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Pre-concert lecture by Dr. Burton Karson, 7pm Segerstrom Center for the Arts Renée and Henry Segerstrom Concert Hall


Violin Concerto No. 2 in E major, BWV 1042

Johann Sebastian BACH (1685-1750)


Allegro Adagio Allegro assai Pinchas Zukerman, violin

Arnold SCHOENBERG (1874-1951)

Verklärte Nacht

- INTERMISSION Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major, Op. 55 “Eroica”

Ludwig van BEETHOVEN (1770-1827)

Allegro con brio Marcia funebre: Adagio assai Scherzo: Allegro vivace Finale: Allegro molto EXCLUSIVE MANAGEMENT Columbia Artists Management LLC 5 Columbus Circle at 1790 Broadway New York, NY 10019 |

The Philharmonic Society gratefully acknowledges Donna L. Kendall Foundation for its generous sponsorship of tonight’s performance. We dedicate this performance to the memory of a dear friend, Nancy Caldwell

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Between the years 1717 and 1723, Bach was employed as Kapellmeister at the court of Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cöthen. The composer was well known in his time as an organ virtuoso, but he was also an accomplished violinist and an excellent viola da gamba player. Having no organ available there, Bach turned his attention to works for other instruments. It was at this time that he composed most of his instrumental chamber music, as well as the six Brandenburg Concerti and the concerti for one or more violins, which were later arranged for harpsichord(s) and orchestra. The Violin Concerto in E major, BWV 1042, believed to have been composed circa 1720, was the second of the two extant works written by Bach for solo violin and orchestra; two other violin concertos have been reconstructed from various different sources. It is also believed that BWV 1042 was revised by Bach himself after 1729 into the work we know today. The E major Concerto was written in the Italian style after Vivaldi, employing the pattern of three movements with a tempo scheme of fast-slow-fast. The outer movements feature the exact repetition of longer or shorter formal sections; refrains employing fundamental thematic material are repeated in various tonalities, while inserted between these thematic recurrences are several episodes of musical material, either thematically borrowed or altogether new in thematic content. The opening Allegro combines the concerto principle with da capo (A-B-A) form; its main thematic material is based on the bold outline of an E major triad, heard or implied throughout, embellished by

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SCHOENBERG: VERKLÄRTE NACHT ("TRANSFIGURED NIGHT"), OP. 4 Schoenberg, one of the most influential and controversial composers of the twentieth-century, had virtually no formal education in music; following the death of his father, he was forced at sixteen to abandon hopes of college and secure employment in a local bank. Aided by his prodigious musical aptitude and natural inclination towards self-education and expansion, what little instruction he received in composition came mainly from friends with some conservatory training. Nevertheless, he went on to become the father of the second "Viennese School" of composition. Schoenberg's compositions fall within four distinct stylistic periods, beginning with the late-Romantic works of his youth, written within the framework of traditional tonic-dominant tonality. By 1908, Arnold Schoenberg was exploring musical possibilities never employed by the masters that preceded him. He was the first composer who abandoned conventional tonality for a style called "pantonality" by Schoenberg,

and "atonality" by others. The Expressionist pieces that emerged from this period were to give way in the years to follow to the Serialist works that evolved out of these principles, and by 1920 Schoenberg was composing twelve-tone serial music exclusively. (This method of composition, established by Schoenberg, involves using all semitones in the formation of a "tone-row" which provides the motivic basis of a given piece; in strict serialism, no tone can be repeated until the other eleven have been sounded.) In the 1930s, Schoenberg's music achieved a greater stylistic diversity, including occasional returns to tonality. Composed in 1899, Verklärte Nacht predates Schoenberg's serial approach by some twenty years. Unlike the works employing his twelve-tone techniques, Verklärte Nacht is deeply imbued with the spirit of romantic poetry and a harmonic idiom which stems directly from Richard Wagner. Inspired by German poet Richard Dehmel's poem Weib und die Welt ("Woman and the World"), in just three weeks, Schoenberg completed the first genuine "programmatic" piece written for the chamber medium. Following is an English paraphrase of the poem provided by Henry Krehbiel:


