Issuu on Google+

                             

Roots  to  Future  Youths:  an  analysis  of  Toei  Animation  and  Leiji   Matsumoto’s  influence  in  the  transmedia  creation  of  Interstella  5555           Patrick  Mannion   May  9,  2013     Professor  Tomiko  Yoda   Alexander  Nikolas  Zahlten     TF:  Hansun  Hsiung                                      


Patrick  Mannion   A&IU  53:  Anime    

   

   

   

   

   

   

   

Hansun  11am  Fri   May  9,  2013  

  Roots  to  Future  Youths:  an  analysis  of  Toei  Animation  and  Leiji  Matsumoto’s  influence  in  the   transmedia  creation  of  Interstella  5555       Most  anime,  animations  and  films  are  produced  based  on  roots  in  a  story,  history,  or   a  particular  individual’s  vision  for  a  visual  narrative.  Not  so  in  the  case  of  Interstella  5555:   The  5tory  of  the  5ecret  5tar  5ystem,  the  2003  anime  produced  by  Toei  Animation  and  Leiji   Matsumoto  as  a  visual  story  to  accompany  the  electronic  music  artists  Daft  Punk’s  album   Discovery,  released  two  years  prior.  Such  collaboration  begs  the  questions  of  the   relationship  of  the  film  to  Toei  Productions,  as  well  as  how  its  creators  used  the  inherent   transmedia  mix  of  album  and  feature  release  to  their  advantage.   As  an  anime  product  largely  created  by  Leiji  Matsumoto’s  vision,  the  film  has  strong   roots  in  his  previous  body  of  work  as  a  manga  artist  and  anime  designer.  Yet   simultaneously,  Interstella  5555  draws  on  elements  of  Toei’s  self-­‐conception  of  a   contemporary  anime-­‐animation  rivalry  with  Disney.  Meanwhile,  the  media  mix  inherent  to   the  dual  release  of  the  soundtrack  followed  by  the  film  as  an  expansion  of  it  allowed  the   collaborators  to  accomplish  their  goal  of  bridging  international  subcultures.   In  Interstella  5555,  a  band  of  blue-­‐skinned  aliens  is  captured  from  their  home  planet   by  the  Earl  of  Darkwood,  a  malevolent  record  executive  who  plans  to  make  them  a   sensation  on  Earth.  After  transforming  their  appearance,  he  subjects  them  to  mind-­‐control   glasses,  and  their  tiring  life  appeasing  his  greedy  desires  begins.  Fortunately,  Shep,  another   alien  from  their  home  planet,  has  pursued  the  group  to  save  his  love  interest,  a  female   member  of  the  band  named  Stella.  Shep  rescues  the  band  but  is  wounded  in  the  process  


and  dies  shortly  after.    This  tragedy  is  followed  on  the  heels  by  the  mysterious  discovery  of   the  Earl  of  Darkwood’s  mansion,  where  the  band  finds  a  book  detailing  the  fact  that  his   alien  band  kidnappings  are  all  part  of  a  plan.  When  the  Crescendolls,  as  the  band  is  known   on  Earth,  wins  their  gold  record  it  makes  the  Earl’s  5,555th,  which  allows  him  to  control  the   Universe  the  book  reveals.  Fortunately,  the  band  breaks  free  of  his  minions  just  before   Stella’s  sacrifice  along  with  the  gold  record,  and  they  flaunt  his  plans.  The  book  lets  them   discover  their  true  history,  recorded  on  tapes,  and  the  entire  planet  Earth  helps  them  to   return  home.   Having  written  manga  and  contributed  to  it  adaptation  to  anime  since  the  early   1970s,  Leiji  Matsumoto  brought  a  wealth  of  experience  to  Interstella  5555,  which  shone   through  throughout  the  project  in  its  thematic  elements  as  well  as  in  some  graphic   elements.  Specifically,  Matsumoto’s  influence  came  about  through  his  influence  on  Daft   Punk’s  vision  for  the  album  itself  through  his  series  Space  Pirate  Captain  Harlock,  as  well  as   through  his  earlier  series’  development  of  Matsumoto’s  own  interests  in  chivalry,  space  and   technology.   Asked  about  their  inspiration  for  the  dual  album-­‐video  release  of  Discovery  and   Interstella  5555,  Guy-­‐Manuel  de  Homem-­‐Christo  and  Thomas  Bangalter,  the  duo  who  play   by  stage  name  Daft  Punk,  immediately  cite  Leiji  Matsumoto’s  anime  series  Space  Pirate   Captain  Harlock  as  a  motivator.  Though  the  French  DJs  appeared  to  have  no  ties  to  the   anime  world,  they  cite  Captain  Harlock  the  main  cartoon  by  which  they  were  influenced  by   as  children,  at  a  time  in  the  late  1970s  when  anime  had  a  sizable  audience  in  France1.                                                                                                                   1  "An Interview with Daft Punk." Interview. Cartoon Network. N.p., Nov. 2001. Web. 9 May 2013.<http://web.archive.org/web/20040627180234/http://www.cartoonnetwork.com/toonami/re actor/features/daftpunk.interview.html>.


