MONDAY, MARCH 3, 2014, 8PM
Pre-concert lecture by Dr. Burton Karson, 7pm Segerstrom Center for the Arts Renée and Henry Segerstrom Concert Hall A SHANBROM FAMILY CONCERT LORIN MAAZEL
VIENNA PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA LORIN MAAZEL, CONDUCTOR JULIANE BANSE, SOPRANO
Symphony No. 8 in B minor “Unfinished”
Franz SCHUBERT (1797-1828)
I. Allegro moderato II. Andante con moto - INTERMISSION Symphony No. 4 in G major
Gustav MAHLER (1860-1911)
I. Bedächtig; nicht eilen II. In gemächlicher Bewegung; ohne Hast III. Ruhevoll IV. Sehr behaglich Juliane Banse, soprano
The Philharmonic Society gratefully acknowledges the Shanbrom Family Foundation for its generous sponsorship of tonight’s performance.
Exclusive Print Sponsor Although rare, all dates, times, artists, programs and prices are subject to change.
12 Photographing or recording this performance without permission is prohibited. Kindly disable pagers, cellular phones and other audible devices.
SCHUBERT: SYMPHONY NO. 8 IN B MINOR “UNFINISHED” D.759 In the fall of 1822, Schubert began a new symphony. He quickly completed two movements and began a third, a scherzo. He sketched out 129 measures of this scherzo and took the time to orchestrate the first nine. And then he stopped. The following year Schubert sent the manuscript to his friend Anselm Huttenbrenner, probably as a gesture of appreciation for Schubert’s having been awarded a “diploma of honor” by the Styrian Music Society of Graz, of which Huttenbrenner was a member. And at that point Schubert apparently forgot about this symphony. He never mentioned it again. He never heard it performed. The manuscript sat on dusty shelves for four decades. In 1865, conductor Johann Herbeck visited the aged Huttenbrenner in Graz and inquired about the existence of any Schubert manuscripts. Huttenbrenner showed him the symphony, and Herbeck led the premiere in Vienna on December 17, 1865. It was an instant triumph, yet mystery continues to swirl around this music. Why did Schubert stop? Did he stop? (Some have suggested that Schubert actually completed this symphony and later used its finale in his incidental music to Rosamunde.) And why should an “unfinished” (and forgotten) symphony have become one of the best-loved pieces ever composed? Despite its odd form—two moderately-paced movements instead of the customary four at different tempi—the Symphony in B minor is a fully satisfying musical and emotional experience. The “Unfinished” is built on some of the most singable tunes in classical music, yet Schubert can transform those melodies into dramatic music full of craggy attacks, epic monumentality, and eerie silences. Schubert’s control of orchestral color is remarkable here as well: three trombones give this music unusual weight, but even more impressive are the many shades of instrumental color he
The Fourth is Mahler’s friendliest symphony—even people who claim not to like Mahler take this music to their hearts. At just under an hour in length, it is also the shortest of Mahler’s ten symphonies, and it is scored for an orchestra that is—by his standards—relatively modest: it lacks trombones and tuba. Mahler’s claim that the Fourth never rises to a fortissimo is not literally true, but it is figuratively true, for even at its loudest this symphony is Mahler’s most approachable work. Much of its charm comes from the text sung by the soprano in the last movement, with its wide-eyed child’s vision of heaven. In fact, several recordings use a boy soprano in place of a woman in the finale, because the sound of a child’s voice is exactly right in this music. This sense of a child’s vision—full of wonder, innocence, and radiance—touches the entire Fourth Symphony.
