchants and was decisive, in what it

olives, figs, oak apples), the piscatorial

ofthe East Mediterranean

springs abound in the island, with tem-

and the cattle-breeding

activity (ox,

the Bronze Age till the last century. At

peratures between 40 and 70°C.

pigs, goats) are not any more sufficient.

the eve of the 20uI century, there were

The Santorini island group is situ-

Thus, the inhabitants turned to emi-

established some manufacturing enter-

ated in the central Aegean (Iongitude

gration, towards AJexandria, Smyrna

prises (tomato processing and textile

36°25' north, latitude 25°25' east) and

(Izrnir), Constantinople

factories), which worked thriftily for

belongs in the Cyclades group of is-

fi rst, and later on toward North America

lands. It covers an area of 86 square

and the city of Athens.

In contrast to the drinkable water, hot

kilometers

and reaches a maximum

height of565 metres.

In Santorini,

(lstanbul) at

the human presence

seems to be interrupted only for a pe-

goods from

some decades. The island population

was always

counting some thousand people. AIthough the catastrophic earthquake of

Its fauna and flora is poorer than

riod of2-3 centuries, between 1600-1300

1956 was the reason for massive emi-

Nisyros, as the Minoan eruption did

BC, due to the Minoan explosion. For

gration, mainly to Athens. the devel-

not allow the survival of any form of

the rest of the periodo the island acts as

opment of the island re-started, from

life. Trees are rare due both to the ab-

an important commercial alld cultural

the 70's, with fue rising tourist interest,

sence of water and the strong winds

center in the region.

prevailing in the area. The morphology ofthe coasts is controlled by the caldera: in its interior are

Despite the serious of the lack of water, agricultural production was always developed.

and

the

commissioning

of

the

archaelogical excavations in Akrotiri. The present-day permanent population numbers almost 10,000.


Current

situation

The c1cctrical powcr demand is 500 KW

Nisyros. bclongs lo thc islands of the

annually, bcing imported with sub aque-

Aegean Sea, that are called "Ole islands

ous linkagc with Ole island ofKos, wherc

ofthe infertile line. They owe this title

it is produced with oil combustion.

lo their remotc location and lower level of development connections

and lo thc problernatic

and comrnunications

Water demand

on a yearly basis is

about 100.000 cubic meters. Until re-

with

cently the major part of this. was pro-

the main Greek islands and the main-

vidcd by boat transport Irorn the main-

land of Greece.

land. Reccntly. a scawater desalination

isyros unlike many other islands in

facility with revcrse osmosis. and pro-

duction of the famous Santorini wine.

duction

Three and halfthousand

acres are cul-

its small port is not able lo serve prop-

per day has been put into operation.

tivated with vineyards.

which produce

crly, the safe transpon

and is expccted to ensure all the water

-1-,000tons ofVS.O.Pwine.

Greece. does not have airport,

whilst

of passengers

capacity

of 3·W cubic meters

and goods, living thc islands isolated

supply needed.

during periods of rough seas.

dustrial activity combincd with thc low

Despite this Nisyros is bcuer oíf than

The pause in the in-

level of tourism development,

had an

sornc other small and remote islands,

impact on thc standard ofliving

mainly due to cxistence of the pumicc

islanders

quarry. on Ole small island of'Yali, which

its gradual depopulation.

is lying 5 km NW ofNisyros. The quarry

hand the natural cquilibriurn oí Nisyros

cxports around 900.000 tons of excellent

is wcll prcscrvcd

quality pumicc. ensuring occupation for

number of visitors gradually

80 Iamilies and an income of 1.5 million

ates this advantage.

Euro lo Ú1e rnunicipality

aucntion

of the island.

The second source of income is tour-

chitectural

ism. The island disposes circa 700 beds

fully

and perhaps

of thc

contributed

to

On the other

and the increasing appreci-

heritage which is wondcr-

presented

are until now

rnct by pumping the local wells. Howcvcr continuous caused the invasión

over-pumping of seawater

" isyros: History and Architecture

staying al lcast a fcw days on the is-

an Aegean

land. However. the tremendous

ity of thc water. Asmall quantity of water

is produced

from a desalination ofIa.

Natural

hazards

One ofthe main threats that the inhab-

of

thc natural

hazards.

Living upon an

active volcano and in an arca of high

(see references).

The single and most serious problem

scismicity,

remains

itant life and investrncnts

sons/year)

The number of free grazing

stay on the island. only for

neighboring

island of Kos and after a

quick tour of thc caldera to admire Ú1e intense hydrothcrmal Mandraki.

activity they visit

thc main town of thc island

thc animal breeding

activity. goats on

the island is quite large and threatens the natural

balance

of the rich flora

to Nisyros,

lar socio-cconornic

tsunami

Santorini

(Fig. 5). before they return to Kos. The

expcricnccs.

deaths

is based mainly on thc tourist industry,

Santorini.

which was rapidly dcvcloped,

carthquake

The agricultura I production days very lirnitcd, breeding

is nowa-

whcrcas

animal

and its by-producís

(rneat.

cheese and milk) are plcntiful, the piscatorial

as are

products.

Its present-day

cconomy during

The discovcry by excavation ofthe late

lntcmational

of lsland ..vffairs

53 on

the height of 25

ters in Astipalea Island and along \\ ith from ground

shaking

would

Despite the fact that new construc-

I mili ion visitors. It possesses

tions are much better and thcy adhere to strict seismic design requirements. the

an airport capablc to host chartcr flights

construction

and a satisfactory

on the highly desirable land parcels that

port Iacility.

activity has been prohib-

of hundreds

of buildings

Iie on thc edge of Ú1espectacular caldera wall are quite vulnerable (Fig. 6).

growth

tourism activity, the agricultural

In

activ-

ity has been reduced mainly to the pro-

Journal

reached

have scvcre consequences.

Due to the tremendous

.\'IS,I'I'OS island.

529 buildings

lelcd vicw of thc caldera, havc consecrated it as high-lcvel tourist resort.

Quarrying

Mandraki, the matn town of

7.-1-

Tsunami waves during this

damagc

ited for the last ten years.

Vlel!' of

and ruined

Bronze Age settlcments and Ole unparal-

It no", has -1-5.000 beds that servc

Fig. 5. A

magnitude

of July 1956 caused

meters in Amorgos Island and 20 me-

the last thirty ycars.

annually

for rcgu-

living and devclop-

generating

"volcano"

does not ensure their stopover.

sccurity. is

rncnt. The seismic hazard is thc biggest

carthquake

these visitors

ofthe inhab-

one of thc main preconditions

presents a di1Terent set of problcms and

that brings

the guarantee

problem that encounters Santorini. The

found on thc island. In contrast

unit,

with rcvcrse osmosis of seawatcr in the community

ity of the Nisyros visitors (- 60.000 per-

major-

into

thc aquifer, which has aífectcd the qual-

itants of both islands Iacc. is that of

in a book entitled

Island"

The water requiremcnts

In recent years

has also been paid to the ar-

and hosts yearly around ·l.000 visitors

Iew hours. They usually arrive from the

10

Fig. 6. r ¡el\' of Fira, Santoriru 's matn 10l\'n \1'1111 many butldings rtght on the caldera rtm.

The volcanic

hazard

causes Iewcr

problems. Santorini is the Aegean

\'01-

cano. that has been studied cxtensivcly


and today we have constructed a reli-

that today the volcano is under com-

able model of its behavior. According to

plete repose (forfurther information, visit

this, the major expected volcanic event,

the web site: www.Santorini.net/

a tremendous explosion ofMinoan type,

ismosav).

is considered impossible to be mani-

Earthquakes affect Nisyros, every 15-

fested in our days. Such events. in

30 years, mostly in the fonn small local

Santorini, present a steady period of re-

seismic crisis, which last for two or three

currence that exceeds 15,000 years. As

years. The earthquakes

3,600 years intercede

the

magnitude (usually less than 5 on the

Minoan eruption and now, we can con-

Richter scale) and shallow depth, cre-

sider that the island is not in danger from

ating unpleasant

between

are of small

situations when the

Fig. 7. The Neo Kameni volcantc center m eruption. The date, visible In the photo, IS 2-1 January 1928.

rest. The establishment of a pennanent

such kind of events. The most probable

activated faults and fractures traverse

volcanic observatory on the island is

volcanic event to be manifested today

inhabited areas. The last seismic crisis

nevertheless considered a necessity.

is a11eruption similar to the subaerial

in the region, was registered during

eruptions ofNea Kameni, in 1925-28 and 1939-41 (Fig. 7).

1995-1998, and caused damages to a few houses of Mandraki.

Except the

Current

problems

perspectives

and

for

These eruptions were mild and they

local earthquake. Nisyros is in danger

sustainable

did not cause serious problems to the

also due to the Iarge seismic events that

Both Santorini and Nisyros face with

Santorini inhabitants

is possible to be manifested in the sur-

the same pungency the challenge of

The risk of such an event may even

development

rounding area: the wider area ofKos-

sustainable

as negative, as it is

Rhodes, is a region of high seismicity,

of the big differences between them,

expected to increase the flow of tour-

with maximum expected magnitudes

both are close to their Iimits concern-

ists, as they will come to enjoy the

reaching 7.8. The last such event in the

ing their potential for further develop-

unique spectacle and scenery.

region occurred in 1926.

be characterized

development.

Regardless

ment unless a differenl vision of island

Unfortunately, the medium or long-

In contrast with Santorini, Nisyros

term prediction of these events is not

does not dispose a volcano observa-

On Santorini an extensive infrastruc-

possible. However a short-term predic-

tory. Monitoring of the volcano is real-

ture has been developed to serve tour-

development

is gradually developed.

tion (from few months to one year) of

ized intermittently through different re-

ists that crowd the island during the

the reactivalion ofthe volcano may be

search programs. The picture that we

three months of summer, while in the

scientifically possible, based on all the

have at present is that the volcano is in

remaining part of the year life on the

recordings, data and information for the precursory phenomena of the previous

analogous

Santorini

eruptions.

Volcano Observatory

The has

been in operation since 1994, equipped

VOLCANIC HAZARD ZONATION MAP FROM A HISTORIC-TYPE VOLCAr:JIC ACTlVITY IN SANTORINI N

w-9-' s

SANTORINI

ISLAND GROUP

with a variety of integrated networks for the monitoring of the main physical and chemical parameters (earthquakes, lemperature and chemical composition of the hot fluids and gases. ground deformation, etc.). These observation networks guarantee the on time recording of any kind of precursory phenomena ofimminentvolcanic

activity. The

corresponding volcanic hazard map for similar events has been drawn (Fig. 8) and several possible scenarios

have

Fig. 8.

The volcantc

been elaborated for the evolution ofthe

h az ard

map

volcanic activity, with instructions for

Santortnt island grol/p, showt ng the

ensuring the safety of the inhabitants, From the recorded data of the rnoni-

•• r:t='::rv:s~~~r:: ~' ·1:(T~s~~:.~:tólnd ~;=~:;::aObllbilitYI ••

Ph'lNIticuploSIOI'I$

Ballistic

toring networks of the volcano, we know

PfOfed"es

as well as the presento

••

u~"owsand

o

~

"Tlun"'$ SANTORINI

VOLCAHO

the

probable po sttton of [uture erupttve centers

HAZAROOUS ZONES FROM:

visitors and investments.

of

LABORATORV

lG.M.E.

1

day settlements and road network on Thira.

2km

G. \IougfouU~I"s.

1tM

L Q)

en(f) O

O


island better resembles that of the old

of development. In this case, a priori is

measures for the protection ofthe citi-

days. This infrastructure

excluded the extensive tourist evolu-

zens and their goods.

has been de-

veloped in a rather haphazard way, with-

tion, due to the following reasons

out much consideration

• At first. objectively, is its geographi-

of possible

long-term effects. The local authorities

cal position. Lying between two over-

are always stmggling to catch-up with

developed islands (Kos and Rhodes)

the rapid pace of local speculative de-

with a given small dimension and lim-

velopments. So me ofthe environmen-

ited land available for basic infra-

tal issues that need to be addressed

structure; massive tourism is practi-

are the management ofliquid and solid

cally unattainable.

wastes, the adequacy of water supply

references

DI PAOLA,

G.M.,

of Nisyros

Greece)

Bull. Volcanol.,

evolvement would have devastating

The production and use of alterna-

effects on the sensitive environmen-

ancient Aegean,

EDUARDS

DAVIES

M.

Santorini don,

&

Volcano.

Memoirs

Published

tors, who are selecting Nisyros for its

Greek and English.

ECONOMAKIS, and

E. (2001).

Architecture

tions.

F. (1879).

Mason

Santorini

L.

have the opportunity to draw the layout

INNOCENTI,

renewable energy resources. Santorini

of its future tourist development policy,

cate processes

is in dire need of better water supply

focusing mainly to the munerous attrac-

occurring

Greece.

Bull Volcanol.

In parallel measures must be undertaken

Volcanic

put in place. Unless these and other

for fue revitalization of agriculture, in the

NATURAL

problems are addressed in a proper and

traditional as well as in modern manner

edited

P (1995) Intri-

volcano,

by Tom

Amendola

Horlick-Jones,

and Riccardo

land is questionable.

lateral economy and would complement

DALAMPAKIS

the quality of the services provided.

Volcanic

hazard

assessment

defense

planning

on Santorini.

It is also urgent to provide incentives for the farmers to drastically

proved

their flocks of goats that are damaging

services,

extension

of the

touristic period, the development aIternative products-services

of

(peripa-

tetic, geological, archaelogical,

thera-

peutic and congressional tourism). At the same time, the continuation strengthening

and

of the existing agricul-

reduce

by E & FN Spon, FYTIKAS

ropean Laboratory

M., Sigvaldasson

geothermal

energy resources that it

possesses,

can assure

energy

au-

KELLER,

and

redundantly, fue statement of the in-

J., REHREN,

G.,

ture development for both islands- is

VOUGIOUKALAKIS,

appreciated by the visitors (the local

the one of sustainability.

stratigraphy

eruptions

evolution

Vo1canic activity, which endowed

and other products are part of the local

both islands with astonishingly unique

folklore so much loved by the tourists).

beauty, does not seem to represent a

noes: Nisyros.

Nisyros, is also on the crucial point,

serious threat for the future, and in

Council

any case, it is possible to take proper

German.ISBN

2,239-258

G. (1998). Published

of Nisyros,

is-

vol. xXVIII/

(in Greek with English

VOUGIOUKALAKIS

Volcanic

of Nisyros

land. Bull. Geol. Soco Greece,

wine, fava split pea s, capers, tomatoes

of

Geotherm.

G. (1993).

and

G,

Greece). Pastevents

hazard J. Volcanol.

and present

tain the supply ofproduce that is much

of Island Alfairs

C., CHIODINI,

M., AND MARINELLI,

Hyd rothermal

(Dodecanese,

Res., 56: 71-94.

Journal

London.

L., PRINCIPE,

1993.

Nisyros

in the Hel-

111", vol 2, 13-26.

World

R., FYTIKAS,

troduction that -the only way for fu-

International

G.

TH., STADLBAUER,

Foundation

during the winter months and will main-

where is called to draw it's future trail

G. & Vougioukalakis

the Aegean

CIONI,

employment

Greece - 2

EUR 18161 EN

The Thera MARINI,

will provide aIternative

Proceedings

Santorini,

and Review. In "Thera

the supply of the repeat

civil

lenic Arc: a Summary

tonomy including

we can

and

In "The Eu-

Volcanism

existing sea-water desalination facility. As conclusion,

Volcanoes",

G.,

J.M. (1998)

E., (1990). Explosive

to avoid an economy that relies on a In addition it

117-130.

to 4 May 1996. Edited by Casale R., Fytikas

pg 339-351.

sun, wind and mainly the immense

1995, Brussels,

P, BARDINTZEFF

the floral diversity of the island. The resources is also a must for Nisyros, as

Aniello

VOUGIOUKALAKIS

of the 2d Workshop,

tural production, is essential in order single source ofincome.

M.,

exploitation

of the renewable energy

In

Casale. Published

multaneously the avoidance of the

tive" development oftourism, with im-

Islands.

RISK AND CIVIL PROTECTION,

of the extensive investments on the is-

sites is the turn towards the "qualita-

G. (1995).

in the Aegean

(greenhouses, etc) which wi1l allow si-

Likewise one of the basic prerequi-

are,

56: 601-620.

thoughtful way, the long-term viability

WlÍ-

magma

Aegean

FYTI KAS , M. & VOUGIOUKALAKIS, hazard

M.J.

in the convect-

and assimilating

of Nisyros

geological, archaelogical, and curative).

J.C.

G. DEFANT,

F. & MANETTI,

ing, fractionating

lar (though of much bigger capacity)

et ses erup-

VARECAMP,

chamber

to the one operating in Nisyros, was

House, in

et cie, Paris.

explore the exploitation ofthe plentiful

tions of alternative tourism (outdoors,

History Island".

Publishing

VOUGIOUKALAKIS,

which could be provided if a plant simi-

Nisyros:

ISBN 960-204-232X.

FRANCALANCI,

Nisyros is exceptionally privileged to

M.,

(1999)

Society, Lon-

of an Aegean

by Melissa

FOUQUE,

B.

Geological

would thus turn away today's visi-

in Santorini during the summer is quite

R.M.,

19.

fact that they dispose abundant sun,

high and efforts need to be made to

L., MELLORS

BARRIERO

tal balance, which was preserved un-

superior environmental conditions.

ofthe

PYLE D.M., SPARKS R.S.J., LANPHERE

til now for thousands of years, and

geothermal fluids. The energy demand

Pompeii

1983. Thames and

Hudson.

tive renewable energy sources, is non-

of

and

(Dodecanese,

38: 944-987.

London

existent on both islands, despite the quantities

Volcanology

Island

CH. (1983). Thira:

DRUITTT.H.,

• The second reason is that this kind of

1974.

petrology

DOUMAS

and the sufficiency of energy supplies.

air and inexhaustible

12

Main

abstract).

Blue Volea-

by the Regional.

in Greek,

960-86215-1-8.

English

and


30°

28°

26°

40°

''0

Corvo

Flores

Gra iosa

.•"

Faial

S.

orge

"-

~

Terceira

Pico

38°

38°

"-

S. Miguel

Santa Maria

••

30°

28°

Fig. 1 Geographic

locauon

26°

'he Beauty and 'hreal of'he Azorean Volcanoes J.L.

GASPAR*,

G.

QUEIROZ*

&

T.

Introduction

hills west oftheir shelters. To discover

The Azores archipelago is located in

what was happening, a priest cJimbed

placement and growth of a trachytic lava

the North Atlantic Ocean and consists

the hills lo investigate. A track was cut

dome as witnessed by the priest.

the first settlers, followed by fue em-

of nine inhabited islands (Fig.l). De-

through the dense vegetation that cov-

spite some uncertainties about the ex-

ered the area and at the end he reached

Geological

act date of discovery, it is known that

a point frorn which he couId overlook

The Azores were formed several mil-

the Azores were first settled by the

what we now call the Fumas Caldera.

lion years ago and throughout the cen-

Portuguese in the second quarter ofthe

According to his report, vapour was

turies were many times considered to

15th century. At present, about two

rising from a depression covered with

be part of the legendary Atlantis. Pres-

hundred and fifty thousand people live

white material and where vegetation

ently, fue Azores origin is discussed in

in fue Azores, with S. Miguel Island fue

didn't exist. The vapour sometimes

the context of the complex processes

Setting

home of half of them. Agriculture was

glowed red indicating that it was re-

that result from the interplay of the

always the main economic livelihood

lated with incandescent lava and not

American,

of the Azoreans.

to a simple fumarolic field. "-

lithospheric plates (e.g. Searle, 1980).

Eurasian

and African

The Azores Triple Junction is domi-

This first historical account has been

The Baptism of Fire

interpreted as being the description of

nated by three main tectonic features

The first seismic and volcanic phenom-

an eruption at Gaspar Crater, during

(Fig.2): the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR),

enon reported to have occurred at the

which there was an early phase of ex-

which crosses the archipelago between

Azores took place during fue settlement

plosive activity preceding fue arrival of

the islands of Faial and Flores with a

of S. Miguel Island sornetime between 1439 and 1443

general N-S direction; the East Azores Fracture Zone, which extends E-W from

50·

1995; Guest

fue MAR to the Strait of Gibraltar, in-

et al., 1999). The first set-

cJuding the Gloria Fault; and the Terceira

tlers ofS. Miguellanded on

Rift, which trends NW-SE along a line

the south coast of the is-

defined by Graciosa, Terceira and S. EURASIAN

PLATE

land in the si te of the

present Povoacáo village. From the beginning

Miguel islands, that comprises, in a wide sense, the WNW-ESE fracture systems

'*0"

ofFaial, Pico and S.Jorge islands.

they

were in great fear beca use

While the boundary

they felt continuous earth trernors and heard loud noises .. During the night

AFRICAN

and tongues of fire coming the

between the

American and the Eurasian and African

PLATE

plates is well established by the MAR,

30"','-.,.

.,_,

,,_. --.J--~"w

they observed Iightning from a point behind

(\j

(Jj (f)

O

O

of the A:-ores archipelago.

by

(Queirozetal.,

L

Fig.2 - Main tectonic features

in the A:-ores Regton: MAR -

Mid-Atlanuc Ridge; EAFZ - East A:-ores Frature Zone; TR - Terceira Rift; GF - Gloria Fault.

*

Centro

de Vulcanologia

dos Acores,

9501-801

Acores, Portugal

da Universidade - Ponta

Delgada,

FERREIRA'


the location and nature of the eastem

of the island, the

branch of the Azores Triple Junction is

event caused eight

still subject to discussion.

Madeira and

deaths and signifi-

Ribeiro

some of the

cant destruction in

models presented for this

most of the rural

(1990)

geodynamical

discuss

-

zone of the North Atlantic and ernpha-

villages,

sized the transtensile

the fragility of the

regime

of the

Terceira Rift, a leaky transform structure

constructions

some recognized

Seismic

Activity

Throughout

more than fíve hundred

'1

·'j~it~~;~;">i"',,,~~;;;~

due to

as proposed by several authors.

geological

-/

and

,.·"<f~

site ef-

fects. The neighbouring islands of

Fig.3 - Sei smtcuy map of the A::ores for the 1980-2000

years of history, strong earthquakes have

Pico and S. Jorge

(data from SIr7SA).

affected the Azores. The fírst big event

were also affected.

took place on the 22nd of October 1522

Another earthquake

and reached the maximum intensity ofX

memory of all the people of the Azores

since the beginning of the settlement of

(Modifíed Mercalli Scale, MM-56) on S.

is the one that occurred on the 1st of

the islands (Weston, 1964) (Fig.4).

Miguel Island (Machado,

January 1980 causing about 60 deaths.

Franca

do Campo,

1966). Vila

the capital of the

Azores at that time, was destroyed not but also be-

only due to the earthquake,

that is still in the

This event reached a magnitude

of7.2

nied by seismic swarms, were registe red

The eruptive is illustrated

ent nature and magnitude.

and S. Jorge islands.

majority ofthe events were dominated

In land, the

The review of instrumental data for the last twenty years of activity clearly dern-

ing hil!. About five thousand

onstrates that almost all Ú1eseismicity in

flows as the main volcanic

the Azores region took place along the

Eruptions

Terceira Riftandattl1eMAR(Fig.3).

Miguel

people

were disrupted.

tonic and volcanogenic

Since then, about 30 important earthpelago,

causing

thousands

and severe damages.

Tec-

seismic crises

were frequent during this periodo

quakes have been reported in the archi-

of differ-

and strongly affected Terceira, Graciosa

related with the collapse of a neighbour-

existent infrastructures

by Strombolian

and Hawaiian eruptive

styles with basaltic

scoria and lava

(1563

and 1652).

This type of eruption

The most recent

Terceira

(1562, 1718, 1720) and Faial (1672).

of deaths

Historical

products.

ofthis nature occurred at S.

(1761), S. Jorge (1580 and 1808). Pico

Eruptions

is not the most

severe that can happen in the Azores

one occurred on the 9tll of July 1998

Like the seismicity, also the volcanic

and reachcd a maximum intensity ofVIIl

activity at the Az~res is closely related

ha ve caused the death of some peo-

(MM -56) on F aial Island. With a magni-

with the Terceira Rift and the MAR. About

pie and animals,

tude of 5.8 and an epicentre at 8 km NNE

30 volcanic eruptions, usually accompa-

siderable

but despite

stroyed. 29

27

28

167 19~ _~1~3

'~~ 15

magmatic

~

.•

.•

!sj 652

~907

.•

covered almost all the island reaching 2D

as far as Santa María island about 80 km

.,"" 27

26

at the A::ores stnce de 15th century

Weston, 1964, with data from Queiro: el al., 1995 and Queiroz, 1997).

JournaI

of IsIand Affairs

occurred in 1630 in Fumas Volcano, dur-

al., 1995). Moreover, purnice and ash fall

!:J

~

recorded

eruption

lives due to pyroclastic surges (Cole et

1564

Á

28

hydromagmatic

ing which about 100 people lost their

14f143

'15'631630

1911

'"

phases,

the previously mentioned 1439-43 event, a subplinian 1638 "~~

o

and hydromagmatic

all the eastem part of the island. After

1800

1662

InternationaI

Houses were de-

cano erupted in 1563 and ashes mantled

.•.•

1902

2

eruptions

damages.

roads were cut and produc-

took place at S. Miguel Island. Fogo Vol-

1~~

1720

Fig.4 - Historical

and gave rise to con-

25"

26

~

1998-2000

~

29

past events

More explosive eruptions, marked by

1958~

• 17'8

this these

tive soils were buried.

t

I

14

history of the Azores

by phenomena

cause it was buried by a major landslide

died, houses were destroyed and all the

period

Naturally, the majority ofthe recorded

25

(Modified

to the south.

from

historical

eruptions

took place at sea

(Chaves, 1960). In the memory ofall the


, I

Both SIVISAand SlMOVAare linked

Azoreans remain the 1957-1958 vol-

Volcanic

canic eruption ofCapelinhos

The recent eruptive activity recorded at

to the Azores Civil Protection Regional

close to the western coast of Faial Is-

S. Miguel, Terceira, Graciosa, S. Jorge,

Service (SRPCA) that has its central

land. The event showed Surtseyan

Pico and Faial islands emphasize that

headquarters at Terceira island. If an

Volcano,

Hazards

during the first stages

new volcanic events can affect any of

increase of seismic and/or volcanic ac-

ofactivity and changed to Strombolian

these islands in the future, Taking into

tivity is detected the SRPCBA is imme-

and Hawaiian styles when the accumu-

account the nature of the existing erup-

diately advised and the regional/rnu-

lation of ashes around the vent pre-

tive centres and the associated depos-

nicipaJ emergency plans can be acti-

vented the entrance of seawater into

its it is clear that volcanic hazards in the

vated. To improve the civil protection's

the crater.

Azores are related with lava flows,

capacity of response the local govern-

More recently, on December 1998,

pyroclastic

ment recently installed a new commu-

another submarine volcanic eruption

pyroclastic

started 10 km NW of Terceira lsland,

(Gaspar et al., 2000). lndirect hazards

nent radio link between all the islands.

being characterized by the production

include volcanogenic and tectonic earth-

Despite the above mentioned organi-

characteristics

falls, pyroclastic surges

flows,

and mudflows

nications system establishing a perma-

of the so-called basaltic lava balloons

quakes, landslides and tsunamis. Even

zation it is clear that natural risks remain

(Gaspar et al., 2000). ThisAzorean type

during quiescent periods volcanic gases

very high in the Azores and future

of submarine volcanic activity is be-

represent

lieved to be related with very fluid and

place s such as Fumas village, inside

victims and severe damages. Authori-

gas-rich basaltic magmas. The reinter-

F1IDlascaldera (Baxter et al., 1999).

ties need to give more attention to this

a real threat in inhabited

events will probably result in severaJ

subject. It is necessary to reinforce the

pretation of several records of subma-

structure of the old edifices and review

rine volcanic events clearly shows that

Monitoring

this is a conunon type of eruption all

Protection

over [he world,

From time to lime, the Azoreans face

count the impact of geological and me-

not only earthquakes

teorological events. The research on

and

Civil

the land use planning taking into acand volcanic and

natural hazards, the development ofthe

floods. There is no doubt about the

existent monitoring networks and the

the landscape of the Azores islands.

importance of natural hazards assess-

implementation of alert and warning sys-

The oldest and deeply eroded volcanic

ment and risk mitigation in the Azores.

tems are becoming a priority. Finally, a

Volcanic Landforms Numerous volcanic features dominate

eruptions

but also landslides

complexes can be observed at Santa

The seismological monitoring ofthe

strong effort needs to be made in the

Maria Island where piles ofbasaltic pil-

Azores regio n is being undertaken by

education and preparedness of the lo-

low-lavas alternate with the onJy ma-

the Azores Seismological

Surveying

cal people and the media in order to guar-

rine sedimentary

System (SIVISA) a network managed

antee an adequate human response in case of an emergency.

beds known in the

archipelago. These sedimentary layers

by the Centre of Volcanology of the

were formed several millions years ago

Azores University and the Meteoro-

and indicate that important seawater

logical Institute that comprises nearly

level changes occurred before the birth

40 seismic stations.

of the other islands.

The Azores Volcanological Monitor-

More recent volcanic landforms are present

in all the other

islands.

Trachytic central volcanoes with surn-

Present-day Activity Several fumarolic fields and hot springs, associated to some of the most active

ing System (SlMOVA), a network man-

subaeriaJ and submarine volcanoes, de-

aged by the Centre of Volcanology of

fine the nonnallevels of the volcanic ac-

the Azores University assures the vol-

tivity in the Azores. Additionally, the

mil calderas, occasionally with lakes,

canological monitoring of the Azores

are related with the most explosive

area using geophysical, geodetic and

eruption that started on 1998 NW of Terceira Island continued until ApriJ2000.

events. Pico Volcano in Pico island is

geochemical techniques. Geophysical

and new signs of weak activity in the

the most prominent basaltic eruptive

monitoring comprises the SIVISA net-

area were recorded during August 200 l.

centre of the Azores. It is the highest

work complemented with digital port-

The seismic and volcanic data of the

mountain ofPortugal, reaching an alti-

able seismic stations. Ground deforma-

last 20 years reflect a particular situa-

tude of2351 meters due to the accumu-

tion measurements are made using GPS.

tion in the triangle defined by Graciosa,

lation oflava flows and minor basaltic

Finally, geochemical

S. Jorge and Terceira islands. Since the

pyroclasts during several volcanic erup-

volves the regular sampling and analy-

tions. Smaller volcanic landforms ob-

sis of gas discharges in fuma roles and

seismicity centred in that zone remained

served in the Azores include cinder and

waters, as well as mapping and con-

at low levels while volcanic activity in-

spatter cones, pumice cones, hydro-

tinuous monitoring of diffuse soil gas

creased. We interpret this fact as

emissions, namely CO2.

sequence of the injection of new magma

volcanic centres and domes.

monitoring

in-

1st of January 1980 earthquake,

the

COt1-

L

U (]S (f)

O O


following the rupture caused by the 1980

Glossary

earthquake and its aftershocks. Also the

Basalt

9th of July 1998 earthquake may have been related with this magma rising phe-

Spatter

A basic volcanic

is dark in colour, contains and

nomenon being the result of the accumulated tensions in the margins of the present-day low seismicity area.

generally

in other places of the Azores Plateau during the same period, such as the one in the MAR and at Sete

Cidades Volcano, suggests that magma rising was not confined to the GraciosaS.Jorge- Terceira triangle.

A mantle

plume with a tree-like head may have been responsible for the simultaneous feeding of different volcanic systems.

in iron

and

magne-

Basaltic

scoria

regular

of basaltic

composition

and usually

with ir-

very vesicular.

A volcanic

structure

of conical

by the accumulation

- Health

potential

of ground

Fumas Volcano,

hazards

pro-

volcano

Stromboli.

of loose

frag-

plosive

bursts

frequently

Geothermal

Re-

significant

extension,

either

along a

on land or on

the sea floor. eruptive

style

A type

of volcanic

activity

obviously

on Hawaii islands.

assunto.

podem

prestar

Sep. da Acoreana,

R. & JACKSON,

of Geology.

os

sobre

tal

V(5), 1-50.

J.L., QUEIROZ,

Acotes.

Plano

Relatório

J.E.,

de Emergencia.

MAR

01/CVARG/

GASPAR,

QUEIROZ, G., DUNCAN,

J.L.,

COLE,

Volcanic

Geology

Miguel, Acores, GeothermaJ

of Fumas

Joumal

Research,

HIRN, A., HAESSLER, P, WITTLlNGER,

Volcano,

Sáo

of Volcanology

and

H~, HOANG

sequence

in the Azores.

or subsur-

centre resultant

of the accu-

material

of transform

the two blocks

the motion

is oblique

and di-

from their q,oundary.

with a hot spot in the man-

(Mid-Atlantic

interface

Ridga) mountain

range

and

km in length

over

84000 the

Atlantic

structure is the

place

1500

Ocean. with

with

oceanic

is formed.

present-day

Geophysical

Tectonophysics, QUEIROZ,

Res.

Trachytic

and minor

lava

mass

canic ven!. Usually rounded, rough

mentation

zones

rack

having

mafic minerals

as

dome of viscous

composition,

growth

and generally

igneous

components.

extruded

lava

of

from a vol-

with a circular shape and

or flat on top, its surface

and blocky of the cooler,

is

as a result of fragouter

crust during

of the dome. regima of crustal

of ocean

deformation

spreading

in oblique

that consist

severaJ stepped

transform

both extension

and strike-slip

no Vale

184,405-415.

G. - Vulcáo

das Sete Cidades

- Anomalias

das

do hazard. Tese de doutoramento

de S. Miguel

de Geologia,

especiaJidade

(S.

no ramo

de Vulcanologia.

dos Acores, Departamento 226p.

& RIBEIRO,

A.

(1990)

for the Azores

a contribution

Journal

light coloured

of

faults. It combines motions.

TRONC,

Universidade

International

of

highly frag-

VICTOR,

de Lisboa 10(2): 109-117.

models

producing

extrusive

the main

A regime

Geociéncias,

Geodinamic

A fine-grained,

Transtensile

new

It is

interaction

pyroclasts.

extending

rift val-

after the

in 1963.

by the explosive

and magma

It is a very

a central

where

1-3

km in width

named

Iceland

Trachyte

often

about

style activity

of Surtsey,

characterized

spiny,

(Agores) em 1522. Bol. Mus. Lab. Miner. Geol.

junction:

eruption

that can reach

ofthe Janu-

and

do terramoto

J.

aruptive

trachytic

related

columns

gases

once air

high.

of volcanic

A steep-sided

pluma

ley and

born and produces

porphyritic

fault where

huge

that are blasted

up very quickly

kilometres

are

but also produce

The ash will build

several

and

eruptions

of ash and pumice

alkali feldspar

km in elevation,

crust

produced

activity.

