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ANNUAL REPORT “Discovery consists of seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought.” —Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, Nobel laureate in medicine

RESEARCH ACTIVITY FY•2002


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nterdisciplinary” is a popular word at universities today. We’re a far cry from the era when it was frowned upon to consider studies outside one’s own narrowly circumscribed field. In recent years, in fact, fields of study formed at

Total Research Expenditures FY 1988-2002

507 472 440

the boundaries between traditional areas have become disciplines in their own right.

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Biochemistry is a prime example. At Penn State, the benefits of an interdisciplinary approach to research are

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nowhere more apparent than in the 25-year project that has resulted in the Penn State

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artificial heart. To solve the problems of fluid dynamics inherent in developing an artificial heart required engineers trained in understanding ship propellers and tor-

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forces of cavitation and turbulence, be reliable enough to open and close 70 times a

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Millions of Dollars

pedoes to team with cardiologists to design valves that would minimize the powerful

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minute year after year after year, and mesh smoothly inside the human body. In a project much more recently begun, faculty in kinesiology and computer

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science have designed a system that uses “virtual reality” to provide non-crawling babies with the visual perception that they are crawling. Using this technology, psychologists can now uncouple the motor skills of crawling from the perceptual ones, so they can determine the relationship between visual and motor development. We have engineers who are working with pediatricians to adapt thin-film hydro-

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gen sensors developed for use in monitoring air quality in petroleum refineries for use in hospital incubators, as a non-invasive, inexpensive means for early detection of

develop electro-optic chips that could detect those responses in the field. In concert, these

On the cover: A scanning electron microscope image of a nanostructure created using a new “molecular ruler” technique. Sequential deposition and removal of organic molecules and metal ions (in this case, gold) allow formation of isolated nanosized surface features. The organic molecules, removed via a dissolution step, serve as molecular rulers for scaling down larger parent structures that are defined using more conventional lithographic techniques. The resulting gold “dot” shown here in the center is 30 nm — about 150 atoms — in diameter.

two strategies might provide early warning against airborne agents of bioterrorism.

(Cover image: Anat Hatzor, Brent Mantooth, and Paul Weiss.)

necrotizing enterocolitis, a life-threatening problem for premature infants. And molecular biologists and ecologists are working together on the engineering of plants to enhance responses to microbes and associated toxins, while electrical engineers

These projects and the others highlighted in this report are only the tip of the iceberg. In each of the six major research initiatives described here, faculty and students from various colleges are continually finding new and creative ways to collaborate. There is no inherently right or wrong approach to doing research. Great research can be disciplinary or interdisciplinary in nature. However, it grows increasingly clear that during the century now beginning many of society’s most pressing problems will be solved at the junctions between traditional fields.

This publication is available in alternative media on request. The Pennsylvania State University is committed to the policy that all persons shall have equal access to programs, facilities, admission, and employment without regard to personal characteristics not related to ability, perfor-mance, or qualifications as determined by University policy or by state or federal authorities. The Pennsylvania State University does not discriminate against any person because of age, ancestry, color, disability or handicap, national origin, race, religious creed, sex, sexual orientation, or veteran status. Direct all inquiries regarding the nondiscrimination policy to the Affirmative Action Director, The Pennsylvania State University, 201 Willard Building, University Park, PA 16802-2801; tel. (814) 863-0471; TDD (814) 865-3175. U.Ed. RES02-26

Eva J. Pell Vice President for Research Dean of the Graduate School 304 Old Main University Park, PA 16802 814-863-9580 (phone) 814-863-9659 (fax) ejp@psu.edu www.research.psu.edu


NASA $20,068,000 Department of Health & Human Services $82,139,000

The FY2002 data show a greater than 7% increase in total research expenditures for the fourth year in a row. Expenditures on grants and contracts from federal funding sources increased 15%, with significant increases from several major federal sources: • Army funding nearly doubled to $6 million, with total Department of Defense research increasing 9% to $106 million. • Department of Transportation research increased 54% to $6 million.

NSF $34,951,000

• National Science Foundation support increased 23% to $35 million. • Department of Health & Human Services funding increased 20% to $82 million.