elaborations woven about by the solo violin. After the initial tutti section, there is a dialogue of four repeats exchanged between the soloist and the orchestra. The first solo part then sounds the triadic theme which is then followed by rhythmic divertissements, occurring in either the solo violin or the orchestra. After a pause on the dominant key comes the conclusion of the movement which is distinguished by its breadth and variety. The Adagio, in triple meter, is in C-sharp minor, and is an example of a chaconne in which the ground bass is introduced by the low strings and repeated frequently. This movement has the character of an affecting meditation; a mood of lyric exaltation is attained as the solo violin spins its expressive melody over the ostinato bass motif. The closing Allegro assai, also in triple , is built upon a rondo structure—this in itself, an oddity for Bach. This movement returns to the tonic key of E major, with a lighter, more external character in contrast to the previous Adagio. A sixteen-measure tutti provides the principal section and the basis of the rondo form. This section is repeated five times, between which there are four episodes wherein the soloist is displayed with ever increasing brilliance. The presence of a variant of the triadic outlining, first heard in the opening, relates the outer movements, lending unity to the work as a whole.  2000 Columbia Artists Management Inc.

Two mortals walk through a cold, barren grove. The moon sails over the tall oaks, which send their scrawny branches up through the unclouded moonlight. A woman speaks. She confesses a sin to the man at her side: she is with child, and he is not its father. She had lost belief in happiness, and longing for life's fullness, for motherhood and mother's duty, she had surrendered herself, shuddering, to the embraces of a man she knew not. She had thought herself blessed, but now life had avenged itself upon her by giving her the love of him with whom she walks. She staggers onward, gazing with lack-lustre eye at the moon which follows her. A man speaks. Let her not burden her soul with thoughts of guilt. See, the moon's sheen enwraps the universe. Together they are driving over chill waters, but a flame from each warms the other. It, too, will transfigure the little stranger, and she will bear the child to him. For she has inspired the brilliant glow within him and made him, too, a child. They sink into each other's arms. Their breaths meet in kisses in the air. Two mortals wander through the wondrous moonlight. Schoenberg originally wrote Verklärte Nacht for a string sextet; this version was completed in December of 1899, and received its world premiere in Vienna on 3


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March 18, 1902. As this performance was not successful, Schoenberg made a transcription of the work for chamber orchestra in 1917. In 1943, he incorporated a few additional stylistic changes, and it is in this form that Verklärte Nacht attained world-wide popularity, becoming the composer's most-often-played work. Tonight, the work will be performed in its original version for string sextet. At the opening of the work, a quiet nocturnal mood is established. The atmospheric introduction portrays the lovers walking in the moonlit grove; this music later becomes the transition between the two main sections of the work. Against tremolos from the violins and violas, the first, turbulent theme is presented. The theme subsides, and the proceedings become passionate with a number of motifs that convey the woman's anguish and agitation over her confession, arriving at a forceful climax. Material from the introduction is heard again, this time loudly in a powerfully accented recitative-like passage, as the man ponders what he has just learned. With new melodic material, as well as with the expansion of motifs heard earlier, the man reassures her, in a section characterized by warmth and tenderness. Over undulating figures, a solo violin playing in its upper register a new version of the main theme, announces the transfiguration of the unborn child. The main theme is soon heard in polyphonic treatment and with a passionate crescendo, the lovers embrace. The introductory material then returns to close the proceedings as the lovers continue on their quiet walk under the light of the moon. © 2000 Columbia Artists Management Inc. BEETHOVEN: SYMPHONY NO. 3 IN E-FLAT MAJOR, OP. 55 ("EROICA") It was during the year 1802 that Beethoven realized that his loss of hearing would become a permanent reality. Overcome by depression, he withdrew from his friends and spent many lonesome hours brooding about his fate; he also wrote the famous "Heiligenstadt Testament" in which he bemoaned his ailment but accepted its finality, defended himself against charges of misanthropy, and took leave of his brothers, declaring that, although he now rejected the notion of suicide, he would welcome death when it chose to come for him. Yet in spite of these tragic circumstances, the artistic yield of that year is astonishing. Some of the works the composer was in the midst of writing include the three violin sonatas of Opus 30 and the


