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The new cyber paradigm has the potential to cause significantly more damage than previous forms of terrorist threat


TRACKING THE RISE OF VEHICLE TERRORISM Why security authorities must no longer play strategic catch up with terrorism



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STOPPING TERROR, BUT ALLOWING WICKED IDEOLOGIES? It was interesting to hear former counter terror chief Mark Rowley speaking recently about the growth of domestic terrorist groups in the UK who promote ‘a violent and wicked ideology’. Rowley, who won the inaugural Outstanding Contribution to Counter Terrorism at the Counter Terror Awards last year, urged politicians and the media not to underestimate the threat of domestic extreme rightwing groups, whose ‘aggressive intolerance’ could enter ‘mainstream political debate’ unless more action is taken to stop the scope of such groups getting stronger.



The new cyber paradigm has the potential to cause significantly more damage than previous forms of terrorist threat


TRACKING THE RISE OF VEHICLE TERRORISM Why security authorities must no longer play strategic catch up with terrorism

In this light, it is fascinating to read Philip Ingram’s thoughts ahead of November’s International Security Expo, in which he discusses the success of security services this year in stopping potential terror attacks, but also how easily we overlook the number and frequency of attacks in Northern Ireland. As Ingram suggests, if this was happening on the UK mainland then it is highly likely that the Prime Minister would be chairing COBR meetings on a daily basis and the Metropolitan Police Commander Cressida Dick would be permanently on our television news screens.

Follow and interact with us on Twitter: @CTBNews

Read more of Ingram’s thoughts and our preview to the International Security Expo on page 45. Michael Lyons, editor

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226 High Rd, Loughton, Essex IG10 1ET. Tel: 020 8532 0055 Fax: 020 8532 0066 Web: www.psi-media.co.uk EDITOR Michael Lyons PRODUCTION EDITOR Dan Kanolik PRODUCTION DESIGN Sophia Mew PRODUCTION CONTROL Lucy Maynard WEB PRODUCTION Victoria Casey ADMINISTRATION Isabelle Hayes BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT MANAGER Martin Freedman PUBLICATIONS SUPERVISOR Jake Deadman REPRODUCTION & PRINT Argent Media

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CONTENTS CTB 35 13 INTERNET TERRORISM Joe Whittaker and Amy-Louise Watkin, from Swansea University’s Cyberterrorism Project, discuss online radicalisation and regulation of online propaganda from a range of social media platforms

16 CYBER SECURITY The cyber world has truly become the next geo-political battleground, and everyone is a target, says Trevor Reschke, head of Threat Intelligence at Trusted Knight in his article on the digital ‘arms race’

21 VEHICLE MITIGATION Thomas Sansom, president of the Terrorism Research Society, looks at the rise of vehicle terrorism across Europe and America and why security authorities must no longer play strategic catch up with terrorism

29 PERIMETER SECURITY It cannot be stressed enough that any product or system protecting critical infrastructure and people must always be fully operational and be available to work if and when required, says Paul Jeffrey of the PSSA

34 CROWDED PLACES In today’s world we welcome open and social spaces to enjoy time in a safe and secure environment. The question is, what are the pressures and needs that must be considered when looking at protection measures?

36 PANEL OF EXPERTS With the help of our returning Panel of Experts, Counter Terror Business looks at two of the biggest topics in the security industry at present: outdated communications systems and managing IoT risks

45 INTERNATIONAL SECURITY EXPO The International Security Expo provides a unique platform for the entire security industry to come together to source products and share experience. Here, Philip Ingram looks at the current threat landscape ahead of the show

61 CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE James Kelly, of the British Security Industry Association, reflects upon the events of last year and explains the importance of protecting national infrastructure and the businesses supporting it

75 POLICING With the football season in England now a few weeks in, Counter Terror Policing detail their ‘Know your Game Plan’ advice, and why supporters are integral in fighting the threat of terrorism at sporting events

Counter Terror Business magazine // www.counterterrorbusiness.com ISSUE 35 | COUNTER TERROR BUSINESS MAGAZINE




UK not awake to threat of far right

Former counter terror chief Mark Rowley has urged politicians and the media not to underestimate the threat of domestic extreme rightwing groups, who may have a strategy for a terrorist group. Speaking on 18 August to BBC Newsnight, the former Assistant Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police said that we have a domestic terrorist group for the first time since the Second World War, which is ‘rightwing’, ’neoNazi’, ‘proudly white supremacist’ and that has ‘a violent and wicked ideology’. Rowley said that ‘there is a real danger’ that we give groups such as National Action ‘more scope to get stronger’ by allowing their ‘aggressive intolerance’ to enter ‘mainstream political debate’. Nick Lowles, founder of Hope Not Hate, said: “While Mark Rowley is right in saying that neo-Nazi ideas have not gone mainstream, what is abundantly clear is that an anti-immigrant, and particularly an anti-Muslim narrative, increasingly dominates the mainstream

media and this can lead people into the hands of far-right extremists.” Rowley referenced four far-right plots that were foiled last year and claimed there has been a lack of recognition of the threat posed. “I don’t think we’ve woken up to it enough. Now I’m not going to say that it’s the same level of threat as the Islamist threat. From last year’s numbers for example, out of 14 plots stopped, 10 were Islamist, four were extreme rightwing, so no pretence that it’s exactly the same order of magnitude, but it’s very significant and growing, and what I’ve seen over the last couple of years is a lack of recognition of that.” National Action became the first far-right group to be banned under terrorism laws in December 2016.




EU fine for social media which allows terror to linger A crackdown by the European Commission will order social media websites to delete extremist content on their platforms within an hour to avoid the risk of being fined. Affecting Twitter, Facebook and YouTube among others, the plan marks a change in direction by the EU from allowing sites to self police to enforcing explicit rules. Speaking to the Financial Times, EU commissioner for security Julian King stressed that the EU will ‘take stronger action in order to protect our citizens’, following a number of high-profile terror attacks across Europe over the past few years. According to King, the law would apply to small social media apps and the largest companies, such as Google, Twitter and Facebook.

The EU’s civil service noted that ‘terrorist content is most harmful in the first hours of its appearance online’, with reports claiming that draft regulation is set to be published next month. Google states that over half of the videos removed from YouTube for containing violent extremism have had fewer than 10 views, while Twitter says that of the 274,460 accounts that were permanently suspended for violations related to the promotion of terrorism between July and December 2017, 74 per cent were suspended before their first tweet.


US cyber attack rules relaxed by Trump administration The Wall Street Journal is reporting that President Trump has signed an order relaxing rules around the use of cyber weapons. With the US under pressure to deal with the growing threat of state-sponsored hacks, the paper says that the order, which reverses guidelines previously drawn up under President Obama, remains vague as specific details of what the new rules will be remain classified information. Speaking to the BBC, Professor Alan Woodward, a computer scientist at the University of Surrey, said: “We are in a era when certain governments are acting aggressively in cyber-space, and that is rightly condemned by governments such as that in the US. To respond in kind is not necessarily the way to de-escalate the situation. You wouldn’t allow a pre-emptive physical attack without thorough analysis and approval at the highest levels, so why would cyber attacks be any different?” Obama’s cyber rules were leaked in 2013 by former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden, and were deemed by many at the time as being too bureaucratic.





Security threat from returning ISIS women A new report from King’s College London has warned that the number of women and minors returning to Britain from Syria and Iraq has been significantly underestimated. According to the research, an absence of government data and a changing view within the terrorist group of when women should take up arms means that the threat from women and minors linked to Islamic State is likely to be much greater than official figures suggest. The International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation, part of the university,

says that women had recently been actively involved in plots across the world, with 13 per cent of the 41,490 foreign citizens who became affiliated with ISIS in Iraq and Syria between April 2013 and June 2018 being women. A further 12 per cent (4,640) were minors. The first to map out in detail the diverse trajectories of IS foreign affiliates after the fall of the ‘caliphate’, the report finds that 850 British citizens became affiliated with ISIS in Iraq and Syria, including 145 women and 50 minors, but only two women and four children

were confirmed as among the 425 British citizens who have returned to the UK. From Daesh to Diaspora: tracing the women and minors of Islamic State claims that women played a key role in the terrorist operations, far beyond that of being ‘jihadi brides’. This includes recruiting other women, disseminating propaganda and fundraising for the caliphate.








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Football fans asked to be vigilant as new season starts

Police are encouraging football fans to be vigilant at games and to not hesitate in reporting any security concerns to stewards or staff. Officers have been working with the Premier League, English Football League (EFL) and individual clubs to enhance measures designed to keep supporters safe, and to raise awareness of the threat from terrorism among club employees and supporters. While police are saying there is no specific threat to football grounds, the project is part of a wider plan to work

more closely with different sectors such as retail, hospitality and entertainment to help protect the public. At a special event at Stoke City’s bet365 stadium, the national police coordinator for protective security, Chief Superintendent Nick Aldworth was joined by specialist dog handlers to talk about the ‘Know the Game Plan’ initiative and to show how trained dogs can find suspect packages in crowded areas. Read more about the Know your Game Plan initiative on page 75.


LA subway to use body scanners to screen passengers The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority has said that body scanners will be used on the Los Angeles subway to screen passengers for explosives and weapons. Having ordered equipment from UK manufacturer Thruvision, the transport authority will be the first mass transport system in the US to adopt the technology, being able to detect suspicious items from up to 32ft (10m) away, and can scan more than 2,000 passengers an hour. Reports from Los Angeles claim that the screening would be ‘voluntary’, but those refusing a scan will not be allowed to travel. Concealing an item under clothes blocks body heat from being emitted, and therefore the cameras can detect items that have been hidden by detecting up a person’s body heat through their clothing.




Armed police operations rise to highest level in seven years




New thinking needed to counter terror threat Mayor of Greater Manchester Andy Burnham has warned that rising levels of extremism in all communities means new thinking is needed to counter the terror threat. Responding to the report of the Commission Preventing Hateful Extremism and Promoting Social Cohesion, set up following the Manchester Arena attack last year, Burnham said that the increase in the number of individuals inciting hate and violence means the police and security services are unable to monitor all those posing a risk. Therefore, ’the time has come to consider a stronger, wholesociety approach’, where families, communities and faith groups work together to provide information to support the work of public bodies. Greater Manchester will now work

to make the Prevent approach more transparent, explaining its focus on safeguarding and challenge false perceptions. The commissioners found that while the principles that underpin Prevent are correct in the region, there is a lack of information available and this leads to fear spreading in communities, which has led to a perception that it targets one community in particular. Furthermore, working with the Home Office, Greater Manchester will develop a new, whole-society approach to tackling extremism. Alongside a pilot which will look at more local sharing of intelligence, Greater Manchester will make it easier for citizens to raise and report concerns.



New Home Office statistics reveal that police firearms operations rose 19 per cent in the last year, with police carrying out 18,746 armed operations in the last 12 months. The figures also show that police officers opened fire on 12 occasions, including the shooting dead of three terrorists to stop the London Bridge terrorist attack in June 2017. The 12 firings mark an increase from 10 in 2016/17. Alongside the terrorism response shootings, it is believed that rising gun crime is also a cause in the increase. The three regions with the most armed operations were London with 5,142, 27 per cent of the total operations, followed by the West Midlands with 3,312 (18 per cent) and Yorkshire and the Humber with 2,130 (11 per cent). The biggest increase in firearms operations came in the West Midlands, which saw a 53 per cent rise in armed deployments, to 1,145. The Home Office reported that the number of authorised firearms officers in England and Wales had increased to 6,459, a rise of three per cent.





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UK to train Nigerian forces against Boko Haram threat

The UK and Nigeria have signed their first ever security and defence partnership, in an attempt to help Nigeria defeat Boko Haram and Islamic State West Africa. The terror groups are responsible for the deaths of over 20,000 people, with almost two million people still living away from their homes in the north east of the country as a result of their threat. The agreement, announced by Prime Minister Theresa May, aims to stop such menace from spreading and posing a direct threat to the UK. As such, the UK will expand its provision of equipment and training for the Nigerian military to help them protect themselves from the threat of improvised explosive devices used by terrorists, and will also help

Police cuts leave force failing the public

Nigeria train full army units before they deploy to the North East. The partnership will also see a new £13 million programme implemented to educate 100,000 children living in the conflict zone whose teachers have fled and schools been destroyed, by providing equipment, teacher training and safe places to learn. It will also introduce a new Nigerian crisis response mechanism, similar to the UK’s COBR system, to help the government respond to incidents like terror attacks so it can protect its citizens and British nationals and businesses in the country.




Asians ‘treated worse’ following terrorist attacks

An Asian Network survey has suggested that nearly a third of British Asians say they have experienced worse treatment following a terrorist attack. The ComRes survey, which polled over 2,000 British Asians, found that 40 per cent of Muslims reported a rise in negative treatment following terrorism, with 26 per cent of British Sikhs reporting the same experience. Of the 2,026

respondents to the British Asian survey, 59 per cent cent of those reporting poorer treatment said they were treated with more awkwardness, with slightly fewer being treated with more suspicion. Discussing the figures, David Toube, director of policy of the Quilliam think tank, said: “The purpose of terrorism is to sow division within our society. It should be a matter of concern to everybody when a large minority within any ethnic group feels that some in this country are against them. A vital part of fighting Islamist terrorism and extremism is ensuring that far-right reciprocal radicalisation also fails.”



The new head of the Police Federation has issued a warning that the public are being ‘failed’ because of huge demands and stretched resources. Speaking to The Independent, John Apter said that policing in some areas was ‘broken’ and that continued government cuts constitute a ‘crisis’, where ‘some crimes will not be investigated’. The National Police Chiefs’ Council (NPCC) has urged police forces to use the ‘Thrive’ model which prioritises emergency calls according to ‘threat, harm, risk, investigation possibilities, vulnerability and engagement’. Alongside cuts in funding, the number of police officers in England and Wales has fallen to a record low after plummeting by around 22,000 since 2010.




UK universities cyber security work recognised Three UK universities have been recognised as Academic Centres of Excellence in Cyber Security Research by the National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) for leading cyber security skills and research. The NCSC and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (ESPRC) have identified the University of Kent, King’s College London and Cardiff University as having first-rate research with scale and impact, with the educational institutions now joining 14 other institutions in a scheme forming part of the government’s National Cyber Security Strategy. As part of their new Academic Centres of Excellence in Cyber Security Research (ACE-CSR) status, the universities can now bid for funding to develop cuttingedge research in cyber security. Chris Ensor, deputy director for Cyber Security Skills and Growth at the NCSC, said: “The UK has world-class universities carrying out cutting edge research into all areas of cyber security. It’s fantastic to see three more universities recognised as Academic Centres of Excellence and I’m especially pleased that we now have centres in all home nations. The NCSC looks forward to collaborating with these institutions to make the UK the safest place to live and work online.”