Department of Defense $106,243,000

Other $28,999,000

USDA $11,564,000

Abington $241,000 Altoona $297,000 Behrend $2,600,000 Berks Lehigh $172,000 Capital $2,653,000 Commonwealth $1,302,000 Penn College $665,000 International $320,000 Total: $8,232,000

Grant and contract research conducted for Commonwealth of Pennsylvania agencies such as PennDOT, the Department of Environmental Research, the Department of Health, the Depart- Health & Human Development ment of Education, the Department of Agriculture, and the De$32,622,000 partment of Community and Economic Development, increased 19%. New research projects sponsored directly by companies Eberly College grew 22%, while overall funding from all private sources includof Science ing foundations and not-for-profit organizations remained con$70,339,000 stant. [Note: Sub-awards of federal funds from other universities are credited to the federal sponsor.]

Research Expenditures by Source of Funds $507,443,000

Industry and Other $74,621,000

Medicine $53,850,000

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania $68,291,000

Liberal Arts $17,364,000

Contact: Bob Killoren, Assistant Vice President for Research (814-865-3396; rak9@psu.edu; grants.psu.edu)

Applied Research Laboratory $107,547,000

The past decade has produced very significant research activity worldwide in thin film-based nano-structures and devices. Stephen Fonash, holder of the Bayard D. Kunkle chair in engineering, has been very active in this area and has developed manufacturable approaches to producing these materials and structures. One of these approaches is a unique high-density plasma technique that produces nano-structured semiconductor thin films at temperatures as low as 100 degrees C. Such materials have been shown to emit visible light at room temperature, to have excellent gas and vapor sensitivity, to be highly bio-compatible, and to be easily used in micro-machining processes. An extensive portfolio of invention disclosures and patents for thin film materials and devices, manufacturing methods and a variety of applications was licensed in March 2002 to NanoHorizons, Inc., a start-up company founded in State College, PA. The Penn State Research Foundation received equity in NanoHorizons. This new start-up company is focused on the development and production of products utilizing this state-of-the-art technology for the biomedical, sensing, and electronics fields. Thus far, Nano-Horizons has developed substrates for matrix-less laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, thereby enabling high throughput screening of potential drug combinatorial chemistry products and general small-molecule identification. Near-term plans call for the company to continue to explore the utility of these substrates with strategic partners in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Research at the University and at NanoHorizons will continue to explore further applications for the substrates including process control, drug-metabolite screening, environmental sensing, and proteomics.

Agricultural Sciences $78,194,000

Engineering $78,273,000

University $80,567,000

Federal $283,964,000

Arts & Arch $1,077,000 Communications $92,000 Education $5,824,000 Business $6,502,000 IST $2,130,000 Law $270,000 Total: $15,895,000

NANOHORIZONS

Earth & Mineral Sciences $45,127,000

Research Expenditures by Performing Unit These figures include grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements from federal, state, industry, and other private sources; research appropriations from the federal government and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania; and University research and infrastructure support. The totals include funds transferred from University institutes, consortia, and general research funds to the appropriate home colleges of participating investigators.

Steven J. Fonash

Research Expenditures From Federal Agencies $283,964,000


and Interdisciplinary Initiatives, comprised of environmental sciences, life sciences, material sciences, social

sciences, and defense programs, totaled $380 million in FY 2002, nearly three-quarters of the University’s total research expenditures. Our interdisciplinary consortia and institutes continue to successfully stimulate research partnerships and innovations at the boundaries of traditional disciplines and among research faculty from all colleges. A few of the many exciting ongoing programs are highlighted in this report.

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Research Expenditures by Strategic Research Area FY 2002

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APPLIED RESEARCH LABORATORY

ATLANTIC SLOPE

With annual research expenditures in excess of $100 million, the ARL is one of the U.S. Navy’s four University Affiliated Research Centers. The Navy recently reaffirmed its longstanding strategic partnership with ARL by awarding an unprecedented 10-year, $813.7 million contract. ARL offers a broad base of technical expertise in the areas of acoustics, guidance and control, thermal energy systems, hydrodynamics, hydroacoustics, propulsor design, materials and manufacturing, navigation, electro-optics, and communications and information systems, and also places high priority on graduate education as the means for developing the workforce of tomorrow.

