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My dream ski day By Executive Director Dana Forbes


while back, I was at dinner with some friends and someone asked the group what their dream ski day would be? Many answered with things like Heli skiing in BC, Europe, anywhere with powder, etc. But me…I smiled and with no hesitation, said it would be skiing with all the favorite men in my life. My list contained the following: Jean Mayer of Taos, a legend in more ways than one and not just on snow… Jean is the best chef I have ever met; his brother Dadou because the two of them go together on a chairlift like peanut butter and chocolate; Weems Westfeldt, because he makes my heart expand in my chest every time I see his smile; Horst Abraham because he would never let me stop learning; Jerry Berg, because he always challenged me; Wally Dobbs because he loves to play on snow like a kid; my Dad, Doug Forbes because he taught me everything I needed to know to survive a day skiing with all men, and because he never gave up on me; my son River because he always reminds me that “PSIA” turns are not the most important thing in the world; and of course my best friend and partner Karl Von Ahn because there is no one who I’d rather follow through the trees. I distinctly remember when I finished answering the question and as I came back to reality, the people sitting at the table were just looking at me with eyebrows raised and odd grins on their faces poking fun at my elaborate list of legends. The truth is I do not like skiing alone. I mean I really hate it! Sometimes, I think I would rather download on the Gondola like a yoga- latte Mom than ski to the bottom alone. Other times when I am skiing alone, I will find myself stopping mid run and looking uphill as if watching and waiting for the person who isn’t actually with me. I have even found myself making random small talk with groups of skiing public just to feel a part of something. I may need psychological help! I am coming to the conclusion that it’s more about the interactions with people than the POW for this girl. I live for the moments 2

to interact with people on snow. I look forward to seeing them smile at the scenery while telling me their stories. A good friend and fellow instructor is a hair dresser when not on snow. She calls her salon chair the “truth chair”- I think the same of a chairlift. I believe there are two places you can truly learn about a person; on a raft in the middle of a river and on a chairlift, hanging 50’ above the snow. What an opportunity for us as social human beings. I think when we teach our guests to ski or ride we underestimate the power of the relationships we build. The trust that is developed and the courage we give them go beyond their time on the slopes. The bonds we form on snow transcend further into everyday life experiences. Last year I taught a 350+lb woman how to ski for the first time. Her younger sister who had skied several times was in the lesson and consequently, the one who coerced her older sister to try skiing. After some time, I sent the younger sister away so I could focus on the older sister who was obviously unable to keep up with her experienced younger sister. After several hours, and one pretty trying fall, the

woman skied down the beginner hill. It took us awhile and she could only do one turn at a time since she had to rest. She was shaking and sweating and almost in tears but when she got to the bottom, I said the words she was longing to hear “you NEVER have to do this again”. WHAT? You say… “Yep”, I told her “never again”. All I asked her to do was to commit and give it her all. If she hated it, she wouldn’t have to do it again. Her “all” was barely enough to get through one run but she did what I asked. In order to keep her trust, I needed to keep my promise. She wrapped her arms around my neck and thanked the heavens it was over. A few weeks ago I received an email from the woman and she said with delight that she never skied again but that she learned more about herself in that day than she ever thought she would. She shared that the trust she had in me on that day was greater than with her husband. The courage she found to accomplish that run, she hadn’t seen in herself since grade school. She rekindled a new outlook on life. She had lost 28 lbs and plans to get in better shape. Even though skiing is not of immediate interest, she was no longer afraid to go to the gym and look like a failure. She thanked me and asked if when her family visits in February, if we could have lunch and watch the other people ski. I graciously accepted. For me, it’s about the moments on the chairlift, or the side of the run, or just sitting on a bench at the base of the ski area that teach me the most. What that woman didn’t know was that at the moment I found out she was in my lesson; I was terrified of the challenge that laid ahead of me. However, because of her courage and commitment to trying, she gave me the same inspiration. Every now and then, when I am doing something difficult, I think of her and tell myself; “if she can do it, so can I.” To those who have inspired me… Jean, Dadou, Weems, Bergie, Horst, Wally, Dad, River and Karl, I look forward to our ski day.


Keepers of the Bar Dave Schuiling Director of Education


nowsports Education is experiencing some excitement. A true National Standard for consistency is within our grasp. Yes, we have had national standards for quite some time, but only recently have we come together as a country to collaborate, share best practices and consolidate resources. Educational representatives from the PSIA/AASI divisions have committed significant time toward maintaining the bar. Of course, instructors typically have no issues at all with maintaining the “social bar”. It is also true that the standard’s bar has been vigorously discussed for decades within many a social bar across the country. Many brilliant concepts have been conceived on napkins over the years! Additionally, as hard as we work on snow, bar hydration is critical to our fitness regimen… Divisional Exchange

