Dvořák: The noonDAY wiTch, op. 108 SATURDAY, OCTOBER 11, 2014, 8PM Pre-concert lecture by Alan Chapman, 7pm Segerstrom Center for the Arts Renée and Henry Segerstrom Concert Hall
LONDON PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA Vladimir Jurowski, conductor Jean-Efflam Bavouzet, piano The Noonday Witch, Op. 108
Antonín DvOřák (1841-1904) Sergei PROKOFIEV (1891-1953)
Piano Concerto No. 3 in C major, Op. 26 Andante – Allegro Tema con variazioni Allegro, ma non troppo
Jean-Efflam Bavouzet, piano
- INTERMISSION Symphony No. 6 in B minor Op. 74 “Pathétique”
Pyotr Ilyich TCHAIKOVSKY (1840-1893)
Adagio – Allegro non troppo Allegro con grazia Allegro molto vivace Adagio lamentoso The London Philharmonic Orchestra's October 2014 US Tour is generously supported by Dunard Fund The Orchestra is also grateful for the support of the American Friends of the London Philharmonic Orchestra Maestro Jurowski is Principal Conductor and Artistic Advisor for the London Philharmonic Orchestra and is supported by the Tsukanov Family Foundation and one anonymous donor. COLUMBIA ARTISTS MANAGEMENT LLC Tour Direction: R. DOUGLAS SHELDON 1790 Broadway, New York, New York 10019-1412 www.cami.com The Philharmonic Society gratefully acknowledges the Donna L. Kendall Foundation for its generous sponsorship of tonight’s performance.
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Dvořák’s natural inclination as a composer of orchestral music, reinforced by his friendship with and encouragement by Brahms, was towards the Classical forms of the symphony and concerto. It was only towards the end of his career, three years after he had composed his last symphony (the “New World”) and one after completing his last concerto (for cello), that he gave serious attention to the genre more popular with composers of nationalist stamp, the descriptive tone-poem. From January to April 1896 he worked simultaneously on three tone-poems—The Water Goblin, The Noonday Witch and The Golden Spinning Wheel—based on traditional Czech tales preserved in the poet and folklorist Karel Jaromír Erben’s collection Kytice (“Bouquet”), first published in Prague in 1853. All three compositions were premiered in London in autumn, by which time Dvořák had completed a fourth work, The Wild Dove. The folk-stories Erben chose for his collection are run through with the humorous, the magical and the macabre, and The Noonday Witch (Polednice in its Czech title) is no exception. It tells of a mother working to prepare the midday meal for her husband, who is away laboring in the fields. In the corner of the kitchen her restless child begins to pester and then scream, and twice the exasperated mother warns him to be quiet or she will summon the noonday witch to take him away. At this, to the mother’s shock and horror, the door slowly opens to reveal the witch herself, who demands to be given the infant. There is a chase, and the mother swoons in exhaustion. As the clock strikes twelve the witch disappears, and when the father returns he finds his wife collapsed on the floor and his child dead. Dvořák’s musical treatment of the story is straightforward. At the beginning we hear the mother’s initial good temper interrupted by insistent repeated notes from the child. The irritation increases, until the mother lets fly, only half in anger it would seem. Until now the mood has remained essentially humorous, but this changes when a sinister blast on the low instruments and held notes on bass clarinet signal the arrival of the witch. She issues her demand in a seven-note phrase on bass clarinet and bassoon, a phrase which will grow in stature and menace in the struggle that ensues. Finally we hear the father’s jaunty return, confusion, and horror-struck discovery. © Lindsay Kemp
Prokofiev wrote his Third Piano Concerto during the years 1916-21—five years in which the world he knew changed out of all recognition. At the beginning Russia was still home. But the old Tsarist regime was completely unprepared for the onset of the First World War and the assault against Germany was poorly managed. Appalling losses followed, stoking up the resentment that would lead to the revolutions of 1917 and the destruction of the old Russia. By the time Prokofiev had finished the Third Piano Concerto, Tsarism had been replaced by Bolshevism, and Prokofiev (no revolutionary sympathizer) found it advisable to stay abroad. At first he tried to make a living in the U.S., and when that failed he tried Paris instead, with more success. And yet Prokofiev never felt fully at home in the West. For him, as for Stravinsky, Russian remained “the exiled language of my heart.” Although the unaccompanied clarinet tune that opens the Third Concerto doesn’t sound quite like any authentic folksong, many have found something characteristically Russian here. The theme seems ready to expand lyrically (strings and flute), but then it is swept away by a racing Allegro full of devilish rapid figuration for the soloist. In music like this we can gauge something of Prokofiev’s own brilliance as a pianist: commenting on Prokofiev’s playing not long after his arrival in America, one journalist dubbed him “the man with the steel fingers.” Nothing stays the same for long however: throughout this concerto mood, textures and character keep changing, sometimes with startling rapidity, and Prokofiev the deft, wicked ironist is rarely far away. The first movement’s second theme (oboe and pizzicato violins) seems jaunty enough, but the clicking castanets add a slightly macabre touch, which is strongly underlined when the theme returns towards the end of the movement. Then in the second movement, Prokofiev seems to take grim pleasure in subjecting his innocent-sounding Andantino (woodwind) theme to all manner of extreme transformations, through the angular violence of Variation III, and the eerie stillness of IV to the violent obsessive climax of Variation V. A more good-natured grotesquerie seems to emerge in the finale, but before long we see the demonic side of the piano again. After a while the tempo drops and a luscious melody, introduced by cellos, is treated to some fabulous intricate decorative work by the piano—magical Prokofievian night
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music at its finest. But then the dancing, pounding main theme returns, and the concerto ends in a whirl of steely sound. © Stephen Johnson
about the program
pRokoFIev: pIANo CoNCeRTo No. 3 IN C MAjoR, op. 26
TCHAIkovSkY: SYMpHoNY No. 6 IN B MINoR, op. 74”“pATHéTIque” Tchaikovsky composed the last of his six symphonies (seven if you include the unnumbered Manfred) between February and August 1893, and conducted the first performance in St. Petersburg in October. Nine days later, he was dead—possibly through suicide, hurriedly forced upon him to avoid a scandal. There is, of course, no way in which the music and this premature death can be directly related. But the Symphony was written according to a program which, although Tchaikovsky never revealed it, seems to have been connected to thoughts about mortality; and he willingly accepted his brother Modest’s suggested title for it of Symphonie pathétique—the adjective suggesting not so much pathos as suffering. Significantly, soon after completing the Symphony, he declined a suggestion that he should set to music a poem called Requiem by his old friend Alexey Apukhtin, who had recently died, on the grounds that it might involve attempting to repeat himself, after composing a work into which he had put “my entire soul.” An integral part of Tchaikovsky’s conception of the work was that it should have as its finale “not a noisy Allegro but a long Adagio.” This led to a thorough rethinking of the traditional sequence of movements in a symphony—starting with the first, and longest, movement, which maintains a balance between fast 3
about the program
and slow music. It begins with a dark-colored slow introduction, a late addition to the score which anticipates the striving first subject of the main Allegro. Then the second subject consists of a whole extended paragraph of slower music: a consoling D major string melody, a contrasting “middle section,” and an impassioned return to the string melody, echoed by a clarinet solo dying away to nothing. The fastest section of the movement is the development, which begins with a furious fugato, later overlaid by striding descending scales in the trumpets, and falls away to a solemn brass chorale which is in fact a chant from the Russian Orthodox funeral service, “With thy saints, O Christ, give peace to the soul of thy servant.” The recapitulation, launched at the peak of a new build-up of excitement, is a much altered and truncated version of the exposition, with a huge descending scale leading to a shortened version of the second subject (without its middle section), and a subdued coda. The two middle movements are both character-pieces of an unusual nature. The D major Allegro con grazia (“with grace”) is waltz-like, but in a consistent 5/4 time. The standard pattern of a trio section and a reprise of the opening is expanded by a transition from the trio which juxtaposes phrases from both sections, and a coda beginning with scale patterns, rising quickly and falling slowly. The Allegro molto vivace, in G major, is a brilliant march, largely concerned with building up anticipation, so that the final return of the main theme takes on a triumphant quality. But then the slow finale begins with a despairing melody, its scalewise descents initially shared note by note between first and second violins; and a descending scale in the bassoons leads to a major-key second theme which also begins with fragments of downward scales. This is driven to a climax, but then makes way for the extended return of the first theme in mounting waves of passion. Finally the downward scales that have increasingly dominated the whole work take over again, in a kind of vestigial minor-key return of the second subject, descending to the lowest depths of the orchestra before falling silent. © Anthony Burton LoNDoN pHILHARMoNIC oRCHeSTRA Recognized today as one of the finest orchestras on the international stage, the London Philharmonic Orchestra balances a long and distinguished history with a reputation as one of the UK’s most forward-looking ensembles.