Subplinian

into the air along with a lot of different

mented

structure

Fac. Ciencias MADEIRA,

16

and surface

Miguel, Acores): história eruptiva e avaliacáo

F. (1966)

ointensidades

from the in-

styla

in magnitude

seawater

fractured

Lett., 7, 501-504. MACHADO,

that results

material is usu-

are the most explosive

dangerous.

A type

transform

through

J.M. (1999)-

G. & MENDES

L. (1980) - Aftershock

P.,

eruptive

volumes

frag-

up to 100 metres

92, 1-29.

ary 1, 1980 earthquake tectonics

eruption

A continuous

A., WALLENSTEIN,

N., FERREIRA T. & PACHECO,

or no

reach

composition.

Plinian eruptions

Surtseyan

tle or in the mantle-nucleus

2oo1,23p. GUEST,

Leaky

A feature

na reqiác dos

Técnico-Científico

produce

little

activity

hydromagmatic

vergent

G. & FERREIRA,

Regional

They very

of fragmented

during

Mantle

T. (2001) - Riscos geológicos

for their

material.

Hydrovlocanic

between

Geologicallnstitute,

751p. GASPAR,

and

of magma

A type

J. (1980) - Glossary

American

flows

very

These eruptions

lava fountains.

lava

mulation

que

Subplinian

smaller

face water.

submarinas

lntormacces

that usually

most

Hawaiian

teraction

ments

by ex-

pyroclastic

ally of basaltic

A volcanic

A. (1960) - Erupcóes

Acotes.

navegantes

BATES

Jour-

92, 95-106.

CHAVES, nos

and

Azores.

of red-hot

above the crater. The ejected

A volcanic

at

after the Italian

It is characterised

zone

A set of parallel faults that is present

of

of

styla named

composition.

Hydromagmatic

disaster

emissions

Sáo Miguel,

nal of Volcanology search,

gas

and

of eruption

basaltic Fracture

pyroclastic

R. (1999)

eruptive

A type shape

(pyroclasts)

built up

formed

material.

material

mainly J.C & COUTINHO,

basaltic

con e of spatter

or vent and usually

mented

spectacular

P, BAUBRON,

cone

Strombolian

cone

are mainly effusive and very popular

BAXTER,

Spatter

on a fissure

shape

Cinder

common

References

that are still plastic when

they fall.

A low, steep-sided

duced

observed

is rich

Very fluid pyroclasts

45% to 54% silica,

sium.

A pyroclast

The seismovolcanic activity located

rock that characteristically

from

triple

tectonics.

of lsland Affairs

-

QUEIROZ,

de

J., WALLENSTEIN, PACHECO,

SEARLE,

N.,

DUNCAN,

J. (1995) - Erupcóes

A. &

vulcánicas

Fumas

na primeira

Acoreana,

VIII(l),

(ilha metade

de S.Miguel,

xv.

do Século

131-137.

R. (1980) - Tectonic

Azores spreading

pattem

oflhe

centre and triple junction.

Earth and Plane!. Sci. Lett., 51, 415-434. WESTON,

G., GASPAR, J., COLE, P, GUEST,

das

Acotes)

F. (1964)

canic eruptions ports. Ciencias

Bol.

- List of recorded

in the Azores

Mus.

de Lisboa,

Lab.

Min.

10(1),3-18.

vol-

with brief reGeol.

Fac.


A brief natural

historyof Mount Etna, Sicily

L Qj

(f5 (j)

O

O 0'

Introduction

DR.

BURGi*,

DR.

FRANCESCO

MUSMEC/*

partially embracing the lerritories 007

VoJcano Etna is the symbol of Iife and

townships, with population of around

death of Sicily, an island with inunense

250.000 inhabitants. The upper parís of

wealth in cultural and natural history.

the voJcano belong to the Regional

The natural environment

Park ofEtna that was founded in 1987

around the

voJcano is the resuIt of an ample work

and extends over an area ofaround 590

in which the imprints ofman are fused

Km2 The Park is divided into four zones

with the elements ofnature, giving life

two of which, A and B are the widest (450 K.Il12)having an elevated degree

lo an extraordinary

CLELlA

landscape, articu-

lated in numerous ecosystems charac-

of protection. The other two zones, C

lerised by the interaction of the con-

and D, are more marginal, and the de-

tinuous eruptive activity and the ac-

velopment of certain human activities

tions of the sea nearby. Mount Etna is

is allowed.

the greatest voJcanic edifíce ofEurope and the most elevated mountainous

The volcanology

relief in the Mediterranean basin. With

Mount

its voJcanic products it covers a sur-

From the volcanological-geological

face of around 1.260 Km2, reaching at

point ofview we deal with a complex

of hundreds of kilometers,

the summit craters, a height of around

bui Iding (mul tiple voJcano) constituted

along systems of regional fractures,

3.350 meters above sea leveI. The

by the overlap and coalescence of erup-

before "stagnation" in magmatic reser-

Etnean voJcanic structure develops in

tive products issued in time through

voirs at a depth of around 20 kilometers.

the extreme southern

distinct

Its study

The existence of such reservoirs is re-

chain

with modern scientific criteria has be-

lated to the development ofthe numer-

that stretches along the northern shores

gun since the dawns of the develop-

ous volcanic con es that have devel-

of Sicily. Situated in proximity of the

ment of Geology as an independent

oped on the sides of the voJcano and

oriental coast of Sicily, Mount Etna is

science, during the second half of the

are characteristic of the Etnean land-

Peloritani-Madonie

border of the

mountain

of

Etna

feeding

canoes of the oceanic islands. The

systems.,

th

delimited on the north and west by the

19 century. Above all, three eminent

riversAlcantara and Simeto, and to the

researchers,

Lyell,

Sartorius

magma, probably originating at depth rising up

scape. Activity ofthe last 30.000 years

von

has shaped the voJcano in its present

south by the Plain of Catania. The area

Waltershausen and Gemmellaro have

conic form, constituted of alternations

covered by its voJcanic products em-

identifíed two main centers of activity:

of lava and the products of more vio-

braces 37 townships of Catania prov-

one which corresponds to today's erup-

lent explosive activity (plinian type of

ince. Its south-eastern periphery is oc-

tive activity (the Mongibelloy, and the

eruptions)

cupied by the intensely urbanised met-

other related to a more ancient uprise

caldera collapses, and sometimes with

ropolitan area of Catania, stretching

and feeding system (the Trifoglietto).

mechanisms

uphill from the coast and up to 800

After the first eruptive demonstrations,

clouds and mud flows (lahars) which

meters elevation with population

that happened many mi llion years ago,

of

around 700.000 inhabitants. Higher up

sub-aerial basaltic eruptions followed

the demographic

one another, similar to those of the vol-

density decreases,

often

accompanied

by

of glowing pyroclastic

* University 01 Catania, Facufty 01Polítical Sciences.


are less common in Etna. Phenomena

the plant was introduced by the Ro-

of this type have been common up to

mans and in Sicily it found the ideal

around 3.000 years ago and it is sus-

habitat resulting in production of the

tained that they could have provoked

highest quality. Its intensive cultiva-

the exodus of Sicanis, frightened by the

tion in the territory of Bronte has be-

fires of the Etna and impoverished by

gun as early as the 7th century AD.

the destruction ofthe crops in the west-

Very sought to enrich confectionery

ern parts of Sicily. The activity of the

and ice-cream shops, and to sea son a

last millennia has been relatively calm,

lot of foods, the pistachio is consid-

primarily characterised by the issue of

ered the "green gold" of the MediterThe fauna of the Etnean area, in-

ranean gastronomy. The more repre-

surfaces

eludes animals coming from the north

sentative areas for grapevine produc-

of some square kilorneters, with flows

but al so from the south, through the

tion are situated in the north-eastern

that exceptionally

ancient connections between Sicily and

and south-western

of over ten kilometers. In the last 350

the north-African

The

1.000 meters elevation. From the selec-

years, for which the recording of the

Etnean habitat is extremely varied in-

tion of the Etnean vineyards excellent

eruptive events can be considered ex-

eluding coastal, lava, volcanic desert,

wines with intense flavour and taste

haustive, around seventy eruptions are

and damp forest zones. In such habitat

were born. The fruit tree orchards can

registered, with a very irregular distri-

endemic species from the Diplopodis,

be found on higher ground and up to

bution pattern both in time and space.

Blattoideis,

the altitude of 1.500 meters on the

fluid lava, with temperatures bet:ween 1.100째 and 1.050째

c., covering

poured on lengths

territories.

Eterotteris,

Ornotteris,

Coleopters and Imenotteris taxonomies The

natural

environment

south-western and eastern slopes. Par-

have made Etna their home. Among the

ticularly, the district lying between the

The natural landscape, developed after

vertebrates the reptile Lacerta sicula

rivers Simeto and Alcantara with its

the last Ice Age (around 12.000 years

cielopica is of particular interest as it

peculiar microelimate is ideal for the

ago), and is typically Mediterranean (up

lives just on the island Lachea, that

harvest of fruits of excellent quality such as the reknown varieties of pears

to 1.000-1.200 meters.) witholive groves

constitutes

in the lower slopes and pines, oaks,

There is also the rare dog species

a protected

area, today.

"coscia, butirri and garofano".

chestnuts and hollies in the upper parts.

named the "Cirneco of Etna", that has

Up to 1.800-2.000 meters, wefind dense

adapted to the sour terrestriallava,

forests of beech tree, accompanied in

which it succeeds to move easily in vir-

and

some areas by the rare and endemic

tlle ofits particular anatomical charac-

Basaltic stones are commonly used in

Etnean birch tree. Black volcanic sands

teristics.

on

Saint spino or the violet ofEtna. In the

Mount

Etna

human

culture

the construction of churches, houses,

\

farms, fences and other structures ex-

are colonised by endemic-species as the Agricultural

activity

pressing the intrinsic

symbiosis be-

elimatic and geo-morphological sever-

The areas in the foothills of mount Etna

tween man and the resources offered

ity of the upper reaches of Etna only a

are characterised by agricultural activ-

by the environment. For at least a third

few plants survive, such as the endemic

ity and by marvellous examples of coun-

ofthe Sicilian population, Etna is more

Rumex, the Antemide ofEtna, the Sene-

try houses and austere village homes.

than an extraordinary, complex and unu-

cio

The landscape is, in fact, derived not

sual volcano. It is a symbol of affilia-

taraxacoides. A volcanic desert exists

only from the volcanic activity and the

tion and identification, not only in front

at altitude above 3000 meters.

elimatic influences, but also from the

of the whole world, but also in com-

long history ofhwnan activity in the area.

parison to the rest of the island. It is a

At first, man developed silvo-pastoral

giant that is able to do everything and

aetnensis

and

the Robertia

activities, devoting, subsequently,

to

the cultivation ofthe land. Today in the

18

slopes, up to the

Inlernalional

Journal

of lsland Affairs

to which everything is owed, much as in the ancient pantheistic civilisations.

Etnean area we can find good vineyards,

In fact, for the "children of the Etna"

as well as orchards of apple, pear, hazel,

the volcano is just "a muntagna". As

pistachio and strawberry. Remarkable is

if it was not necessary to distinguish it

also the cultivation ofprickly pear, cit-

from the other volcanoes and moun-

rus fruit, almond andfig trees.

tains. For the greatest part the people

The cultivation of pistachio is most

of the region around Etna have come

widespread on the western slopes of

to terms with living so near this majes-

Etna. Originating from the Near East,

tic and dangerous mountain which is


- Prof. ALfredo Petralia - University of Studies in Catania - Faculty ofMathematical, Physical and Natural Sciences. - Prof. Sebastiana Lagona - University of Studies in Catania - Faculty ofLetters and Philosophy. - Prof. Maria Elisa Brischetto - University of Studies in Catania - Faculty of

L

Political Sciences.

(J)

- Dot1.Clelia Burgi - University ofStudies in Catania - Faculty of Political Sciences. - Dot1. Francesco Musmeci - University ofStudies in Catania - Faculty of Political Sciences. - Prof. Ofelia Guadagnino - member of the Institute of search and formation to some

mony. Etna has inspired thinkers and

ISVl and ofthe UNESCO Center in Catania.

sources, the region around Etna has

writers of every epoch such as the trav-

- Ing. Giuseppe Fumari - Digital Mul-

been inhabited as early as 40.000 years

ellers ofthe Grand Tour or the Wunder

ago. Neolithic remains from around

Reise in the 8lh century when they as-

6.000 years ago have been found in the

cended Etna, on their mules, with the

References

area ofMendolito,

along the banks of

sacred terror that inspired a place so

AA.W., "Mount Etna Volcano", Mem. SocoGeol.

the Simeto river. The region has sub se-

wild. Arriving on the peak. at the first

viewed as their peaceful but unpredictable neighbour.

According

are an eloquent and incomplete testi-

timedia- Technologes

It, vol XXIII, Roma, 1982. Chester D. K., DuncanAM., GuestJ. E., Kilbnum

quently been settled by Greeks. Ro-

lights of a day dreamed for a long time

manso Vandals.

Arabs.

and that would be no longer forgotten,

and

they were inebriated by the sun rise,

Cristofolini R., Corsaro RA, Ferito C., 'Variazioni

Aragonesis that, during the millennia

the enchantment, ofthat cheerful com-

petrolchimiche nella successione etnea: un

and in different ways, have left indel-

pleteness that made thern similar to

Norrnans,

Byzantines,

Svevis,

Angioinis

ible traces in the local dialects, traditions, folk arts, architecture, literature and religious celebrations.

angels and gods. resources

Chapman & Hall ed., Londra, 1985.

riesame in base a nuovi dati da campioni di superficie e da sondaggi." Acta Vulc, 1991.

~.

This immense patrimony of natural and cultural

C.R.J., "Mount Etna, lhe anatomy of a volcano'.

makes

the

Cristofolini R., Imposa S., PatanĂŠ G. "1983, Etna cronaca minore di un evento storico", Tringale ed. Catania, 1984.

Etna itself represents the ideal stage

Etnean territory a primary tourist desti-

of the imaginary and the marvellous,

nation that must be valued and guarded

problemi

where for a long time myths and leg-

with care and respect.

Quademi della ricerca scientifica n. 98, C.N.R.,

have been erected for the celebration

Epilogue

of cults and religious practices. Since

The Etnean territory is an excellent

the fire represents

ground for multidisciplinary

studies

climb toward the absolute, beliefs tied

that would enrich our knowledge about

up to the volcano and the surrounding

this wonderful monument of nature that

territory are innumerable. Epics as that

has inspired all the people that have

of the forge of Hephaestus the god of

been blessed with its acquaintance.

between

The group of multidisciplinarians from

U1ysses and Cyclops, the philosopher

the ISVl Institute and of the UNESCO

Empedocles who leapt into the crater

Center in Catania, is constituted, at the

fire, the furious

struggle

in order that he might be thought of

moment, by Ole following scholars:

god, the yearning

- Prof. Renato Cristofolini - University

between

and unlucky love

Aci and the sea-nymph

del paesaggio

Roma, 1973

ends have been placed. where altars

the passions that

Poli E. "11Parco nazionale dell'Etna, valori e

of Studies in Catania - Faculty of

Galatea, but also the medieval beliefs

Mathematical, Physical and Natural

that set on Etna the mouths ofthe hell,

Sciences.

vulcanico attivo',

U (f)

O O


-,,-

r

Monlserral underlhe Ihrealof Soufriere

•••••= RXlD

••.• ArIripo

.~,

MontsCrrat?~

G-Ic••••.

~

i ~

1

4 km

Q

Nills Volcano: Fig. l. Map of Montserrat

showing places mentioned

texto Topographic

are in feet. Jnset shows the loca-

contours

tion of Montserrat

in the Lesser Antilles

Managing Ihe crisis

in the

island arco by

§

ince the middle of 1995, the

R

YOUNG*

cal and human history pointed to a po-

of the problem,

Eastem Caribbean island ofMontserrat

tentially

thanks to the high level of monitoring

has been host to violent activity at the

would impact severely on a small is-

and research which was undertaken

Soufriere Hills volcano. The island is

land nation.

under the auspices of the Montserrat

dangerous

volcano

which

and was possible

Volcano Observatory (MVO).

less than 100 km2 in size, with the vol-

Two factors in particular carried spe-

cano comprising the southem third of

cia1 weight in the assessment of vol-

the island (Fig. 1). The capital town.

C31ÚChazards and risk on this, small,

rnent officia1s c1imbed a steep learning

Plymouth, lay on the lower flanks of

island. The first was the potential for

curve during the first two years of the

the volcano, just 3 km from the active

an eruption of such a magnitude that it

crisis. The importance of effective com-

crater (Fig 2a), and almost two thirds

would impact severely on the whole

munication between these two groups,

ofthe island's 11,000 population lived

island. Was such an eruption possible?

as well as between them and the general

within 5 km ofthe volcano's summit at

lf so, then what were the chances it

pub lic. cannot be underestimated. The

the onset of activity. The Soufriére Hills volcano (SHV) is

Both scientists and disaster manage-

would happen? And could sufficient

low loss oflife (20 people. all within an

waming be guarantecd so as evacua-

evacuated area c1assified as extremely

at least

tion of the island was possible? The

high risk) relative to the number of'prop-

170,000 years old. The volcano itself

second factor was the possible longev-

erties destroyed

an andesitic

stratovolcano'

(housing

for about

deposits provide

ity of the eruption. Even if safe to do

6,000 people), and the extended length

abundant

evidence for the nature of

so, could the islanders survive the pro-

oftime that key infrastructnre remained

previous

volcanic

and the surrounding

long-lived

activity:

dome-forming-

longed loss and probable destruction

operational (port and main industrial

eruptions

ofmost housing, key infrastructure and

complex until hours before being effec-

namely

of pyroclastic Ilows'

farming lands? And what future would

tively destroyed, airport until minutes

and some mild explosive activity. This

the islanders have when and if the vol-

before almost being destroyed) both

style is typical of the volcanoes of the

cano once again became dormant?

with generation

20

SfMON

suggest that the combination of scien-

Lesser Antilles island are. Pyroclastic

The scientific input to management

tific knowledge and administrative dili-

flows from a dome-forming eruption at

of this volcanic crisis went above and

gence provided an effective basis for

Mt Pelée on the nearby

of

beyond that provided in any previous

successful disaster management.

Martinique in 1902 killed a1most 30,000

volcanic disaster, perhaps any previ-

people in the worst volcanic disaster

ous natural disaster. This scientific in-

ofthe 20th century. Thus both geologi-

put was required th3111<:s to the nature

InternationaI

JournaI

island

of IsIand AtTairs

* Chief

ScientistjDirector,

Observatory,

1996-2000

Montserrat

Volcano


This paper outlines the role played by scientific

knowledge

in

outside world were via a small airport

the

Montserrat volcanic crisis. It describes

Grenada in the south to Saba in the

on the central eastern coast and a corn-

north, with an underwater volcano 10-

mercial port in the capital, Plyrnouth.

cated north ofGrenada called Kick 'Em

the evolution of volcanic hazards as-

Natural disasters have struck the is-

Jenny. The northern part of fue chain

sessments for fue island, and fue devel-

land many times, with the 1989 passage

has, to its northeast side, an outer are

opment of quantitative risk assessments. It will highlight in particular those

of Hurricane Hugo most prominent in

of older volcanic

the memory. Hugo damaged 95 % of

merged and covered in coral.

lessons learnt from fue Montserrat ex-

the housing on Montserrat, and most

perience, which are most important for

key infrastructure

effective management of volcanic cri-

Considerable

ses on other islands around the world.

tional

aid

Island

of Monfserraf

now sub-

The active are is about 5 million years

had to be rebuilt.

old, and has 11 volcanoes which have

UK and other interna-

shown unrest in the past 500 years or

money

was

spent

on

so (Table 1). The island ofMontserrat

in the six years between

is - 4 million years old and comprises 4

Hugo and the onset of activity at SHV;

distinct volcanic centres: Silver Hills

Montserrat The

islands

Montserrat was named by Columbus

almost all of it on infrastructure rede-

in the north, Centre Hi11s, the active

and colonised by Catholic priests ex-

velopment in and around Plymouth.

Soufriere Hills, and South Soufriere

pe11ed from a neighbouring

island in

Hi I1s(Fig. 1). Volcanic activity has gen-

1632.1t has been under both British and

Volcanic

French rule at various times during its

Monfserraf

colonial history, and is now a British

Easfern

Overseas Territory. There is a Gover-

Montserrat is a small volcanic island

nor representing

(-100 km-) Iying towards the northern

the British Head of

Hisfory and

of

erally migrated

The

Caribbean

southwards

through

time: the style of volcanism

has re-

mained the same throughout

the is-

land's geological history. Prior to the onset of the current erup-

State, and a locally-elected government

end of the Lesser Antilles island arc,

tion, fue youngest known deposits on

and parliament. High-revenue tourism

on the eastern side of the Caribbean

Montserratwere-16.000yearsold.

was the main source of income Ior the

Sea (Fig. l ). The volcanic are Iies ap-

undertaken after the onset of the current

island at the onset ofthe eruption, with

proximately 250 km to the west of the

eruption revealed a deposit of - 4,000

a rice-processing plant and an olfshore

boundary between the Atlantic Plate

years old ~;vhichis thought to be associ-

US medical school also contributing

and the Caribbean Plate. The Atlantic

ated with fue sector collapse" event which

significantly to foreign earnings. Agri-

Plate is moving slowly (10-40 mm/year)

formed the scarfeature (English's Crater)

culture was almost entirely undertaken

westwards and is subducting beneath

which dominates fue current morphology.

Work

Plate. The active are

An even younger series of deposits was

11 volcanic islands, from

also identified in fue Tar River valley,

on the flanks of the volcano, and most

the Caribbean

produce consumed locally. Links to the

comprises

~. Table 1. Volcanoes Volea río

of the active

Island

name Mt St Catherine Kick 'Ern Jenny

Grenada Underwater (Grenadines)

Soufriere

segment

Population

of the Lesser

Antilles

Historical

of island 92,000

island

Historical or last prehistorie volcanic activity" 3

seismic unrest'

7 < 1,000 SP 1939, 1943, 1953, 1965-66,

n/a

1972,1974,1977

St Vincent

111,000

St Lucia

145,000

Martinique

371,000 71,000

?1780, 71880,

1718,71784,1812-14,71880,

1945-46 Sulphur

Springs

(Qualibou)

Mt Pelée Morne Patates / Morne Plat Pays Nalley of Desolation

Dominica"

are

/ Micotrin,

1902-03, 1971-72, 1979 1766

1990

1792,1851-52,1902-05,1929-32 1849,1937-38,1967,1971 1974, 1976, 1985-86, 1994-95

- 735 SP, 1881, 1997

1997,1998-99 Morne au Diable/Morne La Soufriere Soufriere Hills

Diablotins

71,000

Dominica" Guadeloupe

413,000

71765,1841,1893

> 30,000 SP

1962 1680, 1696, 1797-98, 1809, 1837 1843 1903, 1956 1976·77 - 380 Sp, 19951897-98, 1933-37, 1966-67

Montserrat

11,000

Nevis Peak

Nevis

9,000

1831-35,1926,1947-48, 1950-51, 1961-62

No data

Mt l.iarnuiqa

St Kitls St Eustatius (Statia)

32,000 2,500

1988

71692,71843

TheQuill The Mountain

Saba

1,300

Notes: 1. ? = before a date denotes that the nature of the event is poorly recorded. 2. Dominica has a number of volcanic centres - they have been split into northern and southern groups for this tabulation. 3. Dates in italics are for pre-historic activity dated by radiocarbon methods, SP denotes years before present.

- 1600 SP - 330 SP

L Qj

(J5 (f)

O O


dated at 350 to -l00 years old.

indications of explosive activity, so that the evacuation order was lifted after a

The lack of any historical documenta-

month.

tion of this last eruption suggests that

Lava continued to reach the surface

it occurred just a few years or decades prior to colonization ofthe island in 1632.

in the crater until 10 March 1998. by

There was thus no recorded surficial

which time almost 300 million cubic metres of laya had been extruded. Ex-

volcanic activity on Montserrat prior to the onset ofthe current eruption in 1995.

Fig. 2a. Plymouth

However, there were three episodes of

vo/cano

brooding

1I'1Ih

the Soufriére

behtnd,

October

Hills /995.

early months of dome growth, and rose

shallow earthquakes which have been

unevenly thereafter. The first signifi-

tenned 'failed eruptions'. Such periods

cant pyroclastic flows occurred in late

of seismic unrest are common in the Car-

March 1996 in the Tar River valley,

ibbean volcanoes: most such periods

which led from the open. eastern side

are not followed by an eruption.

of the sumrnit crater to the sea, 2 km away. These flows and other signs of

The three episodes of seismic unrest

increasing

were in 1897-98,1933-37 and 1966-67; the thirty year periodicity of these episodes extrapolates to renewed unrest in

Fig. 2b. Pyroclasuc flows reaching the sea al the end of {he Tal' River va/ley, June 1996.

the mid-1990s. Each episode comprised shallow,

sub-volcano

seismicity

in

magma production

rate

prompted the third and final evacuation of southern Montserrat on 3 April 1996. Flows fírst reached the sea on 12

Phreatic activity continued for four

May. and over the next 4 months, a se-

swanns. Earthquakes in 1934 had an es-

months, with four major explosions pro-

ries of prolonged dome collapses oc-

timated magnitude ofmore than 4, and

ducing heavy ashfall in the capital, Ply-

curred, sending pyroclasticflows down

caused widespread damage in the vil-

mouth, immediately downwind of the

the Tar River valley to the sea for peri-

lages all over the south of Montserrat.

volcano. The first of these, on 21 Au-

ods ofmany hours (Fig. 2b). Although

Elsewhere in the Caribbean, historical activit:y has been common (Table I).

gust 1995, prompted the first evacua-

these flows did not directly threaten

tion of southern Montserrat

any inhabited areas, ashfall from these

(see be-

Significant volcanic activity is known

low). A short period of possible dome

and other eruptions periodically oc-

at

extrusion occurred in late September

curred over the whole ofMontserrat.

4 centres;

La

Soufriere

on

Guadeloupe ..Mt Pelée on Martinique,

1995, followed by a return to phreatic

A particularly long and violent dome

the Soufriére of St Vmcent and Kick 'Em

activity, with explosions on 31 Octo-

collapse on 17 September 1996 culmi-

Jenny. Seismic unrest is recorded from a

ber, 4 November and 9 November be-

nated in the first magma tic explosión",

further 6 of the active volcanoes in the

ing the most

which deposited ash and pumice on the

si.gnificant

events.

chain. One particular month stands out

Seismicity associated with this early

inhabited village of Cork Hill and sur-

in Caribbean volcanic history; May 1902.

phreatic activity was significant, with

rounding areas, and led to the destruc-

Mt Pelée and the Soufriére of St Vincent

a number of earthquakes felt within 5

tion of houses in Long Ground, the east-

both erupted within days of each other,

km ofthe volcano.

ern village closest to the growing lava

and both caused mass casualties; about

Continuous

extrusion

of viscous

dome (which had been evacuated many

1,500 in St Vincent and an astonishing

andesitic lava in the form of a dome

months before). Magma ascent contin-

30,000 at Mt Pelée, where all but two

began on 15 November 1995 within the

ued, and the dome had soon reached

people in the capital, St Pierre, died.

main phreatic crater. Lava extrusion was

the size it had been prior to the 17 Sep-

due

tember collapse. A two-month period of

to poor visibility at the summit of the

no dome growth followed: instead of

not confirmed untillate-November

22

trusion rates remained low during the

Eruptive Activity at The Soufri ere Hills Volcano, 1995-2001

volcano; southern Montserrat was then

reaching the surface, magma was being

evacuated for a second time as the sci-

injected beneath the dome, causing

The ongoing eruption ofthe Soufriére

entifíc team assessed the rate of dome

stresses on the crater walls and leading

Hills volcano began on 18 July 1995

growth.

to the possibility of lateral explosions'

with the opening ofa phreatic' vent in

quickly. that would have indicated rapid

and sector collapse. By the end of the

the summit crater of the volcano close

magma rise, leaving little time for dis-

year. however, dome growth had resumed in a vigorous marmer (Fig. 3).

If the dome was growing

to the island's highest point, Chances

solved gases to be lost. Gas-rich mag-

Peak. However, the onset of surface

mas reaching the surface are prone to

activity was preceded by an intermit:-

violent explosions and generation

of

rate throughout the first half of 1997,

tent seisrnic crisis which started in 1992

pyroclastic

flows. As it was, dome

with periodic dome collapses produc-

and peaked in late 1994.

growth was slow, and there were no

ing pyroclastic flows in the Tar River

International

Journal

of Island Affairs

L

Dome growth continued at a steady


valley lo the east and the White River

A new dome appeared in the main

valley to the southwest. The northern

phreatic crater in mid-November 1999,

Ilanks ofthe volcano carne under threat

and grew slowly until entirely collaps-

in May 1997 as dome growth switched

ing on 20 March 2000 in one ofthe larg-

to that area, and on 25 June. a large

esl pyroclastic flow-generating events

dome collapse sent pyroclastic Ilows 6

of the eruption. This was the first time

km towards the airport and over .J. km

that such a large proportion of an ac-

towards the village of Cork Hill. A

Fig. 3. f/gorolls

number of villages were destroyed or

ntght

severcly damaged, and 20 people who had ventured into the evacuated area to tcnd crops were killed.

cember

dome growth highlighted

by strong g/Oll'lI1g of the dome,

al De-

1996.

was thought to have been prompted by a short period of extremely intense

Following ÚUS event, dome growth rapidly recommenced, and continued at a

Rapid dome growth continued, lead-

tive dome had collapsed. and the event

rainfall in the hours prior to the onset

high rate until early March 1998, when

Dome growth again recommenced

magma supply to the surface abruptly

almost immcdiatcly, and the dome grew

August which produced

stopped. For the next 20 months, no new

at a variable, but generally quite slow,

110wswhich destroyed the capital, Ply-

dome growth occurred, although explo-

rate until July 2001, when a large por-

mouth, to the west ofthe volcano (Figs

sions, pyroclastic 110wsand lahars" con-

tion of the dome again collapsed in a

-la). This dome collapse was Iollowed

tinued to occur. In late October 1999, a

series of large pyroclastic flows in the

by a series of 12 Vulcanian explosions"

periad of particularly heavy rainfall fol-

Tar River valley. Dome growth restarted

at intervals oflO to 14 hours, praducing

lowing the passage of two hurricanes

irrunediately and is ongoing at the time

tall convective columns" (up lo 12 km)

prompted increased phreatic activity, and

ofwriting (November 2001).

and fallout of ash and pumice over all of

in early November,

('\YO

phreatomagmatic

Montserrat. A further major dome col-

explosions" occurred synchronous with

Volcanic

lapse occurred

an increase in volcano seismicity indica-

Crisis

on 21 September:

pyroclastic 110wsfrom this collapse de-

Hazards

and

Management

Severa1 volcano hazard assessmenls

tive of magma movement.

stroyed the airport and several eastem

had been undertaken

for Montserrat

villages which had been spared on 25

prior lo the onset of unusual seismic

June. A succession of75 explosions fol-

activity beneath the volcano in late

lowed at an average interval of9 hours;

1992. The most thorough study was

the COIWlillS reached 13 km height (Fig.

undertaken

in the mid-1980s by re-

-lb) and ash and pumice was again de-

searchers from the Seismic Research

posited over all of Montserrat.

Unit of the University

of the West

Dome growth rate peaked towards

Indies based in Trinidad. This project

the end of 1997, with more dome col-

Fig, 4a. Plymouth

was sponsored by the United Nations,

lapses in early November, and the most

pyroclasttc

after its destruction

flO1VS, September

by

1997.

and resulted in detailed assessment of

violent event of the whole eruption

past eruptions of the Soufriére Hills

early on 26 December. This event was

volcano and primitive computer-aided

very similar in character to that fore-

modelling

of hazardous

phenomena

cast ayear earlier, and resulted in the

from likely eruptive activity. The study

devastation of 9 km" of southwestern

was presented in a report to authori-

Montserrat.

A small sector collapse

ties on Montserrat but unfortunately

produced a debris avalanche'? with .J.

was not given sufficient attention in

km run-out, and was followed immedi-

the years that followed. Elements of the

ately by a dome collapse with violent

study were a1so published in the aca-

lateral explosions

to the southwest.

demic literature, from where they rap-

Pyroclastic

11

idly resurfaced at the onset of surface

surges

completely

de-

stroyed the villages of St Patrick's and

activity in July 1995.

Morris and caused severe damage to

In retrospect, the report proved accu-

all property south of the outskirts of Plymouth. A small tsunami 12, which

warning to authorities on Montserrat. It

came ashore midway up the west coast

could have had an especially significant

of Montserrat with a wave height of about 1.5 m, was also generated.

rate and shou1d have provided an early

Fig. 4b. Typical eruption column from a Vulcanion explosion, October 1997.

fñ rJ)

O

O

of collapse.

ing to a major dome collapse in early pyroclastic

L

lJ

impact had it been used as part of the planning process for rebuilding of key


infrastructure during the early 1990s in

A comprehensive re-assess-

the aftermath ofHurricane Hugo. As it

ment of hazards was under-

was, the report appears to have been

taken by the newly-formed

blown away in Hugo, and all ofthe key

Montserrat Volcano Observa-

investment

on

tory in early 1996, and this as-

Montserrat since 1989 was lost to the

sessment was continually be-

in

infrastructure

The National Disaster Management Plan for Montserrat published in early 1995 did not even recognise a volcanic as a potentially

disastrous

event. despite more than 2 years of

sessment

updates

included

. two separa te parts; one concentrating on the evidence of past eruptions

of SHV and

similar volcanoes elsewhere

volcano which reached a peak in No-

around

vember and December 1994. The onset

other concentrating

of volcanic activity thus found the is-

the rnonitoring data and grow-

The earlier hazard

assessment was eventually re-discovered, although for a time, poor photocopies of a colour map in an academic

the world; and the

ing understanding

more on of the vol-

cano itself. The longevity of the SHV eruption . data generated

enabled

by research

Fig. 5. i olcontc risk map from June 199-, at the end

joumal served as the hazard map for

science to feed back into the

of the pertod of mtcro-management oi volcantc hazards on Montserrat. 'A' denotes the area of highest

evacuation planning purposes.

monitoring

rtsk, with each successtve zone declimng

The first evacuation

of southern

programme

and

hazards assessments, an unu-

Montserrat took place immediately af-

sual and positive factor.

ter the first large phreatic eruption on

The third evacuation

21 August 1995. Eastern villages close

curred

on 3 April

In risk. The

evacuation status of each zone varied wtth alert level, which in turn depended on the day-to-day activity of the volcano.

oc1996,

to the open eastem side of English's

prompted by several days of increas-

. Evacuation zones were altered to al-

Crater were evacuated a few days ear-

ingly rapid dome growth, longer runout

10\V

for different phases of activity, and

Iier. The Belham Valley (Fig. 1) served

pyroclastic flows in the Tar River val-

zones had different rules applied to them

as the northem limit of the evacuated

ley, 3l1d evidence for higher gas pres-

dependent

zone to the west: the zone to the east

sures in the dome itself. The evacua, tion was ongoing as the first

mended by the scientific team and rati-

had its northern limit to the south of

on the alert level reCOl11-

fied by the management authorities. Al-

the airport. This evacuation lasted 2

pyroclastic flow with runout of greater

though complex, this system worked well

weeks, whilst the scientifĂ­c team as-

than 1 km occurred. The evacuation

until overtaken by events in the sununer

sessed the likelihood of immediate and

area included Plymouth,

Harris and

of 1997. After the tragic events of25 June

significant magma tic eruptions.

most of the eastern villages south of

and the loss of the airport, sea port and

the airport. However, SOl11eofthese ar-

destruction ofPlymouth, fue Belham Val-

towns and villages occurred at the be-

eas had daytime access for either resi-

ley once again became the southern limit

ginningofDecember

dents or workers.