During the summer of 2010, educational sisters and brothers began discussing a divisional exchange concept to formalize the “bar keeping” and begin recognizing best practices within each other’s process and evaluation of the National Standards. Rocky Mountain (RM) and Eastern (E) divisions led the charge attending each other’s staff trainings followed by RM, E and Western (W) converging on the E Level 3 alpine exam in Sugarbush, VT. The same group then attended the Vail exams followed by reps visiting W’s Mammoth exams at the end of the season. During the last four seasons, reps from RM, E and W have been joining each other’s staff training events/ exams and have encouraged and invited

other divisions to join in the exchange. Our neighbors to the West and North, Inter Mountain (I) and Northern Rocky Mountain (NRM) have been involved as we’ve openly shared visitors for trainings and exams. RM and Northwest (NW) have also visited each other’s events recently. Last season, RM committed to expand the discipline sharing/caring by adding Snowboarding to the mix. Representatives from the E and the NRM posse attended the RM Ed Staff training. I was fortunate to see the E L3 exam process in Mount Snow last March. As I write, I am fresh off a snowboard tour beginning at Big Sky for the NRM Staff training, followed by 2 days at Jackson Hole for the I Ed staff training. As this newsletter arrives in your mailboxes, I’ll be attending the E Ed Staff training at Elk Mountain, PA. National Fall Conference

Inspired by the recent divisional exchange activity, the PSIA/AASI National office has hosted the Fall Conference the last two seasons in Copper Mountain. Immediately following National Teams training, this conference allows representatives from the divisions and all of the current national standards to get together, review the standards and collaborate on how to best assess to the standards. The standards represented across the country during the conference consist

of Adaptive, Adaptive Snowboard, Alpine, Children’s Specialist, Cross Country, Freestyle Specialist, Snowboard and Telemark. Groups were together on snow and inside training, reviewing and modifying the current standards. This simple meeting of the minds and bodies of educational leaders has brought us all one step closer in consistency. Therefore, the bar has been set and it is more similar in height than ever before! “Barpe Diem”

RM seized the opportunity of having such valuable education resources in our neighborhood and backed up our Ed Staff training event to the Fall Conference. We were fortunate to have many conference participants schedule their travel plans to allow participation in the RM training. The continued conversations only strengthened the hard work of such passionate volunteers. The last two RM fall training events have had close to 30 visitors from all nine divisions. As we continue to visit and participate in each other’s training and certifications, we become more consistent in our assessment of the national standards. Just as the Knights of the Round Table defended Camelot, our National Standards must be guarded and held with the highest integrity. This integrity is something that all PSIA and AASI instructors can be proud of and looked up to around the world.


Events Extraordinaire By Carissa Eggers and Tim Kenney

The official publication of PSIA - Rocky Mountain - AASI P. O. Box 775143 Steamboat Springs, CO 80477 Phone: 970.879.8335 Fax: 970.879.6760 Executive Director - Director of Operations - Director of Education - Events Coordinators - and website - General Information Submissions of articles, photos or other items for publication are invited. PSIARocky Mountain- AASI members submitting articles of an educational nature with a minimum of 500 words will be reimbursed $100 per published article. Type copy should be double spaced and sent to the editor at the above address. A disk may be submitted along with a hard copy in either PC or MAC formats. All the submitted material is subject to editing. Use of all material will be at the discretion of the editorial staff. Articles are accepted on the condition that they may be released for publication in all PSIA/AASI National and Divisional publications. Instructor to Instructor is published four times per year by the PSIA-Rocky Mountain - AASI divsion. Permission is hereby given to PSIA/AASI and all divisions of PSIA/AASI to copy original materials from the newsletter providing credit is given to PSIA - Rocky Mountain - AASI and the author, and the material is not altered. Articles that contain specific copyright notices may not be reprinted without written permission from the author. Subscriptions: Persons who are not members of PSIA - Rocky Mountain AASI can purchase a one-year subscription of Instructor to Instructor for $15. Send your name and address along with payment to the above address. Note: Materials published in Instructor to Instructor which have been provided by persons in other than an official capacity, or for official purposes, are the responsibility of the author, and do not necessarily represent the opinions or policies of PSIA-Rocky Mountain - AASI.



ello from the Events Crew at your RM office! Registrations for events have been strong this season and we hope you are enjoying the ease of signing up online via our new events portal. We are still working out a few kinks in the system but so far the feedback from members has been positive. Be sure to check out the ‘Changes to the Curriculum Guide’ below and make changes to your guide. Also, remember to finish ‘checking out’ after you have placed an event in your ‘cart’ because leaving an event in your cart does not finalize registration. Only after you have checked out will you actually be registered. Event Portal Tips:

Logging in: Here are a few tips on logging in to the RM Member Portal and Online Event Registration. To log in to the RM Member Portal, click the “RM Portal Login” in the top right-hand corner of the homepage, Your username should be your email address and your default password is ‘RM’ followed by your 6 digit National ID number (Ex: RM123456), UNLESS you have since changed your password. If you are having password problems click on the password reset button under the login fields. Registering: To register for events online, click the Events tab from the RM Home page, You can view either by Event Listing or Event Calen-

dar. Log-in using your log-in info mentioned above if you are not already logged in. If you clicked the Event Listing page, you can search for events using the search tools at the top. We suggest just typing in Event Name or Event Venue and hit apply. Filling in all the fields tends to narrow the search down too much. Scroll below the Event Listing search tools and a list of the events should show up in chronological order. Click the event you would like to attend, click the “Add to Cart” button. If you would like to add more events to your cart, go back to the Event Listing and continue to add events to your cart. Once you are finished, click the “View Cart” button and complete the checkout process. Upcoming Events you won’t want to miss: • Edwin Terrell Memorial Clinic – Santa Fe – Feb. 1-2 • Cross Country Exams – Steamboat – Feb. 20-21 • Adaptive Exams – Vail – Feb. 24-27 • Snowboard Exams and Clinics – Snowmass – Feb. 25-27 • Alpine & Children’s Event – Beaver Creek – Feb. 26-28 • Southern District Spring Fling – Taos – Mar. 22-23 • Telemark Exams – A-Basin – April 6-8 • Vail Spring Fling – Vail – April 12-13 Changes to the Curriculum Guide:

There were a few event changes on the curriculum guide, please see below and remember to always check our website and Facebook page for updates on events: • Pajarito Alpine Teaching Beginner Bumps – New Date is Jan. 31-Feb. 1 • Pajarito Alpine Movement Analysis 301 On Snow – New Date is Feb. 1 • Misprint on the pull out calendar in the curriculum guide – Vail Snowboard Level 2 Certification is actually Feb. 4-6 NOT January 4-6 • New Event added to calendar: Children’s Specialist 1 (Feb. 5-6) & Children’s Specialist 2 (Feb. 4-6) at Snowmass PSIA-RM-AASI WINTER 2014

Telemark Update By Jim Shaw RM Tele Chair and National Telemark Team

INSTRUCTOR TO INSTRUCTOR NEWSLETTER The official newsletter of the Rocky Mountain Division is published four times per year with an average circulation of 6000. The schedule for submission of articles and advertisements is listed below: ISSUE SUBMISSION DELIVERY DEADLINE

Winter December 10 Spring March 10 Summer June 2 Fall August 10

January March June September



ello Nords! Good to be back on snow! And, good to have a great start to the season. After the last couple of years it is truly a pleasure to have this much snow so early. I thought a few updates and a little new info might help to kick off your season. We had a couple of clinics early on. The Tele Mini Academy took place all the way back in October at Loveland Ski Area. We had a great turn out and we had representatives from the Eastern Division, the Northwest and the Intermountain Division; division Chairs Mickey Stone, Greg Dixon & Ann Schorling, added quite a bonus to all attending. We also brought in the Head Coach for the US World Cup Telemark Team, Ty Upson. This exciting opportunity was a great way to stretch the Telemark carving boundaries (Nope, Telemark & carving in the same sentence do not constitute an oxy-moron). Anyone interested in a Tele Race clinic??? We also ran the Rendezvous at Loveland. With four groups of all levels, from learn to Telemark through trainers, it was a great success. Holy cow was it cold! Although it was great for the snow, it was hard on the fingers and toes if we weren’t careful. What a great place for early season clinics. If you have glanced at the Telemark schedule you may have noticed clinics scheduled at some smaller resorts over the past couple of seasons. Along with the larger places we thought it might be a great opportunity to try out some of the places we don’t often visit (if ever). Last year we

scheduled a Telemark Improvement Clinic at Wolfcreek. We had a great turnout. Yes the stories are true; there is a lot of snow down there. How about Powderhorn? Have you skied Powderhorn? There is a Telemark Clinic coming up in January and it’s one of my favorite places to visit. Don’t forget about Taos, Purgatory and A-Basin. They’re all on the schedule. On the national front each PSIA Division was invited to send representatives for all disciplines to the Fall Conference at Copper Mountain in October. Six of the nine divisions sent representatives for Telemark. The focus of the conference is to review the National Certification Standards. Good news! The Telemark Standards have not changed. The consensus was that the current National Certification Standards fairly represent what the attending divisions believe certified Telemark instructors should possess. There may be some changes to wording to help clarify but the content should remain the same. What does this mean to us? Consistency in National Certification Standards helps to lend credibility to our certifications. The pin that each of us wears proudly can be respected throughout our country and we can trust that the pin earned everywhere else in the US is deserved. Have a great season and remember, there are only 2 kinds of skiers out there, those who Tele and those who will. If you don’t yet Tele you might as well do it this season or you’ll just be another year older when you do!