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INTERNET PAGETERRORISM FLAG Joe Whittaker and Amy-Louise Watkin, from Swansea University, discuss online radicalisation and regulation of online propaganda from a range of social media platforms


ince its inception, the Internet has tended to play a varied, yet prominent role in the trajectories of those becoming terrorists. Although it is important not to overplay this relationship – research has found that despite most cases of terrorism in the West having a digital footprint, offline factors usually play an equal or greater role. However, much of this research focuses on the ‘Web 1.0’ period, before social media, personalisation algorithms and smart devices began to dominate our lives. By no coincidence, the ‘Web 2.0’ era coincided with the most successful and widespread terror recruitment drives in history; that of the so-called Islamic State (IS). Both practitioners and policymakers were caught unaware by a group they did not fully understand, effectively using technologies that are designed to implement fast and inexpensive communication across the globe. In the early and mid-2010s, many terrorist groups had rule of the roost on social media platforms. For example, research in 2012 found that Al-Qaeda had shifted their propaganda from closed online fora to YouTube, where they were forming highly connected social networks. Towards the end of 2014, it was

estimated that there was between 46,00070,000 active IS supporters on Twitter. Research observing foreign fighter activity found that those who had travelled to join IS and Jabhat al Nusra in Syria and Iraq were able to effectively communicate back to home audiences via Facebook and Twitter, often with the help of social media ‘disseminators’. The unregulated nature of these platforms made a considerable difference in the trajectories of terrorists. A group of individuals within IS territory dubbed the ‘Virtual Entrepreneurs’ helped facilitate a number of terror attacks on US soil and beyond as well as travel planning for those travelling to the caliphate. In most of these cases, would-be terrorists initially came across Virtual Entrepreneurs via open social media platforms, often Twitter. Take, for example, Keonna Thomas, who sought to leave her two young children to join IS in April 2015. For around two years before, she openly proselytised on Twitter, attracting the attention of Virtual Entrepreneurs Mohamed Abdullahi Hassan and Shawn Parson (the latter of whom she married over Skype), as well as Trevor Forrest, also known as Abdullah Faisal. Of course, the facilitation of foreign fighters is not new E




HOW EMOTION RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY CAN DELIVER A SAFER FUTURE The ability of the latest developments in deep learning and neural networks to detect suspicious behaviour looks set to revolutionise law enforcement

A QUEST FOR A SAFER SOCIETY In the quest for a safer society, it looks increasingly like artificial intelligence will play a leading role. It seems that barely a week goes by without another report on the latest security application of facial recognition, with the technology being employed to check identities at the airport, along with a number of other emerging uses. Berlin, for example, is currently trialling facial recognition cameras to spot known terrorists. Meanwhile, the Chinese city of Xinjiang has taken things a step further by arming its police officers with Google Glasslike headsets equipped with facial recognition scanners to help them to identify criminals. The technology looks set to drag law enforcement into the 21st century, but facial recognition is just the start. Pioneers in AI-driven computer vision are developing more sophisticated technology that can read people’s emotions and more. EMOTION RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY David Fulton, CEO of WeSee, said: “Our latest emotion recognition technology understands every multi-layered element within images and videos in the same way humans do. This allows it to recognise and analyse images and faces in video content with up to 98 per cent accuracy – and up to 1,000 times faster than the human brain.


“Harnessing the power of deep learning and neural networks, it can detect suspicious behaviour in real time through monitoring and analysing eye movement, gaze and micro-expressions, along with identifying seven key human emotions.” The potential of emotion recognition is already exciting security companies and law enforcement organisations across the globe, due to its ability to determine an individual’s state of mind or intent through their facial cues, posture, gestures and movement. The fact that this can be done from different angles, and even if the subject is moving or partially obscured, say by a balaclava, as well as under various light conditions is particularly impressive. Dangerous objects can also be detected. Fulton explains: “Video cameras on a tube station platform, for example, could detect suspicious behaviour and alert police to a potential terrorist threat. The same could be done with crowds at events like football matches. Nervousness and anxiety shown by someone using a cash point could be an indication that they are under threat or using a stolen bank card, triggering the machine to stop the requested transaction or alert the police.” WeSEE WeSee is currently experimenting alongside the Ministry of Defence’s JHub; an innovation hub based in WeWorks Aldgate that identifies and repurposes cutting edge technology to solve military problems. Their project seeks to understand how WeSee’s technology can use micro expression analysis to augment traditional situation analysis. A JHub spokesperson said:“We want to understand the potential of this technology and have been really impressed by the results so far. We can imagine numerous applications for it in the defence and security sector.” Fulton says WeSee is continually improving


DAVID FULTON David Fulton is CEO at computer vision pioneers WeSee

the technology, increasing both its speed an accuracy. The latest development is that it is the first emotion recognition technology that can be used on mobile devices, from laptops and tablets to smartphones, meaning it can now be deployed anytime and anywhere. He says: “More effective law enforcement and security in terms of better detection and prevention rather than increasing personnel and firepower will make for a safer society both on the streets and in the workplace. Put simply, emotion recognition technology will make it easier to look after the good guys and help to catch the bad. Furthermore, spreading the word about what can be achieved across society should act as a great crime deterrent. “Law enforcement is an essential focus for government, but also a very expensive one. Investing in the continual development of emotion recognition technology will not only deliver a safer society, but also more effective and efficient policing, potentially saving valuable funds – or at least using it more wisely.” L

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 to the Internet, but unregulated social media can act as an amplifying beacon for those who wish to announce their presence within a terrorist community. Given the number of those travelling to Iraq and Syria, as well as the host of terrorist attacks around the world, it would be unreasonable not to expect a response, although this came with a series of technological problems to solve. In early 2016, giant tech firms, such as Facebook, Twitter and YouTube, began to respond to the increased pressure to regulate through blog posts addressing their counter terrorism efforts. A blog posted to Facebook’s Newsroom on 23 May 2017 by Monika Bickert, their head of Global Policy, revealed many of the problems that they face when regulating terrorist and other difficult content. The first is the billions of users that visit the platform every day and the variety of posts they create in many different languages and formats (e.g. text, photos, videos, livestreams etc.). The next is that as well as regulating terrorist content, they simultaneously have to regulate content including but not limited to bullying, suicide, sexual exploitation, hate speech and animal cruelty. Then, when reviewing content they must quickly and accurately identify, firstly the context of the post; and secondly whether it is likely to inspire violence. Furthermore, certain types of content are illegal in some countries but not in others which can quickly become complicated. In a follow up blog, Bickert discussed that much of the technology used to regulate can only be applied to one specific form of media, for example, it can accurately remove images but not videos or text. Therefore, regulating is difficult for a range of reasons and a variety of removal technology is required. REMOVING TERRORIST CONTENT Despite these problems, the companies have created methods that work to either remove the content or account, prevent content from upload or divert users elsewhere. This article will review these methods for Facebook, YouTube

and Twitter. Facebook uses AI in several ways: image matching (i.e. if someone tries to upload a photo that matches a photo that has previously been identified as terrorist-related then this is disrupted); language understanding (i.e. this analyses text that been removed for being terrorist-related in order to develop textbased signals that algorithms can use to detect similar text in the future); removing terrorist clusters (i.e. upon detection of a page or profile that has participated in terrorist activity, algorithms can be applied to work outwards to detect any linked pages/profiles for similar activity); and tackling recidivism (i.e. detecting new accounts of repeat offenders). Google-owned YouTube uses similar

new challenge to law enforcement, who can subpoena platforms such as Facebook and Twitter if they have probable cause, but cannot for apps that are end-to-end encrypted. Instead, security services tend to rely on ‘old-fashioned’ undercover agents that infiltrate terror cells and gain access to groups on encrypted platforms. For example, the case of Sean Andrew Duncan, who discussed his plan to travel to IS with a number of co-conspirators, on a number of encrypted apps, before the FBI posed as a co-conspirator on one of the apps, which ultimately aided in his arrest. Terrorism cases have, in other ways, adapted to face this environment of higher regulation. Take Zoobia Shahnaz, who is accused of fraudulently using a credit card to purchase over $60,000 in Bitcoin to fund IS. It is worth noting that cases of terrorist funding via cryptocurrencies are rare, but may represent a more mainstream terrorism law enforcement challenge in the future. Although encrypted methods of communication and planning have become extremely popular with terrorists (due to its ideal private and secure nature which is more difficult to regulate), there is evidence to suggest that the giant tech firms are still home to many terrorist accounts. Research in 2018 discovered over 1,000 active IS-supporting Facebook profiles and pages in early 2018 and found that 57 per cent of them were still active and producing propaganda on the 5 March 2018. Similarly, research by

ALTHOUGH ENCRYPTED METHODS OF COMMUNICATION AND PLANNING HAVE BECOME EXTREMELY POPULAR WITH TERRORISTS THERE IS EVIDENCE TO SUGGEST THAT THE GIANT TECH FIRMS ARE STILL HOME TO MANY TERRORIST ACCOUNTS image-matching and content-based technology, as well as the Redirect Method, which redirects users upon the entering of specific keywords to videos that will expose them to alternative views that attempt to counter the content for which they were searching. Finally, Twitter uses anti-spam tools to identify and remove terrorist content as well as algorithms to find similar terrorist accounts to ones that they have already identified as supporting terrorism. All three companies also utilise human moderators and allow users to flag content. YouTube provide tools for those who are exceptionally interested in and highly accurate at reporting content through their Trusted Flagger Program. Many academics claim that the giant tech companies have been so successful in their removals that displacement has occurred to darker parts of the web such as end-to-end encrypted apps like Telegram or WhatsApp. This presents a

Vox-Pol found that jihadist groups such as the Taliban and al-Shabaab are not facing nearly the same level of disruption on Twitter as IS. One should be careful not to overstate these findings though, it is significantly more difficult to engage in terrorists’ social networks on mainstream social media platforms today for the reasons discussed above. However, terrorist actors have shown themselves to be more than capable of adapting to new technological challenges in the past, and whether it is a greater reliance on endto-end encrypted software, attacks that can be planned without a large digital footprint, or something new entirely, the next generation of terror attacks will throw up a new set of challenges for those that seek to oppose it. L






DIGITAL ‘ARMS RACE’ The cyber world has truly become the next geo-political battleground, and everyone is a target, says Trevor Reschke, head of Threat Intelligence at Trusted Knight

CYBER TERRORISM: WAGING WAR THROUGH THE INTERNET T hroughout the Cold War, terrorism was generally conducted by various anti-communist dictators, soviet sponsored communist groups and antidemocratic Islamic regimes which, for the most part, had a regional impact. Concurrently, significant clandestine efforts between the superpowers led by proxies and ‘advisors’ had a significant impact on global economic security and politics. These clandestine efforts, or shadow conflicts, were fought by non-standard forces whose intent was to destabilise countries that held strategic value to the opposing superpower – or to purely harass and distract the other superpower to expend and waste resources. Meanwhile, the world was transfixed on the very public arms race between the East and West. We now have an entirely new ‘arms’ race, one where participation is not limited to the superpowers, but can also be joined by rogue nations, terrorist organisations and criminal elements. These groups engage in direct overt and clandestine activities, directly and indirectly supporting fringe governments with mercenary services to further their criminal, political and ideological goals. We have entered an age where the risk, time, resources and funding for traditional methods or operations provide significantly less return on investment than cyber efforts. In fact, the new cyber paradigm has the potential to cause significantly more damage to a target’s economic, political, financial, security and defence systems than any traditional method. However, the terror aspect has not



materialised in quite way we usually imagine it. Traditional terrorism has been seen to require significant loss of life to be effective. When it comes to cyber, the countries who possess the capabilities to carry out such an attack are unwilling to risk providing that access to fringe elements, even in a remote government thanks to the potential global repercussions of those capabilities.

THE INVISIBLE AND UNTRACEABLE THREAT Much like the arms trade business, there are mass produced cyber weapons that usually originate from one of the super powers. It’s now common to see malicious code that has been modified over time, but its heritage can be traced back to a handful of Russian criminal software developers. This malware is often bought by different criminal elements – from teenagers in their bedrooms to nation states – and adapted to specific needs, often to the point where whole new families of malware are born. By using known, serviceable malicious code the attacker gains a significant level of covert status as the attribution is near impossible, especially when the target faces many threats. That’s not to say attribution is impossible, but it is incredibly rare. To date, it has only been accomplished when the NSA and CIA have suffered internal leaks of their operational tools. Even then, as we saw with notpetya, it’s not always possible. In the case of notpetya, a newly leaked CIA exploit was used in an attack originally targeting E





ACCELERATING POLICE COMMUNICATION PATHS Smart and social media has completely changed the way we communicate. As the threat of terror continues, Frequentis’ Mark Pearson and Alan Lee explain why modern policing should adapt its approach to communication with the public The arrival of smart and social media over the last 10 years has had a huge influence on society and is continuing to play a large role in policing. Uses in this environment include police investigations and ongoing crime prevention through social media monitoring and keyword listening, and sharing outbound messages on social platforms to inform the public of incidents or dispel rumours. But the third area, not yet fully utilised, is the use of social media as a form of incoming contact from the public. Prior to the introduction of handheld radios reporting of incidents or requests for assistance were phoned in via a Police Box or public phone box, which highlights how much a technology like this impacted the efficiency of tackling crime. It is therefore a logical next step to consider how mobile devices beyond voice communications can do the same. Today, nine out of ten over 16s use a mobile, seven out of ten use a smartphone and 76 per cent of all internet users have a social media profile. But why should the police utilise this communication path? EXPECTING A CHOICE Because the public can communicate immediately and seamlessly on various mobile devices and social media applications like WhatsApp or Facebook in daily life they expect the same communication methods to be available to them for all Police contact. Young adults are also much more comfortable sending text or instant messages than making voice calls, which is largely down to convenience. They are also more likely to make video calls. Many businesses, including banks and phone companies, already allow contact via social media or instant messaging web chat – both of which accelerate communication flow between parties and increase efficiency. Messages can also be prioritised. More precise information can be delivered over social applications, while the ability to attach images or even videos will increase the understanding of an incident. For this reason, it is important to encourage Police Forces to embrace these communication streams as the norm, especially when it comes to enhancing situational awareness during live anti-terror operations.