A second evacuation

of southern

1995, whendome

growth wasfirst definitively recognised.

24

progressed. These hazard as-

anomalous seismic activity beneath the

land unprepared.

6 June 1997

ing updated as the eruption

volcano within a decade.

eruption

Montserrat Volcano Risk Map

of occupation on Montserrat, and it will

Hazards assessments for SHV from

essentially stay that way until eruptive activity has ceased completely.

Evacuation- of eastem villages again

mid-1996 beca me possibly the most

occurred first, along with vulnerable

detailed ever attempted for an active,

popuJations to the west (e.g. hospital

potentially explosive, volcano. The pri-

micro-management

patients, old people etc). This evacua-

mary reason for this was the lack of

ability of the scientific team to achieve

Aiding the hazard assessment and process was the

tion did not encompass such a large area

space on the island that would allow

a form of consensus over potentially

as the first evacuation, as scientists were

the country to function effectively at a

contentious advice. This was able to

by then better aware of what phenom-

comfortably safe distance from the on-

happen due to a number of factors, most

ena might be expected. This evacuation

going volcanic. eruption. As a result,

important

lasted a month; however, residents of

micro-management

of the areas under

elicitation process instigated at the start

southern Montserrat were warned on

threat from the volcano was necessary

of the eruption (and described further

their return that if dome growth contin-

(Fig. 5). This enabled key infrastruc-_

below) and the fact that the MVO acted

ued, a third and probably long-lasting

ture to continue

as the fulcrum and mouthpiece for all

evacuation would be required.

keeping risk levels acceptably low.

International

Journal

of Island Affairs

functioning

whi 1st

of which were the expert

scientists working on the volcano.


The Development Quantitative

1.n 1 ._ ....

of

...••...

, ..•......••••.•..•..

o

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

•••••••••••••••

_

••

,_0

••

o

•••••••••••

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

--+-

Present pccoiencn

t

Risk

Stnd

Assessment

Ti

exclosrco

J

zone : ..

The loss of life during events of 25

:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: __ ._0 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••••

-.

-'-Vvho!e popn rroved tozones2&1

June 1997 and the increasingly explosive nature ofthe volcanic activity during the second half of 1997 prompted revision of the risk assessment process. The assessment of volcanic haz-

L

ards by the scientific community and

en

the subsequent communication

U (j)

of adNumber

vice to the authorities

managing

the

of Pataüñes

O

N

O

disaster had to be conducted in a pub-

FIg. 7. One of the outputs from the quantuauve risk assessmen/s IS a cumulattve probabiltty plot for fatalities from volcantc acttvtty. Thts example, from the December 199- assessment,

licly accountable manner. The destruc-

shows the possible

reductton

sacie/al

111

rtsk by various different

evacuation

scenarios.

tion or near destruction of most of all the island, including estirnations on fue

ogy and results by the UK's Chief Sci-

flanks ofthe VOlc3110 (most importantly

likely life loss and property loss under

entific Advisor and a panel of his own

the sea port, airport (Fig. 60) and rice-

eruption scenarios ofincreasing ity.

experts. That review confirmed fue va-

of the key infrastructure

around the

processing plant) effectively ended the need for micromanagement

of evacua-

sever-

lidity of the work, and the risk assess-

The final output from the assessment

tion zones. This simplified the alert and

provided risk information for various

hazard map system, and relieved pres-

areas on the island

ment has been updated

every 6-12

months since then.

under various

As anticipated, fue hard risk numbers

evacuation scenarios, for both personal

which were released as a result of the

However, the larger questions of the

and societal risk (Fig. 7). This risk in-

QRA provided fue managing authorities

safety of the entire island and the po-

fonnation was easily understandable to

and indeed fue community at risk with

sure on the scientists

considerably.

tential longevity of the eruption rap-

managing authorities whilst at fue same

sufficient infonnation to make short and

idly came to the fore as the authorities

time being fully defendable through

long-tenn decisions regarding evacua-

realised the full implications of large-

scientific and mathematical investiga-

tions and sustainability of the island.

and los s of infra-

tion. The gravity of this work was high-

Very substantial economic and redevel-

structure. Was the northern part of the

lighted when the UK Govemment or-

opment aid flowed into Montserrat from

dered a review of the QRA methodol-

early 1998, with new housing. govern-

scale evacuations

island safe enough to justify largescale rebuilding of housing (Fig 6b)

ment buildings, a heliport and other key

~.

infrastructure rapidly being constructed

and infrastructure?

in the north of the island. Assisted

The scientific staff at the MVO con-

relocations, mainly to fue UK, peaked in

cluded that the advice they were now

late 1997, and fue population remaining

being asked to give would have huge implications

on

the

Iuture

on the island declined to about 3,500.

of

Montserrat. Thus, sufficient rigour and

As redevelopment

accountability had to be included in the

population is slowly rising again. although the habitable part of the island

advice-giving process to stand the test oftime and intense scrutiny. A quantitative risk assessment (QRA) was un-

has continued, fue

Fig. 6a. Destruction and coverage mnway

of the airport

of the apron

by pyroclastic

terminal

and par/ of the

jlows,

October

1997.

can perhaps support only half of the original

population.

Montserrat's

dertaken in December 1997, including

economy is still heavily supported by

extensive discussions of past and [u-

. the UK, but budgetary aid is slowly be-

ture volcanic activity, data from the

ing reduced. The continuing volcanic

monitoring

operations

and ongoing

activity still looms large in the con-

laboratory

research,

and

sciousness of all Montserratians,

expert

both

elicitations to deduce the probabilities

at home and overseas, but fue high level

and uncertainties

of scientific monitoring and the trust that

for activity at the

.has developed between the scientific

volcano over time periods of6 months to 5 years. Both qualitative and quantitative information was gathered on the vulnerability of people and property on

Fig.6b. Construction of housing in the north of Montserrat lo accommodate some of those perm anently

di splaced

from

volcanic acuvity, January

the south

2000.

by

te31TIand the population both provide security and confidence in fue future of fue island.


Discussion of Key Disaster Management Issues The ongoing volcanic crisis on Montserrat has highlighted a number of important issues relating to disaster

cruption cannot be underestimated for most islands. Small populations oflen mean Iew if'any traincd specialists, so intemational teams are often required to install and run monitoring networks. This

managemcnt in a11island setting.

almost always has a positive influence on local interest in science, and also brings with it research expertise and resources.

Nowhere to run The geography of an island seuing, especially if the island is srnall, the \'01cano large. or key infrastructure is 10cated in a potentially hazardous area. immediatcly creates a cha11engefor disaster managers. For example. on Montserrat, a moderatcly conservative approach such as evacuating everyone within 10 km of the volcano was not possible without evacuating the entire island (and thus depopulating an entire country). The options were limited to micro-managed evacuations heavily dependent on good scientific information. or on an ultra-conservative approach which would have meant evacuation of the entire island, with dire consequences for the Montserratian community The latter was contemplated a number of times by Montserrat's disaster management authorities. Rapid evacuation in the face of compelling scientific information that the entire island might be in danger was a1so an option, but again, the island setting made planning for such an eventuality extremely difficult. Maintaining use of key infrastructure Air and sea links are an island's lifelines: without them, no island can func-

tifyand

Ă&#x161;lUS

International

Journal

of Island Affairs

and volcanic

clasts

built

up during

course of many eruptions. to the dominant matic

is

Andesitic

composition

products

the refers

of the mag-

- andesites

are more sili-

ceous than basalts and les s siliceous than dacites. 2.

Dome-forming:

Volcanoes

high viscosity domes.

magma

As magma

is degassed

which

erupt

often produce

lava

reaches the surface, it

sufficiently

but is too viscous vent,

Formalising risk analysis With extensivo scientific knowledge and

3.

not to explode,

to run away from the

so a pile of rubbley

lava forms,

a

tion to disaster managers recast the relationship between scientists and authorities on Montserrat. It also enabled the population at large to see at last the hard infonnation which scientists are meant to deal in.

Pyroclastic flow: A mixture of ash, rock clasts and gas which

a large pool of intemational experts, quantification of risk on Montserrat was achieved for the first time in an ongoing natural disaster. The presentaiion of defendable, consensus risk informa-

hundreds volcano

moves fast (up to several

of mph)

down

as a density

flows are commonly

the flanks

current.

of a

Pyroclastic

caused by collapse of

parts of a lava dome or explosive

eruption

column. 4. Sector

collapse:

A sector

edifice collapses

of the volcanic

in the form of a landslide

either connected

with volcanic

activity

or

due to other factors such as hydrothermal alteration. 5.

Phreatic:

driven

groundwater,

by steam

from

heated

activity can include explosions

and gas, steam and ash venting.

Cornmunications Perhaps the most important lesson that should be learnt Irom the Montserrat cxpcrience is that good communication

6. Magmatic

depressurisation

tween scientists enables consensus and a single, authoritative voice. Communication of the consensus to authorities enables the decision-making proc-

tion can spread quickly. Trust can be slow to develop, especially for newcomers. And islands provide few hiding places, few ivory towers for scientists to retreat into. On Montserrat, the observatory and its scientists have become part of island Iife. The value of that is beyond measure.

driven

by

gases through

as magma

7. Lateral explosion:

8. Vulcanian

is perhaps even more important than elsewhere. Island populations are often small, and nunours or misinforma-

explosion

reaches

the

earth's surface.

vertically

public at large dein turn, willlead to management. in an island setting

explosion:

rapid release of dissolved

in a crisis is vital.to successful disaster management. Communication be-

scientists and the velops trust which, successful disaster Communication

The value of science The value of high quality, multi-dimensional scientific monitoring of a volcanic

A stratovolcano

dome.

tions are viable for air and sea port facilities. On Montserrat, both ports were within striking distance ofthe volcano, and both were able to operate within

still no fixed wing landing capability on Montserrat, severely hampering the economic well-bejng ofthe island.

stratovolcano:

one made up of many layers of lava, ash

would be unacceptable,

ess to proceed in a timely and effective way. And communication between

Ior an emergency sea port facility to be completed. Over -l years on. there is

1. Andesitic

would not havc bcen sustainable, because risks would be impossible to quan-

tion. On many small islands, Iew loca-

areas otherwise evacuated for more than ayear. This gave -suĂ­ficient time

26

Without excellent science, micro-management of volcanic hazards on Montserrat

Glossary

An explosion

directed not

but laterally, often occurs after a

sector collapse. explosion:

Short-duration

mag-

matic explosion with relatively small amount of material ejected. 9. Convective

column:

An eruption

which the heat of particles

heats and entrains surrounding ducing convective in a thunder

column in

in the column air, so pro-

rise of air and particles as

head.

10. Debris avalanche:

Large landslide of usually

cold debris from the flank of a volcano. 11. Pyroclastic

surge: Highly mobile portion of

a pyroclastic associated

flow, lacking large clasts, often with a flow, but may occur inde-

pendently. 12. Tsunami:

Often known

long wavelength wave triggered displacement

as a tidal wave, a

intra-ocean by seafloor

or intra-Iake movement

or

of a large volume of water at

the surface. 13. Lahar: Indonesian and mudslides 14. Phreatomagmatic which

is driven

groundwater

term used for mudflows

on a volcano. explosion: by

An explosion

a combination

and magmatic

gases.

of


Eruplion of Miyakeiima and some problems of 'he volcanic activity on insular volcanoes in Japan

+ Niijil1!1

Kozushim,,, Miy,k.¡; •••D Mikurajilla

Q

Fig. 1. Map of {he Izu Islands

by

Out

of80~d

active volea-

and ash. Through

the cloud sharp

Reeent

Voleanie

SHIGEO

Crisis

noes in Japan, about 20 occupy the

sparks of magma tic explosions occur-

major parts of sma1ler islands that con-

ring at the top crater (-1-23m above the

Miyakejima eruption

stitute the island are. People living on

sea level) illuminated

(June 2000 -present)

these islands are literally clinging to the

were accompanied

neck of the high-rise volcanic cones,

sound of explosions. The 3 small boats

most part of which are submerged be-

available for the rescue operation at the

much improved if the onset of future

by a deafening

Volcanologists have concluded that the Iife and safety of the islanders will be

time, were not sufficient to accommo-

volcanic eruptions could be forecast.

The life on these islands may be sim-

date a1l the islanders. About 200 peo-

In recenl years, it became clear that by

ple. natural and beautiful, as the resi-

pIe were saved but more than 130 were

measuring

dents of the crowded cities would tes-

left on the burning

canic activity, foretelling an eruption

tify, but in the rare cases of severe vol-

knows what happened

to, those left

may be feasible in some cases. When

canic eruption, the islands may turn to

behind but it is believed that they have

Usu volcano, in Hokkaido island in

the place offear and desperation.

perished before the reoccupation ofthe

northern Japan, showed signs of ac-

low the sea level.

Miyakejima is one of the Seven Is-

island. No one

island, that started 50 years later.

many pararneters of vol-

tivity in March, 2000, the onset oflocal

Are that

A similar tragedy occurred in 1902, at

earthquake swarm was quickly judged

stretches to the south ofthe Izu penin-

Izu-Torishima (2.7 km across), 530 km S

as the clear forerunner of an eruption.

sula and into the Philippines Sea, im-

of Tokyo. When a big eruption cloud

Three days later, when the volcano ac-

mediately to the south of Tokyo. All

was reported by a nearby fishing boat,

tually started

seven islands are volcanic in origin and

no contact could be made with the is-

10,000 residents in the danger zone had

have a long history of repeated erup-

land. After the eruption was over, it was

already been evacuated.

tions (see Table 1 and the map in Fig-

found out that a1l of the island's 125

Similarly in the evening of June 26.

ure 1).

residents lost their lives during the vio-

2000, when an earthquake swarm started

lent eruption.

in the western part of Miyakejima is-

lands

in the Izu Island

erupting,

more than

In those times, it was very difficult

land, 180 km S ofTokyo (Fig.I), scien-

on The Izu Island Are Aogashima volcano, 360 km S of To-

for the islanders to evacuate their is-

tists wasted no time lo declare an emer-

land quickly especially when the sea

gency and reconunended the immedi-

kyo, started erupting in the year of 1781

was high. Today, thanks to the modern

ate evacuation of the island. The last

and reached a climax with an eruption

port facilities and the numerous sea-

that occurred in April 1785. When the

worthy vessels available, ihe evacua-

rescue party approached,

the whole

tion of an island's residents in times of

island (3.5 km x 2.5 km wide) was

volcanic crisis is more feasible though

176-0011 Japan

shrouded by a dense cloud of smoke

the task is not at all easy.

E-mail: aramaki@chs.nihon-u.ac.jp

Past Voleanie

Disasters

* Professor Emeritus, Earthquake Research institute, University of Tokyo 2-12-16, Toyotama-kami, Nerima-ku, Tokyo

Qj

(]S (f)

O O

ARAMAK/*

Management

the scene and

L


three

eruptions

that

occurred

in

soon afterwards

the situation took a

clearly indicated

the northwestward

Miyakejima in 1940, 1962 and 1983, were

tum for the worst. After about 10 days

propagation of a major open crack in

all basaltic fissure eruptions along the

of quiescence, mild eruptions started

the upper crust into which the magma

slopes of the island's cone. AlI three

at the summit crater accompanied by

beneath Miyakejima could have been

eruptions were short lived (l5-30hours

weak swarms of unfelt shock beneath

drained. The size of the vertical crack.

duration) and preceded by very short

the crater. By July 9, the sumrnit area

about 25 km long and 10 km deep, is

(less than 4 hours) precursory earth-

started to collapse. New field observa-

extraordinary but with some past ana-

quake swarms. So, in Miyakejima fol-

tions, especially with the use of GPS,

logues in the general area of the Izu

lowing these well established pattems

tilt meters and gravity meters. indicated

Island Are. The crack was probably

of eruptive sequences of the past, the

the central part ofthe volcano, i. e. the

formed

volcanologists

island itself, was shrinking probably

compressive

expected

the earth-

parallel

to the

regional

stress field produced by

quake swarm was to herald theflank

due to the withdrawal

eruption which would soon break out

ground magma. It may be argued that a

Pacific plate against the Philippine Sea

from the fissures formed along the ra-

piston-like block possibly several hun-

plate. The large size of this tectonic

dial cracks on the mountain slope. The

dred meters across and a few kilometers

mega-crack is reflected by the occur-

next day, June 27, about 16 hours since

tal! was gradually sinking into the larger

rence of more than eight magnitude-6

the beginning ofthe earthquake swarm,

magma chamber at depth. In the period

class earthquakes along the line, indi-

eruption was ob-

a small submarine

of the under-

the northwestward

advancing of the

from July 9 to August 18, the scientists

cating probably the largest energy re-

served 300 m off the west coast of the

even argued a step-wise descent of a

lease event in the area since the begin-

island, just at the center of the earth-

block into the magma chamber. This

ning of modem seismic observation.

quake swann. By then, all the residents

was evidenced by a regular pattem of

From GPS deformation

studies, the

living in that area (more than 2000 peo-

episodic earthquake swarms and peri-

width of the crack is estimated in the

pIe) had been evacuated to safer areas

odie changes oftilt and inflation-defla-

order of 1 metre, a comparable value

in the northern and eastem sides ofthe

tion of the volcanic edifice. The Au-

island. However, a few hours later, the

gust 18 phreatomagmatic

with the magma Miyakejima.

area of swarm moved further away to

probably marked the end of the steady

As a result ofthe magma withdrawal

the west ofthe island. At the same time,

but stepwise sinking of the block in a

the volcano summit at Miyakejima

eruption

withdrawal

at

tiltmeters and GPS stations indicated a

piston Iike motion and possibly the

started to collapse and this process

reversal ofinclination,

withdrawal of the magma.

continued until the end of August. By

i.e., a shrinking

of the volcanic edifice following the

What caused the draining of such a

previous expansion which was indica-

large arnount (0.5 km') ofmagma to the

deep was formed.

tive of shallow magma intrusion. AlI of

underground?

phreatomagmatic

these observations suggested that the

soon found

underground crack migrated westwards

Miyakejima. A large-scale earthquake

producing minor mud flows after heavy

away from the island and so did the

swarm started migrating from the west-

rain falls. A few incidents of large pro-

underground magma.

ern shore of Miyakejima towards the

jectiles falling close to the inhabited

northwest

area and the generation oflow-tempera-

As a result the evacuation order was

Ti e answer was to be way off the coast

of

and after three days it

then a caldera 1.6 km across and 400 m Accompanying

eruptions delivered

considerable ash fall all over the island,

called off on June 29 and the residents

reached near Niijima island about 25 km

ture pyroclastic

returned to their homes. Unfortunately

NW ofMiyakejima. This linear swarm

the collapsing eruption column raised

surges produced by

much fear among the residents and the wholesale evacuation ofthe island was finally called. AlI the residents, about 3800.left the island by September 3. At about the same time, a very large volwne of sulphur dioxide gas (S02)' began escaping from the sununit caldera. The daily output of gas fluctuated from 20 to 70 thousand

tons.

This

degassing phenomenon July 6.2000

28

International

Survey Institute

Journal

made the is-

land uninhabitable as the atmospheric

FĂ­g. 2. Radar images of Miyakejima showing the [ormation of a caldera al the top of the volcano, following the summit collapse caused by the draining of the magma. Pho by the Geographic

outrageous

of Japan.

of Island Affairs

concentration of S02 could exceed the safety level of3 parts per million (ppm)


at any moment depending on the wind condition. The outgassing

of S02 at

this high rate continued for more than one year and is without any doubt a world record. No other volcanoes have ever been known to have emitted this much amount of gas. The outgassing phenomenon must certainly be related

Fig. 3. People evacuattng from

to the withdrawal ofthe basaltic magma

Miyakejim

which in turn left the conduit linking

(September

L

a

l)

2000,

(J)

photo by Yomlllrl

(f)

the summit caldera with the magma res-

Shimbun).

ervoir underneath to stay open and let the gas out.

the caldera floor in NW-SE direction

O O vessels, big and small, swarmed around

Most ofthe evacuated islanders were

gradually extending to the SE. Scientists

the island, on which only two ports were

accommodated in the Greater Metropoli-

on the caldera floor and tourists on the

available for the evacuation. Many fac-

tan Tokyo area on the mainland (Honshu

caldera rim made a hasty retreat taking

tors contributed to the success of this

island). They still remain there. at the

the only road leading to the foot of the

emergency evacuation, but the most im-

time of my writing (October, 2001). more

mountain. After dark, the tissure ex-

portant were: the relative calmness of

than one year since they were forced to

tended to NW crossing the caldera rim.

the sea. the existence of pre-arranged

hastily evacua te the island following the

The spectacular night scenes of gĂ­ow-

evacuation plans. the courageous elfort

unprecedented volcanic phenomena we

ing fountains were being broadcast real-

of the staff operating the local power-

have just described.

time by all the competing network sta-

generating plant to sustain the electric

tions throughout Japan as it was very

power supply throughout the evacua-

easy to send helicopters from the met-

tion and foremost the strong feeling of

For the Tokyo authorities accepting

ropolitan Tokyo area. On the island se-

intimacy and close cornradeship among

people from the Izu Islands because of

vere earthquakes were frequently felt

the local people.

a sudden volcanic eruption was the

with intensity ofup to VII on the Modi-

Most ofthe 10,000 residents of Izu-

The Izu-Oshima eruptien of 1986

second such experience in recent years.

fied Mercalli scale of seismic intensity

Oshima were moved to Tokyo where

In November, 1986, an unexpected fis-

(a scale that mea sures the effects of

they were asked to stay with their rela-

sure eruption at Izu-Oshima volcano (in

ground shaking upon people and build-

tives or at make-shift facilities such as

Oshima island, Fig. 1), led to a surprise

ings, ranging from 1to XII). This added

community auditoriums and gymnasi-

evacuation of about 10,000 people from

to the worries of the inhabitants and they

ums. One month after the eruption, the

the island to Tokyo.

readily accepted

evacuation was caIled off. The people

the instruction

to

Another basaltic stratovolcano imme-

evacua te the island when it was an-

were able to come backjust in time to

diately N ofMiyakejima, Izu-Oshima also

nounced by the town mayor who was

celebrate

had a record of frequent eruptions. In

officially in charge of the civil defence

Year's holidays at home.

the evening ofNovember 15, 1986. the

authority. The 6-hour-long evacuation

The impact of the 1986 Izu-Oshima

eruption started from the pit crater of

operation was carried out in a spectacu-

eruption to the govermnent was enor-

the central cone called Mihara-yama. By

lar scale and mostly without serious

mous. The volcanic surveillance and

their Christmas

and New

the night the lava discharge was so large

problems. The town authority of'Oshima

monitoring systems ofthe Izu-Oshima

that the fire fountain reached up to 500

with the help of the police and tire de-

volcano were beefed up with more in-

m high. During the following several

partments quickly set up a weIl coordi-

stnunentation such as seismic, electro-

days the eruption rate decreased gradu-

nated operations center. Tokai Kisen, the

magnetic and gravity networks most of

ally but the pit was filled and overflowed

local company that operates exclusively

them telemetered to the Metropolitan

with lava. As tourism was the main in-

the ferry and bus transportation

Tokyo. The total system of telecornmu-

dustry of the island, people (islanders

ices of the island was asked to evacua te

nications

and visitors) were very happy with the

the entire population. Alanned by the

mobile networks has been reviewed and

seemingly

safe display

serv-

including

the emergency

of the lava

live TV broadcast of the eruption, the

reinforced. The govermnent ofMetro-

splashes and mild explosions, However

government of the Metropolitan Tokyo

politan Tokyo asked the volcanologists

at 16:15 hours, November 21, a fissure

acted quickly and with the coordination

and other specialists to make an over-

eruption started with a curtain of fire

of the national govenunent, organized

aIl assessment of the volcanic disas-

reaching the height oĂ­ more than 1.000

the immediatc dispatch of all the avail-

ters of the Seven Islands of Izu and to

m withi n 30 minutes. The fissure crossed

able vessels nearby the island. Up to 40

recornmend a risk mitigation plan. In


addition the government launch

a project

decided to

encouraging

the

preparation and publication of hazard and risk mitigation maps around the active volcanoes of Japan, a project which was overdue for the country that has so many active volcanoes. Effects

on the

Life

of the

Islanders

The publicity due to the eruption affected the islanders ofOshima

in two

different ' vays. The economic assistance given to the island helped much to improve the infrastructure

of the is-

land, but people still feel uneasy about the possibility

of scaring

away the

tourists beca use of the fearful impression of the volcanic eruption.

As is

Fig, 4. Miyakejtma

island

In late September

2000, wtth the newly formed

caldera

clearly

vistble. Atrport and port [actltttes are also seen In the foothills of the volea no (Photo taken by T Kaneko

on 29 September,

2000)

common to al! the insular communities, the recent slowdown of economic

fered to the islanders

activity in Japan has dealt a serious

luxurious lo the citizens ofthe devel-

blow to the economic well-being of the

oping countries in other parts of the

islanders.

Miyakejima

example,

but the grim picture

was another has

children who are more ready to adapt

would appear

with the city life. Thus the case ofMiyakejima. is giv-

world, but their quality of life proved

ing us much to think and learn. The

dependent

government

more on their emotional

is working

hard

turned to desperate after the eruption

and human way of communicating

reestablish the infrastructure of the is-

that occurred in the summer of the year

with their farnily and friends than on

land, the road network damaged by the

2000. For the Greater Tokyo with a

the materialistic aspects. Just imagine

mud flows, etc. with the hope that the

population

an elder lady who had been tending

islanders may be able to come back in

over 10 mil!ion,

it was

physically and economically not diffi-

daily chores for her family in their sim-

the very near future. The outgassing

cult to accept 3,800 evacuees from

ple house surrounded

rate from the sumrnit caldera is slowly

Miyakejima.

natural beauty of the island now stay-

decreasing,

ing alone at a brand-new housing unit

enough

The most crucial point

that rendered

the evacuation

more

by the rich

but still holding a high

level to keep the residents

painful was the inability to predict the

in a high-rise apartment building run

away. Meanwhile, the local and met-

duration that the islanders would have

by the metropolitan government. The

ropolitarr governments with help from

to endure

new life in the city's high-rise build-

the volunteers and specialists are try-

homes. Such a prediction was not pos-

ings, with the high-speed

ing to improve the evacuation opera-

staying

away from their

elevators,

sible due to the unusual nature ofthis

the underground

railways, the auto-

tions piece by piece for the better liv-

eruption. People were told to evacu-

matic telling machines and numerous

ing of the evacuees. We hope by the

ate the island quickly with a very lim-

other things that she would have to

time of the return of the residents to

ited amount

at

adjust to, is so different and harder

their homes, the civic society wil!learn

hand. After arriving

in Tokyo, each

compared to her way of life on the is-

more for mitigating the volcanic dis-

family was assigned

to individual

land. Her husband is away for the tem-

asters which are unavoidable for the

housing without much consideration

porary job he could get and so are her

people living in the Japanese islands.

of their belongings

on the physical integrity of the local community in the island. So a単er several weeks when people realized that they will have lo stay in Tokyo longer than they expected, it was almost impossible to re-establish nal integrity

the commu-

Journal

Island Izu-Oshima Toshima

01 the seven Izu Islands

Area km2

Population

91.1

9408

4.1

293

Niijima

27.8

3122

Kozushima

18.9

2221

in the vast urban

Miyakejima

55.5

3785

Hachijojima

72.6

9245

sprawl of Tokyo. The assistance

Inlernalional

Table 1: Size and population

were

as the islanders

thinly dispersed

30

to

of Island Affairs

of-


Virtual Polyclinic on the Cres-Ioiini Archipelago .

e

by

m3H3 is a Mediterranean

country with about a thousand islands

ANAMAR/JA

poulation that outnumbers the entire

thc informatisation ofthe country in the

population of Croatia needs our medi-

twenty first century.

and 120,000 islanders. Every island is a

cal care and has some special medical

In Croatia this telemedical special-

special ecological

standards and requirements.It

was in

ist consulation system was the first in

community

with

small medieval towns. The inhabitants

these circumstances that 1conunenced

the outpatient medical care. Being first

have traditional occupations. They are

my work in May 1997. In my consulta-

to start such a system we had to make a

fishermen, shipbuilders, sailors, farrn-

tion office on the Cres Losinj archi-

definition ofVirtual Polyclinic as medi-

ers but every family is today involved

pelago, where 1am the only internist on

cal institution for providing a special-

in tourism in some way. The island

six islands with 13,500 people.

ist medical consulting service in remote areas using telematic technologies".

population in Croatia is older in aver-

The Cres-Losinj archipelago consists

age than the mainland population due

of6 inhabited islands and about 30 un-

The aim of the Project is to evaluate

to migrations

that are still present.

inhabited rocks and rocky islands. The

telemedical consultations as a new diag-

Within that old population the percent-

inhabited islands are Cres, Losinj, Unije.

nostic system in providing medical care

age of chronical patients is bigger than

Susak, Srakane, and llovik. They belong

for islanders and tourists and to try to

in the mainland. We have no hospital s

to the third group of islands that are

establish an organised specialist consult-

on the islands, and two years ago regu-

most remote from the mainland , and the

ing network using telematic technologies. My consultation

office is the first

lar specialist medical care that has been

nearest hospital. The transpon to the

provided by regional c1inical hospital

hospital in optimal meteorologycal con-

telemedical unit on the Cres Losinj ar-

ditions from Cres to Rijeka city lasts 2

chipelago and in Croatia. For three years

In the surnmer time our coast and is-

hours and 30 min, and from the Losinj

1worked alone but today my collabora-

lands are visited by 5 nĂşllion tourist from

island one hour more. For small islands

tors are Dr. Senka Stojanovic.a general

all over the world. This multinational

like Unije, Srakane. Susak and Ilovik

practitioner who recently started to work

physicians visit by a small aeroplaine or

with me and Dr. Igor Prebilic.

centers was cancelled.

MARGAN

The consultation office is located in

by ship. In 1999 with a group of colleagues

36 m2 It is equipped by standard elec-

from the mainland hospitals 1 started

trocardiogram,

telemedical consultations.

chanel

Slowly we

holter ECO, Tele 12

ECG, ultrasound

Siemens

solved the majority of the problems in

Sonoline Prima unit, and a small labora-

the specialist care domain. In May 2000

tory system that provides us with a11

1 started a pilot project "Virtual Poly-

the standard

laboratory

data within

clinic on the Cres Losinj Archipelago"

twenty minutes. The personal compu-

with Prof. Sven Loncaric from the Fac-

ter is connected to the Internet, printer.

ulty of Electronycal

Engeneering

in

scanner and digital camera as neces-

Zagreb. The project was approved by

sary equipment for teleconsultations.

our Ministry of Science and Technol-

We use a ISDN telephone line.

ogy, supported by Croatian President Stjepan Mesic and the Academy of Science, and was included in the Plan for

* Specialist in Internal Medicine INTERNIST'S SURGERY Cons 11, 51 557 Cres - Croatia

*


Minister of Building and

system tourists will return, and in greater

Construction Radimir Cacic. President

numbers. The telemedical consultation

of the Academy of Science Prof. Asim

system offers reassurance to those tour-

Rukavina,

Kurjak. Director-general

ists with ChrOIuCdiseases and to those with small children. Any tourist desti-

ter of Health of France Dr. Bernard

nation must also be a safe destination.

Coushner.

Among OUTother guests

Although our project is not yet fin-

of the

ished and will be prolonged for one year

Clinical Hospital Centers on the main-

more, our Ministry of Health decided to

sists of a tex11131 part with the history of

land that are our partners in the Projecl,

extend the same system to the Islands

disease, laboratory data, clinical exami-

and rnany of our specialist consultants.

of Vis, Solía and Lastovo by the end of

When we need a teleconsultation we create virtual patient records that con-

wcrc all the Director-generals

nation data and a section with ultrasound

The project has proved to be very

this year, and within following two years

images, digital camera images or ECG

successful. We ha ve made some 200

to all the other Croatian islands. We are

images. The software that we use allows

tcleconsultations for more than a hun-

proud that our system will be used on

us to communicate directly with our con-

dred patients. We have controlled some

those islands, being hem the most re-

sultants who receive the same virtual

patients using the telemedical system

mote islands in our country.

patient record on the screen of their com-

for over two years. Most of them are

We believe that introducing informatic

putero They reply to our request with

islanders but we have a lot of foreign

systems in all Croatian health institutions

instructions for further diagnostic pro-

citizens as well. One trip to the main-

will be the ground plan for telemedical

cedures or recommendations for medi-

land costs 125US$ by emergency car.

consultation as routine medical service,

cal treatment and future controls within

and 20US$ by bus.

Life on the islands will no longer be syno-

2-1-hours. lfwe need urgenl answer we

In the first 10 months only my con-

nym for isolation. lsolated islands will be

stimulate mobile phones of our consult-

sultation office saved 3,625US$ on the

those without informatic systems for

ants with message on the screen that

cost of the emergency car for urgent

communication. We have such islands

they recived an urgent request for con-

cases, and 1,680US$ on the cost ofthe

in our big cities whose medical advices

sultation. lf we have cardial patients in

bus for regular patients. This makes a

we cannot use simply due to the lack of

an urgent condition we sit them down

total of5,305US$ saved, and our initial

Internet connection.

and record their ECG This is transmit-

investment

was

We have succeeded to advice in con-

ted to the special hospital for cardio-

5, 125US$. Therefore, we have already

sulting some foreign hospitals. Our aim

vascular diseases "Magdalena",

They

paid back our investment, and on aver-

is to coopera te with other countries of

have a 24-hour call centre, so we receive

age we have saved 48US$ per patient.

our South-East European Region and

the answer to our request at once. Our telemedical system is used also

in the equipment

The project is not yet finished so we do not know the data for the other

the Mediterranean region as well. In Dubrovnik we have been invited

to avoid frequent visits to our consul-

lelemedical units in OUTArchipelago.

to present the Project in the Regional

tation office by our patients on distant

In the Mali Losinj Health Care Centre

meeti ng of South-East European Coun-

Iarms in the remote areas of the islands.

they spent 14,375US$ for transport to

tries in the field of telemedicine from

We created a telemedical intrainsular

Clinical Hospital Centre in Rijeka until

November 8th to 12tl1 • 200 l.

net that connects the Health Centre in

30tl• ofSeptember. In that time we saved

Our work promotes a new model Ior

Mali Losinj, Veli Losinj, Krk, and small

for them 5,305US$, 26% of which for

specialist consulting medical care that

health units of general practise in Cres,

transportation

we have tested in practice for two years.

the island ofSusak, and Malinska city.

cost.