Space  Pirate  Captain  Harlock,  aired  in  France  starting  in  1977  as  Albator,  le  corsair   de  l’espace,  was  a  shonen  TV  series  based  on  the  original  manga  by  Leiji  Matsumoto.  In  this   sense,  Leiji  Matsumoto’s  early  work  was  transformed  into  manga  eiga,  or  cartoon  film,  the   term  that  Miyazaki  Hayao  preferred  to  label  his  work  by.  The  TV  version  of  Matsumoto’s   manga  featured  his  main  character,  a  romantic  hero,  traversing  through  space  fighting  evil   regimes.  This  brings  in  the  first  major  theme  that  would  carry  over  from  Matsumoto’s  early   work  into  his  work  on  Interstella  5555:  outer  space.   Between  the  1977  release  of  Space  Pirate  Captain  Harlock  and  the  2003  release  of   Interstella  5555,  Matsumoto  worked  on  a  number  of  projects  in  which  space  was  a   reoccurring  central  theme.  One  particularly  relevant  example  is  Galaxy  Express  999,  a   manga  by  Leiji  Matsumoto  and  later  a  TV  series  featuring  a  futuristic,  technology-­‐based   civilization  in  outer  space  which  is  occasionally  visited  by  Captain  Harlock  himself.  Two  key   elements  tie  this  series  to  Interstella  5555.     The  first  tie  is  the  title  of  the  series  itself,  named  for  a  space  train  that  links  the   civilization  where  the  action  is  set  and  planet  Earth.  In  Interstella  5555,  the  link  between   earth  and  a  faraway  galaxy  comes  when  an  alien  rock  band  is  abducted  in  space  and  taken   through  a  wormhole  and  to  earth  –  a  similarity  both  in  concept  and  in  name.   A  second  element  brought  to  Interstella  5555  from  Galaxy  Express  999  is  the   expansion  from  a  Space  Pirate  Captain  Harlock’s  space  theme  to  a  technology-­‐enhanced   future  space  world,  which  would  be  a  central  theme  of  the  Daft  Punk  collaboration  film.   Both  1970s  anime  link  the  space  world  to  earth  when  characters  traverse  back  and  forth,   as  would  also  be  the  case  in  the  2003  release.  