DEALING WITH INCREASED DEMAND As the gap between available police resources and the number of incidents that require support grows, solutions that improve officer and operator effectiveness increase in priority. The use of smart phones and social media is one way to enable law enforcement to do ‘more with less’. Of course, confirming the integrity of information poses a challenge but all this additional information can provide front line officers with real-time access to vast amounts of data, ensuring better intelligence for an improved public service. The London Bridge terror attack in 2017 demonstrated how images and messages from the public could enhance situational awareness, and in the wake of the attack the public were encouraged to upload videos or images to the police website to be analysed, as the investigation continued. The key is how we efficiently manage this information without adding additional strain on control rooms. The focus should be on operator performance, reducing manual tasks and harmonising operator communication and collaboration. THE RIGHT COMMUNICATION PATH Every situation is unique and it is therefore the expectation that police control rooms can support multiple communication methods, receive all types of media and respond in the appropriate way. Therefore, police control room capabilities need a single point of presentation if multiple media routes are going to be appropriately utilised. The presentation of multi-channel communications needs to be mobile, flexible, practical, secure, robust and reliable, situational aware and capable of harvesting the positive aspects of Broadband 3G/4G/5G. The Frequentis LifeX3020 is an example of a solution that can handle multimedia information that comes in, in any form, and feed it out to the operator as a single communication stack. By adding smart geolocation there is an additional and valuable information layer, enabling improved contact handling and resource allocation. And when emerging technologies like facial, text and voice recognition software can be


MARK PEARSON Key Account Manager, Metropolitan Police Service Mark joined Frequentis in April 2018 from Motorola to deepen the company’s important, long-term relationship with the Metropolitan Police Service (MPS). MPS has operated Frequentis’ reliable communications hub since 2005, and in 2012 the system capacity was increased for the London Olympic Games, ensuring effective support for extra police resources. Alan Lee is a retired Police Superintendent who has been supporting Frequentis UK with public safety advice since 2011, focusing on the evolvement of digital communications. combined in a control room solution we further increase the potential for the police to make proactive and reactive decisions. Artificial/augmented intelligence can help to consolidate this information and make an ‘intelligent’ presentation of the overall situation to control room personal, to aid more efficient decision making. Once live images or videos from the public can be analysed in real-time the potential is endless. A multimedia control room that can manage and respond to all kinds of communication paths will increase the flexibility and ease of use for public emergency contact and also assist operator and police response times. The goal is not to change police and public communication but to enhance it, by embracing smart and social media. L

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CYBER SECURITY  the Ukraine, but containment was lost and the attack incidentally spread to many parts of the EU. It is largely believed that Russia was behind the attack, given the original target – the Ukraine – was engaged in traditional combat missions with ‘not-Russian’ soldiers, but it’s never been proven. This level of capability dispersement is part of a larger campaign by nation states, particularly Russia, to cloud the attribution of attacks associated with government resources. This is similar to the spread of the AK-47, a weapon whose use was so widespread that its provenance gradually became blurred. In the cyber world, for example, it’s now suspected that well-known hacks, such as the Sony hack, was not the work of the North Koreans, but in fact attributed to another source. North Korea had nothing to lose by accepting responsibility for the hack. In fact, it was a boon to the country’s status in the eyes of the world as most nations lack the capability to execute an attack of that magnitude. This gave North Korea a seat at a cyber capabilities table which still only has a select few nations sitting at it, thus allowing them to use the fear of cyber attacks in retaliation to sanctions. This illustrates the use of cyber capabilities in the modern world for terroristic uses. With minimal threat to loss of asset and the ability to mask the identity of the perpetrator, cyber attacks are the perfect weapon. Perpetrators are able to select targets that will cause significant strategic and financial damage, usually at magnitudes beyond what a traditional attack could inflict with little risk. While this initially seems like a neutered capability without the fear component, consider traditional attacks risk capture and defeat during the planning, recruitment, and coordination phase, as well as swift and significant retaliation for loss of life if successfully executed. Cyber attacks typically go un-countered. In fact there has never been a case where another nation has invaded or taken up arms over a cyber attack, despite most large-scale attacks causing more monetary damage and more frequently, on average, then most traditional terror attacks. THERE’S NO SAFETY IN NUMBERS Denial of Service (DoS) attack capabilities consist of a large collection of systems that have been compromised and then sent commands which enables them to send network traffic to a specific target. For example, if I have 100 user systems, I can use a control panel to send a command to all 100 systems telling them to send traffic to a specific website at a specific time in order to use up all the targeted systems resources, or to generate enough traffic to raise the cost of owning the site. In real life, the amount of compromised

WE NOW HAVE AN ENTIRELY NEW ‘ARMS’ RACE, ONE WHERE PARTICIPATION IS NOT LIMITED TO THE SUPERPOWERS, BUT CAN ALSO BE JOINED BY ROGUE NATIONS, TERRORIST ORGANISATIONS AND CRIMINAL ELEMENTS systems used to do this type of attack start in the hundred thousand and can grow into the millions. In the last few years, technical exploits and techniques that can then magnify this traffic and create mega attacks have also emerged, vastly expanding the possibility for serious damage. The collection of compromised devices used to perform these forms of attack are easily accessible to anyone (such as nefarious individuals, groups, nation states) who know where to obtain them and who have the funds. There are no other requirements or restrictions. This denial of service capability is used to target political sites, social causes, gaming and gambling sites, and a smattering of other issues or causes in which the attacker can collect money or damage someone. In fact, in 2017, we saw DDoS attacks more frequently used as a tool for political struggle. The Qatar crisis was accompanied by an attack on the website of Al Jazeera, the largest news network in the area. Le Monde and Le Figaro websites were targeted in the heat of the presidential election in France, and in Great Britain during the Brexit voter registration process, some citizens were excluded from the referendum because of continuous attacks on the website. NO SKILL REQUIRED In today’s cyber climate, attacks can be launched by almost anyone without any level of skill required – other than being able to access the ‘dark web’. Cyber crime has become commoditised and almost any element of an attack chain can be found for purchase or hire. Of the many pure criminal level services available on the ‘dark web’ and the true cyber underground, several easy to acquire services are hacking for hire, compromised server access and harvested credentials. These three services alone can be used to gain enough access to further your way into a specific targeted organisation. To illustrate this, during one of my intelligence efforts in the past, I had revolving access to targeted control panels, servers which were used to collect information from systems compromised by various criminal groups. One particular server contained information from a few hotel business centre computers. These computers were used by a handful of NASA JPL employees who, while at an offsite conference, accessed their work webmail, then their private email

accounts, allowing me to be able to harvest enough personnel information on several scientists to target them individually and likely expand my access into their personal devices, and very likely their office computers; including the credentials to both their personal and work email account. As a ‘bad guy’ this would be the ultimate objective in obtaining a foothold inside a strategic target. I could do this simply by acquiring access to a run-of-the-mill criminal control panel for malware harvesting random credentials. To illustrate the potential reward of cyber attacks, the web application used by the US government to collect and process security clearances was hacked and all individual background investigations packets were stolen for a significant period of time. These packets contain all the derogatory information on each applicant, their entire work history, their associates and friends at each stop and very private personal information. This level of information on a single individual or office would take a significant amount of time and resources to acquire by another nations espionage effort – and even longer or near impossible for a terrorist group or fringe nation. With one flaw in the web application design, decades of traditional efforts were overcome. A SOLITARY DEFENCE Although awareness of the cyber threat has grown, many institutions do not fully recognise the evolving threat of cyber actors as the techniques, tools, and methods are moving targets and advance quickly, making it difficult to rely on ‘static security’ as we have in the past, such as lock it and forget it. The cyber world has truly become the next geo-political battleground and regardless of whether you are a government or financial institution, commercial entity, or individual, everyone is a target and currently we all stand apart, on our own to defend ourselves. Something to consider, are the superpowers drunk on the information they collect through their own cyber capabilities to the point that they allow commercial and personal cyber damages from other nations as a cost of doing business? L





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Thomas Sansom, president of the Terrorism Research Society, looks at the rise of vehicle terrorism across Europe and America and why security authorities must no longer play strategic catch up with terrorism

SHAPE SHIFTING STRATEGY AND STRATEGIC CATCH-UP T he weapons terrorists use to attack the West have changed. Despite the horrors of July 2005 and the Manchester 2017 bombing, the image of the standard suicide bomber is slowly fading away and is now replaced by new lone wolf actors. These new lone wolf actors rarely use high powered explosives to terrorise, but rather, weapons of easier access: vehicles and knives. The use of vehicle by terrorists has increased and the phenomena saturates many recent terrorist attacks against Europe, Canada and America.

As of June 2018, there are 136 fatalities and 756 injuries because of vehicle terrorism against the countries above over the last five years, while the number of vehicle attacks in 2017 is seven, almost double the 2016 rate of four. The use of vehicle is popular, 13 separate incidents have happened since 2013 and the high death (86) and injury toll (434) of the 2016 Nice attack show that vehicles are an effective means for terrorising. They are effective for three main reasons: vehicles are easy to access; a vehicle can be destructive (more so than E



VEHICLE MITIGATION  a knife); and a vehicle terrorist is difficult to detect before an attack. The ease of access and destructive tendencies of a vehicle may explain its frequent use amongst terrorists. ISIS propaganda proposes the use of vehicle, with a poster from April 2018 suggesting that radicalised individuals should attack ‘crowds in the streets’ and that ‘the ideal weapon is a car (truck)’. ISIS is pushing an easy access terrorism movement upon targets in Europe, Canada and America. Terrorists are aware of how easy it is to access vehicles and how destructive they can be when used for terrorising means. EASY TO ACCESS WEAPONS It is not only vehicles that are popular with terrorists. Knives are also frequently used as weapons for terrorism, with vehicles and knifes sharing the easy to access factor, both are easy to use and require less planning than a string of IED attacks or a complex attack such as 9/11. The move away from explosives and towards easy to access weapons such as vehicles and knives makes terrorism significantly easier to commit for radicalised individuals. The frequency drop in the usage of knives and increase of vehicles in 2017 is an interesting change. Although unclear why this is so, it could be suggested that this drop signifies a change in tactic amongst terrorists. Knives, although significantly easier to access, have little damage capabilities as compared to a vehicle. Vehicles, on the other hand,

AUTHORITIES ARE MAKING VEHICLE TERRORISM HARDER TO COMMIT AND THE 2018 RATE THUS FAR IS 7x LOWER THAN 2017 have the potential to damage multiple objects and citizens at the same time, whilst moving at a high speed to cover large distances, thus more targets are able to be within the terrorists range. However, knifes are rather different. It is harder to attack a large number of people using a knife for two main reasons: a terrorist has to attack on foot, thus less targets are within the terrorists range; and knife terrorists lack the ability to destroy multiple targets at once. Due to the difference in speed between knife and vehicle terrorists, it is more likely that citizens can escape from a knife attack situation than a vehicle terrorist attack. In sum, vehicles are more affective as a means of destruction than knifes, as revealed in the fatality and injury rates in vehicle and knife terrorists attacks in Europe, America and Canada from 2013-2018. Figures show that there are less occassions of vehicle terrorism than knife terrorism incidents and the total number

of people injured and killed by vehicle terrorism in Europe, Canada and America (892) is 12x higher than those affected by knife terrorism (74). In addition, vehicle terrorism contributes to 34 per cent of ‘easy access’ terrorism incidents, yet this small percentage of incidents has caused 73 per cent of deaths by ‘easy access’ terror attacks. On average, for every incident of vehicle terrorism in the last five years, there are 10 deaths and 58 injuries, whereas for cases of knife terrorism, there are two injuries. It is finally worth noting that knife terrorism incidents are greater in frequency than the fatalities caused by such incidents. It is statistically evident that vehicle terrorism is more destructive in terms of fatalities and injuries than knife terrorism.

CHANGING STRATEGIES Terrorist and counter terror strategy continues to change based on attack trends, the target hardening strategy of airports post 9/11 ensured terrorists would not repeat such attacks. This strategy has performed well to prevent another 9/11, but it does not stop terrorism in other manifestations. During the great focus on airport terror prevention, terrorists changed strategy to exploit the weak spots of the West: vulnerable areas such as busy city streets and densely populated open areas. Authorities need to be a step ahead of terrorist thinking to ensure national security is strong so that citizens are protected from future incidents of terrorism. However, as evident from E



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VEHICLE MITIGATION predicted future terrorist attack types, the private sphere is well prepared for another change in terrorist strategy, mentality and methodology. This is however just the first step. Greater cooperation between private counter terror businesses and governments across Europe, America and beyond is needed to ensure that policy makers are aware of and have access to advanced prevention methods on the private market to use in the public sphere. Governments and practitioners must be prepared for the uncertain future and the public sphere should benefit from the outstanding logistics of the private market. This will ensure that no matter the manifestation, the prevention of a terrorist attack whether by new or old terrorising means is more probable.

TO PROTECT NATIONS FROM FURTHER INCIDENTS OF EASY ACCESS TERRORISM, POOR RELATIONS BETWEEN THE POLICE FORCE AND ISLAMIC COMMUNITY MUST BE RESTORED TO ENSURE RADICALISED INDIVIDUALS IN THE COMMUNITY ARE NOTED AS SOON AS POSSIBLE, RATHER THAN IGNORED DUE TO FEARS OF THE POLICE  the aftermath of 9/11 and the 2016 vehicle terror attack in Nice, the West play ‘catch up’ when terrorist strategy changes. What can be learnt from the past is that when one area is being protected, another is attacked. Counter terror practitioners must adopt a Machiavellian mentality by being prepared for all the different conceivable methodological changes by terrorists, ensuring that nations are better prepared for the terrorist uncertainty that the

future may bring. Europe, Canada and America must no longer play catch up and equally should not provide all their strategic attention to vehicle terrorism prevention. Just 30 minutes at Security & Counter Terror Expo, one of the largest European counter terror and security exhibitions, will ensure any individual of the outstanding development in the private sphere to prevent potential incidents of terrorism, logistics on display cover a vast range of past and

POTENTIAL WEAK SPOTS The state of vehicle terrorism in 2018 (as of June) in Europe and America is low, only one attack has occurred, causing no fatalities. The figure for knife terrorism is also low. Similarly to the rate of vehicle terrorism in 2018, there is so far only one incident of knife terrorism causing two fatalities. The state of vehicle terrorism prevention is increasing, the presence of bollards in London and other major cities in addition to the recent Eiffel tower fence has helped ease citizens fear of vehicle terrorism. Gradually, therefore, authorities are making vehicle terrorism harder to commit and the 2018 rate thus far is 7x lower than 2017. If busy streets and densely populated areas become a hardened target for terrorists similarly to airports since 2001, practitioners must also protect potential weak spots as history must not repeat itself. To protect nations from further incidents of easy access terrorism, poor relations between the police force and Islamic community must be restored to ensure radicalised individuals in the community (who are the most frequent perpetrators of vehicle terrorism) are noted as soon as possible, rather than ignored due to fears of the police. This tactic of close community relations worked between Catholics and the police during the IRA troubles to spot radicalised individuals within the Catholic community who made up a large proportion of IRA terrorists. Finally, it is vital that closer cooperation between counter terror businesses, intelligence services and the government is encouraged, as all three branches hold their own benefits against terrorism: counter terror businesses create logistics; intelligence services gather information; and the government manages city spending and planning. Through a working alliance of the three branches, nations will be at a greater advantage to prevent a new wave of future terrorist methodology before it is set into motion. Europe, Canada and America must no longer play strategic catch up. L