The population explosion along the coasts of the United States has put enormous pressure on estuarine ecosystems and their supporting watersheds. In response, Penn State researchers are leading a major effort to conduct an integrated assessment of the watersheds and estuaries across the Atlantic Slope from the Appalachian mountains to the coastal beaches of the Mid-Atlantic states. Natural scientists and social scientists from Penn State, the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences, East Carolina University, Environmental Law Institute, and FTN Associates have joined forces with environmental managers from the region to develop, test, and apply a set of biological, chemical, physical, and socioeconomic indicators to measure the health of wetlands, streams, rivers, and estuaries. The Atlantic Slope Consortium, one of four programs funded nationally by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s STAR Grants Program, has garnered $6 million over four years to conduct the work. Using geographic information systems, the researchers will “stack” a set of indicators to assess the overall condition of the aquatic ecosystems for a given area. The selected indicators will link stressors, sources, and solutions between upstream watersheds and downstream estuaries. An additional EPA grant of $973,000 is supporting the application of a wetland classification system developed for central Pennsylvania for use in the Adirondack and Catskill mountains of New York, and in the Shenandoah National Park.

CHILDREN, YOUTH & FAMILIES CONSORTIUM The CYFC encourages and supports interdisciplinary research on important social issues that impact children and families, such as health, development, education, family change, and rural issues. During FY 2002, the CYFC facilitated a number of large-scale research projects. Highlights include a study aimed at developing community partnerships to strengthen families and help young people avoid substance abuse and behavioral problems (National Institute on Drug Abuse, $10 million), and a study of rural children living in poverty (National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, $8 million).

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Defense

Social Sciences

Materials

Life Sciences

20

Environment

40

Including CYF at $14 Million

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HUCK INSTITUTE FOR LIFE SCIENCES

0 These figures include only external restricted funds for research, as well as consortium, institute, and research support funds allocable to these initiatives. The figures do not include college general funds or government appropriations.

Contact: Robert McGrath, Associate Vice President for Research (814-863-9580; mcgrath@psu.edu; www.research.psu.edu/ir)

Charles Fergus

INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH

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esearch expenditures within Penn State’s Strategic

The Dorothy Foehr and J. Lloyd Huck Institute for Life Sciences has recruited 44 co-funded faculty in disciplines crossing seven Penn State colleges. In less than five years, these faculty have been very successful in obtaining research funding from various agencies, particularly the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foun-


INSTITUTE FOR THE ARTS & HUMANITIES The IAH fosters excellence in the arts and humanities by stimulating and supporting innovative, interdisciplinary work across the boundaries of departments, schools, and colleges. In FY 2002, a highly competitive faculty program funded fourteen research and creative projects ranging from work on the intersection of art and medical history, to a new edition of Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels, to a study of Renaissance influences on modern architecture. In addition, under a new initiative, summer residencies were awarded to four advanced graduate students from the departments of Art History, English, French, and Landscape Architecture, and one-semester residencies were awarded to four faculty members. Major public events co-sponsored by the IAH included “Celebrations of African American Spirituals” and “Free Jazz and its Legacies: A Symposium on Black Music and American Culture.”

MARINE CORPS RESEARCH UNIVERSITY Designated as The MCRU since 1999, Penn State is supporting the educational, research, and technical-assessment requirements of the U.S. Marine Corps and the other armed services. In the past year, the MCRU was awarded over $10 million in Department of Defense contracts. These contracts involved the activities of over thirty different facul-

ty members and two dozen graduate students across five colleges and the Applied Research Laboratory. The support was for projects in the areas of logistics education, electro-optics research, recruiting, deployment optimization, information technology research, non-lethal weapons and antiterrorism/force protection research.