Two  additional  similarities  pervade  Leiji  Matsumoto’s  1970s  anime  series  and   Interstella  5555,  the  first  of  which  is  a  legacy  of  structure  into  episodic  scenes.  Although   Interstella  5555  was  released  as  a  film,  its  basis  in  an  album  of  songs  without  pre-­‐faded   transitions  lent  itself  well  to  a  scene-­‐by-­‐scene  break.  Taking  this  a  step  farther,  though,  Leiji   launched  some  of  the  earlier  scenes  first,  allowing  them  to  be  shown  as  short  episodes  on   MTV  before  the  entire  film  was  a  packaged  release2.   Finally,  but  hardly  least,  is  an  interest  in  romance  and  chivalry  that  Leiji  Matsumoto   developed  throughout  his  work  between  the  late  1970s  and  2001  when  he  started  work   with  Daft  Punk.  Interviewed  specifically  about  the  film,  he  mentions  that  he  brought  a   particular  interest  “in  the  image  of  women,  romance  and  chivalry”3.  This  manifests  in   Interstella  5555  in  how  the  hero,  Shep,  traverses  the  galaxies  chasing  the  evil  kidnappers  to   save  his  female  love  interest,  the  band  member  Stella.  Shep  eventually  rises  to  the  ultimate   height  of  chivalry  for  the  woman  he  fantasizes  about  in  the  third  scene,  giving  his  life  to   save  Stella  after  he  saves  her  from  the  Earl  of  Darkwood  and  is  wounded  while  evading  the   kidnapper’s  minions.  In  sacrificing  the  chivalrous  main  character  for  his  female  romantic   interest,  Matsumoto  is  able  to  incorporate  three  keys  themes  that  he  hoped  to  bring  to  the   table  from  his  earlier  work.   From  the  space  worlds  of  Space  Pirate  Captain  Harlock  to  the  technology-­‐driven   future  of  Galaxy  Express  999,  as  well  as  the  interest  in  episodic  structure  of  shonen  plots   driven  by  romance  and  chivalry,  Leiji  Matsumoto  incorporated  numerous  elements  of  his   early  work  into  his  collaboration  with  Daft  Punk  on  Interstella  5555.  The  film  was  also                                                                                                                   2  Sylvester, Nick. "Daft Punk / Leiji Matsumoto Interstella 5555: The 5tory of the 5ecret 5tar 5ystem." Rev. of Interstella 5555. n.d.: n. pag. Pitchfork. 15 Feb. 2004. Web. 3  "Interview with Leiji Matsumoto (feat. Daft Punk)." Interview. 2003. DVD.  


crafted  in  large  part  by  the  production  studio  that  released  it,  however,  and  specifically  by   Toei  Animations’  relationship  to  Disney,  its  Western  rival.   Toei’s  legacy  of  similarity  to  Disney  as  well  as  the  two  companies’  contemporary   rivalry  at  the  turn  of  the  21st  century  can  be  seen  as  two  major  driving  forces  behind  the   production  of  Interstella  5555.  Founded  in  1956,  Toei  Animation  began  with  the  specific   conception  of  modeling  itself  on  Disney  Studios.  It  aspired  to  be  the  “Disney  of  the  Orient,”   producing  the  first  feature-­‐length  anime  films  in  the  model  of  its  Western  counterpart4.  An   early  example  can  be  seen  in  1958’s  Hakujyaden,  Toei’s  first  full-­‐length  production  and  an   adaptation  of  a  Chinese  folk  legend.  In  the  latter  sense  it  is  not  dissimilar  from  Snow  White,   and  in  addition  Toei  used  the  same  technique,  rotoscoping,  to  generate  realistic  motion,   copying  the  technique  that  Disney  had  pioneered5.   Fast-­‐forwarding  60  years  to  the  turn  of  the  21st  century,  Toei  Animation  was  still   emulating  full-­‐length  films  created  by  Disney  at  that  time,  now  in  the  form  of  a  feature   release  with  minimal  character  dialog  set  entirely  to  an  epic  score  of  pre-­‐written  music.  In   1999  Disney  released  Fantasia/2000,  an  animated  film  set  over  classical  orchestral  pieces,   interspersed  with  filmed  actors  introducing  each  scene.  Fantasia/2000  cost  Disney  $80   million  to  produce,  and  received  an  IMDB  rating  of  7.16,  with  Rotten  Tomatoes  scoring  it  at   82%7.  Four  years  later,  Toei’s  answer  to  the  turn-­‐of-­‐the-­‐century  narrative  set  to  music                                                                                                                   4  Hue, Tze-Yue G. "Postwar Japanese Animation Development and Toei Animation Studio." Frames of Anime: Culture and Image-building. Hong Kong: Hong Kong UP, 2010. N. pag. Print. 5  Ibid.   6  "Fantasia/2000." IMDb. IMDb.com, n.d. Web. 09 May 2013. 7  "Fantasia 2000 (1999)." Fantasia 2000. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May 2013.