WORLD LEADERS IN WESTMINSTER BENEFIT FROM INNOVATIVE LOCKDOWN GATE A new defence against the vehicle as a weapon (VAW) terror threat has been deployed for the first time, protecting more than 50 international leaders The first two Eagle Automation Systems ‘Westminster Lockdown’ hostile vehicle mitigation (HVM) gates were installed at Constitution Hill, London, in time to protect the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in April, as part of a wider ceremonial streetscape project. LOCKDOWN GATE The Lockdown gate has been subjected to multiple IWA14-1 tests in its development from a simple removable lockdown gate to a permanently-installed aesthetic design to blend into the iconic and historic environment of Westminster. The original 6m Lockdown gates were tested a number of times but Eagle has now engineered to increase the width to up to eight clear metres while retaining security and key features such as removable posts and ease of operation. Eagle has especially focused on the architectural design of the product and achieving an aesthetically pleasing HVM

DAVID ASHBY Managing Director – Eagle Automation Systems



rather than a barricade style solution. Given the huge historical and cultural significance yet sensitivity of the Westminster location, the gates had to be functional and secure yet harmonise with the environment to fit in and reassure the public. They were designed with both standard and shallow foundations and the option for removable posts. Similarly, various fretwork designs are available to suit the particular Historic England architecture of its surroundings. Metropolitan Police officers found the gates incredibly quick and easy to operate and Eagle has already received further orders for gates as part of the wider project. Additionally, Eagle has won three further contracts for lockdown gates beyond the Westminster scheme, two in London and one in the Midlands. David Ashby, managing director of Eagle Automation Systems, said: “Our brief was to create a simple, low-cost lockdown gate to block a road up to 8m wide and that could blend in beautifully in any architectural environment.” “They also wanted the hanging and closing posts to be removable, so the gates could be either permanent or temporary.” Eagle has designed removable socket‑mounted posts that slot neatly into a pre-fabricated foundation cage – with different foundations for different conditions. The lockdown gates will appear in the new Protecting Urban Spaces Demonstrator feature that will take centre stage at the International Security Expo 2018 at Olympia London focusing on large scale threats and the protection of people and buildings in the public realm. Eagle will also be exhibiting its portfolio at Fencex a month earlier in October and in Dubai at Intersec in January 2019. HVM SOLUTIONS The interest in HVM solutions for urban spaces has increased since terrorists


escalated their use of VAW attacks, such that almost monthly news breaks of another deadly incident across the globe. Over the past two years, more than 150 people have died and a thousand have been seriously injured in cities right across the world. It started with the deadliest attack of all – when Mohamed LahouaiejBouhlel killed 86 people and injured 458 by driving a truck at high speed into crowds celebrating Bastille Day two years ago on the Promenade des Anglais in Nice. Since then, almost no continent has been immune to the chilling VAW trend. We are sadly very familiar with the London attacks, but Israel, Australia, mainland Europe, Canada and the United States have all suffered similar atrocities. Former Swedish Prime Minister Carl Bildt tweeted after an attack in Stockholm:“Steal a lorry or a car and then drive it into a crowd. That seems to be the latest terrorist method.” Both Al Qaeda and the self-styled Islamic State have encouraged their followers to use trucks as weapons. An al Qaeda magazine published an article way back in 2010 entitled ‘The Ultimate Mowing Machine’. It called for using a pickup as a ‘mowing machine, not to mow grass but mow down the enemies of Allah’. The fear of vehicle attacks prompted a visible ‘hardening’ of HVM measures in towns and cities throughout the developed world. Street humps, ad-hoc concrete blocks and metal barriers shot up in Birmingham, Brisbane, New York and York city centres, at entertainment and sporting venues. Christmas markets were a particular focus after attacks on them in Germany and Belgium: indeed anywhere in the world where ‘ordinary’ people gather – as they were now clearly deemed a legitimate target by terrorists. So, government, security services and retail and venue operators are all hugely interested in HVM solutions. Increasingly robust barriers like Eagle’s lockdown gates


Two grim years of VAW violence 23 April 2018 – Toronto, 10 deaths, 15 injured 7 April 2018 – Münster, Germany, 2 deaths, 20 injured 20 December 2017 – Melbourne Christmas shoppers, 0 deaths, 19 injured 31 October 2017 – Manhattan, New York, 8 deaths, a dozen injured 17 August 2017 – Barcelona, 14 deaths, more than 130 injured 12 August 2017 – Charlottesville, Virginia, 1 death, 19 injured 19 June 2017 – Finsbury Park, London, 1 death, 9 injured 3 June 2017 – Borough Market, London Bridge, 8 deaths, more than 40 injured 18 May 2017 – Times Square, New York, 1 death, 20 injured 7 April 2017 – Stockholm, 5 deaths, a dozen injured 22 March 2017 – Westminster Bridge, London, 5 deaths, scores injured 8 January 2017 – Jerusalem, 4 deaths, more than 10 injured 19 December 2016 – Berlin Christmas market, 12 deaths, more than 48 injured 28 November 2016 – Columbus, Ohio, 0 deaths, 11 injured 14 July 2016 – Nice, 86 deaths, 458 injured are being created to comply with the latest international IWA14 impact test standards. And aesthetics and their harmony with the environment they are set in is of growing importance as urban planners try to avoid creating an ‘architecture of paranoia’, as the Resilient Cities Lab at the University of Warwick dubbed it recently. The Perimeter Security Suppliers Association (PSSA) has just launched a new online source of help and information on HVM – the HVMHub – in conjunction with the Home Office’s Joint Security and Resilience Centre. The PSSA has experienced a dramatic increase in the number of calls from people trying to assess their VAW risk and seeking help in addressing any problems. The association advises to consider whether the HVM measure covers a temporary or permanent need – suggesting surface-mounted as opposed to foundation-based solutions respectively. It also advises considering knock-on unintentional effects, such as queueing

traffic, impeded access and aesthetics. Rising bollards, for example, can be made to have a more sympathetic aesthetic quality when compared to road blockers, which give a more empathic message on access restriction. Understanding the message the equipment will send can lead to a more socially acceptable solution, says the PSSA. So street furniture that doesn’t obviously appear to be HVM product is desirable, breaking up ‘raceways’ and providing ‘safe areas’ to which the public can flee for sanctuary. And venue operators such as Old Trafford and Wembley are increasingly staging counter‑terrorism awareness and preparedness events, following the Stade de France, Bataclan and Manchester Arena attacks. Even the UK car and van rental industry is seeking to reduce the risk, with drivers potentially facing harsh airline-style identity checks before being allowed to hire a vehicle. The British Vehicle Rental and Leasing Association has published a report in association with the International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation setting out how the Government and the rental sector can work together to deal with the threat of vehicle terrorism. PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT Eagle’s David Ashby said: “Depressing as this trend is, we have to respond to the developments in the techniques the terrorists are resorting to. We must keep civilians as safe as is humanly possible and give our security forces the best tools we can to protect and reassure the public that they are one step ahead of the threat.”

But it does mean demand for Eagle’s highsecurity PAS68 and IWA14 products has never been higher. Eagle was already a market leader in the design, manufacture, supply and service of a wide range of PAS68 and IWA14 tested bi-folding, sliding and swing gates. But the acquisition of the intellectual property rights to the APT Controls PAS68‑rated range a year ago has moved them into the realm as a leading one-stopshop manufacturer of high-security PAS68 and IWA14 impact-tested products. David Ashby concluded: “We are continuing to invest heavily in research and development in response to changing terror threats and customer needs. The new IWA14-1 lockdown gate is just the latest in a series of product releases to combat the threat – with a further product launch planned for later this year. Watch this space.” For product and sales information, please contact: Rankin Goalen, HVM sales manager Website: www.eagleautogate.co.uk Tel: 01992 524800 and Email: sales@eagleautogate.co.uk L

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It cannot be stressed enough that any product or system protecting critical infrastructure and people must always be fully operational and be available to work if and when required. Paul Jeffrey, chairman of the PSSA, looks at the importance of accreditation for entry point control


ith the heightened threat levels and the general awareness of security, we are seeing wide reaching changes in attitudes towards perimeter protection from secure fencelines and perimeter intrusion detection to entry point control using Hostile Vehicle Mitigation (HVM). Many sites, especially critical infrastructure, are securing their perimeters and creating a hardened stand off area for improved protection against attacks. Unfortunately, while awareness of threat changes are undoubtably a positive, there are elements of the reactions to changes which are often excessive and at times ill-conceived. This is because the reactions can be knee-jerk and consequently do not follow a proper process of assessment of what protection is needed, or why and how it can be properly implemented. Most of the best practice process is detailed in standards IWA-14.2:2013 (Security Barriers – Application) and IWA-14.1:2013 (Security Barriers – Performance). However, without the right partners (consultants, manufacturer, installer) the process will be difficult to complete satisfactorily.

THREAT ASSESSMENT Before embarking on any proposal for the implementation of entry point control, it is essential that there is a full understanding and quantification of the threat, including the assets under threat, stand off needed to protect those assets, consequential risk (collateral damage) and possibilities for passive mitigation designs. Detailed threat assessments are usually very complex and require a large amount of experience and knowledge to be completed satisfactorily. As the initial assessment is the cornerstone of the design of any entry point control, it is always recommended that expert consultants are used to carry out this function and they will follow the principles set out in IWA-14.2 2013 (Security Barriers – Application) which superceded the PAS69 standard. It is more common than you would expect for a high security system to be installed on an entry point with no consideration being given to a remote exit point leading to the same critical assets and these projects have invariably missed this vital step in the design process or have used inexperienced or unqualified consultants. E




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PERIMETER SECURITY  The implementation of any project of this type could greatly impact the running of the facility and it is important to identify and engage with all stakeholders in the early stages of the project design to ensure smooth implementation and buy in. It should not be forgotten that any barrier system will impede vehicle access and this often leads to frustration by users which is easier to manage if all stakeholders are ‘on board’ from the start. OPERATIONAL PROTOCOL The physical operational impact of entry point control is something that is often missed in consideration of protection measures. There have been many instances where a control point has been implemented, gone live on day one and then switched off on day two due to the impact on local transportation links. Obviously, this is not a good situation and can easily be avoided by anticipating and considering the consequences of the implementation of a control point on the environment. For example, if the threat assessment allows, the operational protocol for entry point control can be varied to accommodate peak traffic flows by using the traffic itself as the barrier until the flow becomes more manageable. While this would necessitate a secondary more advanced check point, it would not necessarily require any barrier control.

DUTY OF CARE As an employer you have a responsibility (whether legal or moral) to staff to protect them from harm and while with security protection this is not always possible, there should at the very least be a clear and documented understanding of the risks of the roles and an assessment of what (if any) protection can be put in place. If a threat assessment identifies a serious risk that requires an intervention or protection in the form of entry point control then you are understanding and accepting that there is the possibility of a major incident and are crystallising the likely location of that incident with a control point. Any staff deployed to operate systems at the control point (or other staff/general public in the vicinity) will consequently be at enhanced risk and need to have a carefully considered plan to mitigate the risk. The concern is that when the risk is an explosion then the reaction is often

ONCE AN ENTRY POINT CONTROL SYSTEM HAS BEEN ASSESSED, DESIGNED, PROCURED, INSTALLED AND COMMISSIONED, IT IS VERY EASY TO CONSIDER THE PROJECT COMPLETE Operator training is an essential part of any security system and possibly even more critical when it comes to entry point control. With the wide spread use of sub-contract security companies to operate and maintain site security, the ultimate stakeholder is more remote from the frontline security in both the literal and theoretical sense. This makes the need for a clear and auditable process for training even greater and stakeholders need to be sure that proper training is being carried out continuously. Don’t forget that the equipment being deployed at these check points can, if misused, be lethal and you would not issue a loaded gun to untrained staff! Operational Health and Safety is always the most important consideration and any barrier installation will need to have a safety risk assessment completed before commissioning, although a safe operating procedure should have already been incorporated within the protocol and any residual safety risks addressed by safety systems on the physical equipment.

‘there is nothing that can be done to reduce the localised effect’. While this may be the case, if you can mitigate the risk by even a small percentage then, given that as an employer you are putting employees at an enhanced danger level, any improvement in protection, however small it may seem, should always be considered. Risk mitigation can take in many forms and can include physical protection from blast/ballistic attack, as well as adjustments to the operational protocols ensure that the least amount of personnel are at risk at any point in time. SELECTION PROCESS With the development of more and more innovative physical blocking solutions, careful research of what is available using product sourcing sites such as HVM hub will aid the process considerably. Whole life cost should always be understood when selecting products and this should include not only the product cost but foundation

requirements/cost, installation, warranty periods, maintenance costs and life expectancy. Information on duty cycling and mean time between failure will also help with the selection process. Using vetted manufacturers (for example PSSA members) will always give some additional confidence that what is being procured/used is from a reputable source with a history of successful projects. Project references are a valuable source of confidence support and can often highlight potential issues that have been seen on similar sites. MAINTENANCE While maintenance would arguably sit outside the selection and implementation process (other than whole life costs), it is necessary to include at least a few comments here due to the often overlooked or ignored nature of this area of work. Once an entry point control system has been assessed, designed, procured, installed and commissioned, it is very easy to consider the project complete and this is exacerbated by the likelihood that the maintenance work is more likely to form part of a different department. The purpose of the system installed and operating is easily forgotten in time, and the criticality of the ongoing functionality of equipment (that was originally installed as a potentially life saving piece of equipment) may be reduced in importance. It cannot be stressed enough that any product or system protecting critical infrastructure and people must always be fully operational and be available to work if and when required. This is why proper and regular maintenance by fully trained and competent engineers (such as PSSA Installer members) of the equipment should be, and remain, the highest priority once system has been commissioned. SUMMARY Any entity that enters into a process as described above is doing so to protect lives and critical infrastructure and following the correct process with the best consultants/partners will ensure the best solution. L





RADARPOINT Radar sensor system

RADARPOINT The RADARPOINT is prepared for wall or post assembly

Direction dependant detection Object localisation 1,5m-5m Detection range up to 300m 45° horizontal opening angle 24 GHz Radar technology

Made to work Stand-Alone and/or in combination with MASTER CENTRAL CONTROL

To monitor wide areas and pinpoint intruders or objects With the new RADARPOINT300 SYSCO have developed a completely new solution for open area security. Securing and monitoring large open areas with these discretely located devices, which can cover all areas in question, can be achieved in a cost effective fashion compared to the expenditure required using other wide area monitoring technologies. Consequently this new technology is suitable for the high-level security areas as well as for industrial applications. The new devices invisibly monitors big free areas and potential intruders locations can be identified exactly. The modern software allows the exact setting of detection parameters depending on size, direction, position and speed. The electronics are housed in a robust case which is equiped with a Vesa connection and a universal holder for masts, walls or other objects. A number of interfaces are available to integrate the devices into an integrated security infrastructure. Thus the electronics are able to interface directly to the security system via a LAN-Network or with an RS485 data line. For smaller systems the radar electronics of course are also able to be connected individually . Two free dry relay contacts can be used as alarm outputs or to control external devices. In addition, the RADAR Point evaluator is equiped with inputs to monitor external contacts (such as gate contacts, IR-beams etc.). The RADAR Point system setup can be configured through the above mentioned data interfaces as well as an USB connection. On request a puttable WLAN-Stick is available, so that the settings comfortably also wirelessly can be carried out.