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Challenging Behavior: Promoting Success and Creating Supportive Environments By Liz Leipold MS OTR, PSIA-RM Adaptive Examiner


hallenging behavior can be defined as any repeated pattern of behavior that interferes with learning or engagement in social interactions with peers and adults. Children often use challenging behavior when they don’t have more appropriate behaviors or skills to accomplish the same goal or to communicate the same message. We need to try to focus on teaching and modeling appropriate and expected behaviors. We need to teach children what to do rather than what not to do. Challenging behavior is often related to a skill deficit, such as a language, communication or social deficit. Teachers must be aware of the difference between a challenging behavior and a skill deficit. Other variables that may contribute to a negative behavior could be lack of sleep, hunger, stress in the home or car, changes due to traveling to a new and/or unfamiliar environment, different routines, temperament, genetic factors, different contextual expectations, difficulty doing a task, communication difficulties and/ or second language understanding. Building positive relationships with your student, having a plan and a schedule or routine that supports the student, having activities that are engaging at “just the right challenge” , and teaching the child the skills he/she needs to be successful may help prevent challenging behaviors. As teachers, it is important for us to focus on prevention of a challenging behavior. Well-designed environments and lesson plans may help to support student learning and promote appropriate behaviors and actions. At the same time, we need to be flexible and be ready for unexpected changes or challenges that occur daily. Anticipate whenever you can! The physical environment contributes to learning, fun, safety, interest and the success of our students. Some strategies that have helped me include: • Have clear boundaries, so that your student knows where the boundary begins & 6

ends (examples; visual supports (stop sign, bright tape, objects, flags, poles) • Make sure all children are visible to adults and that adults are visible to children. • If an area is closed, indicate that area is closed with a visual. • Use developmentally appropriate and creative ways to keep children occupied in safe productive ways. • Plan your transitions and all changes in locations.

• Give children a warning before a transition occurs. • Teach children about your expectations and rules that need to be followed. • Learn and remember personal information about your students. • Give your students genuine choices. • Smile. • Breathe • Model your intention • Have Fun!! PSIA-RM-AASI WINTER 2014

Thank you to all the members who donated to the Educational Foundation during the 2012-13 season!! Bergie’s Best Scholarship Fund $5-$20

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Bogenrief, Angela Munn, Joel Rocky Mountain Ski Instructors Educational Foundation

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Intro To Bumps By Tom Gulden


n the Aesop’s fable ‘The Hare and the Tortoise”, the much faster hare taunts the slow turtle to a race. At the end of the race the turtle is victorious. The moral of this story, as I have interpreted it as it relates to skiing the bumps, is that in order to go fast it helps to go slow. I propose two lines through a mogul field:

1: The skier is making turns across several bumps and is using turn shape to slow themselves down. Their speed over the snow is fast and their speed from the top of the hill to the bottom of the hill is quite slow. 2: The skier is travelling more directly down the fall line and is using skidding to slow themselves down. Their speed over the snow is slow and their speed from the top of the hill to the bottom of the hill is quite fast. Which line is easier?

The skier down line 1 is travelling quite fast, and speed for a beginner mogul skier is often something that they are trying to avoid. They are travelling faster because they have been taught to control their speed through turn shape. For example, as instructors we often ask our students to make a C-shaped turn in order to slow down. On a groomed run edge angles do not need to be adjusted very much because the angle of the hill doesn’t vary too frequently. On a 8

bump run the terrain directly underneath the ski fluctuates rapidly. When beginners are not used to making adjustments to maintain a constant edge angle, the bumps can cause wild variations in edge angle leading to large differences in speed from the beginning of the turn to the end of the turn. If this skier is travelling quite fast then going over large moguls at speed will not be very fun. The flexing and extension movements required to remain in balance will have to be quite large in terms of their intensity and rate. The skier down line 2 is travelling from the bridge of one bump to the bridge of the next bump, as opposed to the top of one bump to the top of the next, and therefore doesn’t have to make large flexing and extension moves to stay in balance. By keeping low edge angles they are able to rotate their skis quite quickly and skid to slow down. By travelling slower through the bumps it enables the skier to look ahead and have more time to plan their next move. So why do we subject our ‘intro to bump’ skiers to line 1? Perhaps it gives them more time to recenter and prepare for the next turn? They may not have the skills to rotate their legs underneath them and maintain a low edge angle. So instead of taking the existing skills they have into bumps (and giving them an experience that will make them think twice), lets give our guests the skills to ski the comfortable line! The skills that our guests are going to need to ski the comfortable, slow line are to slide down the fall line with the skis pointed across the fall line, and to rotate their feet underneath their body. With these skills they will be able to ski from the bridge of one bump to the bridge of another bump, so their flexing and extension movements at a slow speed should be minimal. How to slide sideways:

In diagram A the ski is horizontal and the edge angle relative to the snow is very low. In diagram B however, the ski has remained horizontal, but the angle of the slope has increased, therefore increasing the edge angle PSIA-RM-AASI WINTER 2014

without the skier having moved their body. In the bumps this is what leads to high speeds as the skier is unwittingly carving through the bumps. They key to speed control is to tip the skis so that the edge angle can be decreased. Don’t hockey stop, lets hockey slide. Many up and coming skiers want to learn the hockey stop because it looks cool and it allows them to stop quickly like the pros do. Hockey stops require a high degree of rotation and a relatively high edge angle. Instead, encourage your students to do maneuvers that allow them to slide sideways on a flatter ski.