As well as its concert performances, the Orchestra also records film soundtracks, releases CDs on its own record label, and reaches thousands of people every year through activities for families, schools and community groups. The Orchestra was founded by Sir Thomas Beecham in 1932, and has since been headed by many great conductors including Sir Adrian Boult, Bernard Haitink, Sir Georg Solti, Klaus Tennstedt and Kurt Masur. The Orchestra’s current Principal Conductor is Vladimir Jurowski, appointed in 2007. From September 2015 Andrés Orozco-Estrada will take up the position of Principal Guest Conductor. The London Philharmonic Orchestra has been performing at Southbank Centre’s Royal Festival Hall since it opened in 1951, becoming Resident Orchestra in 1992. It also has flourishing residencies in Brighton and Eastbourne, and in summer plays for Glyndebourne Festival Opera where it has been Resident Symphony Orchestra for more than 50 years. Touring abroad forms a significant part of the Orchestra’s schedule: highlights of the 2014-15 season include appearances across Europe (including Iceland) and tours to the United States (West and East Coasts), Canada and China. The London Philharmonic Orchestra broadcasts regularly on television and radio. It also works with the Hollywood and UK film industries, recording soundtracks for blockbusters including the Oscar-winning score for The Lord of the Rings trilogy. In 2005 it established its own record label. In summer 2012 the London Philharmonic Orchestra performed as part of The Queen’s Diamond Jubilee Pageant on the River Thames, and was also chosen to record all the world’s national anthems for the London 2012 Olympics. In 2013 it was the winner of the RPS Music Award for Ensemble. The London Philharmonic Orchestra maintains an energetic program of activities for young people including the BrightSparks schools’ concerts and FUNharmonics family concerts. Its work at the forefront of digital engagement and social media has enabled the Orchestra to reach even more people worldwide: all its recordings are available to download from iTunes and, as well as a
lpo.org.uk facebook.com/londonphilharmonicorchestra twitter.com/LPOrchestra vLADIMIR juRowSkI, CoNDuCToR One of today’s most sought-after and dynamic conductors, acclaimed worldwide for his incisive musicianship and adventurous artistic commitment, Vladimir Jurowski was born in Moscow, and completed the first part of his musical studies at the Music College of the Moscow Conservatory. In 1990 he relocated with his family to Germany, continuing his studies at the High Schools of Music in Dresden and Berlin. In 1995 he made his international debut at the Wexford Festival conducting Rimsky-Korsakov’s May Night, and the same year saw his debut at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, with Nabucco. Vladimir Jurowski was appointed Principal Guest Conductor of the London Philharmonic Orchestra in 2003, becoming the Orchestra’s Principal Conductor in September 2007. He also holds the titles of Principal Artist of the Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment and Artistic Director of the Russian State Academic Symphony Orchestra. He has also held the positions of First Kapellmeister of the Komische Oper, Berlin (1997–2001); Principal Guest Conductor of the Teatro Comunale di Bologna (2000–03); Principal Guest Conductor of the Russian National Orchestra (2005–09); and Music Director of Glyndebourne Festival Opera (2001–13). Vladimir Jurowski has appeared on the podium with many leading orchestras in Europe and North America including the Berlin and Vienna Philharmonic orchestras, the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, The Philadelphia Orchestra, the Boston and Chicago symphony orchestras, the Tonhalle-Orchester Zürich, the Gewandhausorchester Leipzig, and the Staatskapelle Dresden. Highlights of the 2013-14 season and beyond include his debuts with the New York Philharmonic, NHK Symphony (Tokyo) and San Francisco Symphony orchestras; tours with the Chamber Orchestra of Europe and the Mahler Chamber Orchestra; and return visits to the Chicago Symphony, Berlin Radio Symphony, Cleveland and Philadelphia orchestras, and the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia.