MATERIALS RESEARCH INSTITUTE The MRI serves as a focal point for interdisciplinary materials research science and engineering at Penn State. In FY 2002, this community was awarded in excess of $65 million in new federal, state, and industrial research contracts and grants. New initiatives included expansion of our National Science Foundation-supported Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers into the Center for Nanoscale Science, establishment of a multiinvestigator program on “Materials for Optical Technologies,” and the acquisition of major pieces of characterization and processing equipment. An emerging focus on nanomanufacturing and processing builds on the broad range of research activities in nanoscience and technology with the specific aim of defining an engineering approach for nanomanufacturing.

PENN STATE INSTITUTES OF THE ENVIRONMENT The PSIE is an emerging network of faculty who focus on problems of degraded air quality; loss of ecological diversity; global environmental change; environmental impacts on human, animal, and plant health; green engineering and industrial ecology; and management of water resources. With grants totaling $2.8 million from the National Institutes of Health, PSIE researchers are studying the longterm human health effects of persistent exposure to industrial pollution. The U.S. Environmental Protection

Agency recently awarded $973,000 to augment an existing $6 million award to conduct an ecological and socioeconomic assessment of wetland health. The PSIE is funding faculty from three colleges to begin a new initiative aimed at developing the scientific knowledge needed to move the U.S. to a hydrogen-based fuel economy. PSIE faculty have been awarded a total of $1.65 million by the U.S. Department of Energy for a five-year study employing bioremediation for the in situ immobilization of metals and radionuclides contaminating soils at nuclear weapon production sites.

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH INSTITUTE The SSRI promotes research encompassing the wide range of technical skills and disciplinary perspectives needed to solve complex social problems. The Institute provides a shared research infrastructure offering services in survey research methods, geographic information systems, advanced computing, statistical programming and data base management, and information dissemination services. In the past year these resources have supported major studies on the effects of welfare reform on families and children (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, $4.9 million), and on how surviving cancer affects emotional and physical health and employment (National Cancer Institute, $2.1 million).

CHILDREN Promoting School-Community-University Partnerships to Enhance Resiliency (PROSPER), an interdisciplinary project between Penn State and Iowa State University, was recently funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse for $23 million, approximately $10 million of which is earmarked for Penn State. PROSPER is innovative and cutting-edge because it creates and tests a model for the diffusion of preventive interventions, evaluates the impact of that model on schools and communities, and investigates the general effectiveness of, and the impact of community variation on, the diffusion model. The program is designed to improve child competencies, family functioning, and school involvement as a way to reduce substance abuse and problem behavior. Rural Children Living in Poverty is an interdisciplinary project between Penn State and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill funded by $19 million from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Approximately half of that amount is earmarked for Penn State. This research project will follow a cohort of babies born in rural Pennsylvania and North Carolina for three years to understand key elements such as child development, language development, preschool readiness, quality of family relationships, parental employment, and community dynamics. Over the longer term, these researchers hope to understand what factors predict the successful transition to school of children from low-income, rural families.

Jason Yarrington

dation, which totals ~$32 million. Overall research expenditures in life sciences are now over $115 million. A recent highlight is a $6 million grant awarded to researchers at the College of Medicine by the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, for the study of diabetic retinopathy. Faculty in bioengineering, chemistry, and medicine recently received a four- year, ($719,00 grant NSF-NIH) for establishment of a summer institute for undergraduates in bioengineering and bioinformatics.


to do relevant and commercially useful research is an

important component of the educational experience, and

fulfills a central mission of the University to serve the people of the Commonwealth. Through the integrated efforts of the seven Technology Transfer units, federal, state and industrial funds are transformed into benefits for all. These seven units cover every aspect of the commercialization process, from linking industrial research sponsors with faculty; to patenting and licensing; to assisting start-ups with incubation and advice; to providing

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY OFFICE The IPO manages and commercializes the intellectual property (IP) developed at Penn State. It evaluates inventions for patentability and develops strategies to market them to industry. The licensing of IP has changed significantly, with marked increases in the number of equity positions taken. In the University’s history through 1999, three equity-based licenses were completed; in 2000 there were four, and in 2001 there were eight. The increased use of equity makes possible arrangements with small, facultyFY 2001