Kreutzer sonata; the three piano sonatas of Op. 31; the oratorio Christ on the Mount of Olives; and the Second Symphony, which he completed that summer. Shortly thereafter, he began work on the Third Symphony; he also confessed to his close friend Wenzel Krumpholz: “I am not satisfied with any of my works up to the present time. From today I mean to take a new road.” The Testament being dated October 6 and the Third Symphony having been started the same month seem to indicate that both were an outgrowth of the same basic experience. In a violent rebound from despair, Beethoven took a sudden leap into a wholly new tonal world; the few months intervening between the completion of the Second Symphony and the first sketches of the Third were sufficient for him to turn his back on Mozart and Haydn and look far into the future. In his book Beethoven: His Spiritual Development, J.W.N. Sullivan says: “The first piece of music he composed that has a really profound and important spiritual content is the “Eroica” Symphony. Indeed, the difference from the earlier music is so startling that it points to an almost catastrophic change, or extremely rapid acceleration in his spiritual development...we shall see that the “Eroica” Symphony is an amazingly realized and coordinated expression of the spiritual experiences that underlay [the Heiligenstadt Testament].” Completed in 1804, the “Eroica” presents two striking innovations: a Funeral March, which at the time was unheard of in a symphony, and a Finale comprising a set of variations. In addition, the depth to which the composer carried the development of his themes made this the longest symphony ever written at the time. Beethoven's sketch books reveal a relentless determination to forge the simplest motifs into fragments full of import and stamped with an unmistakable character that would relate them to each other and to the work as a whole. Beethoven, a democrat in an age of revolution, originally dedicated his Third Symphony to Napoleon, who, at the time, was known less as a soldier than as a public figure who championed freedom and would restore his country to prosperity and order. The manuscript of the symphony bore Napoleon's name at the top and the composer's at the bottom. But when the composer learned that Napoleon had proclaimed himself Emperor, he was so outraged that he tore off the title page. The score was published two years later, in 1806, without any reference to the tyrant; instead the title page read: “Heroic symphony in celebration of the memory of a great man.” Many music com-

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mentators have remarked that if anyone is portrayed in this work, it is surely the composer himself. The first movement begins with two quick and mighty staccato chords, then proceeds directly to the main subject which is heard somewhat tentatively but clearly in the cellos. This theme is subsequently repeated boldly and vigorously in octaves by the horns, clarinets and flutes. About the straightforward, rather military theme, Beethoven has built a structure of surging sound. Occasionally the theme is heard in one or another of the many choirs of the orchestra, dominating the elaboration. After the introduction of the contrasting theme, divided between the woodwinds and violins, both motifs are developed superbly. Despite the powerful ideas projected throughout the orchestra and culminating in a succession of forceful tones, the simple utterance at the beginning of the basic portion of the movement prevails. The significance of the music of the second movement is unmistakable. The slow rhythm can be only that of a funeral march, the first ever to appear in a symphony. The theme, although originally presented quietly and sadly, is sometimes expressed vehemently. Then from the oboe comes a sad and beautiful melody to answer the melancholic utterances of the bass. Later, another very lyrical and important theme is introduced by the strings and the two subjects are developed. The swift vigor of the opening notes of the Scherzo contrasts sharply with the dirge and is a relief to its solemnity. A murmuring in the strings played lightly but swiftly and energetically becomes a tumultuous sound. In the delightful trio a subject resembling a hunting call is announced by the three horns (not two or four!) and is answered soon by the whole orchestra. This is repeated wistfully by the horns and for a moment the instruments respond with a suggestion of sadness. The unexpected joy of the opening of the movement returns in the powerful climax. The Finale is a unique blend of variations on a double theme and sonata form. Here Beethoven uses a theme which he had used three times before—in the ballet, The Creatures of Prometheus, the Variations for Piano, Op. 35, and in a contradanse. After a few measures of introduction, the bass to the coming melody is heard as an independent theme, plucked simply by the strings. The first variation pits the theme on the strings against a counter-subject; the second variation presents the theme once again on the strings, adorned by florid counterpoint. For the third variation the theme is now only implied, while the oboe presents the melody that makes up the second subject. The fourth variation is a