Drills like side-slipping are great to demonstrate the difference between slip and grip. Once these tipping moves have been mastered, introducing competitions like “who can make the longest hockey slide?”, develop rotation skills along with a low edge angle. After the student can successfully make a hockey slide, you could introduce a bump . The hockey slide move allow students to practice turning one way and then the other. It is not very good for linking slides. Take your student to a small bump field and ski one bump at a time. Your student will feel

confident, safe, and they will have learned a move that can be adapted to ski the whole bump run. Pivot slips are very useful for getting students to link their slides from one side to the other. If the goal is to be able to ski the fast line slowly, our pivot slips should have an emphasis on speed control. Pivot slip slowly down the groomed runs if you want to slip slowly down the bumps. With everything, terrain choice is key. Instead of giving your guests tactics to survive tough bump runs, give them the skills to excel on easier bump runs. Great places to introduce bumps are on easy split groomed trails or on runs where there are small sections of bumps between groomers. This allows you to practice a move on the groomed trail before taking into a few bumps. It also gives you an exit to a safe place, which is very important for first time bump skiers. If the bump run is too steep, the bumps too big, or there is too much distance to the exit the students emotions may get the better of them and you won’t witness a good performance.

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The Snowboard World By Michael “Spicky” Blanton AASI-RM Chair


o far, so awesome! What a great beginning to the 2013/14 season. Most of our resorts have great coverage. Along with cold temps keeping the snow in great shape, we are off to a great start! AASI-RM Committee has been preparing all summer for a great season of fun and learning. There have been many updates and edits to get our information more succinct and contemporary, especially with our level 1 Instruction and Movement Analysis tests. Standards and overviews have been re-written, to reflect the current process. Assessment forms have been updated to give more detail. We have also been striving to get ALL the certification information online, for example level 2 teaching tasks. All of this needed to be done and most of it was brought to our attention by you. Doing this as long as we have, some old information tends to hide in some places we weren’t aware of. Thanks for your input! Online standards

The Committee took a couple of days at A-basin this last spring to get video segments of the riding standards. We will be crafting this to an online channel that can also be accessed from the RM website. We did not get the freestyle standards yet, but we hope to this upcoming season. Stay tuned! Movement Analysis

This has been a huge project. The AASI-RM Committee has listened to the feedback that there is a huge gap of what is expected between level 1 and 2. In order to accommodate the disparity we have changed the questions on the level 2 and 3 tests. The goal is to have a more objective process of assessing cause and effect relationships. Those of you that have already taken previews regarding the old questioning do not fret. The nature and purpose of the questioning is more direct, less ambiguous. We still have some aspects to iron out, but if all goes well we will be using the new tests this season. This last spring brought together some


of the hardest working snowboard instructors in RM, your AASI-RM Committee. As always, the AASI-RM Committee is dedicated to elevating the relevance and purpose of your certification and education. We are also proud and passionate about sharing a successful lifestyle that has had such a pos-

itive influence on our lives. We find value in our ability to come together and make ourselves better by sharing ideas and innovation. We are all helping each other to be better at what we do. I hope you have a great season! Be safe, be smart and make good decisions!

In Memoriam Tom Wynant, longtime member of PSIA, passed away in January, 2013. Tom started teaching skiing at Cannonsburg Ski Area near Grand Rapids, Michigan. In 1984 he joined the Copper Mountain Ski School in Summit County, Colorado. He so enjoyed teaching skiing! Byron Lee ‘Butch’ Graves passed away September 29, 2013 at his home in Salida. During his skiing career, Butch was a ski school director at Copper Mountain, Steamboat, Vail, Beaver Creek and Monarch ski areas. He was an Alpine Examiner for PSIA-Rocky Mountain and received the Golden Ski Award for lifetime achievement as an instructor. He will be missed.


Skate Split Filter: The NON-ouch version of Splits while Skating By Wade White 3. The board is connected to one of the feet. Hopefully the front one (don’t stress it too much). 4. Everyone is given ample time to familiarize themselves with moving the board around and themselves around it. They should start to understand the lower body equivalent to “bowlers’ arm”… “boarders’ leg”! 5. Everyone should have a comfortable bubble of room in roughly the same area. The Filter

Being as nonchalant as possible, instructor #1 will play pied piper and start heading off into a safe direction, as the mob is asked to follow. The amount of time or distance is not very important just as long as every one in the mob has been able follow the pied piper. The more movement, the easier… The Split


any snowboard instructors have witnessed a fresh snowboarder grom, who is either a bit eager or just loose. The grom starts skating for the first time and slides the board slightly ahead of everything else wanting to come along for the ride. The final result is something resembling that of a kung-fu movie flying high kick laid out on the ground or an 80’s break dance move. This would be the OUCH version of the skate split and not the one this article is about. The Skate Split to which I am referring, would be a group organizing tool that I have been employing for several years while leading youth groups such as SOS Outreach (formerly Snowboard Outreach Society). This has been utilized with group sizes requiring more than one instructor when team teaching will no longer be used after the introduction to equipment. Forewarning, the skate split is a filter, not race. It should not be thought as a competition, because it will skew the results. Do

not view the athlete about the student but the learner within. The Setup

1. The mob (large group) has been assembled with all required equipment. 2. The assortment of get to know ya’ games have been played, with each other AND with the new bizarre piece of slippery standup sled.