Telemedical consultation has been a

We have proposed to our Ministry of

net is connected to

very successful tool for the improve-

Health to include this model in the so-

the hospital s oñ the mainland where

ment ofthe medical care on the Archi-

cial security system and in the new Law

That intrainsular

our speciaJist consultants work. In one

pelago. OUTpatients have been able to

for medical care.It is already included

year we extended our consulting net

receive the care they needed at horne,

in the new Law for the islands.

from 5 to 33 consulting specialists in

and they have received it quickly from

10 hospitals and medical institutions

the best specialists

on the mainland.

Their confidence in the service they

On the 28tl• July 2001 the President

32

ofMicrosoft

Croatia Miroslav Radman and Minis-

in the country.

receive is therefore high all the time.

of the Republic

of Croatia

Stjepan

Telernedicine has also improved medi-

Mesic officially

opened OUTVirtual

cal care for tourists. This is very good

Polyclinic. Our guests of honour were

for the tourist industry on the Archi- .

Minister of Health Prof. Ana Stavljenic

pelago. With a more reliable medical care

International

Journal

of Island Affairs


Consortium o, ilalian small islands schools: a challenge lo isolalion by

The

situation of school

in

Ha/-

institutions, in order to improve in-

CRISTINA

MOSTACC/*,

GUARINO*

ERMELlNDA

To identify the goal s, aims and objec-

ian small islands (44 islands, 35 com-

struction, professional training.: so-

tives when developing these initiatives

munes, 270.000 inhabitants, 80.000 stu-

cial standings of islanders.

we consider the following questions:

dents) is critical and very far from satis-

The first Congress ofItalian sma11is-

fying needs of knowledge, culture, so-

lands schools, held on 21-22 Septem-

2 why do you want to achieve this

cial and productive development of peo-

ber in S. Domino (Tremiti lslands, Italy),

3 who will benefit as a result

pie, particularly of young people.

with an important presence ofteachers,

1 What do you want or hope to achieve

So, the main elements of

OUT

pro-

They live insularity as isolation, an

local authorities, education practition-

granune are:

unpleasant situation till tourist comes

ers and delegates of parents associa-

• constitution of a Consortiwn of small

in sumrner, particularly in July and Au-

tions, underlined the serious contradic-

island schools as official representa-

gust. Full time employement is difficult

tion emerging between the potential

tive from institutional interlocutors

where economic activity tends to be

development ofthese communities and

• the reqúest of a modernization of the

highly seasonal in its nature. So, island-

their inadequate opportunities.

existing legislative requirements on school

governance

and support

ers need to fill these gaps by allowing

The rising of awareness about the

them to identify their own educational

potential ofthese territories, the role of

measures for small islands, as loans

training needs and develop programmes

Institutes, the importance of social soli-

for three year projects directed to re-

that will benefit them and their area.

darity, face cultural alienation and de-

covering school failure, supplemen-

population that are real risks caused

tal)' benefits for teachers and employ-

by this contradiction and mn by these

ers stating their availability to stay

and

territories. We must understand that in-

in small islands for the whole project,

they change every year beca use there

vestments in training and school are

lodging facilities etc.

School is the only education and professional

agency

in small islands.

Teachers are always temporary

are difficulties in reaching and living

priority for the future of islands. This

there, without an institutional aid.

awareness

But School Institution often forgets OUT

particular

needs, because of the

must invest national and

regional councils, local authorities and,

ment must be guaranteed,

of course, school organs.

unifications with other schools of dry

sma11number of students in our schoo!.

For these rcasons it was important

So, we must use Internet, multimedia

to work out a package of essential and

and new learning

technologies

to

Considering the strong peculiarities of small islands, autonomy of manage-

real requests. We worked on identify-

avoiding

land for organizational and administrative purposes. Problems are very dif. ferent and often incompatible.

ing and analysing this platform, think-

More generally, sma11 islands ask

Consortium is a mean to constitute a

ing over experiences and problems in-

specific policies going further on the

virtual school of small islands. opened

troduced by the members of congress,

number of students and the territorial

to european insular realities, in order

by ministerial directors, university pro-

dimension and thé definition of a min-

to reach these important aims:

fessors, provincial managers.

isterial special project, coordinated with

avoid precariousness

and isolation.

• changing the existential disquiet, the

Our aim is to enable everyone that

~egions having srnall islands in their

isolation, in a cultural resource, the

wants it to access to the Internet and

territory and ANCIM, in order to pro-

insularity; • forming a bargaining power, able to negotiate with centralized and local

email near to where they Iive and create a shared understanding

be able to

identify and trasmit the specific goals.

* Istituto

Comprensivo Autonomo Favignana (TP) - Italy E-mail cmostac@cinet.it


vide all schools with multimedia instru-

funds for small islands schools and

so different, are all small islands . with similar problems and difficulties.

ments. telematic tools, networks, sup-

specific loans for school buildings

port services, specialist resources and

(including gyms, meeting and con-

loans for their management and longlife

ference halls, equipped roórns for

esting experience among islands of dif-

updating. Our airn is:

complementary activitres) as build-

ferent European regions.

a) integrate direct with remote training (network

training,

video confer-

ences, programmes in videotapes )

In the recent past there was an inter-

ing new rooms is very difficult in

Three years ago, "Teleinsula" project

small islands, because ofthe dirnen-

was drawn up by Eolie, Samos, Ma-

sions ofthe territories and the inad-

deira and S"J' islands. Their aim was to

equacy of loans, often insufficient,

promote the distance learning ofyoung

opened lo the territory, to reach as

so it is very important to restructure

and adult people, in order to solve the

many children as possible and act

old buildings.

isolation in small islands, and the use of these technologies with e-tourisrn,

b) break isolation carrying out projects

as

community resource, available

COriSOrtilU11is supported by ANCIM

to parents, with strong links to other

(Association ofall the italian small island

e-medicine and whatever is connected .

schools and the wider community

communes), by our Universities, parents

with public service.

e) promote exchanges among different

associations, The Island Comrnission

á

We are interested in developing con-

schools in order to point out differ-

members regions list, INDIRAAssocia-

tacts with any islands of South East of

ences and consonances, creating on

tion, the Biblioteca di Documentazione

Europe in Mediterranean

line newspapers,

school websites

and e-mail access. d) make operative CIP (Centri Tenitoriali

basin, be-

Pedagogica, some departements of our

cause we consider

Ministero della Pubblica Istruzione ..

cooperation among s111a1lislands for

Groups of northem European islands

exchanging

fundamental

informations,

the

setting up

Permanenti) activities in every school,

as : Association pour la promotion et la

addressed to the cultural growth of

protection des lles du Ponnant (AP.P.I.P.),

sources and promoting understanding

adults leamers

the Irish Islands Federation, The Asso-

between cultures and exchanges be-

ciation ofSmall Danish Islands. The Na-

tween the civil societies involved.

e) require specific mea sures in UE

cornmon projects, developing human

tional Association for the Sweedish Archipelago are interested in our Censortium, because they share our aim to compare life of young people on Islands worldwide and esperiment the new technologies to create a 'net among all the European schoóls. AlI these islands, in spite of the fact that they are so distance,

CONSORTIUM SCHOOLS TAKING PART IN CONSORTIUM

OF ITALlAN

SMALL ISLANDS

SCHOOLS

ALL ITALlAN SMALL ISLANDS SCHOOLS

CONSORTIUM

ISTITUTO AUTONOMO

SECRETARIAT

91023 FAVIGNANA TP

OUR AIMS:

COMPRENSIVO

"B. MINEO"

• integrate direct with remote training (network training,video

conferences,

programmes

in videotapes)

• break isolation carrying out projects opened to the territory, to reachas many children as possible and act as a community resource, available to parents, withstrong links to other schools and the wider community -

• promote exchanges among different schools in order to pointout differences and consonances, creat-

·

ing on line newspapers,school websites and e-mail access. make operative CTP (Centri Territoriali Permanenti) activities inevery school, addressed to the cultural growth of adults learners

• require specific measures in UE funds for small islands schools I • a PON action (project), in order to promote long distance training and learning for teachers and adults •. "Niky Project",how to go around ·the world and study among different islands, using a satellite

NEXT PROJECTS

broadcasting

in long distanc;e learnig

• music laboratories for the islands of italian archipelagos. A media.terraneo.sound • An islands portal. A web site for islanders, opened to EU inhabitants • A EU project for european and mediterranean NEXT EVENTS

insular schools (INTERREG)

• Genova 27 February-1 March 2002Salone delle Tecnologie Educative e Didattiche • Roma Pala-EUR 20-21 March 2002Forum Scuola-Somedia,Consortium of italian small islands schools: The new reality for the Italian School. Speaker: Cristina Mostacci, headmaster • RAI MarchTG for children: "studing in a small island" • Favignana (Egadi islands) September 200211National Congress otltalian

34

lnlernalional

Journal

of lsland Affairs

small islands schools


Te Pito O Te Henua The Earth·s Navel by

In the middle

of the Pacific Ocean,

from the nearest Throughout from

the

at the

land,

their

most bitter

same

imaginative

time,

only an island Therefore,

created

view

by islanders at the

same

marked

During its cultural flourishing, the is-

of insularity.

land developed an advanced and so-

have

situation

of the

most

world,

a true

suffered

and

have,

beautiful

song

to life

called

their

and

years, the Rapanui society achieved building some 300 monwnental altars

is an example

of all latitudes to face

(ahu) an~ more than .600 giant human that

these

"The Earth's

of the traditional to maintain

the

people

have,

island "Te Pito O Te Henua",

means

big

phisticated megalithic art without comparison in Polynesia. Throughout 500

that

to generate.

language

time

islanders

insular

it is not a coincidence

in Rapanui

singular

one

in the

is able

from the beginning, which

Rapanui

side of the

cultures

miles

located at some 1200

Rapa Nui is the paradigm

history,

C/PRIANO

Navel". effort

This made

our own world,

challenges

by globalisation.

of new

and times

sculptures

were carved

(moai)

on

stone, a really astonishing activity if we take into account the size ofthe island and the population of the time. Craftjobs predominated, and a sophisticated maritime culture, which even

~.

included tunafishing,

was established.

After this expansive phase, the increase ofpopulation, which largely ex-

tolegend,onan

stratethat Rapanuiculture developed

ceeded 10,000 inhabitants, and environ-

erratic trip from the mythical land of

Acc<>nling

in a continuous way and aside from ex-

mental degradation caused by resource

Hiva seven young people sent by King

temal influences, starting from one mi-

overexploitation,

Hotu Matu'a as explorers

gration of people without return. Nev-

environmental

called "Extreme Matrix" reached the is-

ertheless, there are other diffusionist

edents that started at the beginning of

land. Subsequently the King and his

hypotheses not yet demonstrated

the 17th century. The dark times start,

family reached the island in two big

justify the cultural changes of the most

when practically

pahl and settled down there.

flourishing period of Rapanui culture,

knocked off, farnine broke out and so

to the so-

that

led to a cultural and collapse without prec-

all the moai were

This legend endoses the first distinc-

around 1200 AD., based on sporadic

did, eventually, the war, with the two

tive feature of the human presence on

contacts to cultures proceeding frOI11the

extreme symbols of massive develop-

the island, as stated by the Hawaiian

Andean afea.

archaeologisl Patrick McKoy: "human colonization

of this piece of land in

The development

ment of deadly tools and cannibalism of Rapanui soci-

towards the defeated groups.

ety and culture extremely exemplifies This article is the result of our own adaptation of

South-eastern Pacific, probably under-

the typical insular processes where a

taken by a sole group just once, is among

period of rnagn ificence alternates with

the 1110stsurprising

and marvellous

sudden collapse, accelerated develop-

deeds of the old world". Most archaeo-

ment and decadence due to resource

(Cabañas Vai Moana), Mitzi Acevedo (AMBAR),

logical researches effectively demon-

depletion.

Soledad Gazmuri, and Jesús Cante Oliveros.

documents, data, and witnesses basically provided by: Ema Tuki Ika (CONADI - Corporación Nacional de Desarrollo Indígena), Edgard Hereveri

MARíN'


AlI this ends in the rise of a new wor-

workshops,

house-caves,

rupestrian

ship, the veneration of the man-bird

art, and also a well-preserved ceremo-

(tangata

nial vi lIage.

manu'y, whose ceremonial

centre was the village of Orongo. At

But beside the tangible remains, the

Meeting

the

outside

world,

a history

known

to islands.

well

The entry ofRapa Nui into westem civi-

the end of this dark period the island's

island hosts an exceptional intangible

Iisalion is an example of the idea and

population was reduced from 10,000 to

heritage, a jewel of alive culture in a

behaviour

2,000 inhabitants ..

homogenised

world that also has its

own language. Ethnographical Rapa

Nui,

an open-air

museum

In spite of spoliations of centuries,

and the pass

the countless

this magnificent

marks of

and troubled

past

have turned the island into an authentic and unrepeatable

open-air

herit-

mu-

countries

have had with respect to the island world. Islands have always been for

age is really varied and it is under a

them utopian territories, exotic places

continuous

between sky and sea that could be yet

creative

process,

even

more after thc recenl and continuous

appropriated

exchange with other Polynesian cul-

forgets that islands are and have al-

tures.

ways been the result of a fusion be-

The importance and uniqueness of the archaeological

seum, with more than 1000 archaeo-

that continental

heritage of the is-

and spoiled. This view

tween the islanders and these pieces of land surrounded by sea. Island peo-

land was recognised since early times,

ple have always been circumstantial

logical sites on an area of only 166

through the creation of the Rapa Nui

objects annexed to islands.

km2 It is a really high density that

National Park in 1935 and the declara-

surpasses

spectacular

situations

such as Minorca and other Mediterranean islands.

On Easter Sunday of 1722, the inhab-

tion of the whole island as a National

itants of Rapa Nui descried some dif-

Hislorical Monument. Afterwards, in

ferent sails on the sea. It was the small

1995, UNESCO inscribed the area of the

fleet led by the Dutch explorer Jacob

Furthermore we should consider that

National Park, which covers about 40%

Roggeveen. After a first friendly con-

we are in front of a unique heri tage out-

ofthe island, as a World Heritage Site,

tact. the landing and meeting with the

standing for its singularity and diver-

mentioning explicitIy the imaginative

islanders acquires a dramatic tinge,

sity where, beside the mentioned moai

power oflhis island society that devel-

being the first act of a history that will

and ceremonial structures, we find re-

oped an exceptional culture in complete

be too often repeated. It is said that the

mains ofhouses, villages, quarries and

isolation.

balance of this meeting was a tablecloth and a few hats lost for the Dutch people and thirteen Rapanui dead men. The

situation

experienced

by

Rapanui people in these first years of contact was highly vulnerable, being imrnersed in a deep process of conflicts and social disintegration,

differently

from other Polynesian cultures that were in full development.

The subsequent

visits followed the same pattern of assaults and abductions, curiously combined with expeditions of missionaries. naturalists

and erudite people who

managed to supply tools and notions to improve the islanders' living conditions. French naturalists,

American

whale hunters. and expeditions such as the James Cook's one. alternated the The so-called

"moai factory"

IS located

on the Raru Raraku

volcano.

11 is one of the

emblematic places on the tsland that J0111S together Ihe natural beauty of a volcantc cone wtth a lake wtthtn lis crater and the tmpresstve stone quarrtes where the "moat " were carved, petroglyphs, boal houses quarries more than 1,000 statues ished,

111

different

phases

and one "a/III" at the base of the volcano. In these were carved, and some -100 rematn there still unfin-

of the work, other

were discarded

or were left durtng

their

transfer. 11 is an authentic open-air museum, a book open on the evolution and development of thi s astomshi ng megaltthic arto Al present an ambitt ou s Pilot Plan for the Improvement and Development being developed.

36

Inlernational

Journal

of Tourist, Interpretation

of Island Affairs

and Conservation

Services

IS

scientific interest and good treatment with rape and murder. But the worst had not yet arrived. Between 1862 and 1863. the then called Easter Island turned to be the target of the slave port of Callao. A Spanish corvette and seven Peruvian boats burst into the island on December 23rd. 1862.


Evolution

of the population

in Rapa Nui

The Government of Chile

r:

/

/ \

~<.

~

DecreeN.45360fJuly

~

§

23'd, 1935, due to its '\

~"'~

~

C;c.

o~

PAT\l\1l'

chaeological and ethnographic relevance.

»>

In the Berlin meeting of December 1995,

/"

-.......

.~(¡~

g

great singularity and ar-

~

\ <,

atolla',

~ .•.. ~

.'l~'"

declared Easter Island a Historie Monument by

the UNESCO declared Rapa Nui National Park

~

a World Heritage Site, in agreement with the World Cultural and Natural Heritage Convention. In the report of the 19'" Session of the

Source: CNE 1992, SASIPA 2000

Committee it is specified that: "The Committee concluded that Rapa Nui National Park

causing a large number of deaths and

ership. The history of this spoliation is

capturing 394 Rapanui people. From

also a singular one.

contains one ofthe most remarkable cultural phenomena in the world. An artistic and architectural tradition of great power and im-

this moment slaver raids coritinuously

The origins of the dispute for lands

followed one another, and in only three

go back to 1868, after the slavery dis-

years population, which had previously

aster and decimation by epidemics. It

tural influences of any kind for over a millen-

increased to 4500 inhabitants. was then

is in that year that the adventurer Jean-

nium. The substantial remains of this culture

reduced to less than 2000.

Baptiste Dutroux Bornier landed at the

blend with their natural surroundings to cre-

In this second ill-fated decade darn-

island, as a commission agent of the

ate an unparalleled culturallandscape".

age was unstoppable. In fact, añer the

Brander Trading Company, with the

agination was developed by a society that was completely isolated from external cul-

paralysation of slave raids thanks to in-

task to dedicate the island to sheep

temational pro tests, the few people that

breeding for wool production. He de-

could retum brought with them ilLnesses

clares his sovereignty on the entire is-

such as smallpox and tuberculosis. Ac-

land and its inhabitants, starting vio-

Groups

cording to missionaries' reports, popu-

lent conflicts with lile disagreeing mis-

lation falls from 2000 inhabitants in 1864

sionaries

Sovereignty of Easter Island (Rapa Nui} \Vas handed over lo the Republic of Chile

to not more than 600 in 1869. Owing to

them to abandon Rapa Nui bound for

tween the Rapa Nui King Atamu

these and other reasons, such as the

Tahiti and Mangareva. Therefore the

representtng the Chiefs of the lsland and Navy's Corvette Captain Policarpo Toro

and local groups, forcing

Public explanation of the Tekena Toro Treaty that \Vas signed on September

')" 1888 al

Hanga Roa Pito o le katgna. Photo supplied by Joél Hucke-Atan, Prestdent, Tribal Tupahotu Rsktnkt Koro Orongo.

on September

')'h,

1888 by agreement

be-

Tekena,

compulsory emigration of most survi-

Brander & Dutroux BornierCompany

vors together with the missionaries in

tums to be the maximum authority and

of Chile. In I/1Istransfer of sovereignty; Rapa

1877, the population reached its lowest

actual owner of the islandxNeverthe-

limit of 111 inhabitants. Of this small

Ntu Chiefs reserved their own rights and tnvesutures, as 11 IS clear In the documents

less, on an August Sunday of 1876

senl by Policarpo Toro Hurtado

number of people, 36 had descendants,

Dutroux Bomier was found dead close

ean authonties,

who are the direct ancestors of present-

to his house at Mataveri.

Chiefs of Easter Island declare to cede forever and without reserves the full sover-

day Rapanui society.

Missionaries returned to the island.

For this reason. it is really startling

a Catholic governmcnt was proclaimed

Hurtado

who represented

the Government

/O

the Chil-

that say: "The understgntng

eignty of the mentioned

tsland lo the Gov-

ernment of Chile, and at the same lime we reserve our o\Vn tules of Chiefs of which we

to see today's Rapa Nui, where more

and a Rapanui couple was nominated

than 3000 descendants are living and

as King and Queen. In the meantime

In this treaty is the ongl/1 of the dispute on

adore their island, and we are aston-

the Brander Company continued its ac-

land, as the Rapa Nut people

ished to see islanders' tremendous ea-

tivities enlarging its businesses to the

pability of adaptation and anxiety for

trade of archaeological

that they only ceded the soveretgnty of the island 1/1 change of help 1/1 education, trans-

surviving,

demonstrated

throughout

objects.

During that time the island was often frequented by the Chilean navy and fi-

their singular histories.

nally, after several contacts and negoA land

at stake:

the

key

tiations promoted by Captain Policarpo

of present-day

Toro Hurtado, Chile included the so

territorial structure. Whoever is not from the island, despite

called "Easter Island" under its sover-

being an islander, finds it dillicult to

tions claimed it. Clearly they did not take

understand the present -day territorial

into account the Rapanui people who

configuration and land use before ap-

at thatmomentwereonly201

proaching the big dispute on land own-

The act ofincorporation was settled with

eignty, after verifying that no other na-

in number.

are invested and that \Vepossess al presento.

port and technology, count, as

it

IS

the ownership

constdered

In/O

ac-

logical, the renunciation

never toking

lo

of thetr lands.


the signature of a Treaty with the repre-

tablishes the regularisation

sentatives of the island. This was the

ship through granting

origin of the conflict because Rapanui

freely to actual owners. This decree did

people always argued that the Treaty

not satisfy Rapanui people's expecta-

turned to have a positive effect in tenns

speaks of cession of sovereignty and,

tions, since they have always claimed

ofland planning. One ofthe most sur-

logicall y, no mention is made about ces-

the re-establishment of ownership situ-

prising things on Rapa Nui is that, in

sion ofland ownership.

ation as it was when the Treaty was

spite ofbeing an island that opened its

signed,

doors to tourism, most of its territory is

Owing to the difficulties to maintain

maintaining

of owner-

domain titles

the traditional

its control on such a far territory, in 1895

management methods. In order to ex-

the Government of Chile rented the is-

press their dissatisfaction,

land to the French

trader

islanders

finement of the Rapanui population within the limited area of Hanga Roa

practica11y untouched. emphasizing its magnificent natural and culturallandscape free ofbuildings and infrastruc-

Enrique

decided to re-constitute the "Consejo

Merlet, who transformed the islanders

de Ancianos" (Old-men Council) as the

tures. It is regrettable to verify through

into true slaves. They were relegated

highest expression of the island soci-

our own experience that on other is-

to mere tenants, depriving them of all

ety top deferid

lands as fragile as Rapa Nui, the first

the ancestral

and

their possessions and rights, forbidding

communitarian

them even to fish. One of the first meas-

Islanders' requests started to open their

ures adopted was to use guns to cor-

"ay very slowly, beginning a compli-

unmethodical rush for land occupation

ner a11the population within a reserve

cated process for the return of lands.

aimed to build new resorts, almost al-

property of the island.

not larger than 100,000 m2, where nowa-

phase of strengthening as tourist desti nation

has been

marked

by a

ways carried out by foreign investors.

days the village of Hanga Roa is 10-

The

cated. This is the reason why at present

of the

Hanga Roa is still the only significant

As it happens on most islands of the

settlement that concentrates a11popu-

world, tourism turned to be a basic ac-

roads, electric and telephonic aerial

lation and their activities.

tivity for the island. Tourist expecta-

cabling, and supply grids. Without get-

At the start of the next century, the

tions for a sensitive and extremely sin-

ting an appropriate view, the mirage

rights are transferred to the Easter Is-

gular destination like Rapa Nui are cen-

caused among islanders by the new

land Exploiting Company. which in turn

tred on the quality of landscape and

tourist industry can turn to be the worst

cede them to a Scottish company that

sea, on its most powerful cultural herit-

destructor of the island's territory and

intensified even more the sheep farming

age and, more particularly, on the local

quality oflife, which are the main bases

business. In Aprill929, the Chilean Gov-

population's behaviour and capability

of its offer. Among the several cases

emment put an end to the concession

ofintegration

into this process. Within

existing, let us compare the processes

to the Exploiting Company and the State

this context, the land issue and territo-

occurred on mature destinations such

Treasury orders the National Properties

rial planning are basic aspects to take

as the Canary Islands, Balearics, or Ja-

department to inscribe Easter Island's

into account.

maica, based on multiple new occupa-

lands under its name; this order was not fulfilled due to unknown reasons. Finally, in 1933 all the Rapa Nui lands

challenges

Unfortunately, this is a very frequent

future

process carrying with it a wealth of colonising infrastructures, such as new

Beside the fact that the return oflands

tions of the coastal area having a tre-

is an historical, undeniable right, it is

mendously destroying "picking" effect.

important to meditate about the possi-

In these cases, the usual confusion

are inscribed as properties ofthe Chilean

ble future risks in comparison

with

between tourist product and building

National Treasury. applying an article of

other insular processes. The other side

sector, where accommodation capacity

the Civil Code that says: "Property of the State are all those lands that, being 10cated within the National territory. have no other owner''. The inscription was published within the newspaper

"El

Heraldo de Valparaiso", obeying to the regulations' fonnalism to make public this right. As said by the Rapanui representa-

Innovation

and

tradttion start lo merge on Ihe ISland, in arder lo

tive Alberto Hotus, such a bureaucratic

enltghten

tidiness is surprising if consider that

perspectives of future. The pholo

Valparaiso's newspapers on1y started to anive on the island in 1987. In order to regularise this anomaly administratively,

38

of the coin is that the shameful con-

International

a decree of 1979 es-

Journal

of Island Affairs

nell'

shows a house transformed, inspt red

In

the

boat-hou se typology and plan.


slllvlvmg 111 a few botanic gardenso Shrubs like the "hall hau" (friumfetta semitriloba), and the rubiaceous Coprosma sp. h ave also disappeared.

The

Easter Island Palm provided wood /01' the hulls of the great sea canoes, lis sap produced a sweet s)'rup and 11 yielded nutntious nuts. Nevertheless Polynesian

when

the severa! free species populattng

the ancient Rapa Nui [orests was the Easter Island Palm, now extinct, related 10 the Chilean Palm Jubaea chilensis, the "toromiro" (80phora toromiro)

also exttnct m the wild but

has priority, brings to the consolida-

can have been caused by

phenomenon

areas remained, although they

ern Osctllation)

sttll covered a significant area.

tnto account. 1/ IS logical to think that the

floristic diversity happened 111a short laps o/ tt me and was prob ably cal/sed by a 11Igh 011natural resources that

brought lo the blg crisis o/ the 17'h Century. bu/ t/1/S does no/ seem to be the only reason.

factors II1g

like "Enso" should

have probably

(El NiĂąo South-

be seriously

taken

11m

menttoned

converged,

ortginat-

an trreversible

envtronmental crisis and once more the extreme fra-

demonstrating

su.Âť

of rsland

changes

syst em s before

sudden

and interventtons.

velopment of a tourist product. Tourist

complex ensemble of activities, some of them very little developed such as

Being aware that the tendency ofthe international market is to advance towards destinations

the wooden

change. For this reason a

offer is always focusing on this aspect.

"SW1

ond half o/ the 17th century,

plants are replaced by herbaceous spectes. This sudden, unexplamable change m the a major cltmauc

as we forget that it should inelude a

and sand" destination.

Orliac, o/ the CNRS' Prehtstonc Laboratory. says that 111 the sec-

flora composiuon

standardised

belling the place as an exelusively

Catherine Ethnology

the

tion of inadaptable, homogeneous and products. ending by la-

dences were found suggesting that a pertod o/ ex/reme drought occurred. In this sense,

the island only relict forested

papilla/IOn pressure

that afier

1650 a terrific transformation o/ the enVlronment took: place on the island, and eVI-

colontsers reached

The loss o/ wooded areas and Among

Recen! works o/ the CNRS found

ofleri ng very seg-

mented and specialised products, dif-

the mari time ones. This idea is still more surprising when we see that the number ofvisitors

has

maintained a really high growth rate,

ferentiated and well-integrated in their

despite the Iact that this insular tourist

natural and social environment. it is sur-

experience is relatively young and that

prising to see that one ofthe first pieces

Ilights from the American continent are

of lands returned to the Rapanui peo-

unjustifiably scarce. But when we ana-

pie is destined to host a standardised

Iyse the structure of the ac~ommoda-

Among the enormous variety o/ singular expressions that the tsland contatns, lI'e find the traditional thread game called "km km ". Thts

and little imaginative product such as

tion sector, which ineludes ~ hotels and

expression

a new luxury hotel with annexed golf

28 small residential resorts, we have to

course out of the Hanga Roa area. Be-

acknowledge the ability and imagina-

side its environmental impact. the most

tion of the Rapanui tourist entrepre-

serious thing is that a few, low-sensi-

neurs who succeeded consolidating

tivity tourism

merchants

a

IS common

111

other Polynesian

ts-

lands and it IS thought that the Rapa NIlI expression

comes from Toamotu islands. In the

photo: Isabel Pakarati, one o/ the persons who most contributed /0 matntain this tradition IJn the island.

have been

model very integrated in the beautiful

selling it as a novel solution on a11is-

garden city of Hanga Roa, very well

reason it seems more correct to con-

lands around the world since more than

distributed and grafted on to the social

tinue with this particular acconunoda-

ten years. Once more, building and for-

sphere, bringing the nowadays scarce

tion model, created through local in-

eign investment is mistaken for the de-

added value of authenticity.

vestments

For this

and efforts, as well as to

improve the whole tourist offer rclying Going

out from Sunday's

mass,

one o/ the mosl singular traditions of the tsland. In the photo Edgard Hereveri,

on o/ the island's

sus-

/amable

tourt sm promoters,

the

phtlologer

JesĂşs Con/e, author o/

upon sustainable development criteria. Another extremely }mportant factor to be taken into account, with regard to small island development, is mobility within the territory. The number of

the "Fundamental Grammar o/ Rapa NIlI languoge'', Cipriano Marin of Lnsula and Santiago

cars existing

Vtlanova representtng the ICAEN, the instiuttion that IS promoting

hieles per 10 inhabitants), warning that

an

international

cooperation

project on Easter Island aimed to energy sustainabihty

and the so-

IU/lOn o/ the waste problem.

on the island has in-

creased rapidly (2,100 vehieles an uncontrolled

dcvelopment

= 6 vewould

remarkably affect protected areas and archaeological sites uses and methods


mistakes

criteria and a Iterna tive means oftrans-

lands when it is time to consolidate

that problems are cornmon but solutions

port are being introduced on many is-

one's own project offuture.

are unique and untransferable for every

lands, avoiding those undesirable phe-

and successes of other is-

challenge of insularity lies in the fact

of access. That is why new mobility

It has always been said that the great

island universe.

nomena such as the one occurred on the island of Lanzarote. This is an island as fragile as Rapa Nui, which was declared a Biosphere Reserve several years ago. In very little time the uncontrolled explosion ofmobility based on rent a car (53 % of total displacements) and taxis, together with proliferation of

Vai Moana huts are {he first lodging cen-

roads (0.50 km/km-), produced an incredible damage to tourist quality with unforeseeable

tre of the island that IS being certificated as a

consequences.

Biosphere

These short references only try to emphasise

the need to observe both

for tourist offer

new orientation 30000

•••••••• ....- small

/'

+---------------------------/,

011.

Rapa

Nui. Beside the environmental measures specific of ecolabels, the mitiatives of this

25ooo1------------------------------:,.

residential

centre include a remod-

elling of the structure

~ICC------

architectural

based

011.

the use of

inspired

typologies

in the

traditional boat-house, the tncluston of a large offer of activt ues linked lo the

~ooot_-----------------------~-~-------

valon sation

of island's natural and cultural resources, and even the creation of

vooot---------------------~--~~---------5000

the

an organisation associated to UNESCO. Val Moana's expertence is an indicotor of

Tourists/Year in Rapa Nui

20000

Hotel,

system of the Responsible Tourism Institute,

h~~---~~~~~~·--------

. an open centre of activities culture (Hila Cultural

011.

Rapa Nui

Tál Moana),

withzn

the same touristy centre. <l88

Source:

<l89

SERNATUR

<l90

1991

1992

<l93

<l94

<l95

<l96

1997

1998

1999

2000

The agricultural system better known from an archaeological perspective is the one characterised by fences

called

manavai,

These structures

meaning

are generally

"place of water".

in the form of a round

enclosure limited by a thick double wal! of unworked stones. These are typical island constructions, product of soil scarcity

and adverse

environmental

con-

ditions, as they preserve humidity and protect the plants from wind and sun, can be still observed in a range

of similar

lands around

Enrique

Pakarati

Ika, Governor

of Rapa

Nui island, handing a reproduction of a "rongo-rongo" tablet to Insula. The carvings of small board represent a hteroglyphic wnttng of the ISland that has

11.01

been deciphered yet. The "rongo rongo" IS a system o[ graph¡c

ideo-

com-

municati on between an Image-

based

writing

and the use of phonograms.

40

International

Journal

of Island Affairs

The "Man-bird" worship ceremony

in the cer-

emonial vtllage of Orongo, included the rect-

typologies

011.

many

volc anic is-

the world.

originally the island

67 111. number, were brought to by the sages who accompanzed

tation of songs and prayers by the priests cal led "tangata maori rongo rango ", who

King Hotu Matu'a. The original

read

this ancestral Polynesian culture were carved

them from

images

c arved

on smaIl

wooden boards called "koahu rongo rango ". Oral tradition

tells that these small boards,

nealogic

history

and ceremonzal

myths, gesongs of

them, Nowadays only rem atn some twenty ortgtnal boards distributed among

011.

several

mu seums

around

and private

the world. The last Rapa

collections Nw

sages

able to read and recite the smal!

boards

dead

as

slaves In Peru b etween 1862 and 1863, and with them the secret cf this sacred wnttng

disappeared.


ea Ivill Local Agenda 21 A sustainable

strategy for a tourism destination

In

the South West

of

'he Mediter-

In the eighties the Town Councíl of

ranean is placed Mallorca. On the west-

Calviá adopts a double policy: on one

ern coast of the Island of Mallorca, is

hand it makes an exceptional effort of

¡"

JAVIER

BUSTAMANTE*

basis, and in which the key factor for future projects is the environment. A key factor of the local agenda has

of Calviá.

investment to reduce the debt carried

been to bring together the viewpoints,

Calviá has a surface of 145 sq. Km and

over from the earlier years, and on the

right from the start, of the different sec-

situated the Municipality 56 Km of coast.

The 80% ofthe Municipality are natu-

other, it implements a policy of town

tors with interests in the zone. Several

planning designed to uphold new tour-

channels

of participation

have been

ral areas. Its coastline with 5 lineal Km

ist operations in the hope ofmodernis-

envisaged for this purpose: for general

of sandy beaches and numerous cliffs

ing, improving and diversifying the lo-

matters, The Forum of Citizens: for the-

has an important environmental value.

cal tourist industry.

matic affairs, Special Commissions: and

Calviá is a

At the same time, the effect become

even on subjects of general interest.

privileged area in terms offacilities and

evident: the deterioration of the envi-

polls andoconsultations for the public.

infrastructure with many sport resorts,

ronment and of the landscape, gross

The most important aspect for the fi-

As tourism municipality

5 marines, maritime promenades, 4 golf

overcrowding of the tourist zone, the

nal strategy of the Local Agenda 21 is

courses and leisure centres. Calviá has

difficulties ofbringing the installations

that it counts on the widest possible

40.000 inhabitants and more than 1.6

to update, a steady decline , of the allure of the region and the threat to lo-

voluntary support of the population

million visitors each year.