spent  $4  million,  just  5%  of  Fantasia’s  cost,  to  attain  an  IMDB  rating  of  7.68  and  a  Rotten   Tomatoes  Score  of  86%9.  By  critical  review  the  films  were  certainly  neck-­‐and-­‐neck,  but  by   raw  metrics,  and  certainly  by  spend-­‐to-­‐review  ratio,  Toei’s  anime  took  the  day.   With  roots  in  the  legacy  of  Leiji  Matsumoto’s  manga  eiga  and  the  previously   successful  platform  of  Toei  Animations’  anime  films,  Interstella  5555  was  already  set  on  a   springboard  for  success  within  the  Japanese  anime  world.  What  is  unique  about  this  film,   however,  is  that  it  would  be  a  partnership  with  a  French-­‐released  music  album,  offering  a   exciting  opportunity  for  the  collaborators  to  bridge  subcultures  and  continents  with  their   media  mix.   In  setting  out  to  produce  a  film  to  accompany  the  Discovery  album,  bridging  the   cultural  gap  between  France  and  Japan  was  an  explicit  goal  of  both  Daft  Punk  and  Leiji   Matsumoto.  Each  collaborator  had  a  strong  artistic  interest  in  the  other’s  native  culture,   Matsumoto  for  French  films  and  specifically  their  depictions  of  women10,  and  the  two   French  DJs  for  the  animation  of  “the  hero  of  their  childhood”  whose  style  of  anime  they  had   “loved  since  they  were  five  or  six  years  old”11.  After  the  three  agreed  to  collaborate  in   200012,  it  was  Matsumoto  who  was  particularly  interested  in  using  the  combination  of  film   and  album  to  take  advantage  of  the  burgeoning  Internet  age  of  global  connectivity  to  reach   both  countries’  young  audiences:                                                                                                                     8  "Interstella 5555: The 5tory of the 5ecret 5tar 5ystem." IMDb. IMDb.com, n.d. Web. 09 May 2013. 9  "Interstella 5555: The 5tory of the 5ecret 5tar 5ystem (2003)." Interstella 5555: The 5tory of the 5ecret 5tar 5ystem. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May 2013. 10  "Interview with Leiji Matsumoto (feat. Daft Punk)." Interview. 2003. DVD.   11  "Discovery Japanese Special Edition Interview." Interview. 2001. DVD. 12  Ibid.


“I  think  that  we  have  reached  an  era  in  which  image  creators,  music   creators,   all   professionals   from   throughout   the   world   will   work   alongside   one   another…   I   see   the   youth   of   the   world   working   together   in   the   future.   I   am   excited   by   the   fact   that   [Interstella   5555]  will  be   viewed  by   so  many  people  in  so   many   countries…It  is   like  we  are  explorers  in  a  new  world  of  the  21st  century.”  

 13  

Matsumoto  is  suggesting  here  that  modern  technology,  in  conjunction  with  the  use   of  multiple  platforms,  will  leveraged  the  engagement  of  international  artistic  subcultures  to   amplify  a  the  audience  size  and  engagement.  This  leverage  is  commonly  referred  to  as  the   media  mix,  a  use  of  multiple  platforms  to  drive  the  audience  towards  an  end  of  consuming   more  of  the  product.  In  this  case,  the  subculture  of  electronic  music  fans  in  France  who   were  listening  to  the  Discovery  album  since  2001  would  be  driven  to  watch  and  purchase   the  movie.  As  an  added  incentive  for  this,  the  film  was  released  in  conjunction  with  a  new   album  of  remixes  of  the  original  Discovery  tracks,  titled  Daft  Club.  At  the  same  time,  the   subculture  of  anime  fans  in  Japan  would  be  exposed  to  Daft  Punk’s  French  electronic  music   style  for  the  first  time  through  the  anime  of  Leiji  Matsumoto  whom  they  knew  and  loved.   Aiding  the  potential  for  a  widespread  international  viewership  of  Interstella  5555  was  the   fact  that  the  film  contains  no  dialog  other  than  the  minimalist  song  lyrics,  so  the  language   barrier  faced  by  the  content  creators14  would  not  be  suffered  by  their  audience.  Thus  the   media  mix  of  album  and  anime  was  poised  for  success  in  bridging  international  culture  and   subcultures.    