FY 2002

Invention Disclosures ............ 220 ............. 176

financing, counseling, and free technical assistance for small companies and convenient physical facilities for companies of all sizes at the expanding Innovation Park. New technologies researched and licensed in FY 2002 spanned the breadth of Penn State’s expertise, including environmentallysafe washes to extend mushroom shelf life, bioinformatics software for pharmaceutical screening, monoclonal antibodies on yeasts, pharmaceutical peptide libraries, antibiotics for anti-bioterrorism agents, nanoscale chemical sensors and analytical tools, microbially- produced pesticides, and piezoelectric polymers. Economic development efforts supported non-university companies in every county in the Commonwealth in diverse industries including auto salvage, retail sales, lumber, technical writing, construction, shoe design, food processing, ceramic-tilemaking, machine reconditioning, and toolmaking.

Contact: Gary W. Weber, Associate Vice President for Research (814-863-9580; gweber@psu.edu; www.techtransfer.psu.edu).

U. S. Patent Applications ...... 268 ............. 204 Issued Patents ......................... 59 ............... 55 Revenues ............................ $1.8M ......... $2.7M Cumulative Equity Held ........... 12 ............... 18 NOTE: Not included in revenue is the equity Penn State holds in start-up and established companies.

based start-up companies that were impossible previously, and provides an approach for commercializing new technology that is not yet ready for adoption by larger companies. With this approach, technology that would have been lost is made useful for the citizens of the Commonwealth and the world. To further engage the University community in the process, a committee comprised of the research deans of the major research colleges, atlarge faculty, an external entrepreneur, and IP administrators now screens all unlicensed IP and determines where University resources should best be applied to optimize the commercialization of the technology. This approach has increased the percentage of IP patenting fees recovered by 35 percent along with improving participation and buy-in. Additionally, the licensing officers have been focused into disciplines aligning with the research

A N A M A X In recent years, bacterial resistance to antibiotics has become a serious problem. For some drug-resistant bacteria only a few antibiotics are effective; for others, there are no effective antibiotics. There is a wellrecognized need for the discovery and development of novel antibiotics. Stephen Benkovic, Evan Pugh Professor and holder of the Eberly Chair in Chemistry at Penn State, Professor Lucy Shapiro of Stanford University, and their research groups have identified, isolated. and sequenced a novel class of DNA modification enzymes, the adenine DNA methyltransferases, which are essential for bacterial-cell growth. Recognizing these enzymes as potential targets for new antimicrobial agents, Benkovic and Shapiro designed and synthesized compounds that fit within the active site of the enzymes and mimic a reaction intermediate. This “rational design” approach has led to the synthesis of analogs of the intermediate that inhibit adenine DNA methyltransferases, and thus have antibacterial properties. Much of the basic research was funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), which has an interest in developing new treatments for biowarfare agents such as the bacteria responsible for anthrax and tularemia. AnaMax, Inc., a start-up company, has licensed these technologies from Penn State and Stanford University and is continuing the discovery and development of novel antimicrobials for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections.

CDC

TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER

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or faculty and students at Penn State, the opportunity


SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT CENTER The Penn State SBDC is part of a national network of more than 950 centers, 16 of which are based at colleges and universities in the Commonwealth. FY 01

FY 02

Student Hours .................... 911 ................... 2635 Total Consultant Hours .... 3165 ................... 5074 Investments Tracked ........ 1.9M ................... 2.6M Attendees ........................... 342 ..................... 422 Training Hrs ...................... 1118 ................... 1215 Clients Assisted ................. 240 ..................... 272

The Penn State SBDC covers two counties, Centre and Mifflin. The Environmental Management Assistance Program (EMAP) is one of six lead centers in the state. The Environmental Specialist based at Penn State covers 19 counties and three other SBDCs. During the past year, MBA candidates working as part-time SBDC consultants and undergraduate students conducting environmental research, designing web sites, and developing other marketing materials contributed more than 2600 hours of assistance to SBDC or EMAP clients.