All alone, cellos and doublebasses lay out the ominous opening of the Allegro moderato, marked pianissimo. But this turns out to be only an introduction—the movement proper begins as winds offer the long opening melody over skittering, nervous strings. Cellos sing the famous second subject, and then comes a complete surprise: Schubert ignores both these themes and builds the development on that dark introductory melody. That music explodes with unexpected fury, and what had seemed a “lyric” symphony suddenly becomes a very dramatic one. Then another surprise: Schubert recalls the themes of the exposition and closes on a subdued memory of the The symphony opens with the sound of sleighbells, introduction. This movement is powerful, lyric, dramat- and violins quickly sing the graceful main subject. ic, beautiful—and utterly original. Mahler marks this movement Bedächtig (Deliberately), and it is remarkable for the profusion The second movement also proceeds at a moderate pace: of its melodic material: a jaunty tune for clarinets, a Andante con moto. Once again, there are two principal broad and noble melody for cellos, a lyric melody for themes—the violins’ sweet opening phrase and a poised cellos, a poised little duet for oboes and bassoons. We woodwind melody over syncopated accompaniment— arrive at what seems to be the development, and and once again, this movement combines a granitic mon- scarcely has this begun when an entirely new theme— umentality with the most haunting lyricism. A short a radiant call for four unison flutes—looks ahead to development leads to a full recapitulation, and a beauti- the celestial glories of the final movement. This movefully extended coda draws this symphony to its calm con- ment proceeds melodically rather than dramatically— clusion. there are no battles fought and won here—and at the end the opening violin theme drives the movement to Such a summary may describe the “Unfinished” its ringing close on great G major chords. Symphony, but it cannot begin to explain its appeal. We may never know why Schubert did not complete more The second movement—In gemächlicher Bewegung than these two movements, but the symphony’s unusual (Moving leisurely)—is in a rather free form: it might form has not kept it from becoming one of the most be described as a scherzo with two trios. Mahler famous ever written, and few of the millions who have requires here that the concertmaster play two violins, loved this music have ever considered it “unfinished.” one of them tuned up a whole step to give it a whining, piercing sound—Mahler asks that it sound Wie MAHLER: SYMPHONY NO. 4 IN G MAJOR eine Fiedel (like a fiddle). Mahler said that this moveIn April 1897 Mahler was named director of the Vienna ment was inspired by a self-portrait by the German Court Opera, the most prestigious post in the world of painter Arnold Böcklin in which the devil—in this music. But the fierce demands of that position brought case a skeleton—plays a violin (with only one string!) his composing to a standstill, and from the summer of in the painter’s ear. Despite all Mahler’s suggestions of 1896 until the summer of 1899 he composed no new demonic influence, this music remains genial rather music. Finally established in Vienna, he could return to than nightmarish—in Donald Francis Tovey’s woncreative work, and during the summer of 1899 he retreat- derful phrase, the shadows cast here “are those of the ed to the resort town of Altaussee in the Styrian Alps and nursery candlelight.” composed the first two movements of his Fourth Symphony. He completed the symphony the following However attractive the second movement may be, it year at his new summer home on the shores of the finds its match in the third, marked Ruhevoll Wörthersee and led the premiere in Munich on (Peaceful), which begins with some of the most beauNovember 25, 1901. tiful music ever written: a long, glowing melody for
about the program
achieves through his subtle handling of solo winds. Also striking is the ease of Schubert’s harmonic language— this music glides effortlessly between keys, sometimes with the effect of delicately shifting patterns of light. And through both movements runs a haunting, somber beauty.
about the artists
cellos and its countertheme in the violins. This movement is in variation form, with the variations based on this opening theme and on a more somber second subject, sung first by the oboe. Near the close, violins suddenly leap up and the gates of heaven swing open brilliant brass fanfares and smashing timpani offer a glimpse of paradise, but that finale must wait for this movement to reach its utterly peaceful close. Out of the silence, a solo clarinet sings the main theme of the finale, marked Sehr behaglich (Very comfortable), and soon the soprano takes up her gentle song. Mahler had originally composed this song, titled Dashimmlische Leben (The Heavenly Life), in 1892 when he was conductor of the Hamburg Opera. Its text, drawn from Das Knaben Wunderhorn, offers a child’s vision of heaven. Mahler said that he wished to create a portrait of heaven as “clear blue sky,” and this vision of heaven glows with a child’s sense of wonder. It is a place full of apples, pears, and grapes, a place where Saint Martha does the cooking, Saint Peter the fishing, where there is music and dancing and joy. The sleighbells from the symphony’s opening now return to separate the four stanzas, and at the end the soprano sings the key line: “Kein Musik ist ja nicht auf Erden” (There is no such music on earth). For this truly is heavenly music, music of such innocence that it feels as if it must have come from another world, and at the end of this most peaceful of Mahler symphonies the harp and contrabasses draw the music to its barelyaudible close. - Program notes by Eric Bromberger THE VIENNA PHILHARMONIC There is perhaps no other musical ensemble more consistently and closely associated with the history and tradition of European classical music than the Vienna Philharmonic. In the course of its more than 160-year history, the musicians of this most prominent orchestra of the capital city of music have been an integral part of a musical epoch which, due to an abundance of uniquely gifted composers and interpreters, must certainly be regarded as unique. The orchestra's close association with this rich musical history is best illustrated by the statements of countless preeminent musical personalities of the past. Richard Wagner described the orchestra as being one of the most outstanding in the world; Anton Bruckner called it "the most superior musical association;" Johannes Brahms counted himself as a "friend and admirer;" Gustav Mahler claimed to be joined together through "the bonds of musical art;" and Richard Strauss sum-