For purposes of simple math lets say we have 20 students ages 11-15 with 4 instructors.

#2 instructor follows after the first five students “Who does number two work for?” Number two works for students 6-10, who split off into an area of their choosing. #3 instructor pulls off 11-15 and #4 gathers students 16-20. Skate Split done! The Benefit

• Everyone kept moving and hopefully enjoyed their time sliding. • N o t h i n g w a s s a i d about “This is test time, It’s a race, Be fast or be last”, no one felt like they failed anything. • Students experienced something fun next to their friends. • There was no need for their number to be called into the waiting room for the “next person to step forward and be judged.” • Each person chose their place in the group. “Ok great” you say sarcastically “you’ve just


pulled the faster athletes to the front.” “Yup!” However in my experience there is more going on than just simple Darwinian style natural selection. Let me point out how, on many occasions, this filter has separated students based on learning types. Watchers, Thinkers, Feelers, Doers

The manner in which individuals absorb and interpret experience presents a great way to organize a group of students. When instructors identify learning types, they can teach learning types, creating ideal learning partnerships in cohesive sub groups. How does a Skate Split do all that without doing lengthy interviews, brain scans, and Magic Eye® tests of each individual student? Well, you could just ask the student which type they are. No one has ever given misleading information when saying they belong in a certain level, right?!? We all know that students will tell you things that don’t reflect their true ability, it is best if we can get information that is void of self opinion. This is not a fool proof system and to say that any system is, will likely uncover a true phony (Hmmm?). These are my interpretations of what I’ve experienced. Watchers exclude themselves from the 1-5 rank due to the fact that they have trouble watching the majority of people behind them


while moving forward. Demonstrations will have the greatest effect on watchers because these students are visually intrapersonal learners. Instructors 2 and 3 are giving the demos that are more at the student’s speed. Honestly, instructor #4 is picking up the pieces most of the time so they aren’t demonstrating much, and if they are, it’s on an individual basis. Thinkers take personal time to process what is going on around them as well as the information provided to them earlier. The skate split is a moving tool; there may be persistent information that continually requires interpretation. To start with, thinkers may rank in the 16-20. They may develop a better understanding of efficient movements. Given time the thinker is likely to advance past those who are just trying it out. Feelers. The idea that someone can lack the sense of feeling, I believe, only applies to James Bond villains. So, feelers are really most everyone. But if you had to narrow it down, they are the ones who can work by trial and error. The act of them just starting out with a movement puts feelers near top 5. Things don’t always work right away so adjustment must be

made, some of those adjustments might not work. What feelers do have is consistency; the fact that they have to keep testing keeps them moving so they generally stay around the ranks of the #2 instructor. (Number two… Riiiiiiight (pinky finger by mouth…anyone?)) Doers often times are at the front of the group because of a jump out of the gate with persistent movement. Other students seeing “Ninja arms” will wisely choose not to pass. Those flailing limbs reflect inefficient movement patterns. The Doers may require the most relearning and habit breaking due to their bull force way of muscling through a task. This is not the group to always just “let them do” because there will be understanding issues, not to mention class handling issues. It may seem like I am placing a big warning on the doers. I am, due to preconceived idea that it is the easiest, fastest, strongest, coolest therefore best group to teach. Make sure the pied piper understands how to match the teaching style to this learning style before he/she points the mob in a direction.

Say a guy named Maslow gave comment on our ways of snowboard instruction. He might draw correlations between his building blocks of needs and our motto of Safety, Fun, and Learning. He might point out that, not only is it easier to determine the type of learner, but a state of learning can only be achieved if needs are met first. Physiological

Throughout the setup of this tool, there should have been time to recognize that basic physiological needs have been met. These needs include aspects a ski school can provide, such as proper outerwear, water, snacks,


bathroom… Because more people can help the group as a whole, it can aid both students and instructors to not do a split before the skating begins. The setup is also when students start selecting their instructor. They will naturally be drawn to a personality type that they are comfortable with and have fun around. More on that later. Safety

Where the filter works best is in a safe location. Flats work well. In the flats, gravity is not a factor for speed. Traffic should be slower and lighter, reducing a student’s legitimate terrain fears. Each student should also be able to decide the tactic they use for this task. Not long ago in the setup there was discussion of a safe bubble around each person. They get another choice, their bubble size; the amount of distance between themselves and their neighbors. Social

thing new, and possibly scary, is being tried, close friends add comfort and belonging to the chosen group. How about a student being able to select their instructor?!? It’s been joked about at many lineups, but can it be realistically done? In the split, I believe it can!