• • • • • • • • •

Compact weather protection case Transmitter and receiver in one case Big detection range Localisation of objects possibly Detection dependent on direction possible Detection dependent on speed possible Free adjustable detection segments possible LAN-and RS485 connection IO‘s integrated

Delivering certainty. Perimeter Detection Systems Security consultation Costumer Service

Technical data Working range up to 300m Opening angle appr. 45° horicontal Object localisation 1,5-5m Voltage supply 12-48 VDC (10W) Case protection IP65 Case Material ABS / Aluminium Dimensions (without Vesa) 280x250x110 (HxWxD)


PROTECTING PEOPLE In today’s world we welcome open and social spaces to enjoy time in a safe and secure environment. The question is what are the pressures and needs that must be considered when looking at protection measures?


he planet is becoming increasingly crowded, with crowds forming for a wide variety of reasons, from day to day commutes, to shopping and visits to beaches, attractions and public events. Extreme crowding in a complex environment can cause particular difficulties for emergency response, so it is important that we understand the needs of the space and the people using it before adding protection measures. Where it is seen as great fun to get a flash mob to attend an already dense location such as a station, the impact of such events could have serious repercussions. We must also consider the everyday users before we start to restrict movement in any way for any singular purpose. Protection has to strive to ensure safety at all times and from all reasonably anticipated risks. But safety of whom and from what should be the primary questions.



WHAT ARE CROWDED PLACES? Crowded places cover many types of locations and it can be difficult to provide advice in protecting them. There are tourist locations such as palaces and museums; there are sports stadia and festival arenas. In fact anywhere a building or open space attracts crowds. There are commercial places such as shopping centres and town centres. There also transport hubs and stations. Modern planning regulations require facilities such as parking, accommodation, public conveniences and food establishments, making them complex built-up areas. They are often multi-faceted, have multioccupancy and impact many organisations. In other words - not simple! All of these locations can have diverse impacts which can affect the composition of the crowd, be it cultural, economic,

CROWDED PLACES financial, or social. This is where we have found the most challenges in researching crowded places. WHAT ARE THE KEY ISSUES? There has been vast amounts of research focusing on most locations, it usually aims to either: bring in more footfall; maximise financial benefits; improve targets; understand usage and benefits; and improve movement, environment and design. However, none of the research has looked at all the issues. In 2007, the Joseph Rowntree foundation researched the social interactions in urban public places. It stated that ‘the publicness of public places is conditional and contingent’. It showed how different people used public spaces and analysed how social interactions contributed to the cohesion of various communities within a community, at different times and in different ways. It also showed how self-regulation of these groups actually made it manageable. In the final report it referenced ‘The Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE)’ 2004 space manifesto where it was stated that ‘public spaces are the glue that holds society together, the places where we meet different people, share experiences, and learn to trust one another.’ The report went on to state: ‘In addition to using public spaces (for shopping, leisure and so on) and also use them as places to encounter other (familiar and unfamiliar) people, events. People also use public spaces to maintain their own presence as a part of the social entity that is the town or the neighbourhood.’ A new priority for the ‘open city’ in 2010 was ‘The Accessibility of Public Space’s for People with Dementia’. This writes about the disorientation those with from inhospitable, difficult to interpret and to navigate; finding them threatening or distressing. The paper called for the open space design to be looked at from the view of a person with dementia. Like all disability and equality requirements, this has to be taken into account when we look to redesign or change a space. Accessibility measures must be worked with other issues to ensure that a holistic view is taken in design. CROWD DENSITY There are social, convenience, economic and environmental benefits to living in places of higher density, which makes designing public/crowded spaces all the more important to get right. Designers and architects are advised to: keep it simple; make it accessible for all (in conflict with protection); highlight character; plan for people not cars; use all senses; trust and engage the users or community; and choose the right materials. Now more than ever, there are pressures to make public spaces

WE NEED TO WORK WITH COMMUNITIES TO UNDERSTAND THE USE OF THE SPACES AROUND THEM, AS WELL AS IDENTIFY POSSIBLE EMERGENCIES AND THEIR RESPONSE TO THESE SITUATIONS increase opportunities for play and physical exercise, to shape the physical, intellectual and emotional development of those living in highly dense communities. We are advised to adhere to statements that advise we must embrace the ‘critical ingredients of liveable cities must be safe, inclusive and accessible’. This is all well and good but who is the body that produces the specifications? More importantly, if a change or adaption is needed, where do you go to get that approved? You can’t have open freedom for growth as well as security? Can you? There have been many innovations in understanding how crowds form and move through crowd modelling. They are good models for the design of the environment, with algorithms needed to mimic density and movement. However, they have yet to allow for the social psychology of people in crowds and of crowds themselves. Overcrowding is particularly difficult during emergency response to both manage the crowd and allow access for the emergency services to respond. Some complex environments, such as a public spaces, may have numerous stakeholders. These include the users, the owners of property, organisations working in the property, transport hubs etc. It is a community within a community. We need to work with these communities to understand the use of the spaces around them, as well as identify possible emergencies and their response to these situations. It is now noted that a high quality public environment can have a significant impact on the economic development of that community. Towns increasingly compete to attract investment, and public spaces are a vital marketing opportunity to obtain that business. CABE research showed that 85 per cent felt that the quality of public spaces and built environment has a direct impact on their lives and on the way they feel. To ensure that quality, we must, therefore, consider the multiple implications and impacts of the planning design and management of the space. Considerations must be made for: physical and mental health; benefits for children and young people; reducing crime and fear of crime; social dimension to the spaces; movement between spaces; and value of biodiversity and nature. These are important issues in design, but what happens when this gets changed?

CHANGES In his article Beyond Bollards, Jon Coaffee, stated: “Terrorists have significantly changed their modus operandi in the new millennium… consequently, traditional counter terrorism approaches – the construction of defensive cordons to protect valuable and vulnerable assets – are seen as largely inadequate. Experience tells us that once permitted hyper security tends to become permanent. If we want a humane and accessible public realm and genuinely open society, we should not let the exceptional become the norm as we seek more adaptable and effective ways of coping, in a calm and measured way, with urban terrorism.” The NaCTSO Crowded Places Guidance supports ‘not creating a ‘fortress mentality’. There are many stories from town centre managers, retail industry and events supporting this statement of Jon’s. One such experience was an irate town centre manager who found concrete bollards had been placed around the space he managed, without any consultation or consideration to other matters. He pointed out that the bollards had not only been placed inappropriately but were also not fixed, so were of no actual practical use. His issue was not with the supposed protection they would provide, as the space needed to be safe and secure. However, he also needed it to attract footfall, increase economy, encourage people to visit the town and be aesthetical pleasing. His exact words were ‘a nice flower bed would have the same effect as a bollard!’ His point is well made and highlights what could have been achieved through balancing the needs of all issues, rather than just one. Attention has been drawn to crowded places for various reasons we have identified, and possibly some we haven’t. Everyone is significant in their own right. All agree that design whilst ensuring safety and security are extremely important. However, these are often at odds with accessibility and the sensation of openness and freedom. Protection is important but it is not the only element, as many already have safety and security features. It can be a complex formula to ensure all these elements are understood and balanced to find the right mixture to produce an outcome which is satisfying to all matters of a truly inclusive, yet protected, open space. L






CRITICAL COMMUNICATIONS When inheriting out-dated communication equipment, the need to provide more modern, resilient infrastructure systems is critical. But faced with demanding financial constraints – What price Life Safety? Our Panel of Experts discuss




Jackson White is business development director at Getac UK where he is responsible for growing the organisation’s defence, security and first responder customer base.

Nick Paris is one of the radio industry’s most experienced system designers.

Simon Hill is an experienced technical director at Excelerate Technology Ltd, with a demonstrated history of working in the telecommunications industry.

After joining the Royal Corps of Signals at 16, where he looked after general communication systems, Jackson supported Special Forces operations for 10 years. He then moved into the corporate world where he oversaw future technologies and innovation for video surveillance and communications systems organisations.


o matter where you live or work, the sound and sight of flashing blue lights passing the window is unlikely to be new. Although you can often hear the sirens before you see the vehicle, the speed with which the vehicle passes is rarely more than a few seconds - public safety vehicles do not waste time. Whether it be a fire, crime, medical emergency or terrorist attack, public safety vehicles and responders rely on time-critical technology to ensure that they are at the scene and in


Nick has designed, installed and supported systems using a wide range of technologies, from conventional analogue, MPT1327, DMR Tier II and Tier III solutions. His installation experience includes large skyscrapers in London’s financial district and nuclear power stations. He also sits on OFCOM’s technical advisory group, and has pioneered the design and specification of Endurance Technology®.

communication with colleagues as quickly as possible, because, if they aren’t, people die and small incidents quickly become national tragedies. In March this year, an independent report from Lord Kerslake into the emergency response to the 2017 Manchester Arena attack found that poor communication meant firefighters were sent away from the scene, with officials slamming the discovery that ‘out of the loop’ fire crews took two hours to join other emergency workers at


Simon is skilled in service delivery, technical support, mobile communications, Radio Frequency (RF) and VSAT.

the scene, despite a paramedic arriving within 11 minutes. Furthermore, it found that Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service ‘played no meaningful role in the response for two hours’, meaning a ‘valuable resource was not available to assist on the scene’. Among its recommendations, the report said Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service must ‘reflect on the poor communication, poor procedures and issues of operational culture’ which caused its failure to respond properly.


In a new Summer report, ABI Research, a market-foresight advisory firm, released its market forecast for the use of modern critical communications systems in the fight against terrorism and crime. Although predominantly focused on the US market, the report highlights the amount of money and attention that such systems warrant. Representing a total market of $10 billion in base stations, repeaters, handsets, and infrastructure in 2022, the North American market continues to account for more than

half of this world market with the rapidly growing Asia-Pacific region in second place at 20 per cent market share. Europe, Latin America and the Middle-East and Africa regions rank third, fourth and fifth respectively. FINANCIAL OUTLAY As highlighted in our May mission critical communications panel, group communications must be efficient, fit-for-purpose, fast, reliable and versatile. But what happens when we are inheriting outdated communication

systems amid financial constraints? Jackson White, business development director at Getac UK, outlines a number of extra requirements that must be considered when procuring computing and communications systems, such as innovation, longevity of use, ROI and financial outlay. White states that thinking strategically about investment in new equipment and how to ‘maximise an existing fleet ‘are essential in ensuring a capability can be used productively for its entire lifespan. E






2017 saw the ever-present threat of terrorism being realised on our streets. Horror unfolded, bringing again the need for us to not only respond to events as they happened, but also to review our management of the situation to make sure we remain ready, equipping ourselves with the very best to keep the public and responders safe and deliver the most effective response whatever the circumstance

Those reviews not only consider whether opportunity existed to intervene differently or earlier, but also the management of the event itself. Critical in the effective management of events is, as we all know, communication. Time and again failings in communication have been identified, from the enquiry into the tragic London Underground fire at Kings Cross in 1987 through to the response to the 7/7 bombings, and numerous other critical incidents where the management and dissemination of information key to providing an effective resolution has come into sharp focus. It would be easy to think that new technology alone would provide solutions to the communication problems so frequently encountered, and of course to an extent it does. However, what it also does is complicate the communications landscape with added sources of information and systems in use. In 1987, the means of communication was limited to landlines, analogue CCTV, limited data over command systems and analogue duplex radio. Today, with every hand holding a camera, telephone and data device, CCTV evolved with new technologies capable of tracking and more, enormous volumes of data and digital radio systems, the communications landscape is not only more complex, but also immense. The issue now is not the means of communication itself, but rather how to join those different sources together to make a


coherent whole so that decision makers have the complete picture and are able to work equipped with the best information available. At the same time, pressures on public sector finances remain acute, compounded by the challenge of rising demand. In their study of Global Trends affecting the public sector, Barber Levy and Mendonca (Barber, Levy, & Mendonca, 2007) not only identify the causes of growing demand, but also some of the solutions. Key amongst their thinking is the use of technology. They identify that data use can transform long term planning and enable better decisions to be made, it can help productivity and provide insight into issues that require a response. EXPOLIT TECHNOLOGY This increase in demand is not simply an issue for the wider public sector, but also a key pressure on the counter terrorism environment. Whether from the lone wolf actor, the radicalised returning from conflict zones, those at risk of radicalisation and using online resources to build their knowledge or from those who choose to ferment disharmony and promote hatred towards groups in our society, demand is increasing across the piece. Funding alone will not provide the solution to the challenge of capacity to cope with this demand. We must exploit technology to assist us, building new and more efficient ways of coping with demand. Of course in exploiting new technology, as we


know from the examination of communications technology, complexity grows. Multiple sources of information become available, producing data loads that are not in mega but giga bytes. Experience shows us that information overload can easily hamper investigations, a key reason for the development of the Home Office Large Major Enquiry System (HOLMES) post the Yorkshire Ripper enquiry in 1982. What is now required are innovative new solutions that provide greater capability to allow for greater effectiveness, release capacity by providing greater efficiency and that smooth out the complexities of a multi-dimensional communication and information feed landscape. These solutions need to provide integration, as well as reliability, organisational security and confidence so that they can support the users to achieve outcomes that will in the counter terrorism environment keep people safe from harm and protect our democracy. Integration also needs to function across multiple platforms in the same way that modern apps such as social media can function regardless of device – handheld, tablet or desktop. In this way, existing infrastructure and end user devices can be kept to minimise cost. Innovative solutions can also support greater resilience, assuring business continuity through multiple fall-back solutions and future proofing to allow technology to keep pace with change and capitalise upon new enablers. They also need to function within information security arrangements, and ideally enhance security still further. Excelerate has the experience and capability to provide these new solutions and their full range of requirements. Technological complexity requires blended solutions that use 3/4G, Wi-Fi, Satellite and more seamlessly to ensure faultless application. Using our expertise in this field, we have developed resilient communication systems that not only provide this blending, but also integrate seamlessly with existing command and control platforms, bringing together multiple sources of information through intuitive user interfaces that can be rapidly deployed and trusted to provide the solutions required. L

FURTHER INFORMATION www. www.excelerate-group.com


EXPERT FINAL THOUGHTS JACKSON WHITE, GETAC UK “Procurement teams are under pressure to deliver the latest technologies with tighter budgets, so it’s essential that they adopt a strategy that not only looks to new technologies as budget allows, but that ensures assets are set up to perform to maximum throughout their lifecycle.” NICK PARIS, ROADPHONE NRB “When considering an upgrade to technology systems, it’s important to ensure that safety and functionality is improved, and not lost in the face of budgetary cuts. In the case of two-way radios, you need to choose an experienced partner such as Roadphone NRB who can advise how the right combination of technology can add features and resilience to improve the experience for end users, efficiency and ultimately safety.” SIMON HILL, EXCELERATE GROUP “To ensure that the response to critical incidents and civil emergencies is as effective as it possible, the communications infrastructure and equipment in place needs to be resilient and capable of handling the vast amount of information captured during the course of incident resolution. It is also essential that sensitive and confidential information is transmitted securely.”