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Jurowski made his debut at the Metropolitan Opera, New York, in 1999 with Rigoletto, and has since returned for Jenůfa, The Queen of Spades and Hansel and Gretel. He has conducted Parsifal and Wozzeck at Welsh National Opera; War and Peace at the Opera National de Paris; Eugene Onegin at Teatro alla Scala, Milan; Ruslan and Ludmila at the Bolshoi Theatre; and Iolanta and Die Teufel von Loudon at the Dresden Semperoper, as well as The Magic Flute, La Cenerentola, Otello, Macbeth, Falstaff, Tristan und Isolde, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Don Giovanni, The Rake’s Progress, The Cunning Little Vixen, Ariadne auf Naxos and Peter Eötvös’s Love and Other Demons at Glyndebourne Festival Opera. In autumn 2013 he returned to the Metropolitan Opera for Die Frau ohne Schatten, and future engagements include Moses und Aron at the Komische Oper Berlin and The Fiery Angel at the Bayerische Staatsoper in Munich. Jurowski’s discography includes the first ever recording of the cantata Exil by Giya Kancheli for ECM; Meyerbeer’s L’étoile du Nord for Marco Polo; Massenet’s Werther for BMG; and a series of records for PentaTone with the Russian National Orchestra. The London Philharmonic Orchestra has released a wide selection of his live recordings on the LPO Label, including Brahms’ complete symphonies; Mahler���s Symphonies Nos. 1 and 2; Rachmaninoff’s Symphonic Dances; Tchaikovsky’s Symphonies 1, 4, 5, 6 and Manfred; and works by Turnage, Holst, Britten, Shostakovich, Honegger and Haydn. His tenure as Music Director at Glyndebourne has been documented in CD releases of La Cenerentola, Tristan und Isolde and Prokofiev’s Betrothal in a Monastery, and DVD releases of his performances of La 5
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Cenerentola, Gianni Schicchi, Die Fledermaus, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Don Giovanni and Rachmaninoff’s The Miserly Knight. Other DVD releases include Hansel and Gretel from the Metropolitan Opera; his first concert as the London Philharmonic Orchestra’s Principal Conductor featuring works by Wagner, Berg and Mahler; and DVDs with the Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenment (Beethoven’s Symphonies Nos. 4 and 7) and the Chamber Orchestra of Europe (Strauss and Ravel), all released by Medici Arts. Vladimir Jurowski’s position as Principal Conductor and Artistic Advisor of the London Philharmonic Orchestra is generously supported by the Tsukanov Family Foundation and one anonymous donor. jeAN-eFFLAM BAvouzeT, pIANo Award-winning pianist Jean-Efflam Bavouzet enjoys a prolific recording and international concert career. He is also Artistic Director of a new biennial piano festival set in the stunning scenery of Norway’s Lofoten Islands. The inaugural festival took place in July 2014. Bavouzet records exclusively for Chandos. His recent release featuring the complete Prokofiev Piano Concertos with the BBC Philharmonic and Gianandrea Noseda won the Concerto category of the 2014 Gramophone Awards. His earlier recordings have earned him multiple prizes, including two Gramophone Awards, two BBC Music Magazine Awards, a Diapason d’Or and Choc de l’année. Ongoing recording projects include Beethoven and Haydn Piano Sonata cycles. Summer 2014 sees Bavouzet perform with the Netherlands Philharmonic Orchestra at the Robeco SummerNights in Amsterdam’s Concertgebouw. He also returns to the Tivoli Orchestra to perform concertos by Haydn and Beethoven, directing from the keyboard. He kicks off his 2014-15 season with a U.S. tour with the London Philharmonic Orchestra under Vladimir Jurowski, which includes Carnegie Hall. The season also features his debuts with the Orchestre Philharmonique du Luxembourg under Emmanuel Krivine, the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra under Louis Langrée and the Orchestra della Svizzera Italiana in Lugano (Vladimir Ashkenazy).
He returns to the Orchestre National de France (Juanjo Mena), the Hong Kong Philharmonic, to Japan to work with the NHK Symphony Orchestra and to Australia for concerts with the Sydney and Adelaide symphony orchestras. His Residency at the Orquestra Sinfônica do Estado de São Paulo concludes with a week of chamber music, recitals and master classes. Recent highlights have included concerts with the Pittsburgh and Beijing symphony orchestras, as well as the Bayerisches Staatsorchester and FrançoisXavier Roth in Munich, and returns to the Philharmonia Orchestra, the Manchester Camerata (Gábor Takács-Nagy) and the Warsaw Philharmonic orchestra, where he performed the complete cycle of Beethoven’s piano concertos. He regularly collaborates with conductors such as Vasily Petrenko, Daniele Gatti, Valery Gergiev, Neeme Järvi, Esa-Pekka Salonen, Kirill Karabits, Andris Nelsons, Krzysztof Urbański, Antoni Wit, Yan-Pascal Tortelier and Iván Fischer. An equally active recitalist, Bavouzet returns this season to the Louvre in Paris and London’s Wigmore Hall, and gives recitals in Munich and Budapest as well as Taiwan, Melbourne and Brisbane. Bavouzet has worked closely with Pierre Boulez, Maurice Ohana and Bruno Mantovani and is also a champion of lesser-known French music, notably that of Gabriel Pierné and Albéric Magnard. He regularly collaborates with the Palazzetto Bru Zane and has devised a chamber music program dedicated to the music of Magnard. For more information please visit www.bavouzet.com.
