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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Hasil Konferensi Kependudukan di Kairo: Implikasinya Pada Program Kesehatan Reproduksi di Indonesia Siswanto Agus Wilopo The Word Population Conference in Cairo has received substantial attention and comments from the mass media and a large circle of experts, although a more basic explanation is still needed due the result of the conference. Since abortion is considered a very important issue which dominates the field of reproductive health, it needs to further analyze the relations between abortion and the 'new concept' of reproductive health. This paper broadly analyzes the objectives and the agreed result of the conference. It also proposes several implications on the reproductive health program in Indonesia. Even thought, as the mass media reported, the Cairo Conference seemed to be conference on abortion, the theme of the conference was: Population, Sustainable Economic Growth, and Sustainable Development. Indonesia takes a very active role in the preparation of the world's population conference, including to conduct and to initiate the summit population conference of the non-Aligned ministerial level prior the Cairo Conference. The Cairo World Population Conference has resulted in a substantially broad population Action Program, in which the implementation needs serious consideration on the heterogeneity of the respective countries to the priorities of development, cultural considerations, norms, religion, and law that prevails in the respective countries, yet the conference should consider the norm of the universal human rights. Out of


various materials covered in the Population Action Program, reproductive health problems have become one of the important controversial sources. For this reason it has thus been agreed to accept a "new concept" of reproductive health programs emerge, particularly the family planning program of the country which should be expanded and qualified. Even thought the "new concept" of reproductive health covers sexual reproductive rights, it has been wholly agreed that abortion would not be promoted as one of the implementations of the family planning method. The target of quality in various fields could be optimistically achieved except the maternal mortality decline. Without a breakthrough effort in the new reproductive health sector the quantitative aims to reduce the maternal mortality rate in Indonesia could never be achieved.

Kebutuhan Penelitian Untuk Peningkatan Program Pelayanan Kesehatan Reproduksi Firman Lubis One important matter to be faced in improving the reproductive health is how to increase the coverage of KIAKB service (Mother-and-Child Health Family Planning services) at the Puskesmas (Community Health Center) level. The Puskesmas also has the position of a reproductive health reference for the fieldworkers and facilities underneath it such as the traditional midwives, the Posyandu (Integrated Health Service Post), and the village midwives. This article puts special stress on the fact that the improvement of coverage and the quality of reproductive health service have become substantially important due to the still high


maternal-and-infant morbidity rate, and the fertility rate. Besides, the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of the community towards reproductive health is still considered very limited. For this reason, a more specific study is advisable to be carried out to be able to provide certain inputs on how to increase the coverage as well as quality of KIA-KB services through the existing health facilities

Beberapa Aspek Aborsi Masri Singarimbun Abortion is prohibited by the law in Indonesia and it is permitted only on narrow medical grounds, i.e. to save the life of the pregnant woman. The Moslem religious leaders hold the same view. The incidence of illegal abortion is unknown. However, research findings in hospital show that induced abortion is increasing. Contraceptive failure is one of the important factors for married women which are associated to the motivation to have a relatively small family. Another factor is the changing sexual behavior of unmarried women. People are much mobile nowadays and are experiencing more sexual stimulations through the mass media, films, and various entertainments. In orders to prevent abortion among the unmarried there is thus a growing need for family planning information and services. It is, however, a very sensitive issue, and is unlikely that the government or the non government organizations would provide such services. Even those who experience


contraceptive failures in the government family planning program have, in general, no access to save abortion

Kesehatan Reproduksi Pekerja Wanita Muhadjir Darwin; Mahendra Wijaya As a society becomes more modernized, the role of women in a working place is increasing, a quite large number of women work in various sectors: agriculture, industry, and services. While their participation contributes to the welfare of their family and society at large, the heat implication (particularly on reproductive health) needs considerable attention. The study shows the incidence of various reproductive health problems in a working place and low attention given by the employer to this problem. Statutes and government regulations have been made to protect female labors from reproductive health problems, but this laws and regulations have not been implemented consistently by the employers. This study proposes to increase the government control on reproductive health service and protection given by employers to private industries, and to give the workers the right to organize themselves so that they can obtain the power to have reproductive health service as well as protection from their employers.


Peran Dukun Bersalin Tradisional Dalam Perawatan Kehamilan, Pertolongan Persalinan, Perawatan Pasca Persalinan dan Kepercayaan Lestari Handayani Delivery mortality rate is still considered high. One of the main reasons is the high rate of delivery assistance conducted by traditional midwives. To anticipate the problems and to obtain safe delivery, the government has decides to enact a program to appoint midwives to work in the village. A study was carried out on trained traditional midwives who play their role in the villages in the hope to study their role and development of these midwives in the future. The study was conducted in six villages of two sub-districts in Tulungagung Regency. An interview and a survey were carried out to six traditional midwives and mothers-ofchildren-below-five years respectively in the study area. The study shows that 67.1 percent of delivery case was assisted by traditional midwives. The role of traditional midwives during pregnancy care was considered low, yet was considered high during the delivery itself, the post partum services, and the belief in relation to pregnancy and delivery. The fact shows there is a considerable healthy relation of social and delivery cooperation assistance between traditional midwives and trained midwives. It is suggested that improvement in knowledge and skills on delivery assistance be intensified. Besides, it is also suggested to improve the role of traditional village midwives to cooperate would trained midwives to guide the former in becoming the agents to convey the health program to its targets.


Konsekuensi Psikologis dan Sosial-ekonomi Kehamilan Tak Dikehendaki Pada Remaja Yayah Kisbiyah The improvement of sex information sources through various channels has lately increased the knowledge on sex among the youth. This fact now become the basis of various sex practices which is particularly due to the status of youths which is sensitive towards every external influences. Young people are a transitional position from childhood to adolescence. The field of reproductive health among the youth is one which is directly influenced by the process of the change. The extramarital sexual intercourse which has lately been increasingly popular has now become a serious problem. As a consequence, unwanted pregnancies have been an important phenomenon in the life of the youth. The paper describes the above tendency, and discusses the psychological and socioeconomic consequences caused by unwanted pregnancy among the youth.

Jurnal Populasi Pusat Studi Kependudukan dan Kebijakan Universitas Gadjah Mada Bulaksumur G-7 Yogyakarta 55281 populasi@cpps.or.id; populasi_cpps@yahoo.com


Populasi Volume 5, Number 2, Year 1994