 However, as Simon Hill writes, you can’t put a price on life safety – even in times of austerity. Our three panellists stress that choosing to upgrade your communications equipment can often be far more cost-effective in the long run than maintaining old, ‘cobbled together’ solutions. No matter the product, new technology can also help customers to make cost savings when compared with older systems. For example, a DMR Tier III system from Hytera uses its channel resource dynamically, which means customers can save on the amount of repeaters and OFCOM frequency licenses that are required. Taking advantage of new features available on digital radio systems, such as private full-duplex calling, text messaging and job ticketing, could mean that an organisation can dispose of other technology issued to staff, such as mobile phones, tablets and pagers. To ensure that the response to critical incidents and civil emergencies is as effective as it possible, the communications infrastructure and equipment in place needs to be resilient and capable of handling the vast amount of information captured during the course of incident resolution. Is it also essential that sensitive and confidential information is transmitted securely. Roadphone NRB’s Nick Paris says that investing in a new digital radio system, and converging multiple pieces of technology into one device for end users, is a good way to address demanding financial constraints whilst maintaining or even improving safety. But what of the expensive nature of initial costs? Some companies are unable to spend on new technology, even if they are aware of the financial savings that could be made long-term by doing so. Considering adopting a system with a modular open architecture allows organisations to take advantage of new technologies without spending on entirely new systems and spread spending as funds become available. For example, White highlights that if there are three sites within an organisation, it is possible to update technology at one site one year and then upgrade the next site when budget is available allowing for the introduction of the latest technology available and backwardly compatible with legacy technology within the fleet. This approach means organisations can keep abreast of bleeding edge technologies. Mobile technologies can also be automatically updated over the air so they include the latest software, security patches and firmware. While this does need to be carefully managed with mobile device managers, Getac maintain that it is essential in allowing

end users to continue working safely and securely with the latest updates while reducing the risk of vulnerabilities on the devices or into the network. In addition to slowing down worker efficiency and being expensive to fix, out-dated systems come with either limited or no technical support and are at higher risk of data loss and cyber attacks. Sitting on archaic equipment poses a huge risk to public safety. If your communications goes down, so does your ability to effectively manage an incident, so it is essential that responders have a clear-line of communications at all times. FINDING SOLUTIONS Excelerate, who specialise in delivering resilient communications for complex and critical environments by combining and integrating multiple solutions, say that mobile video streaming solutions serve as both an effective and powerful tool when responding to an incident or managing a preplanned event. By having access to live video feeds at the scene, footage can be shared and viewed for improved situational awareness and accelerated decision-making. The addition of COFDM technology provides another layer of resilience by enabling critical video footage to be viewed at extended distances in excess of 1km and in non-line-of-sight and high-signal-loss environments. Conversely, Roadphone NRB has addressed the issue of new radio system costs by creating a three-tiered approach with its Commercial, Commercial MultiSite and Endurance Technology® solutions. The Endurance Technology® systems feature an industry-leading level of resilience, functionality and build-quality, whilst the lower-tier Commercial and Commercial MultiSite solutions still include the latest radio technology. The tiered approach helps customers choose a solution which fits their budget, and makes it clear what impact their purchasing decisions could have on system performance, resilience and safety. Some rugged and semi-rugged device manufacturers build longevity into devices by using high tolerance components, which deliver increased stability over prolonged periods of time and ensures that the end user’s computing experience is as good for the duration of the devices deployable life, meaning there is very little performance degradation. Warranties are another way to safeguard equipment. For example, some providers like Getac offer warranties of three to five years, which can be extended up to seven years so when it comes to refreshes, organisations can continue to use their assets. L




PANEL OF EXPERTS With the help of our Panel of Experts, Counter Terror Business looks at the growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) and the potential benefits and pitfalls of connected devices

IoT – SECURITY RISK OR BRAVE NEW WORLD? GABE CHOMIC, PRESIDENT, ISSA UK Gabe is a technologist at heart who has been tinkering with things from an early age. He has served as president of a national cyber security association, bootstrapped a cryptocurrency crowdfunding platform from wireframe to profitability, built security programs, analysed security processes across 14 countries and performed in-depth security engineering in heavy industry. His current passions involve the economic drivers behind insecurity and the cascading effects of small business failure.


uch is made of the incredible transformation potential of the Internet of Things (IoT), but in many ways it’s simply an extension of the original network. Gartner suggests that there will be 20.4 billion connected devices by 2020. Connected devices are now everywhere, from home appliances and cars in the domestic setting, to industrial controls, body worn sensors and security systems for business - even in the defence sector. It’s not just the smart thermostats and light bulbs you might use at home: field operatives are


SIMON DAYKIN, CHIEF TECHNOLOGY OFFICER, LEIDOS Simon Daykin is chief technology officer for Leidos UK’s Civil, Defence and Health business units, providing strategic business technology leadership for UK customers. Motivated by the benefits technology can bring, Simon is passionate about supporting digital transformations through strategy, design and delivery to solve some of the most challenging problems in today’s world. Before joining Leidos, Simon served as chief architect of NATS and CTO of Logicalis.

using increasingly intelligent wearable devices to monitor activity like drawing a weapon, and body cameras are one of the most talked about changes in civilian defence. However, just as BYOD left many organisations with new vulnerabilities, so do the sensors and remote devices that make up the IoT. Gabe Chomic outlines a ‘cynical and plausible’ scenario to outline the idea of framing IoT as a technology that multiplies the potential of human achievement or fallacy. Consider walking down the road to your local station, pulling the alarm and


PAUL PARKER, SOLAR WINDS Paul Parker brings over 22 years of IT infrastructure experience, having worked with multiple miltary, intelligence, civilian and commercial organisations. Paul has received multiple military and civilian awards for service, support and innovation, having served as vice president of engineering for the federal division of Inflobox, an IT automation and security firm, as well as holding positions at CS2, Ward Solutions, Eagle Alliance and Dynamics Research Corporation.

watching the chaos as the alarm blares and the staff try to validate it before they have to evacuate. Tomorrow, the same person could pull the same stunt, but the systems could identify the location the smart switch was pulled, pull the location from the CMDB, access the local CCTV and give the control room a good view. The trained operators present could handle the situation appropriately. More likely, the moment that alarm is tripped, alerts go out to all neighbouring alarms in the Community Metro Network (CMN). Approximately


half of those alarms are miscalibrated, including some internal ones in the station, and the ensuing cascade failure state escalates. Unfortunately the CMN is only lightly staffed nowadays. The station is evacuated, authorities of various calibre called in and the alarm system operator given a firm talking to. Nothing more can be done as this type of failure is not covered under standard contractual terms. Good design, security-focused or not, should be able to prevent something like the above from happening. But it should also be able

to prevent it from happening today. Today, security failure is rife - as the latest breach headline will testify. A BIT OF BOTH? As Gabe Chomic points out when we posed the Security Risk or Brave New World question to ISSA UK, you cannot pigeonhole a class of technology into the mental frame of security, no matter how polarising the question. With the IoT as much the result of the evolution of technology as information security itself, the two must be viewed in balance -

‘IoT is both a security risk and a pathway to a brave new world’. Lets look first at the tangible benefits - potential innovation, alternate technological applications, the very concept of cross-trust machine-tomachine negotiations. We can now gather vast volumes of rich new data in real time, improving our ability to make informed decisions and even immediately react through direct control of connected devices. In fact, as Simon Daykin suggests, we are now at a point where open source operating systems, IP networking E



Security by Design. Always on.



EXPERT FINAL THOUGHTS GABE CHOMIC, ISSA UK “IoT is a security risk - we cannot secure the things we do now. Enabling us to do things faster and more efficiently will enable us to fail at scale. “IoT is also a pathway to a Brave New World. One of technological enablement and potential dystopian abuse. IoT, like many technological improvements before it, is not something that can be stopped, just adjusted for. IoT is a tool after all. We determine how it is used and how well we use it. But based on our track record, I would plan for it’s abuse as well as it’s use.” SIMON DAYKIN, LEIDOS “IoT is a natural evolution of our technology enabled and connected world, and whilst it can and will bring new security risks, these can be mitigated. We must recognise the importance of SecureBy-Design processes as we develop, integrate and test these technologies. We need to ensure we evaluate the new risks the technology can bring, embed proportional controls in the technology, and continuously reassess and respond to risks as they mature.” PAUL PARKER, SOLAR WINDS “Is IoT a security risk or a brave new world? Well, it’s a little bit of each and a lot of neither. Certainly, there are more IoT devices around, especially as they become smaller and less resourcedependent. With the many benefits and innovations that these devices bring on the horizon, it’s just as important as ever, if not more so, to make sure they are secured and managed effectively as part of the whole defence sector IT infrastructure. “Mitigating any security threat of IoT requires visibility into the network and devices running on it. Sophisticated monitoring and threat detection systems are necessary to find and remove problems as quickly as possible. When this is taken into consideration, the use of IoT devices becomes both achievable and beneficial for the defence sector.”

 hardware and the computing processing capacity is so ubiquitous, stable and low cost it can easily be technically integrated into virtually any system with minimal impact on price. On the flip side, whilst the hardware and software cost is insignificant, the critical factor, often stressed by companies such as Leidos, is recognising the investment required in securing the system and the application. Modern IoT technology is often based on the same highly capable and secure underlying software as our mission critical systems; however, the pace of implementation, the time-to-market pressure and the less rigorous engineering processes often mean security is not considered properly and the secure capabilities are not included. Paul Parker agrees, highlighting that, just as BYOD left many organisations with new vulnerabilities, so do the sensors and remote devices that make up the IoT. Virus protection and network monitoring are critical and Parker says that defence organisations should look at whitelisting or blacklisting devices in line with what they’re required to do. Realistically, the risk from an IoT device is quite limited. If a hacker has control of the Ministry of Defence thermostat, they might be able to make the office environment quite uncomfortable, but they won’t necessarily be able to access server files. The most significant risk comes from IoT devices being used as botnets - and this can also be mitigated. But how can this be done? IOT DEVICES SolarWinds pinpoints three steps for IT professionals in the defence sector to consider: consider automation; understand security information and event management processes; and monitor devices and access points. Administrators need to make sure they are using monitoring solutions to complement their automated network. Security information and event management allows users to keep an eye on real-time data and provide insight into forensic data. Only devices with adequate security should be added to the network, and administrators should monitor for any unauthorised devices that are connecting. In addition, administrators should establish a baseline for what ‘normal’ IoT device usage looks like, and then check when devices aren’t behaving in accordance with this, such as using more bandwidth than usual or generating unexpected traffic. We have already seen examples of this through poorly implemented IoT devices making CTV, including baby monitor live video, available to anyone in the world, or exposing

control of industrial process equipment to the internet by mistake. Dayton says that embedded and proportionate cyber security cannot be an afterthought, it needs to be considered and implemented as a foundation of technology, however mundane the use case appears to be. SECURE-BY-DESIGN Leidos advise that, when developing, selecting or testing IoT equipment, consider the system as a whole and the relevant threats, identifying potential vulnerabilities and risks that require control for successful low risk deployment. In the same way as virtually any technology platform, the tools are there to implement security controls and implement a secure solution, it simply needs the investment of time and effort in a structured risk identification and management approach.

YOU CANNOT PIGEONHOLE A CLASS OF TECHNOLOGY INTO THE MENTAL FRAME OF SECURITY, NO MATTER HOW POLARISING THE QUESTION Additionally, through this risk review process it is important to consider the unique factors IoT brings, such as the new information they are producing and making available (and who that may be valuable too), but also the nature of control over the physical world these devices may have. Understanding the control you have is critical to managing risks. Whilst accessing remote CCTV images or live data can expose new information sets, the control plane is often the more impactful area. Being able to remotely control home appliances, cars, buildings or industrial processes can have a more tangible impact on the real world, either individually or if co-ordinated to shared resources such as electrical grids or transport systems. This does not mean it cannot be secured, simply that the security controls need to be proportionate. It is critical to respond to the unique nature of these threats and continually reassess and respond to the risks as they mature. IoT brings commercial automation within reach of a far wider audience than as possible before. What happens next isn’t inherently the fault of the IoT, nor any one device within it. Chomic stresses that it is our ability to apply rigour to our developments that matters. L



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The HI- SCAN 6040 CTiX has already gained TSL Advanced Technology (AT-2) Tier II certification from the TSA; and also ECAC EDS CB C2 approval with CB C3 testing well underway. Scanning baggage without removing electronic devices and/or liquids, expedites screening and makes the whole process less stressful for passengers. Simply handling fewer trays can significantly increase throughput. At an impressive 0.2m/s the CTiX belt speed will also keep things moving. The HI- SCAN 6040 CTiX is easily incorporated into existing checkpoints and integration into an advanced screening and management platform such as Checkpoint.Evoplus streamlines operations even further through remote screening and directed search. It also delivers bothreal-time and historical data to support resource allocation; and supports general administration and modification of the system. Smiths Detection will be an exhibitor at International Security Expo on 28-29 November 2018. Let us show you how this impressive new technology takes the detection of explosives in hand baggage to a completely new level – visit us on Stand G50 at International Security Expo 2018.



The International Security Expo provides a unique platform for the entire security industry to come together to source products and share experience. Philip Ingram looks at the current threat landscape and why the International Security Expo is the perfect place to find the solutions and skills to combat them


s a car tore into barriers outside the Palace of Westminster having knocked over several cyclists beforehand, the country held its breath. Was this the start of another terror campaign like the one that tore across Europe and the UK in 2016–2017? Many cities across the globe were left reeling from a wave of extremism targeting people going about their normal lives and enjoying themselves and the often crudeness of the weaponry used belied the sophistication of many of the attacks. How do we keep our iconic buildings accessible and safe? A question to ask the deputy head of Security Operations in the Parliamentary Security Department at the Houses of Parliament, Fay Tennet, who is speaking at this year’s Olympia based International Security Expo, held on 28-29 November. 2018 has been successful for the security services with a number of attacks being stopped, but the UK Counter Terror Police continue to remind everyone that they have approximately 600 active investigations going on with over 3,000 people of immediate concern and another 20,000 on their radar. Many, if not most, of these investigations will be occurring in our cities and many of the subjects of those investigations are likely to be targeting our cities. However, 2018 will already be remembered for a new type of attack, with the first use of a deadly, military grade nerve agent on the streets of the small sleepy English city of Salisbury. The nerve agent Novichok was used in an assassination attempt on a Russian former intelligence officer, Sergi Skripal and his daughter Yulia, in March. E



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 This incident, that could be from the pages of a John Le Carre novel, is now a vehicle for greater public-private security cooperation with many of the 1,200 police officers drafted in to secure contaminated sites, being replaced by


crowded places. During the FIFA World Cup in Russia an ISIS propaganda video was released in which the terrorist group said that they would attack with drone bombs - thank goodness they didn’t. The recipe and design for chemical weapons and chemical dispersion devices is freely available in the extremist circles according to Aimen Dean, a former MI6 spy inside Al Qaeda in his book Nine Lives. Drones will be a central theme to this year’s International Security Expo. Aviation Security will also be examined closely and central to this conference will be Tom Willis, the head of Security from Heathrow Airport.