long fugal treatment of the first theme against the counter-subject heard in the first variation. This is followed by a new fugal development of both themes. The tempo changes to a slower pace and the woodwinds play an expressive verse of the second theme, and further development ensues. Shortly thereafter, the brass present a majestic statement of the theme. After a final development section, the coda brings the “Eroica” Symphony to its conclusion in a grandiose burst of sound and excitement.  1994 Columbia Artists Management Inc. ROYAL PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA Founded in 1946 by Sir Thomas Beecham, the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra (RPO) has enjoyed more than sixty-five years of success worldwide, giving first-class performances of a wide range of musical repertoire with artists of the highest caliber. Under the inspired leadership of Artistic Director and Principal Conductor Charles Dutoit, the Orchestra maintains and builds on a demanding schedule of performances, tours, community and education work, and recordings. Throughout its history, the Orchestra has been directed by a number of distinguished conductors, including Rudolf Kempe, Antal Doráti, André Previn, Vladimir Ashkenazy, Yuri Temirkanov and Daniele Gatti. Today the Orchestra enjoys the support of high-ranking conductors such as Pinchas Zukerman and Grzegorz Nowak. 5


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Central to the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra’s thriving concert schedule is its prestigious annual series at Southbank Centre’s Royal Festival Hall. At Cadogan Hall, the Orchestra’s London home, the idyllic location and intimate surroundings provide the perfect concert atmosphere. Completing the Orchestra’s London program of concerts is a series of monumental performances at the iconic Royal Albert Hall, ranging from largescale choral and orchestral works to themed evenings of well-known repertoire. The Orchestra offers a comprehensive regional touring programme, with established residencies in Croydon, Northampton, Lowestoft, Reading, Crawley, Ipswich, High Wycombe, Aylesbury, Dartford, Guildford and Cambridge. Internationally, the RPO is also in high demand, undertaking several major tours each season; recent locations include the U.S., Canada, Russia, Azerbaijan, Spain, Italy, Germany, Japan and China. This year marks the 20th anniversary of the Orchestra’s vibrant community and education programme, RPO resound. Since 1993, specially trained musicians have worked alongside accomplished project leaders to deliver numerous pioneering projects, enabling greater access to and engagement with worldclass music-making in the wider community. Frequently found in the recording studio, the Orchestra records extensively for film and television as well as for many of the major commercial record companies. In October 2013, the Orchestra launched its new app, RPO Rewards, which is currently available for download on the App Store and Google Play. PINCHAS ZUKERMAN Principal Guest Conductor & Violin Soloist Pinchas Zukerman has remained a phenomenon in the world of music for more than four decades. His musical genius, prodigious technique and unwavering artistic standards are a marvel to audiences and critics. Devoted to the next generation of musicians, he has inspired younger artists with his magnetism and passion. His enthusiasm for teaching has resulted in innovative programs in London, New York, China, Israel and Ottawa. The name Pinchas Zukerman is equally respected as violinist, violist, conductor, pedagogue and chamber musician. Pinchas Zukerman’s 2013–14 season includes more than 100 worldwide performances, bringing him to