The method used by the experts is

cal development which is heavily de-

the one known in the planning sphere

most important in the Balearic Islands, began with the first boom of international

pendent on the tourist sector.

as "rnethodology

tourism in Spain at the sixties.

launches a series of progranunes

The tourist development of Calviá, the

In the nineties, the town hall of Calviá de-

of aIternative

sce-

narios", widely used in long term planning beca use of its descriptive capac-

Since then, especially in the first two

signed to improve the environment, re-

ity and for the possibilities which it of-

decades. the model of tourism devel-

organise the flow of visitors. reclaim

fers to compare possible future alter-

opment has been based on short-term

the coastal area and c1ear out the hud-

native situations,

interests, unlimited building out oftune

dled town centre, even demolishing

reached through the application of dif-

with local conditions, and an unsus-

hotels that were offensive to the envi-

ferent policies.

tainable exploitation

ronment. This plan was called "Calviá

of exceptional

natural resources.

to which can be

In this way, three alternative

sce-

narios emerge from each one ofthe key

for Excellence" . And at the beginning of 95 in col-

topic areas: the present one. and two

that the effects ofthis inharmonious de-

laboration with the Ministry of Com-

future scenarios; the tendency one and

velopment became apparent. The of sun

merce and tourism, the Town Council

the one known as integral rehabilita-

It was only at the end of the eighties

and beach type, the keystones of an ac-

decides to unify the tasks in hand,

tion scenario, which emerge ofthe cor-

tivity that helped to finance the devel-

freezing the approval of new urban-

rection of the undesirable tendencies

opment of the Island, are degraded, the

plans, and introduces the Calviá: Local

by the introduction

demand is falling off, and more signifi-

Agenda 21, based in Rio 92 Sumrnit,

sions. For each one of the areas the

cantly, the quality, not only in terms of

aimed at defining a new integral long

tourism spending, is on decline. Calviá

term policy to reorganise tourist and

grewfrom JDüü t040.000 inhabitants.

local development

on a sustainable

* Calvia City

of suitable deci-

Council jbustamante@calvia.com http://www.calvia.com


same methodology

has been applied

in order to get an identical resuJt.

10 Strategic

Lines

LlMIT THE GROWTH ANO HELP INTE-

Using more than 1000 indicators, this

consumption to 19971evels. 3

Elaboration of a local plan to save up the energy.

4

TORY ANO ITS COASTLlNE

Stabilizing in 10 years the drinking water

Impulse to save up, recycle and reuse of

TO SUPPORT THE INTEGRATION ANO

solid waste fixing aims to separate waste at

ation and which ones in an unbalanced

THE QUALlTY OF LlFE OF THE RESIOENT

short, medium and long termo

situation.

POPULATION

2

5

Set up of a pilot project for rehabilitation of

TO PRESERVE THE NATURAL ANO MA-

quarries during to the closing ofthe dump-

RINE HERITAGE

ing site for rubble and separation, recu-

4

TO RECOVER THE CULTURAL- HISTORI-

peration and recycling of material before

able information on the evolution of Calviá at social, econornic and environ-

5

THE INTEGRAL REHABILlTATION OF THE

mental level, taking as a reference the

6

The Observatory for the Local agenda

3

21 proposes to collect and offer summarised, periodical and easily understand-

March 1999.

CAL HERITAGE 6

Begin public actions to transform the situation of public transport before Oecember

URBANAREAS

1998-07-16

TO INCREASE THE QUALlTY OF CALVIA 7

A Moratorium for 5 years of important works

sustainability of development and local

AS A TOURISM OESTINATION: TO SUB-

quality oflife.

STITUTE THE GROWTH FOR SUSTAIN-

on the coastline as well as road infrastruc-

ABLE OEVELOPMENT ANO LOOK FOR

tu res of high impact.

Comparing to 1997, in 2000 the indi-

THE INCREASE OF THE TOURISM EX-

cators and the initiatives that have been again measured, the resuJts indicates that Calviá on the one hand has image, Economy and Tourism, and in Local town-planning

LlC TRANSPORT ANO TO PROMOTE CY-

8

A SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF THE

IN KWNOWLEOGE

RE-

ral and ruralland and marine systems,

SOURCES, TO OINAMISE ANO OIVERSIFY

and key environmental

THE ECONOMIC SYSTEM

sectors (trans-

port, water, energy, and waste), which

10 INNOVATION OF THE MUNICIPAL GOV-

need to be improved. But in general the

ERNMENT ANO THE WIOENING OF JOINT

global evaluation has improved. As a mature tourism resort in the Mediterranean

all parts of the project

couJd be applied in the Mediterranean region, from the methodology used to the environmental

decision taken. We

believe our case could serve as an example for emerging tourism municipali-

PUBLlC-PRIVATE CAPACITY OF INVESTMENT From the 40 initiatives the Forum of Citizens agreed to begin with 15 initiatives they consider urgent.

,

Brussels, November '97. Awarded by the European Commission (OG of Environmént) añd the "Sustainable Cities and Towns Campaigns". - "Good practice for improving the quality of town life". - "Award for the best initiative, work and mu-

London, World TravelMarket, November '98.

Council" -WTTC-

International

Journal

nicipal effort in support ofthe environment". Barcelona, March '99 Awarded by Arthur Andersen and Expansion. - "World project, Expo 2000 Hannover". Hannover, March 2000.

of lsland Affairs

Municipal build-

14 Creation ofthe archaeological site "Puig de Sa Morisca". Start before 31.12.1998 15 Creation of an office in Calviá: Local Agenda

awareness in the saving up of resources.

awarded

Awarded by the "World Travel and Tourism

call for proposals "Rural initiatives in Calviá" 13 Environmental auditofthe

through the main Urban Plan

- "Sustainable European Cities Award 97".

- "Green Globe Award".

rural world and constitute an award and a

21 to assess the citizens promotion and

in the process.

Oubai '98.

size enterprises. 12 To start a working plan to dynamise the

To ensure sustainability of the Municipality

practices

Selected by the United Nations.

stimulation measures to small and medium

of future facilities "eco-responsible"

and how to integrate local population

Prizes

natural way before June 1999. 11 Creation of a helpline to start business be-

ing before 31 Oecember and engagement

ties and also for mature ones, on how do not repeat unsustainable

Housing Plan "To live in Calviá" Construction and/or funding 150 homes/year

fore 31 Oecember 1998 and widening the

ENERGY ANO WASTE TO INVEST

9

10 Pilot action to conserve the beaches in a

ENVIRONMENTAL KEY FACTORS: WATER,

9

Conclusion of the "Calviá Walk Way" in 5 years.

TO IMPROVE THE QUALlTY OF THE PUB-

CLlNG ANO WALKING

system, but on the

other hand still have the Areas ofNatu-

8

PENOITURE. 7

proved in the Areas of Cultural herit-

42

2

GRAL REHABILlTATION OF THE TERRI-

methodology has allowed us to identify which sectors are in a balance situ-

Action

1 TO CONTAIN THE HUMAN PRESSURE, .


B7 A Slralegy for Ihe Fulure

Bornholm Gotland Hiiumaa Rügen Saaremaa Áland Oland

2002·2006 Baltic Sea Seven Islands Co-operation Network by

§

REET

KOKOVKIN*

ince 1989 the largest islands

common strategy for the future, The

2002 the Chairman is Oland to follow

in the Baltic Sea have formed a com-

aim ofthe program was to increase the

by Hiiumaa

mon interest group, "The Islands of

Baltic Sea islands' possibilities of uti-

wwwb'r.org offers infonnation about

the Baltic Sea". The islands that have

lising their development potential. The

the organisation and serves as a com-

been involved from the begi nning are

overall goal in the conunon strategy of

munication tool between members.

Bornholm (Denmark), Gotland (Swe-

action was to crea te the basis for more

den), Hiiumaa (Estonia), Saaremaa (Es-

jobs a long-term sustainable develop-

egy Group of B7 was once again

tonia), Áland (Finland),

and Oland

ment, as well as mutual enrichment of

formed. A Strategy for the Future. 2002

(Sweden), Rügen (Germany), The geo-

the islands and the world around them.

graphic position of the islands, in the

In 1997 B7 opened a permanent of-

in 2003. Web page on

In the beginning of 2001 the Strat-

- 2006 is the headline ofthe new strategy undér elaboration.

Changes

lo

middle of the Baltic Sea, made them

fice in Brussels

to have better and

come in the political status of Baltic

especially aware ofthe emerging new

closer access toward institutions and

States, and new INTERREG progranune

opportunities,

the com-

programs ofED. Successfully, the Of-

with new opportunities

mencement of collaboration bet:ween

fice has become to play the, role equal

states requires different approaches for

to the other working groups oí the B7,

the island co-operation as wel\.

prompting

the islands. At the dawn of the co-operation is-

informing

the organisation

for member

Present Strategy c1arifies the B7 is-

of the

lands were belonging to three differ-

trends in EU policy and mediating the

lands common objectives and needs

ent political structures: Bornholm and

information about the B7 to the deci-

within the B7 Co-operation, and fonns

Rügen were the part ofEuropean

sion making institutions in Brussels.

the basis for lobby actions towards national govenunents and the ED. Is-

Un-

ion, Aland, Gotland and Óland be-

The structure

of the organisation

longed to Nordic Countries and Esto-

consists currently of Annual Confer-

sues facing the B7 islands are identi-

nian islands Hiiumaa and Saaremaa

ence that has the decision-making

fied as follows:

hoped lo be liberated from the Soviet

power, Steering Conunittee ofpolitical

• Marginalisation.

Union. It was difficult to imagine the

leaders of the islands: the board, con-

• Istand constraints.

co-operation in the fields such as de-

sisting of senior officers of each island

• Competition for funding.

mocracy or even tourism having So-

plan, organises, co-ordinates, monitor

• Urban areas are regarded as more at-

viet troops still present in the country,

and evaluates B7 activities: two work-

and especially in the islands.

ing groups (people to People, and En-

• Transport limiting developmeru.

tractive by young people. investors.

But already in 1994 politicalleaders

vironment) elaborating and implement-

• Technological backwardness.

of the islands signed the co-operation

ing conunon projects, and ad hoc focal

agreement called Baltic Sea Seven Is-

groups to investigate

and carry out

• Limited tertiary education and training opportunities.

lands (B7). Altogether - B7 represents

tasks defined by the B7 and within its

• Total population and population in

300.000 inhabitants in thc Baltic Sea.

employment decreasing.

priorities. Since 2000 B7 has set up a

In 1995-1996 the seven Baltic Sea

yearly rotating status of Chairmanship

islands hadjointly compiled a program

and Secretariat to be the communica-

of action: The BaItic Sea Islands - a

tion centre for the B7 for the year. In

*

Member of the B7 Board, Hiiumaa


of its islanders and take advantage of

ences within

is explained as to approaching a richer,

opportunities. This includes improved

PHARE programmes in addition to nationa! and other international funding.

The long-term vision for the islands smarter and happier population. They

communication

are also more in control of their own

(website: www.B7.org) as well as a bet-

and information

INTERREG

III and

"It is our hope that the strategy

destiny than in year 2001. Therefore

ter -defi ned role for poI iticians, particu-

adopted by seven regions in five coun-

the priorities ofthe B7 islands' co-op-

larly as lobbyists.

tries, will be a comerstone for the future

eration

more with the initiation and develop-

co-operation within the B7. The Strat-

ment of projects,

egy sets out a number of high priority

are: Transport,

Tourism, Environment

Education, and Energy,

B7 Board works co-ordinates

with

Business Development, ICT (Informa-

workgroups

to

common objectives. However a Strat-

tion & Communication Technologies),

achieve a balance of bottom-up and

egy Document in itself does not create

and focus

Democracy, inter-regional understand-

top-down

ing, networking, Rural and Agro-busi-

are used to develop

ness Development.

position

Healthcare,

lic Service Effectiveness,

Pub-

an organisation

Focus Groups

action. There are important tasks that

strategies

remain to effectively present ourselves,

and

papers for lobby activities

and communicate our situation to the

Common

and project development. To develop islands through projects

workings ofthe organisation and to im-

the B7 as

large and small The Strategy addresses

plement the projects and events we

to networking and exchange of experi-

prioritise - both grass roots and major".

History. The Strategy formulates

initiatives.

groups

to serve the interests

outside world: to improve the interna!

Voleanoes' Vigilanee Programme Eight years after the great Rabaul eruption (September 23, 1994) Rbaul

calde"is an active tion began. Two casualties have been

volcano located on the northem tip of

reported, a boy hit by a truck involved

New Britain

in Papua New

with the evacuation, and aman hit by

Guinea. The eruption began on Sep-

island

lightning from the ash cloud, but the

tember 18 after less than a day of in-

casualty list is expected to grow.

tense seismicity and the Rabaul Vol-

This eruption has several important

cano Observatory and the Papua New

lessons for volcanic hazards and risk

Guinea Emergency Services immedi-

management. First, alllarge explosive

ately declared a code red state of erner-

eruptions are not preceded by weeks

gency and evacuated

to months ofincreasingly

the town of

intense seis-

Rabaul. Because they had a volcanic

mic activity. as was observed at Mt. St.

disaster response plan, the evacuation

Helens and Pinatubo. The period of

took place prior to the start ofthe erup-

seismic activity at resurgent calderas

tion. About 30,000 people were evacu-

may precede the eruption

ated from Rabaul to the nearby towns

years and be followed by a period of

ofKerevat and Kokopo before the erup-

quiescence and then the eruption. The

by many

second lesson is ifwe build cities and communities in areas with severe vol-

where there are 14 active and 22 pote Il-

canic hazards, disasters not only can,

tially active volcanoes. Among the par-

but will, occur.

ticipants of this projects are the Aus-

The Austra!ian Intemationa! eration

44

lnternational

Journal

of Island Alfairs

Agency

(AusAID)

Coophas as-

tralian Geologica! Survey, the Rabaul Volcano

Observatory

(Papua-New

signed 5,000 ntillions Australian Dol-

Guinea), the University of Tokio, the

lars to improve the volcanoes' vigilance

University ofHokkaido (Japan) and the

programme

ITER (Canary Islands).

in Papua-New

Guinea


Canary Island Openwork Tradition and Science Openwork

for

deco-

rating serviettes,

ta-

ble cl oth s, towel s, cushtons,

-<

LUIS

b,

BALBUENA

CASTELLANO

etc.

* 1

Introduction

There was a boom however, when an

of the more experienced lace makers has

l

11

Openwork is a craft that is worked on

English gentleman called Mr. Sparroro

been certified and they give courses all

linen, cotton or silk cloth. It was intro-

realised that this lacework had finan-

over fue island to pass on their know-

duced in the islands by the Spaniards

cial potential. In 1901, he opened a com-

how to the younger generations and to

in the 15th century. after they had been

pany in Puerto de la Cruz (Tenerife). to

maintain fue tradition. Grants have also

conquered, although it is impossible to

export the lacework that was produced

been made available for creating work-

determine exactly when it arrived to be-

by up to 300 lace makers that he had

shops for lace weavers to produce and

come one of the most popular crafts of

working for him. He even oJIered these

sell their products.

the islands.

craftsmen inccntives, by offering twice

For some time, a team ofteachers and students from the "Viera y Clavijo" high school in La Laguna, on the island of Tenerife,

has been carrying

the price for models that offered some

A frieze

from

kind of original designo

nothingness

the

As this initiative was successful, other

Our work focussed on what is known

out re-

companies were created in the íollow-.

as thread work lace. To make lace of

search into this work, mainly in an at-

ing years. But, there was a major crisis

this kind, threads of fue fabric are pulled

tempt to study the mathematical

ele-

around 1918, which wiped out the com-

out in a single direction. within an area

ments that can be found in the finished

mercial industry. The main reason for this

that is first marked out on the fabric

work. To this end, they went to several

is to be found in the competition that

when the model is being designed. The

different craft fairs and interviewed lace

appeared on the market frOl~}openwork

edges are reinforced with hem stitch-

makers to study their workshops, the

made in other parís of the world (espe-

ing to prevent the cut threads from

models they used, the way they work,

cially Scotland and Japan), with lower

pulling free. From then on, it depends

how they market their products, etc.,

production costs, and therefore, cheaper

on the skill and the ingenuity of the

and also to gather information about

than the work done on fue island and,

lace makers who work the miracle of

fue recent history of this craft.

although the quality was slightly 10\Yer.

turning a bundle of loose threads into

íhis did not bother the undemanding

the open work they had plarmed.

From what we were told, in general, the weavers work at home and their

buyer. Thus, openwork was once again

In our fieldwork search for different

work (almost always by commission)

relegated to the status of a cottage in-

designs of open work, we discovered fifty five different models.

was sold to supplement

the very low

dustry among rural families. Later on,

incomes that were earned by the less

when there was a massive move away

favoured households of the island.

from the countryside into towns, open work appeared to be on the path to extinction. But, there was a considerable increase in awareness towards the crafts in general among the authorities in the late 2001 century. Steps were taken to protect and promote them, providing training for new generations of craftsmen and creating channels to market their

Justina explains her craft. (El Escobonal, Gütmar, Tenenfe)

A frte:e from nothing

products. In this sense, and with regard

* lES

to open work in particular, the expertise

"Isaac Newton"

Viera y Clavijo, La Laguna Mathematics

(Tenerife),

Teachers Society

J

, .J


Symmetry, in the strict sense of a m.ir-

happens, for instance, when a rectan-

ideas ofbeauty. Aristotle (38-l-322 BC)

gle is rotated through 1800 with the cen-

"the forms

that best express

ure. After the movement

sion."

rectangle maintains

sense, then it also includes Escobonal,

(El

has been stud-

ied in depth by mathematics, Mathematics studying

is fundamental

and interpreting

for

everything

that happcns in our everyday lives. Our objective

was to show which

ematical

concepts

notions of

balance. similarity and repetition. This whole set of concepts

G/UmO/; Tenenfe)

structure this component

so we can

ofbeauty,

so

widely used by man in the design of many everyday objects. in detail.

the same shape.

All figures have a set of isomorphisms that depend on the shape in question. So, for example, a rectangle has four isomorphisms: a square, eight and a trapezium onJy has onc, its identity. Rotational

symmetry. Rosettes. It is

easy to see that a circle has an infinite number of isomorphisms.

Any diameter

try and a circle has an infín.ite number

were

of diarneters.

used by lace makers in their craft. even

But any one of the infi-

if they do not realise that they are us-

n.ite number of rotations centred on the

ing them. In this paper, we will try to

centre of the figure is also an isomor-

explain the mathematics

that is neces-

phism. When there is a pattern that is

sary for studying open work from this

repeated in circular sectors of the same

point of view. We do not go into any

size, within the circle, then the situa-

great detail, but, for anyone who is in-

tion changes

the ideas used here,

and take them further.

radically,

because

number of isomorphisrns

terested, there are experts who can help you to formalise

Repetuion

of a module

the

is then fin.ite.

A figure made in this may is called a

Balance is one of the components

of

rosette. Each sector is called a petal.

S)'11U11etry. This refers to how repetitions

. This is a geometric

how lace makers crea te a frieze from

are designed. Ifwe have an isolated el e-

frequently

nothing

ment, then it does not have baJance, as

in flowers) and it is widely used by man,

there is no repetition.

almost always for decorative purposes.

These mathematical

elements

show

with a series of underlying

mathematieal

concepts.

found in abundance Some

mathematical

concepts As we have already said, we are now going to introduce

the elements

that will enable us to analyse

open

work patterns mathematically

Balance can be in creative

man-

essential

of the designo

Isometrics

(understood

as move-

ments that maintain distances) are necessary for a mathematicaJ scription

study and de-

of lace work. They will help

us to classify the different lacework.

models of

occur when the patone of the following

• It is transferred another

from one place to

in comparison

with a

given rotation centre (rotation)

International

of Island Affairs

Following

the criterion

of whether

there is symmetry or not in the petals, rosettes can be divided into t:wo ma.in

• It is made symrnetric with respect to an ax.is (axial synunetry)

groups:

• It is made axially symmetric and then

Dihedral

rosettes:

these are rosettes

shifted (symmetry with shift)

whose petals have an ax.is of symme-

An Isomorphism

try. If they have n petals, they are

maintains

Journal

Rosettes for the corners.

(copying)

• It is rotated

symmetric?

as a solution for the corners

etc.

tern undergoes

nature, but is thts leaf really

In open work, these rosettes are also

made designs: ceramics, fabrics, embroi-

situations:

Symmetry abounds in

element that is

found in nature (especially

dery, fretwork, open work, wall paper,

Isometrics

46

is made, the

that you take is an ax.is ofax.iaJ syrnme-

math-

and elements

tre of rotation in the centre of the fig-

beauty are: order, symmetry and preciIf we consider symmetry in a broader

a lace work pattern

is made. This is what

ror image, forms part of our civilisation's wrote:

JIISlIna designing

the movement

is a movement that

the shape ofthe figure once

represented

by dn.


aesthetic elements in our culture, then

Cyclical rosettes: the petals of these

There are only seven models of frieze,

rosettes do not have an axis of sym-

which are presented below with the

we should not be surprised

metry. If a rosette has n petals, it is

Rose-Stafford algorithm, using a nota-

general, customers prefer open work

represented by en. (In the lace work

tion that is universally accepted. We

with these patterns to other patterns.

that we studied. we only found one

can see that the concepts

cyclical rosette)

above are used in this.

Canary work

Island

and

that, in

studied

lace

G

fJ :n

friezes

L

pmm2

L

This frieze was not found in any of the lacework studied. As one can see, the figure has a vertical synunetry axis, while the horizontal synunetry axis is a Cyclical rosette. C.¡

shift: i.e., the place where the symmet-

This is without doubt. the most comFriezes. - When a module is repeated

mon modeI. In our opinion, this phe-

by repeating it along a strip of the

nomenon can be explained by the fact

cloth, then we say that it fonns a

that there are two symmetry axes in this

frieze. This is the mathematical model

modeI. If we accept the fact that sym-

used by most lace work.

metry is one of the most outstanding

Classification

algorithm.

ric shape of the first two triangles should be is left blank. In terms of lacework, this a problcm to be avoided beca use, on the one hand, it raises aesthetic objections

without covering some of the threads

(Rose-Stafford)

used for the embroidery.

no -----

ando on the other

hand. it is difficult to leave empty gaps

••••••~

Lace worker Juana Mesa, from La

It is not a frieze

Orotava, made the model that we gave yes There is horizontal symmetry?

....•

....•

"'1 no

"'1

t pmm21

,...,...,...

pm11

~ yes

There is venical symmetry?

There is symmetry with a shift?

I

I~~~I t

1'· ;/

I•,..... ~•... ,..~I

her and which solved this problem.

"'1

• I ••..·~I t ~

----. ,.. ,.. yes

~

t ~

There are several models of lace work that belong to this gTOUpoffriezes. This could be due to their vertical symmetry. p1m1

111I...11I...11I...1

t ~

The fact that it has this horizontal symmetry axis could indicate that this should be a common modeI. We only found one module ofthis kind. But it is a pattern that is used in all workshops, with small variations between them.


To commemorate World Mathemat-

p1a1

ics Year in 2000, we designed a bookmark that summarises all the above.

We found no open work that used this frieze. Apart from the reasons we have already given in module pma2, in

Step wise modules.

this case, there is another interesting

'f"·•.•. '111,~" I '. !"" "/"11 J, '4"" r, 1, " '''11

situation that explains this. The strips

11"1" '111 IJ tI t I tit" ¡t,•.•", 11 k It I ti1,111. o'lll'i&-.-:lIu" ••..••.••. ".'IU., '1I"h,. " 1 ¡'l' .... :..•..••.•.• • ""11' • la ..•• , lo •••

are embroidered longitudinally and, in

'

I

.. ili!f~I:' '¡I::iih::¡:;;i¡¡.::::',II:. • ••': .••••.•••••••••• ·.:::111 ti1¡111111I h •• ,•• II:::',:,';:;U·,:.'I:;·

general, the patterns are merely re-

.tl1 h•.·.,m!......•ti"",,, J.nu,':·,:::::.':' .lltll~·II: .n ••.••• ,••••,,, ••• ~''.\I,,'~'"'" \'\~"~,\-'~\\.\"'" 1\\\'.\'.\'\ 'l'\''''

peated. If you look at the frieze, you will sec that the two spirals are not the same, as one is dextro-rotatory

\1" 'l'l~! ""\\\\\1\ lb "'1 t la••• nl tlit'l'¡lit ¡ia Lo'

(it ro-

. tates clockwise), while the other is levoGeometric figures.

rotatory (it rotates anti-clockwise). i.e., it is a symmetric pattern with a shift.

On the other hand, in the process of

Madam Juana Mesa once again helped

making a piece of open work, the lace

us by weaving patterns that we had

makers carry out operations that are re-

made, in order to complete are collec-

lated to mathematical concepts and al-

tion of lace work with all kinds of friezes.

gorithms. They are doing mathematics without realising it. Using

open

work

f or teaching Roseftes

and

mathematical

Spiral s p112

There is lace work of this kind, although. in all of them, the centre of rotation is in the middle of the module and not at one end. p111

Obviously, work ofthis kind can be used

other elements

for teaching

mathematics,

both in

in open work The rosctte is a geomctric element that

classes and in maths workshops. There

appears Irequenjly in lacework. It is

the other hand, the concepts and strat-

uscd as a decoration in the middle of a

egies that have been explained above

piece of open work and, fundamentally.

can be simply transferred for mathemati-

in the corners, as it is a way of filling

cal studies and analysis of elements

the blank piecc o[ c1oth. Most rosettes

such as floors, railing, fretwork, lace, etc.

is a varied set of creative activities. On

maybe due to the syrnme-

By way of conclusion, government

try presented by their petals and, in

authorities should be asked to maintain

aredihedral,

some cases, by the rosette as a whole.

their awareness of'this kind of craft work,

Wc only Iound one cyclical rosette. In the different kinds of open work,

which represents part of the Canary Island identity, traditionally associated ,,,iÚ1

we Iound models that presented inter-

women, to prevent it from disappearing

esting mathematical c1ements and con-

in an age in which globalisation seems lo

cepts, such as, for example:

want to swallow everything up.

This is the simplest of the friezes. in the sense that it is created by merely copying

the embroidered

pattern.

which has no kind of symmetry. These are the most common after the model pnun2. The models used include different versions oí the spiral. Most of them are clockwise spirals.

48

InternationaI

Journal

of Island Affairs

Decorating Sine

Co-sine.

Pon/anales,

the lid of a box (Juana Miranda, Aloya, Gran Canana)


Milis o, 'he pas', winds of Ihe fulure MOLINS DE CAMPOS A project that is an exceptional example of imagination and multi-valuation of island resources in the search of new development paths is being developed on the island of Majorca, under the patronage of the Spanish Ministry of the Environment. The project of Campos is an excellent alliance between the heritage from the past and the new technologies of the future, a multidisciplinary project joining heritage restoration, landscape mainteilance, wind-energy production, search of new tourist products integrated and adapted to the environment and the recovery of local traditional productions.

Majorca: a land of windmills

then on, there was a spectacular

in-

crease in number. There are well over

According

to the census of wind-

mills used for extracting water from the

Majorca is a land of windmills. One can

two thousand windmills on the island

subsoil, which was carried out in 1941,

usually be found in every single mu-

ofMajorca.

557 windmills operated in the munici-

nicipality, on its plains, perched on hilltops or inside towns or villages. The characteristics

of the Balearic

Islands' agricultural development have partly been deterrnined by the archi-

Campos: a municipality with environ-

pality of Campos and 54 were equipped

mental and natural assets, which can-

with oil and gasoline engines. Not all

not allow the deterioration of its tradi-

the windrnills were to be found on fanns.

tional, rural heritage.

Within the town itself there were five.

Situated in the south of Majorca, it

used to water small orchards and gar-

has a surface area of approximately

denso There were a1so 76 waterwheels

were built to overcome irrigation prob-

16,001 hectares (147 km"). Campos still

scattered about the municipality.

lems due to a lack ofsurface rivers and

looks like a rural town, with features

pelago's c1imatic conditions. Windmills

In addition to waterwheels and wind-

streams. They used kinetic wind energy

characteristics ofthe municipality's ru-

mills for extracting water fr0111the sub-

and transformed it into mechanical en-

ral landscape. In fact, throughout its

soil, there were also flourmills, used to

ergy, to extract water from the subsoil

history, the municipality has made its

grind grain for use by people and ani-

by means of a plunger pwnp.

living primarily from agricu1ture and

mals.

The type of windmill found in Majorca is based on designs that date back

However, in the second half of the

cattle rearing. The first windrnills were very popu-

20th century, due to technological de-

to Alexandrian times and the first wind-

lar among fanners and orchard?owners

velopments, new machinery was intro-

milis reached Europe from Persia in the

in Campos as a means oftransforrning

duced, operated by explosion engines.

11th century. The first drawing of a

their arid properties into well?irrigated

As a result, older windmills were dis-

windrnill to be documented dates back

orchards,

carded and fell into disuse. In turn, the

to 1468 and can be seen on the altar-

well?known, highlyvconsidered

pota-

crisis suffered by the Majorcan coun-

piece of Saint George, by Pere Nigart,

toes, together with alfalfa for cattle feed.

tryside, which the Campos area is es-

This led to the early days of milk pro-

pecially affected

duction, now one of Campos' leading

gradual abandorunent of these ancient

in Majorca's Diocesan Museum. During the rniddle Age, the munber of windmills grew. Most were flounnills, but there were also watermills. AII had

where they could sow the

economic activities. Indeed, one ofthe first known wind-

by, has led to the

mechanical devices. Because of this, most of Campos' windmills are struc-

rotors with sai1s or fabrico Windrnills

mills in Majorca belonged to a farmer

turally now in a very poor state of con-

were not really put to use to extract

from Campos, called Joan Taberner. The

servation,

water from the ground until 1845, with

windmill was to be found at S'Hort d'

the work of the Dutch engineer Paul

en Grog, on the Santanyl road, and was

Bouvy and the plan to drain the plain

built by the master carpenter, SebastiĂĄ

Pascual Tortella, PhD. Industrial Engineer-

known as the PIA de Sant Jordi. From

Rigo, in 1884.

ing, Majorca.

Documentation and data supplied by JosĂŠ


ofparallel activities within the inunedi-

The milis recovering process espe-

cultural

ate vicinity, focused on promoting the

cially cared after energy aspects, that

value is also very damaging to the land-

use ofwindmills and their adjacent lands

meant a far from negligible technologi-

scape of the Campos area. The visual

in ways which willlead to the genera-

cal challenge, since the project's engi-

The abandonment of an architectural feature of such extraordinary

impression ofthis neglected ruralland-

tion of income and a number of different

neering had to resolve aspects such as

scape, in most cases no longer inhab-

economic activities, .within the frame- .

adapting traditional rotors to present-

ited, with its rural heritage (i.e. its tow-

work of the sustainable use of natural

day generators, within investment con-

ers and windmills) in a state of aban-

resources and the protection of the en-

ditions that allow investment recover-

donment, leads one to feel that there is

vironment,

ing in an acceptable time space.

a lack of sensitivity towards the traditional agricultural

landscape and the

The global idea of the project seeks not only the architectural

restoration

The restoration of the cultural heritage that the windmills represent and the

and obtaining wind power, but also to

recovery ofthis aspect ofthe landscape

tural and environmental heritage. It is

make the mills turn into reference ele-

would provide visitors with the possi-

even very damaging for the image of a

ments for tourist use, as centres for

bility of enjoying alternative leisure ac-

region with a high influx of tourists.

craftsmanship

tivities that are compatible with the con-

preservation of its ethnographic,

cul-

It is a social, cultural, aesthetic and en-

and valorisation of the

rural products of the area.

vironmental duty to come IIpwith a solu. tion to this situation which forces Public

The

"Molins

designated of "Special Interest to Visi-

de

tors''). It would encourage activities (i.e,

Authorities and other interested parties

Campos"

to take the necessary steps to ensure that

Having carried out the experimental

an answer is found to this problem. Molins

de Campos:

Project

excursions, itineraries, museums, craft

study, in the light of the excellent re-

workshops

suIts achieved, it was necessary to con-

ecologically?friendly produce).

and

markets

selling

tinue with the initial objectives. With

a sustainable, global

servation of the environment (and the municipality of Campos includes an area

initiative

this in mind, given the high cost in-

Project

volved in the restoration of the wind-

There are four main aims behind the

aims

mills, it was decided to start by con-

project, which is planned to focus on a

created as a result of the reasons cited

centrating

'figure of about 100 windmills:

above. The feasibility of the project

"Molins de Campos" project, which

a) The restoration ofthe windmills, in their

depends upon its global approach to

would focus on a group of about one

capacity as a part of historical herit-

the problem, based on guarantees

hundred windmills.

age, thus reducing and indeed improv-

The "Molins de Campos" project was

of

on a first

stage of the

Aside from any l,ogical financial jus-

ing the negative visual, aesthetic and

tification,the reaS9n for this restriction

environmental impact of the windmills

only involve the windmills' structural

was al so to ensure the feasibility ofthe

that presentIy exist in the area

restoration ' but it also has a global en-

project by concentrating

on a number

b) The conversion of the windmill, by

vironmental

objective: to convert the

of windmills which? although large?

introducing teclmology that will take

windmill into a generator of wind en-

offers reasonable prospects of success,

advantage ofthe island's wind energy,

ergy? a c1ean, renewable source of en-

given the material

and the introduction of a new innova-

ergy? whilst also carrying out a series

power available

future continuity. For this reason, the project does 110t

means and man-

tion, the small?scale production of electricity for use, energy?saving and,

Restored

windmill

indeed, to replace other sources of energy. e) The creation of a sustainable environment in association with the windmili, using the resources of the

SUf-

rounding area. Designing and creating the most suitable type of outdoor gardens and guaranteeing, above all, Majorca's biodiversity by the use of native island species of plants. d) Parallel activities, which help to guarantee the feasibility ofthe project as a whole. Introducing the concept of sustainability to rural farms and to

50

International

Journal

of Island Affairs


In September 2002, the politicalleaders of most of the nation's planetswill meetin .Johannesburg for the Summit on Sustain-

L

able Development in order to reviewthe international

agree-

ments on the environment adopted over ten years ago in Rio de Janeiro. Presentation

of the tntuauve

at the Interna-

In the coming spring, at its meeting in Barce-

ttonal Conference "Energy and Water In Small l slands" he Id In Sas sart, Sardima (22-2-1

time? examine the extent to which different

November,

European Union member states have corn-

2001). Pedro Ballesteros

(Euro-

pea n Commission). AntOniO Rassu (Conference prometer), C. Mortn (lNSULA) and Andreu

Prohens

(Mayor ofCampos).

lona, the European Council will ? for the first

plied with their environmental obligations by analysing a series of indicators that will enable it to establish the progress achieved in the application of the European Union Strat-

the development oftourism and cul-

include wetlands and saltworks such

tural attractions.

as those existing in the area ofEs Trenc,

By the end ofthe year 2002, Spain will have a

whose salt production is documented back in the 4th century B.e., the Sant

National Strategy for Sustainable Develop-

Blai Oratory whose construction dates

integration of environmental aspects into

A tourist

itinerary:

The windmill

route

egy for Sustainable Development.

ment. This must ensure the full process of

each ofSpain's sectoral policies.