RESEARCH COMMERCIALIZATION OFFICE The RCO helps Penn State faculty and staff create new companies based on University research and technologies. It works closely with Penn State’s Intellectual Property Office. The RCO can identify and secure sources of early-stage capital, such as seed funding programs, angel investors, venture capital funds, etc., as well as mentors and potential management-team members. Space for start-up companies is available in the Innovation Park at Penn State and in the Penn State Zeta-

chron Center for Science and Technology Business Development, a gift of Dr. and Mrs. Wally Snipes and family. Through a collaboration with the Chamber of Business and Industry of Centre County, five start-up companies were being incubated at Zetachron Center in FY 2002; each is based on research from University laboratories or is directed by a Penn State alumnus. They are: Mitotyping Technologies (Terry Melton); EIEICO–Templar (Doug Greger); Chiral Quest (Tim Hurley); Thermolose Technologies (Dean Bunnell); and Water’s Edge Technology LLC (Denice Heller Wardrop). Five companies have graduated from the Zetachron Center: Center Ingredient Technologies (Mohammad Farbood); Keystone Food Science (Fenjin He); Salimetrics (Doug Granger and Eve Schwartz); Advanced Interface Technologies (Rejeev Sharma); and Penn Bio Organics (Ravi Reddy).

PENNSYLVANIA TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM PENNTAP helps Pennsylvania businesses improve their competitiveness by providing free technical assistance and information to help resolve specific FY02 Cases of Technical Assistance ........................ 480 Clients’ Cost Savings ................................. $2.8 M Clients’ Increased Sales ............................. $4.0 M Clients’ Capital Investments ...................... $1.5 M Jobs Created/Retained .............................. 50/305 Client Satisfaction ......................................... 98%

technical questions or needs that can be addressed within a limited amount of time. PENNTAP serves every county in Pennsylvania with a network of technical specialists who have specific areas of technical expertise.

INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH OFFICE Penn State ranks fourth nationally in industrially-sponsored research funding. The IRO focuses on industries of significant importance to the CommonFY02 Industry R&D (Direct Involvement) .......... $4.9 M Industry R&D (Facilitated) ........................ $1.1 M

wealth, such as materials, agribusiness, information technology, environmental, and life sciences. Responding to requests for assistance, it identifies University faculty expertise, technical capabilities, and research centers, giving companies specific and personal attention in order to determine where University resources might prove beneficial.

BEN FRANKLIN TECHNOLOGY CENTER OF CENTRAL AND NORTHERN PENNSYLVANIA

GAMMAGRAFT Large wounds are most often closed with skin grafts taken from a patient’s own body. In many instances, however, skin grafts taken from tissue donors and prepared in skin banks are used as temporary covers. Current skin-bank storage technology is expensive and requires refrigeration, which can be a problem in many parts of the world. There is also the possibility of bacterial or viral infection from improperly stored or contaminated skin, including HIV infection. To address the need for a better alternative, surgeon Ernie Manders and his team at the Penn State College of Medicine developed GammaGraft™ , a skin allograft that has been found to lower infection rates, provide faster repigmentation and cause less scarring than most other wound therapies. In addition to reducing risk of bacterial contamination and viral trans-mission, GammaGraft™ is storable at room temperature, and needs no washing, thawing, or rehydration before application. These attributes make skin grafts available to a wide range of patients who would not otherwise have access to donor skin, especially in developing countries where the majority of burns occur worldwide. Promethean Life Sciences, Inc., a start-up company, has licensed this technology from Penn State.

The BFTC of Central and Northern Pennsylvania provides financial support, technology and management experience, and ways to link public, private, and educational resources to strengthFY02 1985-2002 Data Jobs Created ............................................. 6,388 Jobs Retained ........................................... 4,540 New Products .............................................. 364 Processes Improved .................................... 223

en the high-technology components of the state’s economy. It is one of four regional centers of the Commonwealth’s Ben Franklin Technology Development Authority. At the beginning of FY 2002, 22 research projects were funded with over $2.3 million in Ben Franklin funds and $7.6 million in private-sector cash and in-kind funds.