marized these sentiments by saying: "All praise of the Vienna Philharmonic reveals itself as understatement." LORIN MAAZEL, CONDUCTOR For more than five decades, Lorin Maazel has been one of the world’s most esteemed and sought-after conductors. Between 2005 and 2011 he was inaugural Music Director of the Palau de les Arts Reina Sofia in Valencia. He was Music Director of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra from 2002 to 2009 (during which time he conducted the orchestra on its landmark visit to North Korea), and currently holds the same post with the Münchner Philharmoniker. He is also founder and Artistic Director of the acclaimed Castleton Festival in Virginia, a ground-breaking festival and training program for young artists, which is expanding its activities nationally and internationally year on year. Lorin Maazel has been Music Director of the Symphonieorchester des Bayerischen Rundfunks (19932002), and of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra (1988-96); General Manager, Artistic Director and Principal Conductor of Vienna State Opera (198284)—the first American to hold that position; Music Director of The Cleveland Orchestra (1972-82); and Artistic Director and Chief Conductor of the Deutsche Oper Berlin (1965-71). His close association with the Wiener Philharmoniker includes 11 internationally televised New Year’s Concerts from Vienna. In 2011, he completed a significant Mahler cycle in London with the Philharmonia Orchestra (celebrating Mahler’s centenary year), in addition to touring extensively with the orchestra in Europe. 2013-14 season highlights include a major European tour with the Wiener Philharmoniker. Other guest engagements include appearances with the Philharmonia Orchestra, Berliner Philharmoniker, Orchestre Philharmonique de Monte-Carlo, and four concerts with the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra. In spring 2014, Maazel conducts the Boston Symphony Orchestra in Boston and on a major tour to China and Japan. A second-generation American born in Paris, Lorin Maazel began violin lessons at the age of five and conducting lessons at seven. He studied with Vladimir Bakaleinikoff and appeared publicly for the first time at age eight. At 17, he entered the University of Pittsburgh to study languages, mathematics and philosophy, and in 1951 travelled to Italy on a Fulbright Fellowship to further his studies. Two years later, he made his European conducting debut, stepping in for an ailing conductor at the Massimo Bellini Theatre in Catania, Italy. He quick-
Lorin Maazel is also a highly regarded composer. His wide-ranging catalogue of works includes his first opera, 1984, based on George Orwell’s novel, which received its world premiere at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, in May 2005. He has an equally strong commitment to environmental and humanitarian causes and has raised millions of dollars for such organizations as UNESCO, World Wide Fund for Nature, Red Cross and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). In more than 70 years on the podium, Lorin Maazel has conducted nearly 200 orchestras in no fewer than 7,000 opera and concert performances. He has made more than 300 recordings, including symphonic cycles/complete orchestral works of Beethoven, Brahms, Debussy, Mahler, Schubert, Tchaikovsky, Rachmaninov and Richard Strauss, winning ten Grands Prix du Disques JULIANE BANSE, SOPRANO Her stage debut as a twenty-year-old in the role of Pamina in Harry Kupfer’s production of The Magic Flute at the Komische Oper Berlin and her much-fêted performance as Snow White in the premiere of the opera of the same name (Schneewittchen) by Heinz Holliger in Zurich ten years later are prime examples of Juliane Banse’s outstanding artistic versatility. By now her operatic repertoire ranges from the Countess in Figaro (her debut at the Salzburg Festival), Eva (Meistersinger von Nürnberg), Fiordiligi (Così fan tutte), Genoveva (title role), across Tatyana (Eugene Onegin), Donna Elvira (Don Giovanni), Arabella (title role), Grete (Der ferne Klang) to Vitellia (La Clemenza di Tito), which she sang last season at the Vienna State Opera in parallel with the Daughter in Hindemith’s Cardillac. In the same season she also sang Eva in Wagner’s Meistersinger von Nürnberg at the Zurich Opera House. Recently she expanded her repertoire to include Leonore (Fidelio) under Nikolaus Harnoncourt at the Theater an der Wien. She can be seen performing Rosalinde (Die Fledermaus) in Chicago this season. On the concert stage, Ms. Banse is sought after in a wide variety of roles. She has worked with numerous other conductors of note, including Lorin Maazel, Riccardo Chailly, Bernard Haitink, Franz Welser-Möst, and Mariss Jansons.
The current season takes Juliane Banse to the Schubertiade Schwarzenberg again, and to the Wigmore Hall London, as well as to the Konzerthaus Wien with Bo Skovhus. Her concert diary includes Dvořák’s Requiem with the Budapest Festival Orchestra under Iván Fischer, an orchestral performance of Hindemith’s Cardillac with the Munich Radio Orchestra, and a U.S. tour with the Vienna Philharmonic under Daniele Gatti with Mahler’s Fourth Symphony. Further engagements take her to the WDR Symphony Orchestra under Christoph Eschenbach, to the Finnish Radio Symphony Orchestra under Jukka-Pekka Saraste, as well as to the Budapest Festival Orchestra under Iván Fischer.
about the artists
ly established himself as a major artist, appearing at Bayreuth in 1960 (the first American to do so), with the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1961, and at the Salzburg Festival in 1963.