Jointly with the energy exploitation,

back to the 13th century, just after the

milis restoration is a marvellous excuse

conquest ofMajorca by King Jaume 1,

an aim such as the introduction of a sustain-

to catalyse and revalorise cultural and

or the "Sant Joan de la Font Santa"

able model ofdevelopment, dealing with the

tourist resources of the, that would be

Baths, whose natural waters have very

needs of current generations whilst taking

interesting mineral properties.

care not to endangerthose offuture ones.ln

transformed in the core of a larger extent operation aimed at the search of

The milis would contribute

to the

However, it is not always an easy task to fulfil

some cases, the low level of income generated by production activities, the costs in-

more integrated activities and the pro-

revalorisation

motion of a more sustainable tourism

as cheese. Cheese production is no",

are not only of a financial nature), a lack of

in the area. Campos has a large number

not a seasonal activity, but one that is

Public Authority promotion and a general in-

of places of cultural and natural inter-

carried out throughout the year. Cot-

ertia in social decision?making,

est or which are part of the local herit-

tage cheese also used to bĂŠ' a seasonal

other factors, prevent us from reversing the

age. This is why one ofthe aims ofthe

product, but now it is produced and

trends that threaten society's quality of life,

"Molins de Campos" project is to cre-

there is a demand for it all year round,

ate a series of itineraries bet:ween the

above all at Easter. as it is used in the

Precisely because of this, the 'Molins de

different windmills and other places of

cooking oftraditional

Campos' project is an initiative of extraordi-

special interest. The milis route would

filled with cheese).

of local products such

robiols (a pastry

volved in the changes to be introduced (which

amongst

with a serious danger of economic, social and environmental regression.

nary importance because, with the restoration of our dearly?loved Majorcan windmills,

Plan of the municipolity of Campos

it aims to make the recovery of our cultural and historical heritage compatible with a sus-

/

tainable model of development. For this reason, the 'Molins de Campos' project goes one step further than mere architectural restoration work. Its objective is to offer a global environmental solution to existing problems, promoting the sustainable use of natural resources by enabling Windmilis to be used for the generation of wind energy and also inciuding in the project a series of parallel activities focused on boosting economic activity and social welfare, with the utmost respect for the environment.

Jaume Matas Palou Spanish Minister of the Environment

..J

1. '


In

Whyand How lo Plan Ihe Islandls

Informa.ion Society PlanningManual

Web site: www.teleinsula.com

In

the last decade, information

and

a step-by- step guide in the form oftips,

communications technologies have be-

opportunities that the infonnation soci-

tools and templates to be used as a

come so pervasive that they have given

ety has to offer, they need to engage in

supplement to earlier guides.

rise to a number of new concepts such

strategic and concerted actions to ac-

as the Information Society, the Digital

celerate its development.

Despite the important variations that exist, the methodological approach of-

No two regions are identicaI. In an

fered in this Manual has been tried and

Economy. The fact that these technolo-

islands context, some island territories

tested in 28 regions that also displayed

gies are already influencing, directly or

are large and some are small. Some is-

significant

indirectly, the lives of many people is

land regions are archipelagos

good reason to believe that most proc-

not disputed, nor is there any doubt that

others are large territories in their own

esses proposed for developing an in-

they will continue to affect a growing

right. Some islands are relatively pros-

formation society strategy and action

number of people. At a regional level,

perous whilst many are relatively poor.

plan can be applied in island regions

the development or acceleration of the

Some islands are located close to the

and territories.

information

mainland, many others are quite iso-

been further enhanced by the studies

lated, but they are a11dependent on air

conducted

Revolution and the Knowledge-Based

society

necessitates

number of pre-conditions: these are widespread

a

amongst

whilst

differences

and there is

This experience

has

during the Medis project

and sea transportation that can be sub-

and the use ofthe method presented in

infrastruc-

ject to disruption. Like mainland re-

the manual in a pilot experience on the Estonian island ofHiiumaa.

access to ad-

vanced teleconununications

ture and affordable services, a critical

gions, island regions also vary in their

mass of demand, and the ski11sto use

administrative, legal and cultural char-

and develop ICTs and their applications.

acteristics.

Private sector telecommunications

52

ticular, are to grasp the benefits and

Variations

such as these

make it more difficult to define a single

The methodology and especially the tools mentioned

in the manual have

been customized to suit islands with

operators are concentrating their atten-

methodology that will be appropriate

limited previous experience in planning,

tion in the most lucrative markets where

to all in all circumstances.

but can equally well be used in larger

returns on investment are both greater

The MEDIS Models for European

communities or by experienced plan-

and faster. This agglomeration effect is

Digital Islands project created a Plan-

ners. By using the manual, the planner

benefiting the richer, more densely popu-

ning Manual to provide help to those

should be able to avoid mistakes and

lated and least peripheral areas and leav-

who are responsible for, and involved

futile work. One of the virtues of the

ing the poorer, more sparsely populated

in, the development of a regional infor-

manual is that it makes it easier to re-

and more peripheral regions at a further

mation

peat the work after a few years, taking

disadvantage, If less favoured regions

plan. The intention has been to pro-

advantage ofthe lessons learned in the

in general, and insular regions in par-

vide, as simply and clearly as possible,

first round of planning.

International

Journal

of Island Affairs

society strategy

and action


's'ond Cooperotion

Sustoinob'e

Energy Forum

Euro-Caribbean RES Forum An island alliance in favour o, suslainable energies

More

than 100 European

and Caribbean delegates met on May 30-31,2002, on the island ofSaint LucĂ­a with the aim to start the first Euro-Caribbean cooperation Forum in favour of the deployment of Renewable Energy Sources in the Caribbean Region. Participants included representatives from Caribbean and European island govenunents, the renewable energy industry, renewable energy service providers, utilities,consultants, Ă­ntemational organi-

lnsula 's Secretary-general p arttctp att on of European

Pier G d 'Ayala chairtng lndu stry managers

one of the conference

and Caribbean

agencIes

sessions

1I'Ilh

the

and governments

representatives.

sations, regional organisations and recognised experts. During these days participants could deeply analyse the actual possibilities of cooperation between main European and Caribbean actors related with new rcnewable energy tcchnologies, including industry and the reprcsentation ofkey sectors of application. such as the tourism sector. The Euro-Caribbean RES Conference has been organised by a consortium of institutions co-ordinated by INSULA, as we know it. Our collective response must be a

Extraet from the Message of

to play on this field. At the same time the mag-

Dr. Kenny D. Anthony

nitude and scale ofthe environmental crisis we

reduction of the carbon intensity of our produc-

face underscore the interdependence

of na-

tion and consumption practices. To this end,

tions and the need to narrow the divide in

energy efficiency and !he greater exploitation of

Prime Minister

o,

Saint Lucie

The development challenges fac-

pursuit of our individual and collective devel-

renewable sources of energy are to be pursued

ing the world today are a mani-

opment aspirations. This dilemma presents us

with an urgency !hat reflects !he gravity of !he findings of!he Third Report of!he Inter Govem-

festation of the North- South di-

with opportunities to fashion global institutions

vide. Globalization and Informa-

and cooperative arrangements that speak to

mental Panel on Climate Change. This response

tion Technology are mooted as

common goals, differential capabilities and in-

will require inves1ments in technologies resident

the means through which weaker nations can bridge this divide. The argument is that by

vestments in human development. It is in !his context !hat I see !he Euro Carib-

in !he north. The Euro Caribbean Energy Forum was conceived to meet this need by creating a .

creating a level playing field on which all are

bean Energy Forum. Whereas energy is central

place to initiate action in this direction. I con-

guided by common rules, each has the same

to development, the fossil-based fuels used to

gratulate !hose who conceived !his idea and look

opportunity to benefit. This logic is attractive

provide most of!he worĂ­d's energy hold!he great-

forward to !he Forum helping us and our Euro-

but flawed. It is silent on the issue of capacity

est !hreat1o!he continued existerice of our planet

pean partners to meet !his challenge.


EuroCaribbean RES Forum

An island alliance in favour of sustainable energies Memorandum of Understanding WE, the participants

at the 'EuroCaribbean

lsland RES Conference',

meeting

Agree:

in Saint Lucia

on this

exchange

Wind farm on Curacao

made

uup

by

damental

!TER

(Instituto

Tecnol贸gico y de Energ铆as Renovables), EREC (European Renewable Energy Council), NTUA-RENES (National Tech-

Conference's

of experiences

Considering

conventional

dependence

are funof islands,

on imported

energy sources which make them

vulnerable

to the volatility

of supply

and envi-

the economic

impact of the cost

collaboration

initiatives

newable energies,

operatively

3. To support

tries and companies.

on the collaboration and support of the

tainable

St. Lucia Government and on the coop-

the adaptation

eration of severaJ Caribbean govem-

key sectors

ments and institutions.

ment, agriculture

The initiative stenuned from the idea

island development,

both

of island

water

manage-

the development of improved

view

of both the

energy

efficiency

cient co-operation framework based on

and the wider use of available renewable sources

Caribbean island countries' resolute bet

of energy

on renewable energy sources deploy-

geothermal

ment and the complementary European experience developed in this field during the last years. In particular, European and Caribbean RET industry's ea-

including

wind,

scale deployme"nt

of renewable

that will generate

the opportunity

to open

novative large-scale projects for RES on

for the support

of the- energy

islands and the new policies developed

the Caribbean

wide range for the support of new cooperation opportunities,

and

a European

and

window

sustainability

in

the complementary private

sectors,

promote

co-operation

creation

of actual

roles of the

and the need

to

tools that will allow the

market

alliances

with a re-

gional view.

effectively

that the European

industry

energy and island experiences complement

of renewable

energy

the Caribbean

the substantial sources

of can

process

development

in

the role of new and re-

newable sources of energy efficiency in the sustainable development

of small island states, and

the need for international

A group of participants after the signature of the agreements. lndra Haraksingh (presiden/

in that process

Barbados

Programme

tive participation

able Energy

Forum an appropriate

Ctpriano

Marin

(IN-

and co-

as described

in the

of Action.

of an ef-

and promo-

energy technologies

and

projects of mutual interest, taking advantage of the opportunities

the support

Commission dation

offered

by the new in-

technologies.

5. To request

of the European

for maintenance

and consoli-

of the initiative.

6. To apply for the endorsement

of those inter-

and the private sector compe-

tent in the development initiatives

in favour

and promotion

of energy

of

sustainability

within the region. 7. To charge

INSULA with the responsibility

implementing

of

this agreement within the frame-

work of its role as Secretariat This responsibility

to the Forum.

will entail the formulation

to the European

Commission

of Caribbean

the effec-

Countries

coordination

in the

mechanism

and other rel-

evant parties. This Work Plan will reflect the main objectives 8. Once

and tasks of the Forum.

assurances

for appropriate

Forum

Secretariat

implementation

will proceed

standing

to propose

structure

of the Work

point the participants

funding

INSULA acting as the

the legal and operational

for the

Plan. At this

in this Conference

of this Memorandum will be invited

and

of Under-

to participate

ECRES Forum constitutive

in an

general

assem-

of Understanding

reflects

bly. 9. This Memorandum

the first stage of the process lishment

that in order to facilitate

of t he Caribbean Solar Energy Society), Arthouros Zervos (EREC - European RenewCouncil),

collaboration

operation

Accepting

indus-

of information

tion of renewable

signatories

islands.

Taking into account

on the

Energy

to the development

system

have been obtained,

Considering renewable

based

of an ECRES Work Plan and its presentation

islands.

Recognising public

and regional

future projects,

pability, together with ambitious and in-

for the support of renewables, offer a

energy sources

a wide range of national

initiatives

4. To contribute fective

of new effec-

channels

of Renewable

governments

the efforts made by the Car-

ibbean countries and territories in favour of large-

through

the

national, regional and national organisations,

solar, hydropower,

and biomass.

Acknowledging

tive co-operation

formation

and transporto

of the need for a long-term

large potential

are

of sus-

conditioning

such as tourism,

Conscious

options

aspects

and competitiveness

that will promote

that it is possible to establish an effi-

that energy

supporting

the establishment

tion of energy supply sources for energy security.

of other essential

na-

in favour of re-

tasks.

stitute ofResponsible Tourism), with the

Taking into account

and Carib-

with on-going

tional and regional

commitment

determinant

the active

European

bean market decision-makers. 2. To promote

States and territories, and the need for diversifica-

and UNESCo. This initiative also relied

co-operaUnion and

region to promote

of imported energy sources on Caribbean

Island

contribute

European

of main

nical University ofAthens) and IRT (Insupport of the European Commission

54

and effectively of a permanent

between

participation

Forum's

ron mental degradation.

Recognising

Forum

the Caribbean

resources

to the future development

given their extreme

tion

important

and ideas.

that energy

support

to the constitution

on May 30th and 31st, 2002. Reflecting

1. To adopt,

of the estab-

of the Forum.

10. To explore opportunities tion of Renewable

for the implementa-

Energy projects in the Car-

ibbean under the aegis of the Clean Develop-

SULA) , Mona White (Caribbean Energy Informa/ion System), Ronald Parris (President

will be established

of Insula) and Bishnu Tulsie (Ministry ofPlanning Development, Environment and Housing, Governmen/ of Saint Lucia).

The memorandum, approved by consensus, was signed by Ronald Parris (President of INSULA), Bisnhu Tulsie (Ministry of Planning Development, Environment and Housing, Government of Saint Lucia) and Arthouros Zervos (EREC - European Renewable Energy Council), on behalfofthe Conference.

International

Journal

of Island Affairs

in the Region.

ment Mechanism

of the Kyoto Protocol.


Message addressed to the Conference on behalf of Loyola de Palacio (Vice-Presidentof the European Commission) Energy

40% are oil. The Renewable energy sources

It is clear that to answer effectivelythese chal-

Sources Conference is a good example ofwhat

The EuroCaribbean

Renewable

today have a share of about 6%. In this view,

lenges, one will have to count on a balanced

needs to be done to encourage the take up

the renewable energy sector has a real high

approach, that takes account of social, eco-

and promotion of Renewable Energies by tos-

potential of development in order to rebalance

nomical and political realities.

tering cooperation between all relevant market

the overall energy supply sources. The cur-

In this perspective, Renewable Energies will

players.

rent trends of market penetration of these tech-

have to playa major role in the short, medium and long termo

Energy constitutes a key field of our society

nologies are rather encouraging but there is a

and is fundamental to ensure its economic

continuing need for support. Therefore, our

Finally, may I stress the fact that the EC sup-

and social development.

market related activities are mainly focusing

ports fully the initiative that you are carrying

In a nutshell, this

means the welfare of millions of citizens.

on regulatory measures, and promotion pro-

out through the setting up of this Forum. This

grammes.

In addition, we have the need to

will constitute an essential tool to ensure the

guarantee sustainable development, and has

bring down the costs of renewable energies,

development of the Caribbean islands and al-

been working hard on this objective during

and this we are tackling through the Commu-

low them to facilitate their energy independ-

severalyears.

nity Research and Technological Oevelopment

ence.

The European Commission is anxious to

Among the principal challenges with which

Programmes. At the beginning of next year,

Moreover, the objectives outlined in the work-

we have to cope, two in particular have an

the Commission proposes to strengthen sup-

ing programme of the Forum are highly valu-

extremely high importance:

• The imperative to ensure the security of energy supplies

port for energy efficiency and renewable ener-

able and similar to part of our initiatives related

gies in the European Union and in develop-

on the EU Renewable Energy strategy - in par-

ing countries, through a new Programme

ticular when looking at your actions such as: i)

called "Intelligent Energy for Europe 2003-

establishing systems of cooperation; ii) tech-

2006". With an overall budget of 215 mili ion

nology transfer; iii) rational use of Energy; iv)

The degree of import dependency in energy

Euros for the period 2003- 2006, "Intelligent

networking by gathering all main actors and

within the European Union has increased from

Energy for Europe" proposes to tackle the

stakeholders.

around 40% in 1985 to around 50 % today.

barriers to the growth of markets for renew-

The Commission, who is also supporting

Moreover, if we do not develop an adequate

able energy and energy efficiency in the EU

this event, will follow with great interest its out-

strategy and take the necessary measures,

as well as to strengthen our co-operation on

comes.

the EU will be even more dependent. The

these matters with developing countries.

I would conclude by congratulating you for having initiated this broad partnership between

assessment and forecast done through our Green Paper "Towards a European strategy

the key actors and I wish you a very successful

for the security of energy supply" adopted in

• The need to ensure sustainable develop-

Conference.

November 2000 by the European Commis-

ment by developing

sion, provides an indicative rate of about 70%

which respond to the Kyoto imperatives

by 2030. The main part of the current energy

and requests (reduction ofthe greenhouse

(May 29th, 2002)

demand is covered by fossil fuels of which

gases by 8% between 2008- 2012 in the EU)

OG TREN 02

energy strategies K. Kellner, A. Kotronaros, J. Riesgo

'. ofEnergy, based on the creation ofthe

the promotion ofRES and RUE in the Caribbean market, tinking the Carib-

establishment of a system of co-opera-

Euro-Caribbean RES Fonun as an operational tool. The Euro-Caribbean RES

bean demand for services and technol-

tion and technology transfer on Renew-

Fonun is conceived as a permanent in-

ogy supply with the European offer and

able Energy Sources and Rational Use

formation and co-ordination

experience.

Based on this background, the central objective of this initiative was the

node for

The Minister

of

Planning, Development, Environment and Housing of the Government of Saint Lucia, Hon. Dr. Walter Francois officially presented the Memorandum of Understanding at the OECS meeting of Ministers of Environment held on Dominica. This is the first step made at thelevel of Caribbean Governments for the consolidation Hon. Senator

Calixte

George,

Minister

of Agriculture,

Lucia Government, chatrtng one of the conference of ¡TER (M. Cendagorta) and ¡CAEN (D. Satué).

Forestry

sessions,

and Fi sheries

together

of the Saint

with the representatives

of the EuroCaribbean

Forum, after its

approval and launchingby the delegates participating in the Conference.


The main objectives ofthe Forum are: • To share infonnation and results derived from viable projects and proposals for RET applications, including replication of successful island experiences. • To help in the identification of present and future needs of the Caribbean islands and the contribution

that EU islands and industries

can provide in addressing such needs. • To promote trade in renewable energy devices and systems and facilita te the creation of an (Interna-

enabling environment for rapid market growth.

nonal Scienttfic Counctl for Island Development), wtth the presence of Hon. Afano Mich ael, Acting Prime Mintster and Mtnister for Educauon, Human Resource

• To disseminate "state-of-the-art" RET, RUE and clean transportation technologies in Car-

Insula S Opentng

Development,

Session chaired by Ronald Parrts, President

Youth and Sports

of the Government

Jonghe (European Commission) able Energy Council)

and Arthouros

of INSULA

of Saint Lucio, Bomfacius

Zervos

(EREC European

de

ibbean countries, taking advantage of new is-

Renew-

land experiences and of the European RE industry.

~lobiny-:[~ti

.t. v,~

.>

••••••••

~

• To support the Caribbean Island States' strat-

1l:..::cóIltlhlp/"-~~,*",

~"""!lJatuIo

egies aiming at sustainable development and

!J'o'~

!]PetlO'\lbervincUool

energy independence.

EuroCaribbean Island RES Conference

FoIow-lJp iscussion Group

1'----------' ~ ..

~w

.~_I

~~:~1~=::~:;:;~"

•• bfIMSUlAE:

IU.~~

r IIoIhlO-

I

~·!;

•• oIl_

••

_

co •••• 'n'OH.

I ••••.••••..••.••.•

f' ••••••••~•••.••• 5.....tL

The Conference

room durtng one of the sesstons.

;u •••• ='!1..c1O

~balemeru\

MICt<>SOIIInI

!JE••..c.ribbolan

(J!!11019

1••••••••..

Web-page of the Forum: www.eurocaribbean.o·rg The ECRES FORUM, supported by a network of institutions, RE associations. intemational

organisations

and

Hon. Alano Mtchael, Acting Prime Mimster

and

Mint ster for Educa/Ion,

De-

velopmen/, Government

authorities ofboth European and Car-

Human

Resource

Youth and Sports of the Saint Lucio during

the Opentng

Session.

ibbean Islands, is generating an extensive process ofpartnership

and identi-

fication of opportunities of mutual interest. The Forum is, in fact, a European window for the support ofthe energy sustainability strategy in the Caribbean islands. From a practical purpose, thc Forum aims to generate co-operation projects through joining together several part-

ners, public and priva te, Caribbean and European, including RET industry, developers, consultants, energy agencies,

56

financial institutions and intemational

Meeting

programmes.

ters In Parts In January

Intcrnational

Journal

of Island Affairs

of the Eurotlanbbean 2002.

RES Irnttauve

Steering

Committee

a/ the UNESCO headquar-


Euro Caribbean Res Forum

The State 01 the Art 01 Renewables in the Caribbean Possibilities, Realisations and Applicability by

T

I NORA

HARAKSINGH

*

he implementation

of Re-

available. According to OLADE, oil and

for only 17 % of world consumption

newable Energy technologies

is gen-

oil products constitute sixty percent of

due to the technological development

erally controlled by Govemment Energy

the region's energy mix. Nonetheless,

of the gas industry in industrialised

Policies which are largely dictated by

the region is not sufficiently integrated

countries. (OLADE). It is reported that

the extent of the country's natural re-

to benefit from this wealth of resources.

about 25 percent of the world's popu-

sources and its economic status. The

Crude oil is the main product imported

lation consumes about 80 percent of

Caribbean islands are generally small

by the LAC countries, in 1970 account-

the global energy (Obasi, 2000). It is

with some ofthem having modest pub-

ing for 80.8 % of imports and then drop-

projected that the GDP of developing

lic services. In some of the islands the

pingto 53.3 %in 1992. Asofl970 crude

countries may grow 14-fold by the year

energy sector is not highly developed

oil exports rose significantly, peaking

2025, while that of developed countries

and legislation regarding the environment is minimal. The Caribbean region

in 1982 with 1,177,300,000

barreis.

five-fold. It is believed that natural gas

(OLADE). The main crude oil exporters

will become the most economical en-

lies in a strategic position for several

are Mexico and Venezuela. Among the

ergy source as an alternative to liquid

reasons, two ofwhich are its close prox-

Euglish speaking countries, Trinidad

hydrocarbons.

imity to Latin America with its abun-

and Tobago, a producer of natural gas

that natural gas and oil will continue

dance of natural resources.

It has been predicted

and the

and oil, has been the only exporter of

through the period to 2025 as the prin-

high insolation levels year round. Yet

petroleum since 1912. Barbados is the

cipal form ofprimary energy although

the Caribbean has not capitalised on

only other producer among the islands

many ofthe islands are becoming more

nor exploited these resources to an ac-

but still remains a net importer of en-

sensitized about the importance of re-

ceptable leve!. The two main problems

ergy. Venezuela, Brazil and Mexico are

newable energy implementation.

are lack of adequate cohesion between

the largest exporters of oil products ac-

Latin America and the Caribbean and

counting for approximately 70 % ofthe

lack of financial resources to develop

total exports from the Region.

the industries. Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are particularly sen-

Most of the islands ofthe Caribbean are relatively

poor and continue

to

Renewable Energy Profile of the Caribbean Situated in a tropical region with little seasonal variations, the average insola-

sitive to Climate Change as many of

struggle for survival. Petrolewn imports

tion of 15-20 Mlxm-Zxday-I

them are vulnerable to the consequent

continue to dominate the energy pro-

twice the level found in many industri-

sea level rise and ecological changes.

file ofthe countries. Although the rate

alized countries. Therefore prospects for

Sea level rise can also affect offshore

of integration of the Latin American

good retums in investrnent in some re-

gas and oil exploitation and oil imports.

countries and the Caribbean is slow,

newable energy technologies are en-

Therefore exploitation

there are some positive developments

couraging. Governments are recogniz-

of Renewable

is roughly

Energy resources is critical for preser-

which will accelerate trade and energy

ing that renewable energy implementa-

vation of the fragile eco-system of the

cooperation. These include CARICOM

tion can also reduce the strain ofunem-

islands and security of the oil and gas

- the Caribbean

industry in the region.

Mercusur

Common

- the Southern

Market;

ployment by providing additional jobs

Common

for nationals thus significantly influenc-

Market; The San Jose Accord; and the

Historical

Background

Association of Caribbean States. De-

*Department of Physics,

Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC)

veloping countries hold 50 % of the

The University of the West Indies

have an abundance of energy resources

world gas reserves, yet they account

St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago


tainable Development with a specific

ing the socio-eco,nomic conditions in the region. With limited financial re-

mandate to make the country a modeI

sources, it is encouraging to note that

of Sustainable Development incorpo-

many studies have reported significant

rating government departments, inter-

decline in the unit cost of renewable

est groups and the general public in its

energy technologies within recent times.

policy development processes. Having

This applies to solar-thermal, biomass

a population of 266,400 resident people with an annual visitor population

and in particular, photovoltaics.

of about 800,000, Barbados is one of

The equivalent in barreis of oil of solar energy available in the Caribbean is

the world's most densely populated

much greater than the energy we use

countries. Two-thirds ofthe population live around the coastal region impact-

as imported fossil fuels. The big question is why such resources largely untapped.

remain

The International

Energy Agency states "The econom-

ing and distribution markets are poi sed

ing heavily on the already fragile eco-

for rapid expansion if the appropriate

system.

energy policies are adopted.

The island with the most successful

ics of renewable energy are the largest

Solar crop-drying is one of the old-

solar hot water program is Barbados

barrier to renewables penetration". Low

est of the renewable energy technolo-

with 33,000 solar hot water systems

oil prices as well would have had a

gies in the Caribbean. Drying of food

(SHWS) installed. Apart from Barbados

negative effect on the pace at which

crops is an important aspect of post-

and Jamaica, there are at best a few

alternative

harvest technology as many of the is-

hundred heaters installed in the other

would be brought on stream. Some of

lands are agriculture-based.

The Uni-

islands. Barbados has over 55 hotels

the restrictions to implementation

versity .of the West Indies has been the

being run on SHWS as opposed to five

focal point for research and develop-

or less in any other Caribbean island.

non-fossil

fuel sources of

Renewable Energy technologies are: 1 Lack of capital

ment with respect to solar drying of

The reason for Barbados' success must

2 Shortage of hard currency

agricultural crops, fish and timber, and

be noted. In the early seventies the

3 Policy framework - subsidies, tax ex-

fOÍ"the dissemination

Government

of the technolo-

gies in the region. Various designs of

emptions, venture capital

of Barbados recognized

the benefi ts of employing

SHWS

proce-

solar dryers have been developed and

throughout the country and therefore

dures that favor conventional tech-

tested for their thennal efficiencies, and

adopted the policy of offering tax in-

4 Utility resource acquisition

of different

centives for these systems under the

agricultural products have been deter-

the drying characteristics

Fiscal Incentives Act of 1974. Within a

6 Lack oftrained manpower

mined. T11eapplieation ofthis technol-

few years sales of SHWS multiplied.

7 Lack of community and private sec-

ogy is relevant for the islands; even

nologies 5 Transfer oftechnology

Iimitations

the sma11fanner can find a dryer design

tor involvement.

at an affórdable cost. The largest solar The Solar Water Heater industry is

dryer, designed by the late Professor

the best developed, most mature and

Oliver Headley, uses the roof of a farm

vibrant ofthe Renewable Energy tech-

building with an area of 130 square

nologies in the region, but even this is

kilometers and is used to dry hay at a

far from realizing its full potential. Hot

farm in Barbados.

water consumption

is influenced

by

cultural and social habits. Although in the Caribbean región it is considered a marginalluxury,

for the tourism indus-

try, on which most ofthe Caribbean rely, it is a basic necessity. Entrepreneurs

ISLAND PROFILES .The State of the Art of Renewables and Projections for the Futu re

working in the solar water heater industry have recognized this and have focused attention on integrating solar energy utilization

with the advance-

ment of the tourism sector. With only

58

Barbados Barbados has long been considered a pioneer among the Caribbean islands in Sustainable

Development

issues.

thirteen solar water heater manufactur-

The Government

ers in the region, both the manufactur-

lished a National Commission on Sus-

lnternational

Journal

of Island Affairs

of Barbados estab-

Wind power exploitation

has an old tradition

in the Caribb ean i sl an d s. The restored Morgan Lewis Sugar Mili at Sto Andrew, Barbados.


Among the other projects in progress

This will be the focal point for all inputs

of its large expanses of land, develop-

are the construction

from the public and the scientific com-

ment of its PV capacity for electrifica-

munity with regard to technological

tion of remote areas is feasible. Given

ofthe 17.3 kW PV

system at Harrisons's

Cave for Iight-

de-

ing, an 11.1 KW solar ice maker pro-

velopments and for clissem.ination of in-

the extent of silica resources

ducing an average of one tonne of ice

formation to the publico

ana and natural gas in Trinidad, ajoint

per day, and a 3 KW PV system Combermere

at

School for operating

a

Among the incentives • A concessionary

effort for manufacturing

offered are tax structure

for

It is hoped that

solar panels and tubes for water heat-

the first project will expand to 140 kW

ing and solar cells. Solar panels are

computer

laboratory.

to include

charging

the batteries

for

running the trams which transport visitors into the caves. Projections

for the future

include

16MW in wind turbine farms in the North

of Barbados,

feasible

having

of Guy-

of PV cells is

the added advantage

of savings on scarce foreign exchange. Martinique and Guadeloupe

now zero rated. • A 15 % external benefit from the elec-

Tank-and-collector

"bread-box"

solar

tric utility for RE projects lo ensure

water heaters are being manufactured

that RE becomes a part of the electricity generation m.ix.

in Guadeloupe

a lOMW waste The Jamaican

utility company

equipped

Jamaica

while the PCJ has in-

Jamaica imports over 90 % of its com-

stalled about 77 so-

mercial energy needs in the form of pe-

lar street lamps in

30 households

in

12,000 houses. There is a1so a 4.8 MW geothermal

combustion plant and a 2MW wave power plant.

with installations plant

in operation

has

in

Guadeloupe.

in re-

mote areas with PV panels.

troleum

products

using roughly

third of its foreign exchange

one

earnings

for imported fuel. Indications

the

country.

There are 3,800

are that

SHWS installed

oil \ViII continue to be the main energy

in Jamaica. With

source with natural gas from Trinidad &

a thriving tourism

Tobago being an option in the medium

industry,

installa-

to long tenn. Jamaica's high energy re-

tion of SHWS in ho-

quiremenl can be attributed to the energy intensive baux.ite / alurnina indus-

tels can result in significant

try. The energy sector is governed

some solar cookers are being' mar-

the Petroleum

Corporation

by

of Jamaica

(pCl). The Government

has however

savings,

Although

keted in Jamaica, it is unlikely that this

connected

network

will make a significanl

o/

o/

impact in the

recognised that RE can play an impor-

short or medium tenn. Jamaica plans to

tant part in the energy I11Íxofthe coun-

build a 20 MW wind fann by early 200 l.

try. The National tion Authority

Resource

(NRCA)

Conserva-

means

Archipel

Guyana

t nter-

range

productt

on

(EDF

Services

Guadeloupe)

Guadeloupe

has outlined

An wtth a diverstfied

is made up of two main is-

lands - Basse Terre, with the volcano, coun-

and Grand Terre to the east of i1.There

of reliable

is a wind farm on La Désirade consist-

guidelines relating to the energy sector

Guyana is a typical developing

citing the protection ofthe environment

try where the availability

as a primary objective of their energy

sources of energy could significantly

ing of 20 turbines al 25 kW each, and

policy. The Ministry has established

influence the prevailing

one on Marie Galante consisting

central energy conservation

a

unit and a

interna1 socio-

economic and demographic

RE unir which will act as a facilitalor for

Included

all new and renewable energy projects.

adaptation

is rapid

and implementation

technologies. economy

conditions.

in its new policies

ofRE

is on the rise giving an inpanies

to invest

technologies. development hydropower

in RE Further of its

resources,

biomass and biogas, wind and hydroelectric

plants

In Jamaica

turbines at 60 kW each. In Martinique there seems to be so me small wind turbines industry.

Reports indicate that the

centive to foreign and local com-

Existtng

of25

solar thermal seemjustifiable.

Because

Netherlands Prospects

Antilles

Ior wind energy are encour-

aging. Kodela, together with Nedwind, have signed the contract for a 12 MW expansion ofthe existing wind farms in Curacao.

Bonaire

has proposals

MW and 4 MW wind farms,

for 3 while

Aruba is hoping to install a 3 MW farm.


With a flourishing tourism industry in

ernment

is interested

Aruba, SHWS utilization should con-

Renewable

in developing

Energy technologies, solar, notwithstanding

in

tribute significantly to the energy mix.

particular

the

These projects can provide additional

country's wealth in terms of natural

jobs for some nationals, and when com-

gas and oi\. Recognizing that "market

pleted, contribute to the national elec-

prices of energy sources do not re-

tricity grid.

flect total costs particularly those re-

Puerto Rico

Government is committed to fully sup-

lated to the environmental impact", the mately 27 trillion cubic feet with a cur-

porting "the local manufacturing

ergy producing fuels. Its limited land use

rent production rate of about one bil-

capital equipment for use in Solar En-

has led to extensive research in RE tech-

lion cubic feet per day. Crude oil and

ergy applications or other forms of al-

nologies. It is believed that Puerto Rico

condensate

ternative energy".

and the rest ofthe Caribbean are ideally

million barrels with production levels

At present less than 1% of homes

Puerto Rico imports all its primary en-

reserves

suited for widespread use of hybrid elec-

for 1998 averaging 122,627 barreis per

are equipped with solar water heaters

tric vehicles. There is also a high de-

day. Almost 75% of the country's en-

while there are few small PV installa-

mand for electrical energy in the tropics

ergy consumption

come from natural

tions in remote areas. Certainly the ho-

for air conditioning applications. There-

gas. Electricity generation comes from

tel industry in T&T can be opened up

fore solar assisted air conditioning sys-

100 % natural gas. In the last four

to accommodate

tems for the Caribbean is a necessity.

years, the natural

has

with the onset of new hotel construc-

Feasibility

show that from

been growing at an average annual rate

tions. If solar water heaters should

the pay-back period for

of lO%. The World Bank has ranked

penetrate the T&T market to the extent

Puerto Rico is 5 years whereas for Trini-

T&T as "an upper middle-income

oil

in Barbados, the industry would gen-

dad it is 10 years. Payback time is a func-

producing country" which has led to

erate an income of 780 million T&T

tion of annual solar fraction, electricity

an intensive industrialĂ­zation

dollars (about 130 million USD). With

cost and tax incentives, and total instal-

With oil prices on the decline

lation costs. Experimental performance

economy has been diversified

studies

simulations,

gas industry

thrust.