Promethean Life Sciences, Inc.

colleges to improve coupling with faculty and college administrators and continuity of knowledge and expertise.


at Innovation Park at Penn State during FY 2002. The

projects include expansions of the Technology Center and the

Penn Stater Conference Center Hotel, and construction of the Innovation Outreach Building and a multi-tenant building for technology companies. The projects are slated for construction beginning in late 2002 and early 2003, and will add 320,000 square feet to Innovation Park’s existing facilities. The 22,000-square-foot addition to the Technology Center is an expansion of the Centre for Business and Industry of Centre County business incubator space. It will provide space for start-up companies and transitional space for incubator graduates who will locate at

BlueSwarf.com, one of the first tenants in the new facility, is a value-added wholesale distributor, application service provider and business-to-business exchange in the machine tool industry. As Dave Barton, president and cofounder, stated, the company is moving “from Silicon Valley to Happy Valley” to take advantage of the opportunities within Penn State, the favorable business climate, and the quality of life he and his employees will be able to enjoy in central Pennsylvania. Through the efforts of the Research and Technology Transfer Organization’s Ben Franklin Center and the Industrial Research Office, BlueSwarf.com has been successful in securing funding and forming partnerships with Penn State’s Industrial Engineering department that will contribute to the company’s success.

attendees and visitors to the region. Construction will begin in May

Total Tenants ................................................... 39 PSU Related ................................................... 15 Incubator ......................................................... 11 Other ................................................................. 3 Total Employees .......................................... 1082

2003 with completion in early summer.

PSU Links During FY 2002

Innovation Park. An expansion to The Penn Stater Conference Center Hotel will provide 150 additional guest rooms for conference

The Innovation Outreach Building will be the new home of Penn State Public Broadcasting and the World Campus. The 98,000-square-foot facility will include a state-of-the-art broadcast studio and staff offices. WPSX-TV serves one of the largest geogra-

Used PSU Interns ........................................................... 18 tenants .......................................................... 115 interns Used PSU Grad Students ........................................................... 10 tenants ................................................. 86 grad students

phic coverage areas in the nation, reaching over one million house-

Hired PSU Graduates ........................................................... 11 tenants ............................................................... 27 hires

holds in central Pennsylvania. The World Campus, a web-based

Consulted with PSU Faculty ................ 8 tenants

distance-education program, provides global access to a Penn State education. A 100,000-square-foot multi-tenant building will be constructed at 328 Innovation Boulevard, the first facility in Phase 3 of the Innovation Park. The project is being developed by Innovation Capital Partners, LLC, and will provide space for a number of technology companies, providing opportunities for collaboration with Penn State faculty and access to laboratory facilities and students.

Sponsored Research Projects ............................................................... 1 tenant ............................................................. $100,000 Licensed PSU Intellectual Property ..... 2 tenants At right, time-lapse images of a 50 x 50 nanometer area of a self-assembled monolayer, with red “hills” depicting individual “switched-on” molecules. Under certain conditions these molecules can be made to spontaneously change their electrical conductance. Such switches may one day allow for electronic devices consisting of individual molecules.

NANOSCIENCE With a $9-million grant from the National Science Foundation and matching funds from the University and the state of Pennsylvania, a Center for Nanoscale Science has been established at Penn State. The new interdisciplinary center will absorb and expand on the Center for Collective Phenomena in Restrictive Geometries, formed two years ago as one of 28 NSF Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers nationwide. “It’s a big addition to our programs, and a testament to the cooperation among faculty members and researchers at Penn State,” said Moses Chan, Evan Pugh professor of physics and the Center’s director. The latest award comes in response to a proposal submitted by a team of scientists led by Paul Weiss, professor of chemistry, and will allow several new research thrusts in addition to continuing work in established areas. One new area of focus will be molecular motors, tiny biological engines that could one day be harnessed in nanoscale devices with possible applications in medicine, computing, and many other fields. “All kinds of molecular motors exist in nature, driving materials and processes in living organisms,” Weiss said. “By gaining a better understanding of those processes, we hope to learn to move materials at the molecular scale in synthetic systems.” In addition to funding research, the NSF grant supports educational opportunities for undergraduate students, K-12 teachers and students, and the general public.

Zach Donhauser, Brent Mantooth, Kevin Kelly, Dave Allara, Jim Tour, and Paul Weiss

INNOVATION PARK

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our building projects have been approved for construction


Penn State 2002 Annual Report of Research Activity