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Karakteristik Demografi, Sosial dan Ekonomi Sumber Daya Pemuda Indonesia Kasto The productivity of youth must be increased in the development process of Indonesia. According to the 1990 population census, there are 50.7 million youths (people at the age between 15-29 years). Out of that number, only 52.1 percent who have directly participated in the development process, because their main activities are working. Of the rest, 20.6 percent took care of houses; 17.1 percent studied; 3.6 percent were looking for a job, and 6.6 percent were included in the non productive group. Out of 52.1 percent or 26.4 million youth who worked, 33.4 percent worked below the normal working hours (less than 35 hours per week). Based on the field of work, 52.8 percent worked in the agricultural sector. According to the type of job, 91.2 percent worked as rough or unskilled workers, and based on the work status, 65.1 percent worked in the informal sectors. These numbers reflect on the low quality of Indonesia's youth labor force, and this must be immediately removed, mainly through education, remembering that 61.6 percent of youths have no more than primary education.

Transisi Demografi dan Pembangunan Berkelanjutan Siswanto Agus Wilopo From a number of studies there are evidences of the existence of integration between "demography variables" and the development process. In this case it is important to understand that the population policies have been formulated for the continuity of development process, mainly by paying attention to the integration between people (inhabitants) and their environment. In this case, the government's policy is to stabilize economic development, distributing it evenly and maintain the environment in accordance with the global Population Action Program. The problems caused by changes related to the demographic transition can be considered the material for the future demographic policies.

Pendapatan Pekerja Wanita Pada Industri Pengolahan Skala Besar Gunawan Wibisono; Sukamdi Labor income is a very important issue in the process of industrialization in developing countries. Most strikes and labor conflicts in the last three years were based on workers' desire to increase income. Regarding the fact that most labors have poor education one common means of increasing income is by lengthening work hours. The results of this study tend to prove this statement. However, this strategy has only increased total income, not real income. Income per hour does not change, and even decreases. It means that extending working hours has only increased self-

exploitation. In addition, this result has an important implication on the analysis of labor utilization. Laborers who are fully utilized do not always have a higher income than those underemployed. Therefore underemployment by working hours does not represent the real labor force problem.

Determinants and Characteristics of Unmarried Cohabitation and Its Impacts on Marriage: Western Experiences Faturochman One of the major changes in western societies has been the gradual acceptance the cohabitation of unmarried couples. It is clear that there was a substantial increase in the prevalence of unmarried cohabitation during the 1970'2. Glick and Spanier (1980) estimated that in 1978 2.3 percent of American couples living together were not married. This rate rose to about 4 percent by 1981 (Spanier, 1983). In Australia the figure of unmarried cohabitation from the Family Survey conducted in 1982 shows that about 5 percent of all couples were not married (Khoo, 1986). Meanwhile in New Zealand the proportion was 6 percent in 1981 (Carmichael, 1984). In Scandinavian countries, the existence of unmarried cohabitation is not new. In Sweden, for example, unmarried cohabiting couples comprised about one percent of all couples in 1960. In 1970 the rate rose to 7 percent and became 15 percent in 1979 (Trost, 1979). It is predicted that there will be further increases in the incidence of cohabitation in the future.

AIDS, Profesi Kedokteran, dan Kesehatan Publik Mubasyir Hasanbasri The need for promoting individual responsibility in health is crucial particularly in the context of limited resources. In looking at a continuing increase in the number of HIV cases reported in Indonesia tend to show the limitation of individuals' control upon their health. The policy of taking very much the privacy right of the victim into account has implicated the role of medical profession reducing the HIV transmission. This paper argues for increasing public accountability of medical practitioners and hospitals as public health agencies in protecting hidden transmission of HIV in society.

Jurnal Populasi Pusat Studi Kependudukan dan Kebijakan Universitas Gadjah Mada Bulaksumur G-7 Yogyakarta 55281;

Populasi Volume 6, Number 1, Year 1995