Through all students’ interaction with all instructors “personality gravity” will be pulling them together, helping create bonds. So during the actual split process students will tend to stay closer to their selected instructor. That’s why this time spent in the setup is great for doing (the often taboo) team teaching. For the same reason, students will stay close to their friends. Especially when some-


The most important benefit of this tool is how well it works with student’s self esteem. This method is used with “at risk youth” groups. The idea that one person is less than any other person must be diminished, while still allowing for a way of separating out differences between students. As stated earlier, this should not be a Race; there are no winners or losers. Yeah, it sounds like politically correct _________, but self-esteem is absolutely sacred to people being set up for a higher level of being. A student’s place in the ranking of a perceived race should never be joked about… or you won’t hear the end of it.

The situation is, kids are smart and very aware of social ranking, huh go figure! So they may say “hey, I didn’t go as far as so and so’s group, I’m terrible.” Because self esteem is such an important aspect to the entire idea of the skate split, throw some diversion tactics at them. •➢ Once the splits are clear and everyone is still moving have each instructor lead their group to different stopping locations. ➢• Stop at different times. ➢• Have instructor #1 double back behind #4. Do whatever it takes to let them feel that the important part is accomplished; they are in the group in which they feel safe, belong and choose to be. When needs are met and combined with an ideal learning situation which students have helped create, there is a greater chance to reach a state of self-actualization.


Taking a Look At The Children’s Specialist Roadmap Rubric By Dusty Dyar


would like to introduce the “Children’s Specialist Roadmap Rubric.” This rubric is designed to clarify the expectations for assessment in the Child Specialist process. It incorporates the National Standards and how they apply to Bloom’s Taxonomy, and delineates between Child Specialist 1 (CS1) and Child Specialist 2 (CS2). Though the basic design is built for assessment consistency, the rubric will also work as a learning tool for instructors at any stage. So what is a “Rubric”? The definition for a scoring rubric is - a standard of performance for a defined population. A scoring rubric is an attempt to communicate expectations of quality around a task. In many cases, scoring rubrics are used to delineate consistent criteria for grading. Because the criteria are public, a scoring rubric allows teachers and students to evaluate criteria, which can be complex and subjective. A scoring rubric can also provide a basis for self-evaluation, reflection, and peer review. It is aimed at accurate and fair assessment, leading to understanding, and showing a way to proceed with continued learning/teaching. How does Bloom’s Taxonomy apply or even what is Bloom’s Taxonomy? First taxonomy is synonymous with classification, so Bloom’s Taxonomy classifies learning objectives in three domains. Anyone who has attended an ITC, children’s event, or one of several other PSIA events has heard the domains referred to with a different


name: The CAP Model. The three domains are cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. Most commonly the cognitive domain is referenced when Bloom’s is discussed within snowsports. The cognitive domain has a six tier model of hierarchal thinking. The original model was published in 1956 starting at the base of the model is Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and topping the model is Evaluation. Bloom’s was revised in the 90’s and republished in 2001. The terminology was changed from nouns to verbs and now the base of the model starts with Remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analyzing, Evaluating, and is now topped with Creating. So the original or the revised model can be use to define the level of ownership one has with each of the categories of the National Standards.

Review the rubric below and notice the expectation for CS1 consists of the first three stages while CS2 expects the instructor to work in the top three stages. The exception to this is within Movement Analysis. PSIA-RM will expect CS1 candidates move into the analysis and evaluation stages of Bloom’s during the Movement Analysis session. Use this rubric with self-evaluation, reflection, and peer review to improve your ability to teach children. Strive to live in the higher order thinking skills to give students the best possible experience they can have with snowsports. Just because you’re new to snowsport instruction or working on your CS1 doesn’t mean you shouldn’t try to be creative all the time. The Rubric can also be found on the PSIA-RM web site at education/childrens/reference-materials.


Children’s Specialist Roadmap Rubric (2013-2014)


quality from excellent to poor.” (Heidi his “Roadmap Rubric” is a pathof Knowledge” is a measurement tool Andrade) way to understanding the Chilused in Bloom’s Taxonomy that is This Rubric is designed as a trainused to evaluate levels of understanddren’s Specialist (CS) National Standard criteria, and is intended ing tool to assist you in your preparaing. Underneath the headings “Copy”, Children’s Specialist Roadmap Rubric (2013-2014) to be used in conjunction with the “Apply”, “Analyze” and “Create” are tion and understanding of the criteria This “Roadmap Rubric” is a pathway to understanding the Children’s Specialist (CS) National Standard criteria, and is intended to be used in conjunction with Standards. A Rubric “is a document the delineations level of knowlfor all CS programs. We suggest that the Standards. A Rubric “is a document that articulates the expectations for an assignment by listing the criteria, or what counts,for andthe describing levels of quality from excellent to poor.” (Heidi Andrade) that articulates the expectations for an you familiarize yourself with the CS edge expected for each topic for either This Rubric is designed as a training tool to assist you in your preparation and understanding of the criteria for all CS programs. We suggest that you familiarize assignment byCSlisting the criteria, Bloom’s theis aCS1 or CS2. tool used in Bloom’s Taxonomy yourself with the National Standards andor Bloom’sNational Taxonomy Standards before using and this tool. “Level ofTaxKnowledge” measurement that is used to evaluate levels of understanding. Underneath the headings “Copy”, “Apply”, “Analyze” and “Create” are the delineations for the level of what counts, and describing levels of onomy before using this tool. “Level knowledge expected for each topic for either the CS1 or CS2. Specialty Level Bloom’s Taxonomy Level of Knowledge