Beyond  a  simple  media  mix  consisting  of  additive  success  between  the  two  

platforms,  however,  Interstella  5555  made  use  of  transmedia  storytelling  that  offered  the   user  a  more  and  more  complete  experience  with  each  additional  medium  through  which  he                                                                                                                   13  "Interview with Leiji Matsumoto (feat. Daft Punk)." Interview. 2003. DVD.  


or  she  engaged  with  the  anime.  The  idea  of  transmedia  storytelling,  conceptualized  by   Henry  Jenkins  in  his  book  Convergence  Culture,  is  that  each  piece  of  media  tells  a  piece  of   the  full  narrative  story,  and  the  full  narrative  cannot  be  understood  without  consuming  the   media  in  all  of  its  forms15.  To  this  point,  the  French  DJs  said  in  an  interview  with  Billboard   magazine:  

       

“We   liked   the   idea   of   a   two-­‐step   process.   We   were   fine   with   the   album   coming   out,   and   people   understanding   it,   or   not   understanding  it…  they  can  go  back  and  hear  the  music  after  a  two-­‐ year  period,  and  have  the  opportunity  to  listen  again  …  see  where   everything   came   from,   even   if   we   left   a   lot   of   doors   closed   in   the   film  itself.  We  really  wanted  to  make  the  whole  thing  fit  together."    

 

 

 

16

 

This  two-­‐step  process  is  exactly  what  Jenkins  had  in  mind  with  the  idea  of   transmedia  storytelling  –  the  album’s  emotion  and  motivations  cannot  be  fully  understood   without  engaging  with  the  anime  characters  whose  tale  it  tells,  and  the  characters’  story  is   certainly  incomplete  without  the  music  to  convey  the  mood  and  only  words  exchanged   throughout  the  film’s  68  minutes.  A  counterclaim  is  certainly  plausible  here  that  the  story   could  have  been  fit  to  after  the  fact  to  the  length  and  mood  of  each  songs,  so  perhaps  the   link  in  meaning  is  not  as  intricate  as  the  self-­‐promoting  DJs  claim.  On  the  contrary,   however,  the  anime  film  was  part  of  the  album’s  original  conception,  and  the  collaborators   had  been  in  touch  during  the  album’s  recording17  and  Matsumoto  was  busy  working  on                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       14  "Discovery Japanese Special Edition Interview." Interview. 2001. DVD. 15Jenkins, Henry. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York: New York UP, 2006. ACLS Humanities E-Book. Web. 16  Barker, Christian. "Daft Punk Interview: September 2003." Billionaire. N.p., 2003. Web. 09 May 2013. 17  "Discovery Japanese Special Edition Interview." Interview. 2001. DVD.