THE IRISH QUESTION Andrew Parker the Director General of MI5 said in May this year that: “Europe faces an intense, unrelenting and multidimensional international terrorist threat. Daesh continues to pose the most acute threat, but AlQaeda and other Islamist terrorist groups haven’t gone away.” He barely mentioned Irish Republican terrorism. On 12 April a picture of a group of five men wearing combat jackets and carrying two automatic rifles, three pistols and a pipe bomb was passed to the Irish News from an organisation calling itself the E

security guards. The impact it has had on Salisbury is great but the impact such an incident would have on the streets of London, Manchester, Birmingham, Glasgow or Belfast is unthinkable. Safer Cities is a leading conference as part of this year’s International Security Expo. We have also seen an explosive drone attack on the Venezuelan President and recently the EU Counterterrorism co-ordinator, Gilles de Kerchove, told a conference at the Royal United Services Institute that terrorist groups such as al-Qaeda and ISIS would soon turn to constructing biological weapons and possibly use drones to spread such infections. This year we have seen arrests in Germany linked to a plot to use the biotoxin Ricin in a terror attack. Its purity and quantity shocked the German security agencies. At the same time, ISIS and Al Qaeda terror videos and propaganda are advocating the use of drones against



INTERNATIONAL SECURITY  Irish Republican Movement (IRM). The IRM is a new republican terror group based in Belfast and West Tyrone and has stated they will ‘actively target Crown Forces’ involved in policing operations against republican commemorative events. It is believed that they are made up from disgruntled members of another republican terror group called Óglaigh na hÉireann which had earlier announced a cessation of its armed struggle. How big a threat is this new group and how much terrorism is there still in Northern Ireland? I think given the lack of press coverage you are about to be shocked… In the last two years there have been eight security related deaths, 111 shooting incidents, 53 bombing incidents, 88 firearms recovered, 75.6kg of explosives recovered, 6,357 rounds of ammunition recovered, and 313 people arrested under section 41 of the terrorism act, of which 34 were charged. That is almost one arrest every other day and one bombing or shooting incident every four days and it has been like this since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement. If this was happening on the UK mainland then it is highly likely that

THERE IS A VERY REAL OPPORTUNITY TO LOOK AT THE SECURITY SITUATION IN NORTHERN IRELAND AND TO TAKE AS MANY LESSONS FROM IT TO APPLY ON MAINLAND UK the Prime Minister would be chairing COBR meetings on a daily basis and the Metropolitan Police Commander Cressida Dick would be permanently on our television news screens. Instead the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) quietly get on with dealing with the incidents and the national press quietly get on with ignoring them. However, for the wider security community there is a very real opportunity to look at the security situation in Northern Ireland and to take as many lessons from it to apply on mainland UK. Picking the lessons from many years dealing with the terror threat in Northern Ireland and reflecting on how to counter the ‘momentum’ threat at the International Security Expo is Ken Pennington, just retired from PSNI.

THE CHANCE OF SAFETY Keeping abreast of the threats, the countermeasures, the developing technologies, having a platform to discuss and share best practice is always a challenge for the security community. This is where Peter Jones, the CEO of the Nineteen Group comes in. He recently said in a blog: “All I want to do, with my team, is something to help make it a little less chaotic and bring the chance of a little more safety and security. If I can do that, then it is all worth it and will leave the world a little better for my loved ones!”. This is his mantra behind his event. What many don’t realise is a big part of his team consists of 40 Advisory Council members who come from all aspects of the security community, including government, industry and academia, all at senior levels and they assist in E



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INTERNATIONAL SECURITY  the development of International Security Expo and help shape the content to attract the highest calibre visitors. The Expo is all about expert content and debate, and to enable the sharing of best practice and a greater understanding of how technology can help. That content is delivered in 12 free to attend conferences held over the two days and these conferences include: Retail, Hotel, Education, Maritime and Transport, CNI, Crisis Response and Business Continuity, Protecting Crowded Places, Night-time economy, Designing Out Terrorism, Cyber, Data and Information Security, Aviation and Border security and finally Facilities Management security. Some of the speakers come from the Advisory Council but many are industry leaders in these spheres and are not generally on many conference circuits. One such speaker looks at people. Security isn’t a technology issue or a policy issue it is a people issue. In fact, that statement can be easily expanded to include all business and the reality of life. Now that I have answered Douglas Adams quandary, (what is the question about Life the Universe and Everything that has the answer 42, as described in the bestseller The Hitch Hikers Guide to the Galaxy), I should stop now. But this isn’t the people solution, Darren Stanton, ex police officer and prison psychologist, now the ‘Human Lie Detector’, will shed some light on the mysterious world of reading people.

COUNTER TERROR POLICE REMIND EVERYONE THAT THEY HAVE APPROXIMATELY 600 ACTIVE INVESTIGATIONS GOING ON WITH OVER 3,000 PEOPLE OF IMMEDIATE CONCERN AND ANOTHER 20,000 ON THEIR RADAR INNOVATIVE PRODUCTS The International Security Expo provides a unique platform for the entire security industry to come together to source products, share experience and gain the knowledge needed to address current and emerging security challenges. It and all of the conferences are free-toattend and unite the entire security community allowing shared learning and collaboration from government, CNI, law enforcement, military, major events, transport and borders, cyber security, facilities and public and private sectors. A key theme running through the two days of the expo is that of innovation and many new technologies will be on display, ranging from a cost effective British built drone with thermal and optical zoom cameras that has a flight time of an hour by the Guildford based company Evolve Dynamics, to the Protecting Urban Spaces feature. This new immersive demonstration area will showcase physical products, technologies and have live scenarios to illustrate how

urban spaces can be protected from mass casualty terrorist attacks. Given its ambition, the UK government has come on board in strength and forms the core of the Government Agency and Department zone. The USA, Canada, China and the EU all have their own zones, but it is expected that representatives from over 50 countries across the globe will attend the event. In fact, over 12,500 are confidently expected to attend over the two days, and collocated is the new International Disaster Response Expo, the networking alone will be amazing. With the rapidly changing threat landscape the one place to come for two days to be brought up to speed with everything that is needed, is the International Security Expo. This is one not to miss. Visit the Expo website for further details and register to attend the free conference series.L



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timber and steel combination systems that have been specified across a variety of applications, including data centres, military facilities, laboratories, prisons, detention centres, borders, utilities sites and assets falling within critical national infrastructure both in the UK and around the world. Jacksons Fencing is an ISO 9001:2015 certified company and ranked 45th in The Sunday Times International Track 200 league table 2017.

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WHEN SECONDS COUNT, SEE CLEARLY WITH OPENVISONTM OpenVisionTM is the first handheld live video X-ray system. It is a versatile, portable intensified video X-ray imaging system designed to scan items in real-time. It’s ergonomic and light weight design make OpenVisionTM very comfortable to use in stressful situations. When time is of the essence, this is the tool for the job. When seconds count, see clearly with OpenVisionTM




POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS FOR THE OPENVISIONTM LIVE VIDEO X-RAY SYSTEM Applications Suspicious Item Inspection Event Entry Management Drug Enforcement Checkpoint Security Forensic and Crime Scene Investigation Vehicle Panel Inspection Wall Inspection Electronic Surveillance Sweeps Static/Fixed Installation

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OpenVisionTM live video X-ray system safely achieves real-time inspection and investigation of unattended and suspicious item situations. It can be used at events, security checkpoints, airports, crime scenes and many other potentially threatening locations. The system utilises a 70kV battery powered X-ray tube and a highly sensitive imager connected by a carbon fiber C-arm frame. This intensified video imaging system captures radiographic images that are displayed in real-time (30 frames/second). Simply orient the OpenVisionTM so the object to be inspected is between the 70kV X-ray tube and the 4”x 6” imager target. It is adjustable to 25” with the extended connection arm. The operator can choose between three X-ray settings (High: 70kV/.3mA, Medium: 55kV/.2mA, Low: 40kV/.1mA) to allow for different levels of intensity. Once the trigger is depressed, a highly collimated X-ray beam will penetrate boxes, bags, backpacks and various suspicious items instantly. The item being scanned should be as close to the X-ray tube as possible to minimise scatter. Scanning rates will vary based upon the material being scanned and the environmental conditions, but nominally can be performed at a 4-6” per second rate.    MINIMAL MAINTENANCE OpenVisionTM was designed with minimal maintenance for the operator.  A visual daily inspection of the unit should prevent premature wear and tear. Special attention should be paid toward the battery and battery charger. While there is no ramp down

specification for shutting the system off, pausing between scans helps to prolong the X-ray tube life. OpenVisionTM has been specifically designed with safety in mind. The handheld function allows the operator to stand behind the X-ray tube housing with his hands on the top handle, and trigger handle attached to the tube housing. It is recommended that a second person is behind the operator, providing guidance for the operator while scanning, carrying accessories and to act as a safety spotter. During normal operation, such as scanning a backpack, the area directly behind the X-ray tube housing has the lowest dose rates during exposure. The high kV/low mA setting is the most common usage setting of the device as the X-ray penetration results in sufficient image clarity during the performance of the scan. The high/high setting is only used for rare cases where additional X-ray power is required to see through difficult material.   INTENSIFIED VIDEO IMAGING SYSTEM OpenVisionTM utilises an intensified video imaging system to capture radiographic images that are displayed in real-time. Live video is displayed in real-time on the 6.5” LCD viewer as the X-ray tube is energised.  An optional head mounted display can also be utilised to view live video images. The head mounted display provides a hands free approach through goggles. A wireless transmitter can also be used to transmit the video to the DVR. Video images can be

LIGHTWEIGHT AND FLEXIBLE OpenVisionTM is lightweight and flexible, enabling mission specific configurations eliminating the need for evacuation of public areas. With a total weight of 10.4 kg, it is portable, effective, safe and fast. Whether using the OpenVisionTM in the handheld, inverted or robot configuration, its ease of deployment allows for rapid X-ray inspection at various angles. The highly sensitive imager with laser optical target area helps to determine the radiation hazard area.  OpenVisionTM reduces risk while investigating a potential threat and can be deployed in handheld or robot equipped mode in less than two minutes. A video image can be acquired five seconds following deployment.   ROBOT INTEGRATION Robot integration only enhances the versatility and safety of OpenVisionTM. In extremely dangerous situations where it is not feasible for a person to get near a suspicious package, robots are deployed. The operator can remotely control the robot along with the OpenVisionTM from a safe distance away from the suspicious package. From a secure location, the operator position the robot in the best possible location near the package for an X-ray scan. Once the operator determines that the package no longer poses a threat, then they can proceed with removing the package.  Several bomb squads across the world take advantage of this feature to reduce risk and save lives. When seconds count, see clearly with OpenVisionTM.L




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Accommodating over 10,000 visitors and 71 international delegations, March’s SCTX was the most successful iteration of the show to date. Counter Terror Business recounts its success

THE LEADING COUNTER TERRORISM EVENT S ince the breakup of the caliphate in Syria, the terrorist threat has evolved as extremists now remain in their home countries and look to launch attacks from inside their borders. This has presented those tasked with protecting nations, businesses and the public with new challenges as security forces constantly fight to stay one step ahead of the threat. 10,123 visitors, 71 international delegations and 304 exhibitors made UK Security Week at Olympia, London, the most successful ever. Security & Counter Terror Expo (SCTX), again featured leading forensics show Forensics Europe Expo, Ambition – the event for the emergency preparedness, resilience and response (EPRR) community – and for the first time, the People Movement and Management Show. Covering over 13,000 sqm, the show is the largest national security event in the UK, enabling 304 companies to showcase their latest products, technologies and services alongside 10 conferences, two live demo areas and the worldrenowned, World Counter Terror Congress. THE WORLD COUNTER TERROR CONGRESS The showpiece of the 2018 event was the World Counter Terror Congress, which was attended by over 700 VIPs, delegates and high-ranking police officers and chaired by Richard Barrett, Coordinator of the Al-Qaeda/ Taliban monitoring team of the United Nations Security Council. The event featured world-

renowned speakers such as the Metropolitan Police’s Assistant Commissioner, Mark Rowley, Sir Julian King, European Commissioner for the Security Union and Michael McGarrity, assistant director of Counterterrorism Division at the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI). In Mark Rowley’s final public appearance before retiring, the UK’s national lead for counter terrorism policing delivered a strategic overview of operations under his command, heavily criticising technology companies for their lack of proactivity in working with the police having failed to make a single direct referral to them about terrorist activity on their sites. As part of the most international line-up the conference has ever featured, Michael McGarrity, reviewed FBI operations on detecting, deterring and disrupting threats to the United States while Christian Rousseau from the government of Canada’s Integrated Terrorist Assessment Centre discussed the Canadian approach to the evolving terrorist threat. Richard Walton, former head of the Counter Terrorism Command for the Metropolitan Police Service, added: “Extremist propaganda has changed course over the past year, encouraging attacks to be launched from home nations with terrorists opting for crude methods utilising everyday services such as hire vehicles. This has led to a whole new set of challenges for security professionals to address in order to prevent attacks and protect the public. Terrorism is a global challenge and it is vital that nations collaborate and work together E





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SCTX  on a global scale with events such as the World Counter Terror Congress which provides a vital platform for the sharing of best practice and the most effective counter terrorist strategies.” In addition, SCTX provided a series of free-to-attend conferences focusing on the ever-growing cyber threat, infrastructure, border and transport security. Located on the show floor, the sessions were at full capacity on both days, with visitors keen to hear the latest thinking from the industry’s foremost experts. COUNTERING THE CYBER THREAT The cyber industry, now worth an estimated £3.4 billion, is one of the most rapidly evolving threats facing security professionals today. This year’s Cyber Threat Intelligence Conference, run in association with techUK and sponsored by Genetec and Darktrace, gathered cyber experts from all over the world to discuss how best to protect against cyber attacks whether on individuals, businesses, or governments. Key speakers included Sir Julian King and NATO’s Merle Maigre, director at the Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. Chairing the conference again this year, Talal Rajab, techUK’s head of Programme, Cyber, National Security, said: “Every year, we face new and innovative attacks as cybercriminals look to exploit gaps in cyber protection. Now, we’re facing a new challenge in the fight against the dissemination of extremist propaganda online. Additionally, organisations must adhere to specific requirements with GDPR and the NIS Directive coming into force in May or face serious ramifications. SCTX is the best place to stay on top of the latest developments in the industry and learn about the most effective levels of protection for you and your organisation.”

day one, Chemring Technology Solutions announced LORIS, the world’s highest energy radio initiator while BrainChip exhibited its AI video analysis software that find faces and objects 20 times more quickly than a human operator. Catherine Pouret, project officer at the EU Commission, remarked: “We are delighted to be at the show which has been a great experience for us and our beneficiaries. It’s a really productive way of meeting such a diverse mix of people – all in one place. We’ve had some very good leads so far and look forward to doing more at the show next year.” SECURITY SOLUTIONS The evolution of recent attacks has led the industry towards a more integrated approach combining capabilities across multiple security verticals. This type of multi-layered solution was demonstrated in action for the first time at SCTX’s Integrated Security Showcase. Public and private sector buyers, influencers and government delegations from across the globe were guided through the feature to see how different technologies such as facial recognition scanners, blast doors and perimeter fences all work together into an operations control centre.