Teaching Concepts

Teaching with Creativity

CAP Model





(Synthesis & Evaluation)

Class Handling

Is able to apply the PDAS teaching model to a given teaching scenario – and select appropriate class handling strategies

Is able to differentiate between the different parts of the PDAS model - and compare and contrast different class handling strategies through the Advanced zone

Is able to construct positive learning scenarios based on the PDAS model - and organize a complete lesson plan

Creative Processes (i.e., Spider Webbing)

Is able to define and explain the steps in creative thought processes – such as spider webbing

Is able to appropriately apply a creative process to one component of the CAP model - specific to a student profile

Is able to analyze the result of a creative process on multiple components of the CAP model - specific to a student profile

Is able to design refined activities using multiple creative processes that factors in all components of the CAP model specific to a student profile


Is able to recall and teach games through the Intermediate zone

Is able to chose and apply games to one component of the CAP model - specific to a student profile

Is able to evaluate and determine the relevance of games/activities - specific to a student profile through the Advanced zone

Is able to modify and design games that factor in all components of the CAP model - specific to a student profile through the Advanced zone

Cognitive Affective Physical

Is able to present the basic elements of the CAP model

Is able to develop a plan based on the identified components of CAP model and can apply the plan as needed based on observed behaviors of students

Is able to differentiate relevant information, revise and build a new plan based on observed behaviors of students

Is able to assess and adapt throughout the Teaching Cycle based on student performance and goals

Real vs. Ideal

Is able to explain basic Real and Ideal movement patterns - as it relates to age and stage (of development) through the Intermediate zone

Is able to identify and demonstrate basic Real and Ideal movement patterns - as it relates to age and stage through the Intermediate zone

Is able to compare, contrast and demonstrate Real to Ideal movement patterns (including motor control coordination and sensory development) - as it relates to age and stage through the Advanced zone

Is able to developPage 1 of 2 activities that enhance Ideal movements in consideration of Real movement patterns - as it relates to age and stage through the Advanced zone


Is able to explain basic cause and effect relationships - as it relates to age and stage (of development) through the Intermediate zone

Is able to relate and demonstrate basic cause and effect relationships - as it applies to age and stage through the Intermediate zone

Is able to analyze and describe observed cause and effect relationships as it applies to age and stage through the Advanced zone

Is able to prioritize and provide relevant feedback related to observed cause and effect relationships - as it applies to age and stage through the Advanced zone

Is able to understand basic physical development principles - as they relate to age and stage (of development)

Is able to apply basic physical development principles to age and stage

Is able to analyze and describe how body parts move in relation to one another

Is able to discuss and apply how to move the body to attain efficient and effective movements

Is able to recognize proper and improper equipment

Is able to explain how and why equipment positively or negatively affects children’s performance

Is able to assess a student’s equipment and determine its influence on performance

Is able to provide and articulate equipment options - as applicable

Is able to explain potential positive or negative situations in the parent partnership; is able to describe various learning differences – and outline the steps for successful Behavior Management

Is able to describe and apply different styles of communication in the parent partnership - and in teaching scenarios - to meet a student’s observed or known needs

Is able to analyze and modify activities, approach, pacing or energy levels to meet parental and student needs – for all ages and stages

Is able to develop ongoing strategies & tactics to meet parental and student needs – for all ages and stages

Movement Analysis

Biomechanics Physical Development Equipment Factors Role of the Parent

Opportunities & Challenges

(Knowledge & Comprehension)

CS2 Apply

Is able to summarize the PDAS teaching model and relate it to the Teaching Cycle – and describe the various ways to organize a children’s class

PDAS (Play, Drill, Adventure, Summary)

Version 1.0 - Updated 11/2013


CS1 Copy

Learning Differences Anxiety & Fear Behavior Management


Version 1.0 - Updated 11/2013

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PSIA/AASI Rocky Mountain Division P.O. Box 775143 Steamboat Springs, CO 80477 970.879.8335 / Fax 970.879.6760

Have you changed your PERMANENT address? Please contact the PSIA-Rocky Mountain-AASI office in Steamboat Springs. 970-879-8335 phone 970-879-6760 fax