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The role of the media and its impact on the judicial system

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Protest War 1960

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Freedom Of Information Act

-> John Moss, Congressman, was the investigator of this act. -> Aim : give Americans the right to access the records of Federal Agencies. -> After the Watergate scandal (1974), the act was amended to force greater agency compliance

John Moss

-> In 1996, the act was emended to be applying on websites.

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2001 : The Patriot Act & first try of control by US government

-> decided after September 11th events & just before the invasion of Iraq. The act was enacted in 2001 for 4 years -> aim : enforces Agencies’ powers (FBI, NSA…) -> total access of information. Georges W. Bush Jr saying « Hello ! »

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WikiLeaks, Snowden & NSA : war of influence -> WikiLeaks : website created in 2006 by Julien Assange. Julien Assange

-> Aim : protect the freedom of expression, and the Truth (Assange’s point of view). -> Revealed a major blunder committed by American Forces in Afghanistan -> Target of lot of pressure organized by many countries in the world -> Edward Snowden -> Former NSA employee who revealed that NSA organized a global surveillance network without any control -> Now in Russia to do not be extract by US Government.

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ACTA (Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement) : end of the free internet

-> Design by USA, negotiate with 40 countries (more important France, Germany, UK, Japan) & ratified between 2006 & 2010

-> The term “Counterfeiting� not concerned only Counterfeiting goods but intellectual property too -> implied a new control of information by governments to apply this text.

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B.Talk shows : the American singularity

1)Daily Show, title The Daily Show with Jon Stewart since 1999 is an American latenight satirical television program. - Broadcasted each Monday through Thursday on Comedy Central. - Half-hour long show, the first one was on July, 1996, and was hosted by Craig Kilborn until December 1998. - Jon Stewart began to present the show in January 1999, making the program more focused on politics & the national media (more focused on the pop culture focus during Craig Kilborn tenure.)

Craig Kilborn

Jon Stewart

- Longest-running program on Comedy Central - A fake news program, The Daily Show draws its comedy and satire from recent news stories, political figures, media organizations, and often, aspects of the show itself. - Typically opens with a long monologue from Jon Stewart relating to recent headlines.

− The final segment is devoted to a celebrity interview. 10


− - TV host Jon Stewart named most influential man of 2010

− - Very popular among young audiences, 80% of regular viewers are between 18 and 49.

− - Do not have any journalistic responsibility and that as comedians their only duty is to provide entertainment. − - A weekly version called The Daily Show : Global Edition on CNN International created for overseas markets and airs on foreign networks.

(warning for international viewers)

− − 2)In 2005, Comedy Central launched a spin-off show, The Colbert Report, starring long-time Daily Show correspondent Stephen Colbert. − - Also an American late-night satirical television program that airs Monday through 11


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− −

Thursday on Comedy Central. - Satirizes conservative personality-driven political specialized programs, particularly Fox News' political talk show The O’Reilly Factor. - Focuses on a fictional character named Stephen Colbert described as a "wellintentioned, poorly informed, high-status idiot", is a caricature of televised political pundits. - Huge cultural impact : The Report received considerable media coverage following its beginning on October 17, 2005, for Colbert's coining of the term "truthiness" : 2006 Word of the Year. In 2006, online poll to name a bridge in Hungary. In 2009, NASA held an online poll to name Node 3 : treadmill the astronauts use for exercise will be named "C.O.L.B.E.R.T." instead.

− Colbert urging his viewers on the March 3, 2009 airing of The Colbert Report to vote for the node to be named after him.

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- Show & politics : The show’s Better Know a District segment : humorous explanation of a different United States Congressional district. 3)Nancy Grace is an American current affairs program hosted by legal commentator Nancy Grace that airs Sunday through Friday nights, mainly deals with current-day true crime cases. Nancy Ann Grace is an American legal commentator & television host, and former prosecutor.

Controversial cases : - Duke lacrosse case - The suicide of interviewee Melinda Duckett - Death of Caylee Anthony. 4)Cops : American documentary/reality legal series that follows police officers, constables, and sheriff's deputies during patrols and other police activities. - One of the longest-running television programs in the United States, the 1st episode was broadcast in 1989. - The show's formula follows the ‘’cinéma vérité’’ convention, with no narration or scripted dialog, depending entirely on the commentary of the officers and on the actions of the people with whom they come into contact. - The show has followed officers in 140 different cities in the United States and in Hong Kong, London, and the former Soviet Union. Each episode : 22 minutes in length, typically 3 segments, with each segment being one or two self-contained police incidents. - In May 2013, Fox cancelled Cops, and Spike picked up the show.

− The 26th season of the series premiered on September 14, 2013. 14


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