production  as  early  as  October  200018,  five  months  before  the  album’s  initial  release.  It  is   plausible  logistically,  and  confirmed  visually,  that  the  story  is  richly  interwoven  between   the  two  media.   Yet  there  is  even  more  to  the  media  array.  In  addition  to  the  original  album  and   anime  film,  the  limited  edition  of  the  film  DVD  included  an  additional  DVD,  and  some  early   editions  of  the  original  album  were  packaged  with  a  physical  card  granting  fans  access  to   an  online  “Daft  Club.”  Through  each  of  these  additional  channels,  fans  gained  access  to   additional  versions  of  songs  and  interviews  with  the  notoriously  elusive  French  DJs,  who   give  few  interviews  and  constantly  wear  masks.  Their  attire  might  even  be  considered   another  part  of  the  media  mix,  considering  they  appear  exclusively  in  public  and  within  the   anime  film  donning  full  space-­‐technologic  regalia  which  they  began  wearing  while  claiming   they  had  been  transformed  into  robots19  around  the  time  of  the  Discovery  release.   Regardless  of  how  far  the  legitimate  media  mix  and  transmedia  storytelling  extends,   however,  a  pertinent  question  to  be  asked  is  how  successful  this  array  of  media  was  at   promoting  the  consumption  of  Interstella  5555  as  anime  and  Discovery  as  a  musical  album.   In  measuring  the  success  of  the  film,  it  is  difficult  to  decide  on  a  metric  other  than   the  aggregated  critical  reviews  mentioned  previously,  since  box  office  data  is  not  readily   available  for  France  and  Japan  from  2003.  The  best  metric,  then,  may  be  to  assess  whether   or  not  the  film  fulfilled  Toei  Animations’  self-­‐proclaimed  goals  for  the  films  they  were   producing  in  2003.  According  to  a  2001  feature  on  “Toei  at  50”  in  Variety  magazine,  their                                                                                                                   18  Interstella  5555  DVD  insert   19  "Discovery Japanese Special Edition Interview." Interview. 2001. DVD.  


dual  goals  for  moving  into  the  2000s  were  to  continue  to  expand  their  exports,  and  to  move   into  the  young  adult  age  bracket  from  the  currently  dominated  under-­‐18  group20.   The  film  was  certainly  a  success  in  the  latter  demographic  regard,  and  album  sales   point  to  a  success  in  the  former  international  regard  as  well.  Interstella  5555  was  aired  on   the  US  on  Cartoon  Network’s  “Toonami”  segment,  as  well  as  on  MTV,  as  predicted  by  an   early  industry  review21.  MTV’s  target  demographic  at  the  time  was  the  18-­‐34  age  bracket22,   which  is  precisely  the  age  range  Toei  hoped  to  begin  targeting,  and  in  their  largest  and   fastest-­‐growing  international  market  in  the  wake  of  Dragonball-­‐Z  and  Sailor  Moon23.     With  respect  to  the  success  of  the  film  internationally,  one  metric  may  be  to  look  at   how  the  media  mix’s  appeal  was  able  to  push  the  album’s  success  to  new  countries  and  to   higher  places  in  the  charts  than  had  been  attained  by  their  last.  The  previous  Daft  Punk   album,  Homework,  made  it  onto  13  countries’  charts,  reaching  an  average  top  position  of   33.  Discovery,  meanwhile,  as  a  companion  to  Interstella  5555,  made  it  onto  16  countries   charts,  and  topped  out  at  an  average  position  of  9.  To  the  criticism  that  the  film  had  not  yet   been  released  at  this  time,  it  is  worth  pointing  out  that  due  to  Matsumoto’s  early  work  the   individual  scenes  from  the  first  few  singles  were  being  circulated  shortly  after  the  album’s   launch.  Thus,  on  both  the  international  and  the  age  demographic  fronts,  Interstella  5555   could  be  considered  a  rousing  success  by  Matsumoto,  Daft  Punk  and  Toei  Animations’  own   goals,  thanks  in  no  small  part  to  transmedia  storytelling  and  the  media  mix.                                                                                                                   20  Schwarzacher, Lukas. "Toons Animate Bottom Line." Variety (2001): A4-A8. Print. 21  Rooney, David. "Daft Punk and Leiji Marsumoto's Interstella 5555." Rev. of Interstella 5555. Variety (2003): 27. Print. 22  "MTV Music Television Profile." Cable Network Information. N.p., 30 June 2002. Web. 09 May 2013. 23  Schwarzacher, Lukas. "Toons Animate Bottom Line." Variety (2001): A4-A8. Print.  