SHWS, especially

the

.the necessary Government and Power

away

Company incentives, the prices can be

ofthis technology was verified through

from oil. The national Gas company of

made attractive and the domestic mar-

assessment of demonstration

Trinidad & Tobago includes in its stra-

ket can experience a boost. Research is

tegic objectives

al so being conducted at the University

systems

in Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico.

â&#x20AC;˘ Maintaining St. Lucia

Trinidad & Tobago's

of the West Indies Trinidad campus on

natural gas sector as one of the fast-

Solar Dryers, Solar Cookers, Wind En-

Manufacturing capacity for solar water

est growing industries in the world

ergy and OTEe.

heaters is slowly expanding in St. Lucia

â&#x20AC;˘ Marketing natural gas to the rest of

which, apart from its banana industry,

the Caribbean, given its price advan-

depends heavily on tourism. The solar

tage when compared to other aIter-

(USVI)

United States Virgin Islands

hot water market therefore looks very

native energy sources, and its envi-

The USVI, comprising St. Thomas, St.

promising. There are two manufactur-

ronmental attributes ofbeing a clean

Croix and St. John, have undertaken RE

ers of SHWS in the island. Production

burning fossil fuel.

initiatives which have led to the forma-

for domestic use and export can create a

Given the above scenario, is there

tion of the RE Centre responsible for

real challenge for potential investors.

any hope for RE penetration in T &T?

successful projects such as the Veter-

Also prospects for Geothennal energy

Although world-wide concerns for the

ans' Memorial Park Solar Plaza, the So-

are good due to the existence ofthe sul-

preservation

phur springs in Soufriere. This is a

perhaps dampen growth in world pe-

stations, solar-powered street and traf-

seven-acre crater, often referred to as

troleum demand,

tic lighting, solar water heating for hos-

the only drive-in volcano, with more

ments in petroleum infrastructure

than a dozen pools and hot springs ex-

production and consumption and their

gest showpiece is the privately financed

pelling large quantities of sulphur-laden

long pay-back

will have a

Harmony Resort in St. John. This is

steam.

60

are about 550

of

of the environment

will

the heavy invest-

periods

for

lar and Wind Resource Assessment

pital and agriculture projects. Its big-

negative effect, at least in the case of

completely solar and wind powered and

T&T. However, in the latest Energy-

uses 70 % recycled construction mate-

Trinidad & Tobago (T &T)

Policy Green Paper, section 4.6 deals

rials. RE development was hindered by

At present the country's natural gas

with "Development

the recent hurricane which devastated

reserves

newable Energy Options".

are estimated

International

Journal

at approxi-

of Island Affairs

of New and ReThe gov-

the country


Recommendations

and technological underdevelopment in

Many developing countries currently

the region leave room for priva te sector

subsidise energy supply or sell it far

participation to ensure current supplies

below the production

costs. Institu-

and future market development. Overall

tional reíorrns are therefore necessary

policy formulation rather than purely

to ensure true costs, including extemali-

technical and economic motives must

ties such as environmcntal effects, are

dictate the extent ofprivatization. Poli-

estimated in order to correctly develop

l lFOü-wau

energy policies. Tighter standard s of

roof of the Skeete

energy efficiency and ernissions. regu-

bados).

solar photovoltaic

array on the

cies must embrace the projected energy

s Bay

complex (Bar-

demands as well as protect the global environment.

This powers

solar ice-maker.

fishing

a one-tonne-per

day

Pholo: Oliver Headley.

lations affecting energy users. and the

One school of thought supports the

introduction of taxes are necessary to

tions and will force major changes in

development of regional energy policies,

guide policy makers to achieve policy

macro-economic policies and wider par-

but there are major constraints to this

goals in the energy related field.

licipation of the private sector. The many

due to the differring energy situations

problerns associated with the total Gov-

in the islands. It seems more feasible that

population is rising and the region's en-

ernment control include politicaJ interfer-

OleOrganisation Ior Eastern Caribbean

ergy use will rise by 60-85 % by 2025.

ence, organisational inefficiencies and

States (OECS) draft a common energy

In Latin America and the Caribbean

(OLADE). Energy use and energy policy

insufficient

\ViUdictate the social and economic de-

Therefore Ole solution entails liberalisa-

technical

development.

that RE forms a distinct component of

velopmcnts in the region. Energy eífi-

tion and opening up of the economies.

Ole energy generation mix. Legislation

ciency programs are urgently needed in

policy for its member states to ensure

for the entire Caribbean is needed to

the region in order to reduce wastage due

The

to ignorance or malpractice. Therefore

It is the rcsponsibility of the State to

Role

of the

Sta te

to interconnect wi01small power RE pro-

energy eillciency policies must embrace

cnsure the eíficient use of imported en-

ducers at a reasonable cost.

economic, political, cultural and domes-

ergy and to encourage the cxploitation

tic activities. To ensure security of en-

and development of indigenous energy

Conclusion

ergy supplies, the regio n shouJd widen

rcsources. Thc Statc must playa broader

Most renewable energy technologies are

ensure that utilities have an obligation

its relations with the Pacific Basin and

politicaJ and economic role by handling

climate-sensitive. Therefore sustainable

Europe to be better able to establish its

econornic policy, and must be responsi-

energy development Illust always incor-

own energy policies. Market stimulation,

ble for supervision, monitoring and en-

porate issues on climate variability and

technological advancement, subsidy and

forcement of standards and laws. One

change (Obasi, 2000). The Caribbean

corporation with the utilities are all es-

ofkey roles is setting up regalatíon with

region is a virtual powerhouse of solar

sential elements of a sustainable renew-

eJIiciency inducing mechanisms such as

and other renewable sources of energy

able energy progranune. Financial con-

providing incentives for economic effi-

waiting to be exploited. Ir has Ole ad-

straints \ViUhave adverse effects to the

ciency in the system by price control

vantage of not having winters when hot

development of sound energy institu-

using economic criteria. Capital scarcity

wa ter demands can increase [TQmsummer by approximately 70 % in cold climates. Solar water heaters for the tourism industry and dornestic and commerciaJ usage have perhaps the greatest potential. There is a general commitment to the development of RE, but matters have not gone very far beyond this. The movcment towards greater implemcntation of R E technologies

is gaining

strength, but there is a large gap between policy goals and actual achievement. Clearly, much work still needs to be done. Government fiscal incentives, greater infrastructurc Ior policy development as \VeU as joint venture partnerships are needed in the Caribbean region for a ff'md farm on Curacao

smooth transition. A key factor for suc-


Anthony

Patterson

(Ministry

of Science

& Grenadines),

nology - St. líncent

and Tech-

Lins

Chrisune

(EREC-Ellropean Renewable Energy Expon Council), Jose Manuel Melím Mendes (AREAM - Madetra - Portugal),

Mona

Whyte (CEIS - Canbbean

Energy Informauon System), Bishnu Tulsie (Ministry of Planning, Development, Environment and Housing

- SI. Lucio), Alfredo

Curbelo (GEPROP -

Cuba), and Ulrtc Trot: (Caribbean Planning [or Adaptation [o Global Climate Change), during one of [he Eurotlartbbean

cess is the opening up of a liberalized market with conunercial competition. This would boost investment opportunities resulting in higher efficiency and

1. 1997. Implementation

Haraksingh,

SolarWorld Husbands,

Congress.

Incentive

ence. SolarDynamics

that renewable

energy accounts

for

about 20 percent ofthe world's primary

programs.

tation and Reality. Lecture able Energy Congress

-

experi-

Barbados.

Obasi, G. O. P. 2000. Climate Change

- Expec-

at World Renew-

- VI, Brighton,

United

OLADE (1996) Energy Prospects and Economic

ure will increase many-fold in the near

Development

future thus ensuring that energy con-

look for Latin America

servation is maintained and poLlution of

Organisation

the environment is minimised.

America

countries

monwealth

Caribbean.

for the Advancement the NextCentury". Energy

The Out-

in a World

Contexto

for Energy Cooperation

in Latin

OLADE.

Quito,

- The case ofthe

of Science.

Gull of

,

Mexico

"Energy

B,.,...

•.•.• ,,'c.,s.!!IonO

Com-

(1."'-

Tropc 01 Canesr

The BritishAssociation

United

for Tomorrow's

needs of small

Kingdom.

Sustainable

National

Development.

Environment,Energy

Commission

,. .• ""

~ ~

on

1999. Ministry of

and Natural Resources.

Barbados. Trotz,

N. 1996.

World

Renewable

Countries. United

and Environment

Tropical

in Third Science

Kingdom.

Wright, R. 1999. Population,

the Caribbean.

Energy

Commonwealth

Energy Resources

with particular Sustainable

reference to

Alternatives

for

Island States - SATIS '99 Proceed-

ings. Puerto Rico.

50

r..-..

The Bahamas CM

'*"" t""s...-"

-""

.:.~'""b .~. in

1999. Ja-

Tf1"

Florida"" (U.S.A.)

T.M. 1992. Energy

developing

in the 21st Century;

and the Caribbean,

References Boopsingh,

Report on Barbados

Council.

Kingdom.

consumption. It is the hope that this fig-

of Jamaica.

ing and Energy Jamaica.

The Barbados Limited.

Corporation

maica's National Energy Plan. Ministry of Min-

Taejon, Korea.

J. 1996. Solar hot water systems

deciding factors for most prospective

Ecuador. Petroleum

with Special Reference to Trinidad and Tobago.

lower conunercial prices which are the consumers. Present estimations reveal

of and Pos-

sibilities for Renewable Energy in the Caribbean

RES Conference.

Atlantic

~1I().c~

Ocean

Cuba

World - The Realities,

the Real Options and the Agenda for Achievemento

World

sion.1993.

Energy

Council

Commis-

St. Martin's Press Inc., New York.

Energy Planning

Division.

Jamaica

1998. Energy Policy

~

.•....... ,...

Green Paper - Section 4.6. Ministry of Energy and Energy Industries. González,

Trinidad

J. 1999. Development

Conditioning

Systems

gion. Sustainable

and Tobago.

Sea

.-

of Solar Air

for the Caribbean

Alternatives

Caribbean

n.o:... o

Re-

forTropicalls-

land States - SATIS '99. Puerto Rico.

Garden Adventure: How a Solar Water Heater works

Author and Publisher: William Hinds 18 Frere Pilgrim

Written by William Hinds, one ofthe Caribbean re-

Christchurch

gion's leading experts in the field of renewable ener-

Barbados

gies, this sma11 booklet is addressed to the young-

E-mail: caribbeanret@hotmail.com

est public with the airn to introduce children to the world of renewable energies through every day analogies, experiments and interesting stories.

62

International

Journal

of Island Affairs

ISBN: 976-8079-23-1

__ o


••Our miss ion is to take tion

anywhere

manage Thierry

rapid

ac-

In the world

to

emergency Vandevelde,

Emergency water management

situations" Head of

Water Force, Vivendi

Water.

W.c is to essential

hu-

by

BRUCE DURHAM*

ter (part ofVivendi Environnement)

to

man life and human health, especially

set up an emergency team to provide

in the context of crisis or poverty. Se-

help and assistance to the victims.

curing water supply, in any circumstances, is therefore a core issue for all water services professionals.

This is

and government

community of Islands due to the im-

terial and with know-how on water-re-

pact of climate change combined with

lated issues. After these first experiences,

and community

health

training (India, Chad, Lebanon ...) • advise

on water

strategy

issues

(Kosovo, Albania ... )

emer-

gency aid forces) both with adequatema-

and development

(Nicaragua, Albania ... )

The team 's objective is to provide sup-

highly relevant to the international

the geology of many islands.

• reconstruction • technical

port on the ground (NGOs, intemational organisations

SALL **, LAURE SIMON**

, JEAN-Luc

Vivendi Water fonned a pennanent spe-

As the World leader in water produc-

cial operations group, the Water Force,

tion and distribution, Vivendi Water has

made up of voluntary members from all

been continually developing innovative

Vivendi Environnement business W1Íts.

solutions in order to manage water avail-

Since its creation, Water Force has

ability problems. These solutions are part

sent some 40 volunteers each year (a11

of the standard offer for Vivendi Water's

Vivendi Water specialists) into the field

clients but there is also a responsiblity to

for a total of more than 1,000 days on

provide services to anyone in time of cri-

site. This is in addition to the emer-

sis especially in developing countries.

gency work completed

The process solutions rely on the expertise of our staff and our business and

around

the

World by the local business centres. In emergency situations they have

Op aforce

-1 emergency

mobile

planto Includes sand filter 80 m 3 day. Dtmenstons:

treatment

and dismfecuon. 1, -o lO 1,-15 m.

Wetght: 250 kg without the filtertng cleyet.merletiñopalium.com

Water'

sand.

Force

Potabilisation

units

Vivendi Water Force Standard Compact

technology centres that form Vivendi

helped repair water distribution

sys-

Potabilisation units (SCP) c1arify and

Water. These include Generale des Eaux,

tems and supply disaster victirns with

disinfect any surface or ground water

Vivendi Water Systems with OTV,

drinking water, thereby avoiding the

to achieve intemational drinking water

Opalium and Bekox, membrane special-

possibility of epidemics.

quality standards.

ists such as Memcor and the USFilter

The Water Force has been develop-

AIthough the technology is well es-

group. Together they provide the expe-

ing a strong partnership with several

tablished, engineering skills were necessary to develop «Water Force cus-

rience and process solutions ranging

institutions

from mobile systems to water recycling,

tions such as European Union, UNO,

tomised» equipment which can :

from seawater desalination to distribu-

UNHCR, the Red Cross, the French

• fit easily in a plane, a truck or pick-up,

tion system rehabilitation.

ministries ofForeign Affairs, Defense

in order to reach any place in the World:

technology is not the problem. The key

and Interior, NGOs like Care, Action

• operate under almost any local con-

is having the experience to select the

contre la Faim, Secours Catholique,

ditions with supervision by unskilled

Caritas, Premiere Urgence, Médecins du

operators.

Monde, Enfants du Monde, etc ....

In order to ea se their installation,

most appropriate

However,

solution combined

with the availablity ofthe best people. Here are some examples of Vivendi Water experiences and tools for emergency water management.

and non-profit organisa-

These partners

work with Water

Force in the field or contribute to its funding (Water Force's budget in 2000 was 3 million euros, half supplied by

The Water

Force:

a Team with

a Mission

The two major natural disasters in 1998 -

Hurricane Mitch in Nicaragua and

the Yangtze riverfloods in China moti-. vated Générale des Eaux / Vivendi Wa-

SCP s arrive in a single container or in parts for local assembly. * Vivendi 4BG

Water, Wirksworth,

Vivendi Water/Générale des Eaux, half

1629825169

supplied by the institutional partners).

email:

Co-operation can cover several different phases: • emergency (China, Central America, Balkans, Turkey, India ... )

**

DE4

Fax.+44

bruce.durham@vivendiwater.com

Vivendi

Marcel

Derbyshire

UK. Tel. +441629821167

Water Generale Sembat,

44925

France. Tel. +33251

des Eaux, 3 rue Nantes

Cedex

8461 03

email: jean-Iuc.salle@generale-<les-€aux.net. laure.simon@generale-des-eaux.net

9,


Gujarat Province, India 2001. After the earthquake, mobile plants, storage tanks and drinkmg water [ountatns

tnstalled

by Waler Force and

the Red Cross allowed evel)' inhabitant easy access lo safe drtnking water.

Suspended

solids settling,

for in-

stance. can be done either by a settling skid integrated to the SCP or by a mo-

Hubet Provtnce, China, 1988. After the terrible floods

of

Reverse

the

bile settling tank kit. Filters and di sin-

Yangt:e rtver dis-

fection units can travel separately but

rupted the water

once on the ground, are easily con-

supply syst em, f 'rvendt Haler donated and installed

nected together in a few hours.

btle water treatment

111'0

Osmosis skid

mo-

units (600 m' day each).

lfthe water network is damaged, mobile storage tanks. water fountains or

Mobile

individual microfiltration

media

devices can

clarification filtration

and

units

Contamer

also be used to provide the population

An appropriate choice ofthe filtering me-

with easy access to safe drinking water.

dia (activated carbon テュor instance) allow

pre-commtssiontng

these units to deal with specific contarniPotable from

water

production

nants in the resources (e.g. pesticides).

floodwater

The Mississippi floods in De Moines, Iowa (1993) flooded the dri nking water

Transportatton

and rapid operation

plants serving 250,000 people. Temporal)' automauc membrane systems wcre supplied by Memcor to the Army Corp of Engineers to treat the floodwater to provide potable water for the hospitals. The 0.2 micron hollow fibre 111e111brane system removes all suspended solids to produce a clarified water with turbidity of <0.02 NTU. The bacteria and protozoa are removed to an effi-

Mobile

ciency of log 6 and viruses to log 2

water

followed by disinfection with chlorine to protect the quality during storage,

desalination plants Reverse osmosis technology is highly

transportation

C0111pactand convenient for emergen-

and distribution.

Similar experience was gained in Eu-

potable production

cies but as with most treatment sys-

rope during the 2001 floods using the

tems it also needs electrical

power.

latest subrnerged microfiltration systems

They are used for municipal problems

(CMF-S) from Memcor. The CMF-S sys-

(drought conditions, permanent lack of

tem above was treating テュloodwater to

drinking water resources, seasonal in-

protect a reverse osmosis plant provid-

crease of water consumption. e.g. due

ing boiler feed water for a large power

to tourism ... ) and industrial problems

station. CMF -S has smaller foot print and

(stoppage

lower operating costs than CMF.

plants, ternporary need ofhigher water

or maintenance

CMF mtcrofiltration

skids

of rnain

This PreMPT TM CMF-S arrives as

quality, seasonal increases ofwater pro-

a 12111long ISO container and will pro-

duction, ... ). Mobテ考e compact plants

Submerged

mtcrofiltration

CMF-S

treaung floodwater pre RO

can treat 50 to 500 m' lday and are avail-

duce between 3000 & 7,500m Iday

able with their own generators. Smaller

of potable water depending

units can be installed on a truck. Feed

upon the quality and tempcra-

water salinity can be up to

ture of the feed water. PreMPT

47,000

TM is also being used for re-

have been used from Canary

3

verse osmosis pretreatment.

International

Journal

of lsland

mg/l.

These units

Islands to the Red Sea . . ; t-

64

Memcor

,...Udll'


IKARIA Conference MEDIS IHITIATIVE "European and National

Policies

during the New Programming Period 2000-2006

for European Islands"

Information Society and Suslainable Development European Conference Outermost regions, Insular regions: A contribution to the economic, social and territorial cohesion of the European Union

Conference held on 1-3 November, 2001 on the island of Ikaria The Local Development Company of the

lt has been a while since the European

tional bodies and organisations,

Union launched the first supportive ac-

search and development centres, uni-

re-

tions for the Information Society, in par-

versities, companies from the informa-

gram MEDIS (Models for European Digital Is-

ticular with regulation and promotion

tion and telecommunications

lands) organized a Conference entitled "Euro-

activities, and with the specific research

operators, scrvice providers, etc. A se-

pean and National Policies during the New Pro-

and development action lines included

ries ofEuropean projects for R+D, dem-

Greek Ikaria Province and the European Pro-

gramming Period 2000-2006 for European Islands", from November 1" to 3,d, 2001. The organization took place with the active support of the Ministry of the Aegean, the Re-

sector,

in the different framework programmes.

onstration and complementary

In particular it can be underlined the

ures was selected prior the Conference

lauuching of the eEurope Initiative "an

and invited to participate.

meas-

infonnation society for all" in December

The meeting was an opportunity to

and the local authorities of the Ikaria Island.

1999 and the adoption of its Action Plan

projecl delega les' expectations regard-

During the Conference, National and European

by the European Council in Feira on 19-

ing the development ofthe infonnation

gion of North Aegean, the Prefecture of Samos

policies were set out for thematic areas such as Land-Planning Design (as a tool for maturing actions and projects for the 3,d CSF), Mild

20 Juue 2000. This political initiative pre-

society on a full European base and

tended to ensure that the European Un-

took place in a decisive and important

ion fully benefits frorn the changes the

moment from the point of view ofthe

tourism, alternative forms of energy, environ-

Infonnation Society is bringing, and to

application of structural funds and research policy.

Forms of Development (alternative forms of

ment, therapeutic spas), Information Society,

accelerate positive change in the Union

Regional Operational Programs (R.O.Ps.),Role

and that this change towards the Infor-

Aims ofthe Conference were to con-

of Development Companies.

mation Society is cohesive, not divisive.

tribute lo allowing that those regions.

Within this frarnework, and based on

their institutions. R&D centres. enter-

Particularemphasis was given in the development of Information Society (IS) in the insular

the Conclusions of the Lyon Conference

prises and citizens play an important role

case study of the European Program MEDIS

"Information Society 2000-2006, a new

in the sixth frarnework programme of re-

coordinated by INSULA.

opportunity", December 200Q, as well as

scarch and development, and take an

those of the Sevcnth Conference

active part in the European Research

regions of Europe, by presenting Ikaria as a

The National and European policies for the development of IS were discussed and experiences concerning applications and services of

of

Presidents of outermost regions, held

Area, to identify means in order that

in Lanzarote on September 25th, 2001,

these regions can benefit from the inno-

the Government of the Canary Islands,

vation, research and development po-

health, business, innovation, regional devel-

jointlywithINSULA, UNESCO, CRPM,

tential of the European Union. and in-

opment etc. of other insular regions of Greece

ELANET, CEMR and ERISA with the

corporate them in the Mid Tenn Review

and Europe were presented.

support of the Spanish Presidency and

oftheir Operative Programmes, to facili-

the collaboration ofthe European Com-

tate the inlerchange

mission. organised a Conference on "In-

transfer of infonnation. knowledge, ex-

fonnation Society and Regional Sustain-

periences aJld resources. in particular

Information and Communication Technologies in sectors such as administration, education,

In the framework ofthe Conference, the most important deliverables ofthe European project TERRALORE,which is a program of land planning design and regional development imple-

and permanent

mented under the coordination of the Ikaria

able Development" that was held in Ten-

regarding the development ofthe "UIU-

Province, were also presented. The design of

erife on 11-12 Apri12002.

versal Service", to identify, analyse and

local development included proposals for the creation of Local Observatories and Inter-municipal Networks against the isolation and the depopulation, and innovative studies based upon the local potential and perspective.

The conference was ofspecial inter-

promote models of co-operation

and

of island regions

sustainable development in our regions

or of regions that have archipelagos or

and in neighbour countries ofthe corre-

islands, being them currently within the

sponding geographical regions and to

est to governments

Further, the peculiarity of the Aegean islands

European Union or in possible future

foster the role of existing networks and

was identified, with respect to other insular re-

member states, as well as to the gov-

associations and to promote the devel-

gions of Europe and the adjustment of the

ernments of outermost regions. Partici-

opment of new specific collaboration

policies to the local reality was found neces-

pants were representatives ofEuropean

networks between our regions and be-

island's public administrations, interna-

tween them and other European regions.

sary.


Doñana Regenera'ion Proiect

A model lor coaslal wellands recovery Aerial

image

of the Doñana marshes.

W!h

deployment of technical and human re-

and creating a methodology of organic

50,000 ha, Doñana is one of the most

sources, the muds could be removed

and experimental intervention in agree-

emblematic

avoiding an ecological catastrophe with

ment with the natural features of a space

unforeseeable consequences.

in constant change.

an area of more than

world coastal wetlands.

Doñana National Park, besides being a Ramsar site and a Special Protection

What at the beginning appeared to

Among the actions of this first phase

Area for birds, was declared a Biosphere

be one more regrettable accident due to

which can be considered as innovator

Reserve in 1980 and inscribed on the

lack ofplanning and foresight in natural

ones, we find the reconversion to marsh

World Heritage List in 1994. The Bio-

areas management tumed to be the start

of more than 4,000 hectares of cultivated

sphere Reserve includes a buffer zone

of one of the most important wetland

ofmore 26,000 ha, summing a total of

regeneration initiatives ever carried out

lands, the penneability systems test, the digitalised modelling ofthe marsh and its

77,260 hectares.

in the whole planet. In reply to this situ-

water system through laser cartography,

ation, the big water regeneration pro-

the creation of experimenting plots for

Doñana belongs to the small group of

coastal wetlands within the three cat- . gramme named "Doñana 2005" was

ecosystems restoring and recovering,

egories, together with San San-Pond Sak

integrated actions to reduce sediment

(Panama), Palawan (philippines), Dan-

istry ofEnvironment, whose immediate

inputs due to envirorunent alteration and

ube Delta (Romania-Ukraine),

environmental actions were funded with

even the introduction of advanced sys-

some 100 mili ion ,US$. It is a project

tems of tertiary cleansing to guarantee

Ichkeul

(Tunisia) and Everglades (USA).

whose objectives are a lot more arnbi-

the highest quality of water inputs. A lo-

ence for natural areas conservation as,

tious than providing the mere solution

cal reserve ofAphanius baeticus, an en-

during its extensive experience had to

ofthe problemscaused by the accident.

demic species recently found in this area was also set, fed by cleansed water.

Doñana has been an European refer-

face big management

challenges and

It is also complemented by another im-

provide with teclmical and scientific re-

portant action called "the Green corri-

sponses to the several conflicts arisen

dor of Doñana",

by the

in the history of conservation of coastal

due to the complexity of habitat con-

"Junta de Andalucía" that will be car-

wetlands where, learning from the mis-

servation

ried out within the buffer zone.

mea sures and the human

pressure on environment: underground

i}6

sta.rted, supported by the Spanish Min-

supported

The methodology used to undertake

water extraction, compatibility with cul-

the water

tivated areas such as rice fields, hunt-

wetland is certainly an innovator one. A

regeneration

of this big

ing and areas with a high tourist pres-

Scienti:ficConunittee was created, among

sure in its surroundings.

other mea sures, that will supervise the

But in 1998, Doñana faces one of its

ongoing initiatives and would propose

worst moments due to the breaking of a

new actions. Task of the Conunittee, of

pyrite pond belonging to a mining ex-

which INSULA is a member since its

ploitation, that caused the flooding of

beginning, is al so to propose following

more than 2600 ha with high metal con-

up systems, methods and indicators

tent muds. Although the inuds did not

which are the most suitable in terms of

reach the park itself, this accident caused

time, in order that actions can be modu-

red alert within all administrations and

lated both in time and space, taking into

the whole society. After an impressive

account strictly scientific parameters

International

Journal

of Island Affairs

This is therefore an exceptional case

takes made in the past, environmental and scientific plans of very large extent have been set.

Meeting of the Committee of Experts, chaired by Félix Manuel Pére: Miyares cf the Spanish Ministry of the Environment, natal' of "Doñana 2005".

General Coordi-


un~ Underwater Cultural Heritage in danger The

UNESCO

Underwater November Conference. agreement Heritage,

Convention

Cultural 2001

on

Heritage

by the Plenary

This Convention aimed

at

the

of outstanding

the

was

Protection adopted

Session of the 31

is the first great protection

importance

the

sI

2

General

international

of for

of

on Friday

Underwater

islands.

in recon-

suIt of the different origins of vessels

law made Ú1eadoption of a specific con-

structing life-styles no longer existing

and their cargo. Yet the existing law of

vention oh the protection of the under-

and represent a buried treasure in terms

the sea, principally the United Nation

water cultural heritage vital.

Shipwrecks are invaluable

ofknowledge about life on board, boat

Convention

construction and trade routes. A ship-

(Montego Bay. 1982), does not suffi-

wreck is a time capsule waiting to be

ciently ensure the protection of the un-

unlocked since time stop s when a ves-

derwater cultural heritage. Drafted with

sel founders.

a view to offering general provisions for

At present, there is no international

on the Law of the Sea

\

the law of the sea and to regulating Ú1e

legal instrument which adequately pro-

sca's economic resources, it includes

tects the underwater cultural heritage,

only two provisions (Articles 149 and

which is increasingly

by

303) referring specifically to archaeologi-

pillage and natural damage. This has

cal and historical objects and establish-

On the morntng of J1Ine 7''', 1692, a mas-

led to the irretrievable

ing a sui generis obligation to protect

slve earthquake

threatened

loss of a vast

part of our collective cultural heritage.

them. Furthermore Ú1eheterogeneity of

The underwater cultural heritage is in

content and (geographical) scope of ap-

many cases cultural property with an in-

plication of nationallegislations and un-

ternational dimension. above all as a re-

certainties of international

customary

The Sadana tsland shipwreck provides liS with a glimpse of a lime of change 117the

Red Sea. The Ottoman Emptre,

based 117[he

anctent city of lstanbul,

had controlled

shtp-

pll7g in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean for centurtes, but the presence of Europeans 117search of [he same luxury 1I'ares [rom the Far East created

a volaule

situation,

and

t he Ottoman s with drew [rom the Indian Ocean in the la/e 1""" century. But the product s of China and other ports remat ned highly esteemed by the wealthy upper classes of Egypt and other parts of the Ottoman Empire as shown by customs hall se records.

Submerged

buildings

al Jamaica's

Port

Royal. 11ItJamaica.

The tremors,

which rocked the sandy pemnsula

on whtch

the town \Vas butlt, caused butldtngs disappear beneath the sea. In 1981, the lnstitute of Nautical Archaeology,

117coop-

eratton with the Nauucal Archaeology gram

al Texas A&Af Umversity

Pro-

and the

Jamaica National Heritage Trust, began underwater archaeologtcal mvestigations of the submerged portton of Port Roya/.


INTRODUCTION

TO THE UNESCO

OF THE UNDERWATER The General Conference tions Educational, ganization,

meeting

to 3 November

and Cultural

Or-

water cultural

the importance

heritage

heritage

of under-

as an integral

of humanity element

part of

in the history

peoples,

nations, and their relations with each their common

the importance

derwater

of

heritage,

of protecting

and

Noting growing appreciation

cultural

heritage

Deeply

concerned

mercial exploitation

of legitimate affect it,

Aware

of the availability

of advanced

discovery

responsible derwater

non-intrusive

cultural

public education appreciation Aware heritage

international

organizations,

and of the value of

to contribute

and protection

to awareness, of that heritage,

of the fact that underwater

cultural

by unauthorized

activi-

professional

scientific methods

of 14 November

Convention

Convention

Committed

scientific

institu-

of measures

archaeolo-

parties

and the

for the protection

of

for the Pro-

tional

1972 and the United

on the Law of the Sea of

1982, to improving at international,

the effectiveness regional and na-

levels for the preservation

in situ or, if

necessary for scientific or protective purposes, the careful recovery of underwater

cultural her-

itage,

cultural heritage necessiand application

of special

Having

decided

that this question

at its twenty-ninth should

ject of an international

session

be made the sub-

convention,

and the use of suitable tech-

niques and equipment of professional

Property

itage of 16 November Nations

10 December

that survey, excavation and pro-

tection of underwater tate the availability

and Preventing

Export and Transfer of Own-

of Cultural

States,

cultural heritage,

Considering

law and

the UNESCO Convention

on the Means of Prohibiting

among

organizations,

public at large is essential underwater

access to in situ un-

heritage,

is threatened

of

tech-

of and access

cultural heritage, that cooperation

gists, divers, other interested

benefits

including

the IlIicit Import,

cultural herit-

with international

tection of the World Cultural and Natural Her-

cultural heritage,

Believing

right to enjoy

of underwater

age in conformity

1970, the UNESCO

preservation

and recreational

rules relating to the protection

and preservation

ership

to underwater

of the public's

corn-

cultural her-

or barter of underwater

tions,

Convinced

sively develop

practice,

criteria,

the need to codify and progres-

itage, and in particular by certain activities aimed

information and education to the protection and

the educational

cate a need for uniform governing

at the sale, acquisition

cultural heritage,

of underwater cultural heritage,

activi-

by the increasing

public interest in and public

of research,

appro-

impact on un-

of underwater

nology that enhances

of the importance

negative

(2001)

Realizing

of the need to respond

therefor rests with all States,

of underwater

Convinced

at it, and of the need for stronger

ti es that may incidentally

preserving the underwater cultural heritage and that responsibility

ON THE PROTECTION

HERITAGE

to prevent such activities,

Conscious

and a par-

important

Realizing

measures

priately to the possible

ticularly

other concerning

ti es directed

in Paris from 15 October

2001, at its 31 st session,

Acknow/edging

the cultural

of the United Na-

Scientific

CONVENTION CULTURAL

as well as a high degree

specialization,

all of which indi-

Adopts

this second day of November

2001

this Convention.

Lord Howe lsland.

The shtpwrecks form

part of the island's

underwater

cultural

herttage. The sites retain detailed evrdence of vessel constructton, fit out, trade and cargo, and what life was like aboard ShIP, from the earliest days of the colon)'. They [orm a direct link to the earliest days of the island's

h,StOI)', settlement

and development.

Why

the

urgency?

urgency to adopt an intemational

strument in order to preserve the un-

underwater site has been left unpillaged.

derwater cultural heritage.

Modern

diving

techniques

have

made the seabed accessible to al!. This

There are in total about 20,000 underwa-

has led to extensive looting by treas-

ter archaeological sttes tn China. As on land, some of the underwater cultural her-

ure hunters who often disregard own-

it

ership rights and scientific/archaeologi-

begtnning

cal methods

zng underwater near Huaguang lsland of the Xisha lslands In the South China Sea

of excavation.

They

age

IS

also illegolly

excavated.

At the

of 1999, archaeologists

1I'0rk-

thereby damage the remainder of the

dtscovered

site and deprive the general public of

Dynasty (AD 960-12-9)

ended her voyage on a reef of the Flortda

these treasures. Likewise tourists div-

large area of drtfted antiqutttes.

Keys. In the summer

ing, the fishing industry, pipe-laying and other activities on the sea-bed can harm or destroy the underwater cultural heritage. This increase in theft and destruction results in the irretrievable loss

68

in-

In some parts of the world, virtually no

a historie shtpwreck of the Song together wtth a

The Nuestra

Sparu sh galleons,

Se単ora

of 1622, a fleet

of

includt ng the [amous

del Rosano,

lrere loaded wuh the

tobello, and Havana. Their cargoes contained treasures such as coppet; silver; gold, tob acco, and tndtgo, along with private

a matter not only of necessity but of

government

of Island AJfairs

tragically

wealth ofthe New World at Cartagena, Por-

goods

Journal

de Atocha

Nuestra Se単ora de Atocha and other ships includtng La Santa Margarita and Nuestra

of our common heritage. It is therefore

International

Se単ora

smuggled taxes.

by passengers

to avoid


Under (he waters of (he Angra there itage

IS

do Herotsmo bay an important her-:

of s hi pwreck s of

lndi amans corning from ASIG.

PUIlIC shtp,

sunk In 265 E.e. durtng

lI'ar th at opposed Arqueologtcal

Rome

the

to Carth ago.