LONDON PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA
SECOND VIOLIN Victoria Sayles Guest Principal Jeongmin Kim Joseph Maher Kate Birchall Chair supported by David & Victoria Graham Fuller Nancy Elan Fiona Higham Lorenzo Gentili-Tedeschi Marie-Anne Mairesse Ashley Stevens Harry Kerr Stephen Stewart Sheila Law Elizabeth Baldey John Dickinson VIOLA Cyrille Mercier Principal Robert Duncan Gregory Aronovich Katharine Leek Susanne Martens Benedetto Pollani Laura Vallejo Michelle Bruil Isabel Pereira Daniel Cornford Martin Fenn Sarah Malcolm
CELLO Kristina Blaumane Principal Pei-Jee Ng Francis Bucknall Laura Donoghue Santiago Carvalho David Lale Gregory Walmsley Elisabeth Wiklander Susanna Riddell Thomas Roff BASS Kevin Rundell Principal Tim Gibbs Co-Principal Laurence Lovelle George Peniston Richard Lewis Tom Walley Laura Murphy Sebastian Pennar FLUTE Juliette Bausor Guest Principal Sue Thomas Chair supported by the Sharp Family Stewart McIlwham Clare Robson PICCOLO Stewart McIlwham Principal Clare Robson OBOE Ian Hardwick Principal Lucie Sprague COR ANGLAIS Sue Bรถhling Principal CLARINET James Burke Guest Principal Emily Meredith BASS CLARINET Paul Richards Principal
CONTRABASSOON Claire Webster HORN David Pyatt Principal Chair supported by Simon Robey John Ryan Principal Martin Hobbs Mark Vines Co-Principal Gareth Mollison TRUMPET Nicholas Betts Principal Anne McAneney Chair supported by Geoff & Meg Mann Robin Totterdell David Geoghegan
Chair Supporters The London Philharmonic Orchestra also acknowledges the following chair supporter whose player is not present at this concert: Sonja Drexler MANAGEMENT Chief Executive & Artistic Director Timothy Walker AM Tours Manager Jenny Chadwick Orchestra Personnel Manager Andrew Chenery Assistant Orchestra Personnel Manager Ellie Swithinbank
TROMBONE Mark Templeton Principal Chair supported by William & Alex de Winton Matthew Knight
Stage Manager Christopher Alderton
BASS TROMBONE Lyndon Meredith Principal
Transport Manager Damian Davis
TUBA Lee Tsarmaklis Principal Chair supported by Friends of the Orchestra
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TIMPANI Simon Carrington Principal
Tour Direction R. Douglas Sheldon, Senior Vice President
PERCUSSION Andrew Barclay Principal Chair supported by Andrew Davenport Tom Edwards Keith Millar Jeremy Cornes Sarah Mason James Bower HARP Rachel Masters Principal
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FIRST VIOLIN Pieter Schoeman Leader Chair supported by Neil Westreich Vesselin Gellev Sub-Leader Ilyoung Chae Chair supported by an anonymous donor Ji-Hyun Lee Chair supported by Eric Tomsett Catherine Craig Thomas Eisner Martin Hรถhmann Geoffrey Lynn Chair supported by Caroline, Jamie & Zander Sharp Robert Pool Yang Zhang Grace Lee Rebecca Shorrock Alina Petrenko Galina Tanney Caroline Frenkel Caroline Sharp
Tour Coordinator Karen Kloster Managerial Assistant Marcus Lalli Tour Manager Ann Woodruff Driver Matt Densing
E-FLAT CLARINET Marie Lloyd BASSOON Gareth Newman Principal Laura Vincent Claire Webster 7