A  success  in  the  eyes  of  the  collaborators,  the  producers,  critics  and  fans,  Interstella   5555  capitalized  massively  on  a  brilliant  risk  taken  by  an  open-­‐minded  Leiji  Matsumoto  to   embrace  and  share  his  talents  with  two  French  DJs  a  generation  younger  than  he.  Toei   Animation  was  able  to  bring  their  experience  to  the  table  to  flaunt  Disney  and  let  anime   win  the  day  at  least  a  generation  after  they  set  out  to  be  the  “Disney  of  the  Orient.”  And  best   of  all,  thanks  to  the  media  mix  and  transmedia  storytelling,  a  generation  of  Japanese  kids   were  introduced  electronic  music,  and  another  generation  of  French  anime  fans  was  born.   With  roots  in  an  unusual  tradition,  Interstella  5555  spanned  three  generations  to  show  the   youth  of  the  21st  century  that  they  were  could  “work  alongside  one  another…as  explorers   in  a  new  world.”24                                                                                                                                                                     24  "Interview with Leiji Matsumoto (feat. Daft Punk)." Interview. 2003. DVD.  


Works Cited 1. Barker, Christian. "Daft Punk Interview: September 2003." Billionaire. N.p., 2003. Web. 09 May 2013. 2. Dalton, Stephen. "Daft Punk: Discovery." Rev. of Daft Punk: Discovery. n.d.: n. pag. NME. 7 Mar. 2001. Web. 3. "Discovery Japanese Special Edition Interview." Interview. 2001. DVD. 4. "Fantasia 2000 (1999)." Fantasia 2000. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May 2013. 5. "Fantasia/2000." IMDb. IMDb.com, n.d. Web. 09 May 2013. 6. Galaxy Express 999. 1979. Television. 7. Hue, Tze-Yue G. "Postwar Japanese Animation Development and Toei Animation Studio." Frames of Anime: Culture and Image-building. Hong Kong: Hong Kong UP, 2010. N. pag. Print. 8. "Interstella 5555: The 5tory of the 5ecret 5tar 5ystem (2003)." Interstella 5555: The 5tory of the 5ecret 5tar 5ystem. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 May 2013. 9. "Interstella 5555: The 5tory of the 5ecret 5tar 5ystem." IMDb. IMDb.com, n.d. Web. 09 May 2013. 10. Interstella 5555: The 5tory of the 5ecret 5tar 5ystem. Prod. Leiji Matsumoto, Guy-Manuel De Homem-Christo, and Thomas Bangalter. Toei Animation, 2003. DVD. 11. "An Interview with Daft Punk." Interview. Cartoon Network. N.p., Nov. 2001. Web. 9 May 2013. <http://web.archive.org/web/20040627180234/http://www.cartoonnetwork.com/toonami/reac tor/features/daftpunk.interview.html>. 12. Jenkins, Henry. Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York: New York UP, 2006. ACLS Humanities E-Book. Web. 13. "MTV Music Television Profile." Cable Network Information. N.p., 30 June 2002. Web. 09 May 2013. 14. Reesman, Brian. "DAFT PUNK." MIX. N.p., 1 Oct. 2001. Web. 09 May 2013. 15. Rooney, David. "Daft Punk and Leiji Marsumoto's Interstella 5555." Rev. of Interstella 5555. Variety (2003): 27. Print. 16. Schreiber, Ryan. "Daft Punk: Discovery | Album Review." Rev. of Daft Punk: Discovery. n.d.: n. pag. Pitchfork. 13 Mar. 2001. Web.


17. Schwarzacher, Lukas. "Toons Animate Bottom Line." Variety (2001): A4-A8. Print. 18. Space Pirate Captain Harlock. 1978. Television. 19. Steinberg, Marc. "Limiting Movement, Inventing Anime." Anime's Media Mix: Franchising Toys and Characters in Japan. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2012. N. pag. Print. 20. Sylvester, Nick. "Daft Punk / Leiji Matsumoto Interstella 5555: The 5tory of the 5ecret 5tar 5ystem." Rev. of Interstella 5555. n.d.: n. pag. Pitchfork. 15 Feb. 2004. Web.      


Daft Punk vs Anime