Museum - Marsala

(SICIly) .

~-

..•.•... ~Thirty

117

paid to these visionary founders who. at

Years ofMaB tl1

November 200 1 marked the 30 Anniversary ofthe UNESCO-MaB Programme. On 9tl1 November 1971, the first ses-

with the adoption of the Seville Strat-

this early time, understood that conser-

egy and the Statutory Frarnework. The

vation and utilization of naturaJ resources

groundbreaking role in heritage conser-

could not be separated, but that 311inter-

vation 311dsustainable development of

disciplinary approach to science, coupled

the World Network of Biosphere Re-

with an understanding of the Iinks be-

serves has recently been acknowledged

tween people and nature. was the only

by receiving

way to a sustainable future.

the Prince of Asturias

Award for Concord in September 200 l.

MaB has changed extensively in its

The Award cites its outstanding contri-

30 years of existence - and continues so

bution "in opening new horizons of

to do. It is now seen as instrumental in

knowledge and protecting and preserv-

ordinating Council was opened in Paris.

reconciling conservation and resource

ing mankind's heritage".

under the chairmanship of the intema-

use in the field. or, in other words, pro-

sion of the MaB International

Co-

Many countries have been organiz-

tionally renovvned biologist Prof Francois

viding ways and means to implement

ing special activities to celebrate MaB

Bourliere, one ofthe íounding members

the Ecosystem Approach adopted in

on the occasion ofits 30th anniversary,

ofthe Programme. Another ofthe found-

May 2000 by the Convention on Bio-

and thcse celebrations

ing members was Michel Batisse, who

logical Diversity.

early 2002. A key aspect of many cel-

extended into

organized for UNESCO, in cooperation

MaB s most visible asset and opera-

ebrations has been a focus on youth,

with FAO, WHo. WMO and ICSU, the

tional tool in this 21st century is the

showing there is much life left in MaB

Biosphere Conference in 1968, which led

World Network ofBiosphere Reserves,

as we change 311dadapt to the chal-

to the creation ofMaB. Tribute must be

which received a new ímpetus in 1995,

lenges of the decades ahead.

1

A new Biosphere Reserve Nelwork

The project aims at increasing local capabilities for research, training and management of sustainable use of renewable resources, establishing an exchange of information, research results

The IBSICA Project "Integrated

and scientists, particularly with respect

Biodiversity Strategies for Islands and

to preservation and sustainable use of

REDBIOS

Coastal Areas" is trying to implement

biodiversity, and disserninate knowl-

some of the results of the United Na-

edge of comparative research through

REDBIOS, a new network that com-

tions Conference on Environment and

publications or/and net:work databases.

prises Cape Verde, Morocco, Senegal

Development (UNCED) and, particu-

Furthermore,

and the Canal)' Islands (Spain), is ful-

larly the Convention on Biodiversity.

tify how to improve living conditions

filling the interregional mandate ofthe

Within this project. particular attentions

for the inhabitants

IBSICA project in enabling countries

given to those countries having or pl311-

serves in islands and/or coastal zones

the project tries to idenof biosphere

re-

from different world regions to co-op-

ning biosphere

reserves on islands

as a basic requirement for development,

erate and exchange their experience.

and/or coastal zones and to those coun-

while special attention is given to ra-

Project activities are also co-sponsored

tries whose governments have aIready

tional use of biodiversity for the ben-

by Governments,

signed and ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity .:

efit of local populations and the coun-

such as Spain (Ca-

llar}' Islands) and Mexico.

tries concerned.


The Small Island Slales before Ihe Johannesburg World Summil Copy

of the

regional held

Declaration

preparatory

in Singapore

adopted

meeting from

at the

Alliance

for the World

7 to 11 January

of Small

Summit

States

on Sustainable

2002

DECLARATlON OF THE ALLlANCE OF SMALL ISLAND STATES INTER-REGIONAL MEETING FOR THE WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

The Alliance

of Small

Island

States

ary 2002;

and their specific physical cir-

Recognizing that several SIDS have pursued a number of development options inter alia inter-

benefit from global economic development;

national financial services to diversifytheir economies and participate in global trade in services;

Recognizing

that SIDS possess unique hu-

man, natural and cultural wealth and consti-

Reaffirming the objectives and commitments ofthe Rio Declaration on the Environment and Development and Agenda 21, the Bridgetown Declaration and the Barbados Program of Action on Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (BPOA) and the out-

tute a crucial part of world heritage; also that the primary effort in

the implementation ofthe BPOA has been carried out by SIDS themselves; Emphasizing

that issues for action identi-

fied in the BPOA in particular climate change,

Nations General Assembly (UNGA);

oceans, energy, transportation, tourism, natu-

evaluation of Agenda 21, leading to the Johannesburg Summit, is important to the fulfillment of commitments and the implementation of meas-

ral resources and biodiversity, natural and manmade disasters, and land degradation remain priorities for implementation; Concerned

that new and emerging chal-

ures previously agreed by the international com-

lenges notably globalization and trade liberali-

munity at Rio ter mitigating and addressing the

zation, the spread of HIV/AIDS, as well as the

urgent problems of sustainable development;

continued lack offinancial resources and insti-

Recognizing thatthe BPOA represents a concrete express ion of Agenda 21, and that Agenda 21, the BPOA and the outcome of the 22nd Special Session

of the UN GA embody

a

Bearing in mind that the High Levellnternational Conference on Financing for Development is to be held from 12-18 March 2002 at

Recognizing

come ofthe 22nd Special Session ofthe United

Being aware that the process of analysis and

PREPARATORY

cumstances often make it difficult for them to

development,

Having met in Singapore from 7 to 11 Janu-

Inter-

Development

SINGAPORE

(AOSIS),

Monterrey, Mexico, and expecting that its outcomes will positively contribute to the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD); Reaffirming

the importance that SIDS at-

tach to actively participating in the preparatory process leading to the WSSD; Welcoming

the continued

efforts of the

AOSIS to enhance the participation of SIDS in negotiations of multilateral environmental and trade agreements and to promote the sustainable development

of SIDS, including in the

implementation of the BPOA;

tutional and human capacity, access to and

Welcoming also the initiative by the Govern-

use of ICT, and compromise the ability of SIDS

ment of Singapore, in its effort to help increase

to achieve sustainable development;

the capacity of developing countries and SIDS,

Underscoring

that poverty remains a major

in particular, in the field of sustainable development and management of the environment,

number of principies, which provide the inter-

problem affecting the capacity of many SIDS

national community with clear guidelines for

to achieve sustainable development, compro-

the promotion of the sustainable development

mising their ability to provide basic physical

Affirming the importance of partnership with

Developing States (SIDS), and

and social services such as basic education,

the private sector and local communities and

take account oftheir unique characteristics and

health care, nutrition, water and sanitation; and

recognizing that all major groups have a role

sustainable human settlements;

to play in advancing sustainable development

of Smalllsland

circumstances, and their economic, social and environmental vulnerabilities; Noting the commonalities of priority issues for sustainable development particular to SIDS

Reaffirming

the critical importance of inten-

sified existing and new efforts ter capacity build-

by SIDS regions to the WSSD;

to establish an Environment Academy;

Have agreed to: Call ter international support to facilitate the

ing fer SIDS;

in sub-regional and regional submissions made

70

Island

active participation of SIDS in the preparatory Emphasizing

the need for renewed interna-

tional action on the basis of the principie of

process leading to the WSSD and the Summit itself;

Recalling that SIDS are recognized as a spe-

common but differentiated responsibility, as

cial case and deserving of special treatment

stated in the Rio Declaration, and reaffirming

Accelerate national and regional implemen-

because they are ecologically fragile and eco-

the vision that global and regional challenges

tation ofthe BPOA, and to requestthe interna-

nomically vulnerable, they face particular con-

ter sustainable development demand the har-

tional community to provide adequate finan-

straints in their efforts to achieve sustainable

monization of positions among all countries;

cial resources, transfer of appropriate, environ-

International

Journal

of Island Affairs


mentally sound technologies and assistance

trade liberalization, and call on the WTO to

manner, the development of holistic island

for capacity-building for such national and re-

recognize the special situation of SIDS and

system management and ecosystem-based

gional implementation, as agreed in Agenda

ensure that in the elaboration of its Work Pro-

management approaches at the nationallevel,

21 the BPOA and the outcome of the 22nd

gram on Small Economies as a follow-up to

the promotion of an integrated management

Special Session of the UN GA;

the Doha Ministerial Declaration, it takes due

approach through a regional oceans and seas

Call for the establishment and identification

account ofthe difficulties encountered by SIDS,

policy with access to appropriate technology,

ofthe necessary resources for a global capacity

including effective operationalization of spe-

data management systems and related re-

building initiative, learning from the experience

cial and differential treatment, and capacity

search and capacity building;

ofongoing initiatives including Capacity 21 and

building initiatives;

the GEF CDI, by 2003. This initiative should be

Call also for the early operationalization of

Seek to establish a global sustainable energy

the economic and environmental vulnerability

coordinated across the UN system and engage

program, that can ensure that adequate, afford-

indices for the promotion of sustainable de-

national, sub-regional and regional institutions

able and environmentally safe energy is avail-

velopment of SIDS and other vulnerable states,

and mechanisms for delivery and support;

able to promote the sustainable development

and

of SIDS, including the strengthening of the in-

inter-governmental and international agencies,

Support the strengthening and further enhancement of the significant partnership be-

stitutional arrangements within the UN system

tween civil society and the public sector in the

to assist and support SIDS in their efforts to

implementation of Agenda 21 and the BPOA;

achieve sustainable energy development and promote renewableenergyand energyefficiency;

as well as international support for the development of a social vulnerability index to cornplement this work;

Encourage urgent international and domestic action to address climate change and its

Call for the mobilization of new and addi-

consequences through inter alia, the early rati-

tional resources, including foreign direct in-

fication, entry into force and implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, public awareness, rnobilization of resources for adaptation, prornotion of renewable energy and energy efficiency measures and capacity building; Reiterate the call on the international cornmunity to support and strengthen existing and

vestment, official development assistance and debt relief, as well as innovative mechanisms for the financing of development in SIDS; Call also for special financial mechanisms or instruments to enable SIDS to enhance their national capacity to develop or exploit their resources in a sustainable manner;

new capacity building efforts of SIDS in all its

Establish policies and frameworks to foster

aspects, and strengthen co-operation among

innovative partnerships for micro, small and

SIDS particularly in the area of technical co-

medium enterprises, including specially ear-

operation for sustainable development by sup-

marked revolving financial mechanisms and

the use of these ind ices at the levels of

Call further on the international community to provide technical and financial assistance to enhance the ICT infrastructure of SIDS, and to further develop SIDSNet and other regional initiatives and networks; Request that the preparatory process recommend that the WSSD reaffirms the necessity of implementing fully the BPOA as a matter of urgency; Request also that the preparatory process recommend that the WSSD adopt a decision for a cornprehensive review conference on the BPOA in the year 2004 (Barbados + 1O);

porting SIDS initiatives, as exemplified by Sin-

supportive human resource development ini-

Agree to establish an open-ended consulta-

gapore's initiative in setting up an Environment

tiativesto revitalizerural productive capacity,and

tive contact group of AOSIS to further formu-

Academy to further SIDS inter-regional collabo-

to enhancethe competitivenessofthe ruralsector

late the set of priority issues and initiatives on

ration on environmental training;

and stimulate employment opportunities;

the basis of the work begun during the AOSIS

Urge the international community to put in

Call for the establishment or strengthening

place appropriate mechanisms to supportSIDS

of policy and programs to manage the ocean

in their efforts to adjust to globalization and

resources and jurisdictions in a sustainable

Inter-regional Preparatory Meeting; Submit this Declaration to the preparatory process for its full consideration.

Towarclsthe Johannesllurg Worlcl Summit on Sustainallle Development: Renewallle Energy, Development at Last The Italian Ministry of the Environment

INSULA, represented by C. Marin (Vice Sec-

and the UNEP (United Nations Environ-

retary-general),

ment Programme), relying on the sup-

within this Forum, as it had been considered

brought

the insular

view

port of the G8 Renewable Energy Task

that the singular aspects of insularity should

Force, organised a meeting in Rome, in

be contained

January 2002. Participants ofthe meet-

present in Johannesburg.

ing were experts and representatives of

Among the subjects discussed, the RES pro-

in the view and strategy

to

developed countries and main develop-

motion model experimented within the various

ing countries of Asia, Africa and Latin

actions supported by INSULA, the experiences

America, as well as the main interna-

of the European Island OPET Network and the

tional financial institutions, big compa-

EuroCaribbean Forum as well as the whole is-

nies of the intemational

energy sector

and environmental organisations.

land experience of the organisation were used as proposal references for other regions.


The publication includes some thirty papers

about

this subject,

among

which, emphasising the islands' view, are the contributions ofPier Giovanni d'Ayala and Cipriano

Marín of IN-

SULA, as well as the cases of Hawaii, Seychelles and Rapa Nui. Edited by F. di Castri and V. Balaji Backhuys Publishers, l.eiden, The Nederlands, 2002, 504 pp. ISBN 90-5782-107-9

Why and how to plan the future of islands' Information Society Planning Concise Guidelines

Biosphere reserves:. Special places for people and nature This publication presents an overview of the biosphere reserve concept and

The MEDlS Models for European

Tourism, Biodiversity and Information This

publication

stems

from

pared in 2000-2001 by the UNESCO-

tive to create a Planning Manual to pro-

MAB Secretariat. as part of activities

vide help to those who are responsible

to mark the thirtieth anniversary of the

Ior, and involved in. the development

launching ofMAB

of a regional information society strat-

The publication brings together a faír

egy and action plan. The intention has

amount of hitherto dispersed informa-

been to provide, as simply and c1early

tion, and includes indications oí where

as possible, a step-by-step guide in the

to find out more. It is designed essen-

form of tips, tools and templates to be

tially for 'diagonal reading and dipping

used as a supplement to earlier guides.

into'. Although it is wide ranging, with a

fue support of fue TOTAL Foundation

largish bibliography, it c1early does not

to develop islands integration models

pretend to be comprehensive.

and planningsystems

vides insights, not a balance sheet. It

in the Informa-

tion Society.

It pro-

concentrates on relatively recent activi-

"Entretiens de Port-Cros" on Biodiversity and Tourism, held in September 2000 with

It has been pre-

Digital Islands project had the objec-

The guidelines are an important help

the

its implementation.

Edited by INsulA

with the support of Eu-

ropean Commission.

ties and publications but also includes an overview ofthe origins and development of fue biosphere reserve concept.

and fue SCOPE. Published by UNESCO - February 2002.

The book makes an attempt to analyse and put into perspective fue adaptation of tourism to the new conditions

http://www.unesco.org/mab/publications/ Whyand How lo Planthe Islands' InformationSociely

publications.htm

characterising the post-industrial transition, a transition marked by fue most widespread upsurge of globalisation in fue history of mankind and by the rapid

Planning Concise Guidelines

In March 200 1,fue Cuban MAB National

emergence of the information society. The "new generation" oftourism repre-

Commi ttee and fue Ministry of Science,

sents the human activity that is both

Technology and Environment published

most germane and most affected by the

a 53-page booklet on Cuban Biosphere

current and impendi ng processes of this transition, including the extreme mobility, rapidity and unpredictability

International

of

lB

Reserves (Reservas de la Biosfera de Cuba). Written and compiled by Maria Herrera (Chair of the MAB National Committee), the booklet provides an

change.

72

Cuban Biosphere Reserves

Journal

of Island Affairs


overview of the historical development

working on corrunon topics. The first

ofthe national network ofbiosphere re-

attempt to put up a progranune dates

serves and a sununary ofthe main char-

from 1997, when several people previ-

acteristics of each ofthe six existing bio-

ously had met at an Insula-UNESCO

sphere reserves in Cuba: Sierra del

conference in Paris. The initiative of

Rosario (designated as a biosphere re-

ALAS was taken by the Department of

serve

in

1985),

Peninsula

de

Guanahacabibes (1987), Baconao (1987), Cuchillas

del Toa (1987) Buenavista

(2000), Cienaga de Zapata (2000). For

Geography

of the University

tures, habitat types. human activities

THE SOUTH

of the

Aegean. This initiative is financed by the European Corrunission within the ECOS-Ouverture programme.

~

Al! Aboul S"II

Ne-csletler

and impacts, natural resources, histori-

.•

NOfes(romthttdltor

---.» _--... .... _ ...._c..::::: --~ ..•. c- __

cal and cultural values, scientific re-

(~

search and monitoring, and administra-

•..

García Márquez talked about 100 years of solitude. "Discover the South" talks

•.......•.•

~_""

of an even older solitude, trying to ex-

' , T_"'-.

press what an island hosts within its real

"

tive structures.

Discover the South Guide to the South West of Tenerife

each reserve, information is provided on principal biophysical and ecological fea-

DISCOVER

coreo Island's strength, sculptured in the fire ofbasalt and in the silence of a gaze at the sea. wraps up deeper histories almost impossible to face. Traces of the past ín the islands' present are scars difficult to hide, are the hopeful marks of

~f

their own identity. "Discover the South"

".:"...1

is not only an innovator tourist guide

~

made by islanders, is also a proposal for a pact. to show the tourist a more sensi-

Edited by Herrera, M. 2001. Reservas de la

ble way to appreciate the world of islands.

Biosfera de Cuba. Comité Nacional MAB de Cuba, La Habana, 53 pp.

Published by:

C/o UNESCO·Havana Office, Calzada 551

AENAL

entre C y D Vedado, Plaza Ciudad, La

Kontourioti 1, GR-811 00 MYTILENE, Grece

Published by Planet Ediciones, Tenerife,

Habana, Cuba. Fax: (537) 3331 44.

Edited by Hjalmar Dahm

2002,184 pp.

E-mail: uhlha@unesco.org

hdahm@geo.aegean.gr

Edited by Florentín Duque

ISBN 84-923966-7-9 \

ALAS Newsletter

Biosphere ReSeNeS

AII about salt The ALAS project (AlI About Salt) is an interregional co-operation between four European sites that produce salt from the sea. The main goal is related to the preservation

and the develop-

ment of these often traditionally run salinas, their natural and cultural herit-

Asia-Pacific Mangroves Okinawa Workshop Proceedings

six sections: monitoring

keynote presentations, and research, socio-eco-

nomic studies, traditional knowledge, sustainable use and management, and case studies.

age. their economy and social struc-

In March 2000, a workshop on Asia-

ture. Salt museums and tourism are also

Pacific Co-operation on Research for

factors that the project deals with and

the Conservation

was

United Nations University. 2000. Asia-Pacific

several publications will be an impor-

held in Okinawa (Japan), organized by

Cooperation on Research for Conservation

tant outcome, useful also for other simi-

the United Nations University (UNU),

of Mangroves.

lar sites.

UNESCO-MAB and the International

ALAS was initiated as an attempt to

of Mangroves

Society for Mangrove

Ecosystems

Edited by:

Proceedings of an International Workshop. Okinawa, Japan. 26-30 March 2000. United Nations University, Tokyo. 313 pp.

bring some ofthe sites with traditional

(ISME). The proceedings volume con-

E-mail: mbox@hq.unu.edu

salt production together and to start

tains t:wenty contributions, grouped in

Web: http://www.unu.edu/env.


WISE PRACTICES lor conllict prevention and resolution in small islands

and encourage offerings from various

Results of a workshop on 'Furfhering Coastal Stewardship in Small Islands' held in Dominica, 4_6th July 2001

social science. In this role. Annals both

disciplines: to serve as a forum through which these may interact; and thus to expand frontiers of knowledge in and contribute to the literature on tourism structures and is structured by Ú1eresearch efforts of a multidisciplinary community of scholars. The Journal's audience include Tourism Researchers in Anthropology, Eco-

Small islands. pinpoints of land in a

nomics, Geography, History, Manage-

seemingly endless expanse of water.

ment Science. Politics. Psychology.

have been making theirs a 'special case'

Regional Planning and Sociology.

in a world increasingly dominated by Editor-in-Chief:

continental countries. Their plight has

Jafar Jafari

been described and discussed at global meetings such as the 'Earth SlU11mit' in Río de Janeiro in 1992, and at the 'Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Develop-

Department

Annals 01 Tourism Research A Social Sciences Journal

ing States' in Barbados in 1994. However, besides obtaining worldwide understanding

"Annals of Tourism Research" is the

University Menomonie

of Hospitality

WI 54751, USA.

Tel: (715) 232-2339 Fax: (715) 232-3200 Email: jafari@uwstout.edu

Elsevier Science

Ud. Pergamon

of their situation,

world's leading tourism academic jour-

and at the same time seeking extemal

. nal. While striving for a balance of theory

assistance to implement programmes of

and application, Annals is ultimately

Tel: 44-1865-843000

action for sustainable

dedicated

'Fax: 44-1865-843010

developrnent,

such as the one agreed to in Barbados

to developing

theoretical

constructs. Its strategies are to invite

and Tourism

of Wisconsin-Stout,

PO. Box 800 Kidlington, Oxford

OX51 DX, England.

http://www.elsevier.com/

in 1994, small islands also need to look inward and to their island neighbours to see what they can do on thcir own and together with the resources at hand. Recognizing the valuc of hwnan resources in small islands, and especially the inherent self-reliance of islanders, UNESCO's interdisciplinary platfonn for

4e salon

international .....-•.. du livre insulaire Ile d'Ouessant

. Bretagne

'Environment and Development in Coastal Regions and in Small Islands' (CSI) has

4th Insular Book Show (Salon du Livre Insulaire)

year will include Balearic Islands, Cor-

cilic initiatives have been launched and

As every year since 1999, the ·Hh Insu-

Fire. Mayotte and Reuníon. New Cal-

supported in varying fields, including lo-

lar Book Show (Ouessant, August 22-

edonia, Tahiti and Vanuatu. Iceland and

cal and indigenous fishers' knowledge,

25, 2002) \ViIIopen with the results of

Ireland, and Glénan, Groix and Ouessant

conservation ofbeach, coral-reef and man-

the Insular Book Award. Sixty-six books

in mainland France. Editors are from

grove resources, disaster preparedness,

have been submitted this year to the

Paris, Noumea, Ajaccio, Roscoff or

ccotourism, to name but a few.

cvaluation of the jury chaired by the pi-

Mamoudzou,

anist Anne Queffélec, daughter of the

debutants or well-known, are from the

novelist passed away two years ago.

four corners ofthe world.

sought to work with small islands on their paÚ1Sto sustainability. Capacity building is at the forefront of these efforts, as spe-

Edited Islands

by: Coastal

Regions

(CSI) platform,

, Miollis, 75732 Paris Cedex Fax: +331 E-mail: website:

74

and Small

UNESCO,

1 rue

15, France.

csi@unesco.org http://www.unesco.org/csi

InternationaI

JournaI

of Island Affairs

Ja-

maica, Martinique, Trinidad. Land of

and

authors.

These works. novels or theatre plays, Contact

poetry collcctions, cssays and testimo-

45685808

sica, Sardinia, Sicily and the Veluce lagoon, Cuba, Haiti, Guadeloupe.

Tel: + 33 (02) 98903332

nies, scientific documents, art books -

Fax:

invite to a long trip, whose stops this

E-mail:

+ 33 (02) 98 90 03 48 salon-du-livre-insulaire@Wanadoo.fr

both


Inlernational Conference

Renewable energy sources for islands, tourism and water desalination Crete, Greece 26-28 May 2003 RES and

islands

RES and

For islands the relationship energy and sustainable

between

Renewable energy sources can have a

development

very positive influence on the tourist

has been recognised for a number of

sector, not only in securing an unspoilt

economic sectors, in particular trans-

environment in holiday destinations but

portation, tourism and rural develop-

also because they are capable offacing

ment. Many islands have to face the

problems caused by e.g. seasonal tour-

following preconditions: Desalmatton

Plant powered

on Syros island

ism (increased energy demand during

by a wind farm

(Greece)

peak-holiday times which can be satis-

EREC, the European Renewable Energy

• Islands have a very rich RES potential most of which is not exploited yet.

COlU1Cil, which regroups the leading Eu-

• Most islands are extrernely depend-

ropean RES industry and research associations, is organizing a special topic conference on "RES for islands, tourism and water desalination" in Crete, between 26 and 28 May 2003.

tourism

ent on outside energy. • Elect.ricity generating glOI1S.

In a survey done among European tourists an unspoilt envirornnent was considered as an important selection

costs can be

,

ten times higher than in other re.

fied with renewable energy sources).

criterion for a holiday destination. Both the White Paper and the Council Resolution on renewable sources of energy stress that building up connections to

Renewable energy sources are capa-

• The environmental impact of conventional sources and technologies are

ble of solving many problems related to

greater than on the ma.inland because

environment protection, security of en-

of the fragile and vulnerable nature

of RES. The sectors of renewable en-

ergy supply and economic development.

of island territories.

ergy sources and tourism seem to be

In addition to the benefits they offer in

other sectors and policy areas is CfUcial for an increased market penetration

very promising for such a connection.

general they are an especially suitable

• New economic specialisation of islands, such as in tourism, creates an

option for diJferent geographical and

additional energy demand, which is

Desalination

econom.ic sectors, such as islands and

not constant all over the year.

The provision offresh water is becom-

On the other hand, islands very of-

In many areas, desalination could be a

the tourism sector. Furthermore, their technological characteristics in diJferent

with

RES

ing increasingly important worldwide.

fields of application, e.g. desalination,

ten have an abundant potential of re-

means for increasing fresh water sup-

need to be taken into consideration. Th.is

newable energy sources (solar, wind,

ply. However, it is an energy intensive

conference will focus on providing so-

small-hydro and wave energy), which

process for which renewable energy

lutions for RES integration in inlands, . presents a valid option to foster their

sources provide a valid and economi-

tourism and desalination. The conference is organised by Eu-

economic development. Nevertheless, there is still a big lack of awareness

cally interesting option. Previous conferences on this subject

ropean Renewable Energy Council in

about the possibilities

renewable en-

such as the "Mediterranean Conference

co-operation with INSULA and the 'Institut Catalá d'Energia.

ergy sources offer for the economic de-

on Renewable Energy Sources for Wa-

velopment of islands.

ter Production",

held in Santorini in


June 1996 as wel! as the conference

nities in islands.

• Binomial Water-Energy. Identificaand

tion ofappropriate technologies, bar-

Desalination and Renewable Energies",

exchange experience on successful

riers for RES - Desalination applica-

held in Santorini in June 2000, clearly

application ofthese technologies for

tions in small and medium-sized is-

"Policies

and

Strategies

for

• Identify suitable technologies

demonstrated the huge potential for re-

islands and in the tourism sector

newable energy technologies for fight-

• Promote intemational co-operation in

• Disseminate information on specific

lands.

ing water deficits, in particular RES

favour of developi ng renewable ener-

policies, experiences and market op-

driven water desalination technologies,

gies on islands and the tourism sector.

portunities for desalination systems

Nevertheless. there is still a big infor-

• Indicate legal frameworks and regu-

mation need on this subject to ensure

latory solutions that facilitate the in-

the dissemination

of achieved experi-

ence, policy practices and economics of installations.

tegration ofRES. • Promote effective alliances and market strategies. • Identify

Conferenee

objeetives:

necessary

awareness

ac-

tions that help to consolidate

the

• inform on the options RES represent

essential role of renewable energies

for solving problems ofislands by, e.g.

in energy supply, quality of life and

by promoting successful examples of

the environmental protection.

powered by renewable energies. • Encourage the development of a sustainable method of producing potable water using RES. Conteet: European

100% RES supply of islands, thereby • Identify feasible 100% RES opportu-

• Training and education in renewable energy in islands and the desalination sector.

Energy

Energy Council-

EREC

House

26, rue du Tr6ne B-1000

stimulating other islands to take action

Renewable

Renewable

Brussels,

Belgium

Tel.:

+

3225461933

Fax:

+

322546

1934

E-mail: erec@erec-renewables.org www.erec-renewables.org

V Inlernalional con'erence On Technologies for the Rational Use of Energy and Renewable Energy Havana, This fifth issue ofTECNOURE is aimed

ing energy consumption

and green-

to create the known frarnework for ex-

house gas emissions. in practically all

changing knowledge and experiences

sectors ofproduction

11-15,

2002

able energy applications in industries and service sectors.

and services, has

2. Rational use of energy and renewable

in a businesslike climate not only on

turned to be techrlical areas in which

energy applications in tourism and

the field of the RATIONAL USE OF

greater advances have been achieved

building sectors. Bioclimatic solutions.

ENERGY (RUE) but on RENEWABLE

in the last years.

ENERGY as well. The Conference will

3. Experiences on Energy Service Com-

The achievement ofRUE as well as an

be attended by technicians and execu-

EFFICIENTUSE OF RENEWABLE EN-

tives related to energy efficiency and

ERGY is a complex problem, in which

pany activ:ities and Country Energy Programmes. 4. Business opportunities

in Cuba in

renewable energy management of the

not only technological but also organi-

the field of the rational use of energy

principal

zationaL technical. economical, social

and renewable energy.

national and international

companies, project companies, repre-

and financial aspects intervene. These

sentative energy service companies,

factors are frarned in a specific energy

scientific academic sectors and execu-

policy, whose solution depends on con-

tives of relevant ministries.

ditions ofthe economic and technologi-

The evolution of the economy and the environmental concem in the cur-

cal development of each country. After

the

launching

of

5. Renewable energy for powering centralized and isolated systems. Conteet: Dr. Alfredo President

the

Curbelo

Alonso

of the Organizing

rent world have enhanced the recogni-

EuroCaribbean Fonun, this Conference

PO. Box: calle 20 #4112

is an excellent opportunity for Carib-

Playa - 11300 Havana,

ERGYand SUSTAINABILITYENERGY

bean Islands to consolidate new per-

Venue:

Comodoro

Telephone:

Hotel

5372027096

spectives for strengthening

tainable development of humani ty.

tion in sustainable energy.

E-Mail: tecnoure@geprop.cu

Subjects of the conference:

Website:

l. Rational use of energy and renew-

tecnoure.htm

equipment and technologies for reduc-

International

Journal

of lsland Affairs

entre 41 y 47,

Cuba.

POLICIES, as those pil!ars for a sus-

coopera-

Committee

GEPROP

tion of the RATIONAL USE OF EN-

For this reason the development of

76

Cuba. November

Fax: 5372029372

http://www.geprop.cu/


~oln ano SUDDorc. InSULa

1':

International Seientifie Couneil for Island Development (INSULA) was formally created in November 1989 as an international non-governmental organisation whose aim is to contribute to shape island awareness and develop islands' common future, supporting necessary co-operation and information actions in the scientific and technological fields. The aims of INSULA are to contribute to the econornic, social and cultural progre ss of islands throughout the world, as to the protection of island environment and the sustainable development of their resources. Within such a context, INSULA cooperates with UNESCO and other international organisations, as well as institutions at the national or regional leve! sharing the same goals and interests. Through its international and multidisciplinary network of experts and researchers, INSULA contributes towards balanced, sustainable development initiatives undertaken by island authorities. Through its initiatives, INSULA seeks to facilitate or favour: • Technical co-operation in all fields relating to sustainable island development with a special interest in island cul-

•Inaula ,

the International Journal of Island Mfairs, is published by the International Scientific Council for Islands Development. The aim of the journal is to create a worldwide forum for all those who consider islands as an important part of mankind's heritage deserving major attention. Contributors can use the Journal to share news and views about the islands of the world from a variety of perspectives, including the following: 1-

Z w

• Envirorunental management

:E

• Natural resources conservation

O

• Water • Liquid and solid waste management

z o:::

> Z w

z

O

• Prevention of natural hazards • Demographic trends • Health

1-

• Human geography, human resources

--1

• Education and training

« ::::> Q.,

O Q.,

Culture • Traditional knowledge

tures and human resources development. • The exchange of information and experience through the publication and diffusion ofperiodicaljoumals,

books and

• General econornics • Tourism and Transports

reports, using the international and multidisciplinary net-

• Agriculture and aquaculture

work represented by INSULA members.

• Fishing and ocean resources

• Inter-island agreements directed towards the defence of

• Bio-technologies

islands' conunon interests in the framework of sustainable

• Industry and mining

development, at level of governments and public adminis-

• Applied communication

trations as well as technical and scientific institutions.

• Renewable energy

For the attainment of its aims, INSULA promotes international co-operation projects, assists islands directly, organises serninars and conferences at national, regional and international levels and promotes a direct dialogue with and between the authorities and the populations of different islands and island groups. It also promotes co-operation and exchange of experience and expertise between islands of a given region as well as at the inter-regionallevel. INSULA's task is to favour the passage from theory to practice, supporting the actions which contribute to a sustainable and fair development of every island of the world.

technologies

• International politics and policies

The journal will publish articles and communications that provide new insights and understanding about the subjects mentioned above and invites authors to subrnit their studies and comments. Guidelines of style can be obtained from the editorial office at the address appearing below. INSULA - The International Ioumal of Island Affairs is distributed free of charge to members ofINSULA

•Inaula,

Join and support For individual and group membership in INSULA, see overleaf.


APPLlCATION

FOR MEMBERSHIP

OF INSULA

1wish lo beeome member ofINSULA, the International Seientifie Couneil for Island Development

,------------------------------------,

I I

Snrname:

First Name:

Institution: Address: Country:

City:

e-mail:

Telephone:

Fax:

Annual membership:

Individual

D

400 Freneh Franes

lnstitution

D

1200 Freneh Franes

Supporting members:

D

2000 Freneh Franes (or more)

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•Inaula, •

e/o MAB - UNESCO: 1, rue Miollis, 75732 Paris eedex 15, Franee. Tel: (331) 45 68 40 56, Fax: (331) 45 68 58 04; email: insula@insula.org

78

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

International

Journal

of Island Affairs


Models for European Digital Islands 5F~BNORKPROG~ME DG-INFSO EUROPEAN COMMISSION

Objectives

• Providing an advanced picture of the state of the art about telecommunications and telematic infrastrudures and services in European islands. • Facilitating the provision of community services and the use of telematics in different sectors and activities such as health, social exclusion, transport and business. • Defining and evaluating new models of telecommunications networks and telematic services for European islands and other isolated or geographically dispersed areas, where teleeducation, tele-training, tele-work and e-commerce will not be the final objective but a set of useful instruments used for the benefit of the local communities and local authorities. • Profiling alternative network telecom infrastrudure and services in the European islands, isolated and less developed areas with potential for use in 15applications. • Helping local authorities to shift public strategies from infrastrudure conditioned to service oriented. .

www.teleinsula.com Teleinsula is more than a portal, a common access point for a networtk of services and applications. Its origin was the Teleinsula project and now it is managed by the MEDISproject. Participants: INSULA (Co-ordinator) SILTANET Ud. - PROODOS S.A - ITER - CIES - ERIS@ - ANCINET UNESCO (Sponsoring partner) - CEMR (Sponsoring partner)


Volcanic Islands  

Dossier INSULA (International Journal of Islands Affairs) Editor: Pier Giuvanni d'Ayala Co-editor: Cipriano Marín

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