multiple destinations in North America, Europe, Asia and Australia. Zukerman is currently in his 15th season as Music Director of the National Arts Centre Orchestra of Ottawa, with which he tours China this autumn. In his fifth season as Principal Guest Conductor of the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra in London, he leads the ensemble in concerts in Spain, Russia and the United Kingdom and a nationwide tour of the United States. Additional orchestral engagements include the Vienna Philharmonic, Boston Symphony, Budapest Festival, Salzburg Camerata, Israel Philharmonic and Royal Scottish National orchestras, and a return visit to Australia for appearances with the Sydney Symphony Orchestra, Adelaide Symphony Orchestra and the West Australian Symphony Orchestra in Perth. Spring recitals with pianist Yefim Bronfman take place throughout North America, and the Zukerman Chamber Players perform at the Ravinia, Verbier and Miyazaki Festivals in addition to their third South American tour. Over the last decade, Pinchas Zukerman has become as equally regarded a conductor as an instrumentalist, leading many of the world’s top ensembles in a wide variety of the orchestral repertoire’s most demanding works. A devoted and innovative pedagogue, Mr Zukerman chairs the Pinchas Zukerman Performance Program at the Manhattan School of Music, where he has pioneered the use of distance-learning technology in the arts. In Canada, he has established the NAC Institute for Orchestra Studies and the Summer Music Institute encompassing the Young Artists, Conductors and Composers Programs. Born in Tel Aviv in 1948, Pinchas Zukerman came to America in 1962 where he studied at The Juilliard School with Ivan Galamian. He has been awarded the Medal of Arts, the Isaac Stern Award for Artistic Excellence and was appointed as the Rolex Mentor and Protégé Arts Initiative’s first instrumentalist mentor in the music discipline. Pinchas Zukerman’s extensive discography contains more than 100 titles, and has earned him 21 Grammy nominations and two awards. “Youth sticks with some people… Zukerman seems the forever-young virtuoso: expressively resourceful, infectiously musical, technically impeccable, effortless. As usual, it was a joy to be in his musical company.” – The Los Angeles Times

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SECOND VIOLIN Andrew Storey Elen Hâf Richards Jennifer Christie Charlotte Ansbergs Jenny Dear Stephen Payne Charles Nolan Sali-Wyn Ryan Peter Graham Stephen Kear Colin Callow Sophie Cameron VIOLA Fiona Winning Liz Varlow Abigail Fenna Andrew Sippings Jonathan Hallett Chian Lim Felix Tanner Clive Howard Daniel Cornford

CELLO Tim Gill Jonathan Ayling Chantal Webster Roberto Sorrentino Niamh Molloy William Heggart Shinko Hanaoka Rachel van der Tang Emma Black DOUBLE BASS Anthony Alcock David Broughton David Gordon Benjamin Cunningham John Holt Nicola Davenport Albert Dennis

BASSOON Rebecca Mertens Emma Harding

Royal Philharmonic Orchestra Management


Artistic Director and Principal Conductor Charles Dutoit

FRENCH HORN Philip Woods Jonathan Bareham Paul Gardham Andrew Fletcher TRUMPET Mike Allen Adam Wright TROMBONE Matthew Gee Philip Dewhurst

FLUTE Helen Keen Joanne Marsh


PICCOLO Julian Coward

TIMPANI Matthew Perry

OBOE John Roberts Timothy Watts

HARPSICHORD Alistair Young

Managing Director Ian Maclay Finance Director Michelle Johnson Concerts Director Elizabeth Forbes Tours Manager Rosemary Anthony


FIRST VIOLIN Duncan Riddell Tamás András Clare Duckworth Judith Templeman Naoko Keatley Andrew Klee Anthony Protheroe Erik Chapman Russell Gilbert Jonathan Lee Cindy Foster Shana Douglas Grace Lee Kaija Lukas

Director of Press & Marketing Chris Evans Education Manager Ruth Currie Orchestra Managers Jane Aebi Kathy Balmain Librarian Patrick Williams

CLARINET Nicholas Cox Thomas Watmough

Stage Manager Chris Ouzman


BEETHOVEN AND SCHROEDER Available for viewing at the following concerts: Jan. 22 (Royal Philharmonic) & May 15 (Beethoven-Finale) Renée and Henry Segerstrom Concert Hall, Segerstrom Center for the Arts An exhibition of Charles Schulz’s beloved Peanuts comic strips featuring a serious young pianist named Schroeder, whose love for Beethoven and his music was all consuming. A self-playing Yamaha Disklavier piano will accompany the exhibition and provide patrons with an up-close mini performance of Beethoven’s challenging Hammerklavier Sonata, which was featured in one of the strips. For a listing of all Beethoven: e Late Great events, visit

© Peanuts Worldwide, LLC.

Piano graciously provided by


Royal Philharmonic Program Book  

Wednesday, January 22, 2014 Renée & Henry Segerstrom Concert Hall

Royal Philharmonic Program Book  

Wednesday, January 22, 2014 Renée & Henry Segerstrom Concert Hall