Ms. Banse was born in southern Germany and grew up in Zurich. She took lessons first with Paul Steiner, and later with Ruth Rohner at the Zurich Opera House, completing her studies under Brigitte Fassbaender and Daphne Evangelatos in Munich. Many of her CD recordings have won awards. Two recordings with Juliane Banse won the Echo Klassik: Braunfels’ Jeanne D’Arc with the Swedish Radio Symphony Orchestra under Manfred Honeck (nominated “first world recording of the year”) and Mahler’s Eighth Symphony with the Tonhalle Orchester Zürich under David Zinman (“symphonic recording of the year, 19th century”). Further projects include a collection of opera arias under the title Per Amore with the German Radio Philharmonic Saarbrücken Kaiserslautern, the recording of Lieder Tief in der Nacht with Aleksandar Madzar, and finally the film Hunter’s Bride/Der Freischütz with the London Symphony Orchestra, Juliane Banse playing Agathe, directed by Daniel Harding.
o r c h es t r a r o s t e r
VIENNA PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA
ConCertmaster Rainer Küchl Rainer Honeck Volkhard Steude Albena Danailova FIrst VIoLIn Eckhard Seifert Hubert Kroisamer Josef Hell Jun Keller Daniel Froschauer Günter Seifert Clemens Hellsberg Erich Schagerl Bernhard Biberauer Martin Kubik Milan Ŝetena Martin Zalodek Kirill Kobantchenko Wilfried Hedenborg Johannes Tomböck Pavel Kuzmichev Isabelle Ballot Andreas Großbauer Olesya Kurylyak Maxim Brilinsky Thomas Küblböck * seConD VIoLIn Raimund Lissy Tibor Kovác Christoph Koncz Gerald Schubert René Staar Helmut Zehetner George Fritthum Alexander Steinberger Harald Krumpöck Michal Kostka Benedict Lea Marian Lesko Johannes Kostner Martin Klimek Jewgenij Andrusenko Shkёlzen Doli Dominik Hellsberg Holger Groh Patricia Koll *
VIoLa Heinrich Koll Tobias Lea Christian Frohn Wolf-Dieter Rath Robert Bauerstatter Gerhard Marschner Mario Karwan Martin Lemberg Elmar Landerer Innokenti Grabko Michael Strasser Ursula Plaichinger Thilo Fechner Thomas Hajek Daniela Ivanova CeLLo Tamás Varga Robert Nagy Friedrich Dolezal Raphael Flieder Csaba Bornemisza Gerhard Iberer Wolfgang Härtel Eckart Schwarz-Schulz Stefan Gartmayer Ursula Wex Sebastian Bru Edison Pashko Bernhard Naoki Hedenborg * ContraBass Herbert Mayr Christoph Wimmer Ödön Rácz Jerzy (Jurek) Dybal Iztok Hrastnik * Alexander Matschinegg Michael Bladerer Bartosz Sikorski Jan-Georg Leser Jedrzej Gorski Filip Waldmann Elias Mai *
HarP Charlotte Balzereit Anneleen Lenaerts * FLute Dieter Flury Walter Auer Karl Heinz Schütz * Günter Federsel Wolfgang Breinschmid Karin Bonelli * oBoe Martin Gabriel Clemens Horak Harald Hörth Alexander Öhlberger Wolfgang Plank Herbert Maderthaner CLarInet Ernst Ottensamer Matthias Schorn Daniel Ottensamer Norbert Täubl Johann Hindler Andreas Wieser Bassoon Michael Werba Stepan Turnovsky Harald Müller Reinhard Öhlberger Wolfgang Koblitz Benedikt Dinkhauser Horn Ronald Janezic Lars Michael Stransky Sebastian Mayr Wolfgang Lintner Jan Jankovic Wolfgang Vladar Thomas Jöbstl Wolfgang Tomböck Jr. Manuel Huber
trumPet Gotthard Eder Martin Mühlfellner Stefan Haimel Hans Peter Schuh Reinhold Ambros Jürgen Pöchhacker tromBone Dietmar Küblböck Mark Gaal Johann Ströcker tuBa Paul Halwax Christoph Gigler PerCussIon Bruno Hartl Anton Mittermayr Erwin Falk Klaus Zauner Oliver Madas Benjamin Schmidinger Thomas Lechner