THE CURRENT THREAT FROM TERRORISM, BOTH IN THE UK AND INTERNATIONALLY, MEANS IT IS VITAL POLICE WORK CLOSELY WITH COMMERCIAL ORGANISATIONS TO IMPROVE OUR COLLECTIVE SECURITY BUSINESS PROTECTION The Critical National Infrastructure & Business Reliance conference, sponsored by Surelock McGill and Pelco, brought together security experts in protecting businesses and assets essential for the protection of everyday life. Key speakers included Chris Flynn, security operations lead, Data Security Centre - NHS Digital and Dr Anja von Wulffen, desk office, Directorate II Risk Management; International Affairs - Federal Office of Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance (BBK). A PLATFORM FOR INNOVATION SCTX saw a record number of product launches at the show this year with companies showcasing the latest, cuttingedge products from across the sector. On

The showcase featured leading suppliers such as: Custom Consoles, Warrior Doors, Chemring Technology Solutions, Technocover. Bosch, BlokNmesh, Hill and Smith, Integrated Design Limited and Harp Visual Systems. Detective Chief Superintendent Scott Wilson, National Coordinator for Protective Security, commented: “The current threat from terrorism, both in the UK and internationally, means it is vital police work closely with commercial organisations to improve our collective security. Events like SCTX give us chance to showcase the tools we have available to help companies increase their understanding of the issues and measures they should be taking.

This year senior officers had the opportunity to meet many leading suppliers and experts working in protective security and this helps our understanding of the important innovations taking place in the sector. We look forward to attending again in 2019.” AWARD-WINNING PRODUCTS This year also played host to the inaugural Counter Terror Awards, run in association with Counter Terror Business magazine and hosted by Sir Michael Fallon. The awards were staged to recognise the efforts of both public and private sector organisations and their contributions to counter terror strategies in the UK and abroad. Adam Liardet, director of awardwinner Audax, said: “Having hosted The European Commissioner for Security Union, Sir Julian King, at our stand we were then thrilled to receive the Communications Systems Award at the Counter Terror Awards presented by Sir Michael Fallon. For an SME to be able to engage at this level, is evidence enough that the Security & Counter Terror Expo provides opportunities and delivers where other events just don’t come close, it will come as no surprise we have already booked for next year.” More information on the Counter Terror Awards can be found on page 45. PLANNING FOR THE 2019 EVENT Clarion Events announced that the next edition of SCTX will return to London on 5-6 March 2019 for UK Security Week. David Thompson, event director, says of next year’s event: “The 2018 show was our most successful yet and we’re looking to take 2019 to the next stage. We introduced many new features this year to ensure that the show remains the UK’s leading national security and counter terror event and at the forefront of strategic discussion and product innovation. This raised the bar yet again and we’re looking forward to working with our key partners over the coming months to maintain that success into next year’s show.”L






CONVERGENCE CONFERENCE The 11th annual CBRNe Convergence conference takes place at the Rosen Plaza Hotel, Orlando, Florida on 6 November 2018. As partner to the event, the show hosts tell Counter Terror Business about the upcoming show content

FLEXIBLE CBRNE RESPONSE TEAMS F or 11 years, CBRNe Convergence has been proud to bring the CBRN community together at events around the world. Each year we create an open, friendly, learning environment, where you can network with leading experts in the field of CBRNe and learn about techniques and programmes being instigated across the globe. This year we are heading back to one of our delegates favourite spots, Orlando, Florida, and have planned a fantastic three-day programme starting with two specialist workshops on 6 November. Workshop one, ‘CBRNE High Threat Exercise’, is being led by Gareth Roberts and Christopher Thomas of the Specialist Operations Unit of the South Wales Police who have over 30 years of experience between



them. With their specialist knowledge of counter terrorism, covert assessment and CBRN, they are the perfect pair to lead delegates through an exercise on scene evaluation, and covert intelligence gathering in potentially hazardous environments. Workshop two is focused on mass fatality incidents and is being given by Dr Joshua Stephany, medical examiner, Allan Cordwell, head of Group Emergency Planning, Resilience & Response Unit, and Zoe Rutherford, Specialist CBRN Mortuary APT, all of whom have first-hand experience responding to mass fatality incidents. The team will lead you through three real incidents from recent years and what might have happened if the terrorists who carried out these attacks with CBRN devices.

CBRNE Gwyn Winfield, editor of CBRNe World magazine, has put together another great programme of speakers for this year with presenters from institutions such as Georgia State Security Service, United States Marine Corp, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Ottawa Fire Department, University of Maryland, Fire Department of New York, Drug Enforcement Agency, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and the Jordanian Police Force, as well as speakers from some of the world’s leading CBRN companies including Flir, Avon Protection, Rapiscan Systems, Cristanini, Survitec and Federal Resources, to name a few. We are also pleased to be welcoming some exceptional plenary speakers this year in the form of Ronald Hann, director CB Technologies Department, DTRA, Major Erik Aubel, operations officer, CBIRF, Dr Eric Moore, director, Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, Mohammed Sami Harb Muheisen, Jordanian Police (ret.), and ASAC Ron Hopper, from FBI Tampa on the post-Pulse terrorist response. The programme is geared towards focusing on current and emerging threats and trends, and this year we have topic streams including foreign and domestic extremism, narcotics, protection, decontamination, integrated responses and CBRN situational awareness. Also planned is an exciting dynamic demonstration, played out by Federal, State and local responders, in which visitors will be up close to witness them deal with a situation involving a barricaded suspect with a nonconventional payload. There will also be a static demonstration of assets used by the local teams where you will have the opportunity to talk to them about their equipment, get hands on, and perhaps discover a piece of kit or procedure that would help you. Last year we received some fascinating submission papers on a wide variety of subjects, some of which were; David Ladd’s presentation ‘A new model proposed for US Bioterrorism Response’, Byron Marsh’s paper on Post RDD Detonation Response: New Tactics for an Old Threat, and Shannon Serre presented on ‘Underground Transport Restoration following a Biological Incident’. We also had numerous posters submitted, with 19 of them being displayed and discussed by their creators at the show, covering topics such as Enzymatic Sensors and Decontaminants for Protective Equipment Doffing, Filtration of Contaminants from Wash Waters using Ad-Hoc Systems, Developing Surrogate Far-field Nuclear Fallout and its Decontamination from Aircraft Surfaces, Rapid, LowCost Detector for Sarin & Small G Nerve Agents, U.S. Federal Government Modelling Capabilities

‘CONVERGENCE IS A GREAT WAY TO MEET YOUR COUNTERPARTS TO ENGAGE IN INTERAGENCY COLLABORATION, MEET VENDORS OF STATE OF THE ART CBRN EQUIPMENT AND LISTEN TO LEADING SPEAKERS’ to Support Emergency Managers and First Responders in WMD and Large-Scale HazMat Events, Learning from Radium-226 Spills, CBRNe Operation Dawson Storm, and Lone actor terrorism: The natural progression, CBRN? We aim to change the format of our events regularly to keep it fresh and interesting for our delegates. Past years have seen us hold a variety of interactive panel sessions, preconference workshops, round tables, and varied presentations, which give everyone the chance to explore and discuss methods, training and lessons learned from each stage of an incident, with each session chaired by world leading CBRNe authorities. We also include our local colleagues in Convergence wherever we go, and work closely with first responder organisations such as police, fire, and hazmat to create and stage engaging dynamic demonstrations. Last year in Indianapolis, for example, we worked with local police and swat teams who staged a full scale stop and search of a vehicle and arrest of its occupants, followed by an armed raid and forensic interrogation of a clandestine laboratory, demonstrating the CBRN capabilities and response that Indiana responders have developed. At our European event in the same year the London Fire Brigade and Metrepolitan Police CBRN Unit demonstrated their capabilities when encountering a clandestine laboratory. Held at unique venues such as the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, SCDF Civil Defence Academy, Singapore, and the Istanbul Military Museum CBRNe Convergence is an event you will never forget. Last year’s Convergence in Indianapolis was very well received with delegates and exhibitors alike having many positive things to say: Wendy Klausing, vertical marketing manager, FLIR Systems, said of the show: “One of the reasons we love this show is the high level of attendees that come to the show from all over the world. We can reach both military and civil responders at the same time and have in-depth conversations about all things CBRNe. It’s an all-round great event for us and we are looking forward to Orlando next year.” Martin Davey of Ottawa Fire Service, also commented: “This is my second CBRNe Convergence, and they do this well. I have attended other CBRNE conferences across the world and CBRNe Convergence does it right.

It’s excellent, it’s worth every minute you spend here. It’s awesome.” Jerry Smith, from 53rd Civil Support Team, said: “Convergence is a great way to meet your counterparts to engage in interagency collaboration, meet vendors of state of the art CBRN equipment and listen to speakers who can give a lot of detail on today’s CBRNE trends.” Every year our business development team go out of their way to bring the best and latest CBRN technologies to the show, liaising with some of the biggest names in the trade, they fill our exhibition space with over 50 companies each year including; FLIR, Cristanini, ITL Solutions, Avon Protection, Bio Fire Defense, Survitec Group, Rapiscan Systems, Federal Resources, 908 Devices, Battelle, Scott Safety, Mirion Technology, Argon and many more. You will also get the opportunity to see the exhibitors demonstrate their latest equipment, last year saw a thorough demonstration by First Line Technology of the Dahlgren Decon System, it’s ease of use and ability to decontaminate Fentanyl. CBRNe Convergence is also a registered Continuing Professional Development (CPD) provider and if you attend you can claim 20 CPD points! Engaging in Continuing Professional Development ensures that both academic and practical qualifications do not become out-dated or obsolete; allowing you to continually ‘up skill’ or ‘re-skill’ yourselves. In April 2019 (15-17) we will be heading north of the border to Canada, and the Hilton Lac Leamy, Gatineau. Canada has excelled in both civilian and military CBRN for over 100 years. As part of the quadripartite (AUSCANUKUS) it has both delivered and benefitted from the latest scientific research and military doctrine to deal with the CBRN threat. Now CBRNe World, producers of the leading CBRN event, CBRNe Convergence, will be locating themselves in Ottawa/Gatineau for three days to provide a showcase for this learning. Our second event of the year will be at another unique venue in Nashville, Tennessee. Nashville is not only the home of country music, but also of the Tennessee Titans and our conference venue will be their home, the Nissan Stadium. More information will be available soon but, needless to say, we will pull out all the stops as always. L


www.cbrneworld.com/ convergence2018





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natural environmental disturbances. SENSORCORE® is the intelligence engine embedded into all the devices from CNIguard and delivers the highest level of performance in the most hostile operating environments. The SENSORCORE® hardware and software platform delivers an array of critical safety and security applications by integrating commerciallyavailable sensors and communication infrastructure to create a suite of solutions. Our license-free wireless or hybrid, portable, and multi-sensory alarms deliver scalable security to access points of all types including cabinets, covers, doors, entryways, hatches, manholes, manways, scuttles, windows, and vents. Our products are engineered to operate in the most hostile environments and to the highest specifications powered by batteries or mains.

GENERATED ALARM SIGNALS CNIguard offers technically advanced solutions that amongst other things provides electronically confirmed alarm indication via two independent signal paths. CNIguard’s INDETECT solution uses non-contact open/ closed status sensors combined with seismic detection of attack by mechanical or thermal portable hand tools. A variety of additional sensors can be integrated to the core equipment as in CNIguard’s MANITOR solution that also detect flooding, fire, gas and more. The MANITOR platform also enables enhanced monitoring through a built-in infra-red and visual camera module. Generated alarm signals may be integrated into existing SCADA telemetry or access control systems with separate confirmation via SMS text or dedicated email. CNIguard also offers a cloud based end-to-end solution with a dashboard accessible on a computer or mobile phone. The CNIguard solution has been designed for Critical National Infrastructure (CNI) applications suitable for many industries including water, oil and gas, electricity, transport, chemical, defence and construction. The CNIguard total cost of ownership is minimised via rapid installation with minimal disruption and low operating costs. The CNIguard solution has been tested and approved by the UK Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure.. L

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James Kelly, of the British Security Industry Association, reflects upon the events of last year and explains the importance of protecting national infrastructure and the businesses supporting it


ast year was marked by a shift in terrorist tactics, with tragic consequences for the UK. As seen in the consecutive Westminster Bridge attack, Manchester concert attack as well as London Bridge attack, terrorists have shifted towards strategies that are as crude as they are deadly; targeting the particularly vulnerable and making use of weapons which are difficult to control and track, such as knives and vehicles. Thomas Sansom discusses this in more detail on page 21. What have we learnt from the terrible events of 2017? It is not enough to protect the nation from terrorism as we know it, we must continually anticipate new methods of attack designed for maximum disruptive impact. From the National Grid and communications, to water supply and transport, the systems that underlie our everyday life are all vulnerable in some shape or form to attack. National infrastructure has seen considerable investment in the UK in recent years. At the end of last year, the government commenced the development of an £8 million data analytics facility for national infrastructure systems like energy and water. The Data and Analytics Facility for National Infrastructure (DAFNI) will build computational systems, hardware and software platforms for data analytics and database simulation and

visitation systems. This information will be used to improve UK resilience to extreme events such as natural disasters and terrorist attacks by spotting vulnerabilities, improving performance and prioritising workloads. DAFNI will provide a unique space for innovation and greater joint up approaches between the different national infrastructure industries and government - something which is becoming increasingly important amidst increased threat levels. However, DAFNI also highlights the responsibility that accompanies the possession of data that could be deadly in the wrong hands. Imagine a hacker gaining access to vulnerabilities across transport hubs or statistics on which power stations are the most critical within the UK. The consequences could be disastrous. As such, cyber security is equally important to physical security, especially when it comes to infrastructure where the majority of activities take place through electronic systems. Cyber attackers are regularly trying to attack data networks connected to critical national infrastructure systems. A former senior British security official said it was an ‘article of faith’ that Russian government hackers were seeking to penetrate UK critical infrastructure. Such attacks are not unheard of. In December 2015, Ukraine’s power grid was brought down due to a third party’s illegal entry into E



2nd-4th October 2018 The Hague, Netherlands www.cipre-expo.com

REGISTER ONLINE TODAY Working together for enhancing security UN Member States need “to share information […] to prevent, protect, mitigate, investigate, respond to and recover from damage from terrorist attacks on critical infrastructure facilities, including through joint training, and use or establishment of relevant communication or emergency warning networks.” Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience Europe launches Preliminary Conference Programme Delivering an outstanding conference programme of international expert speakers contributing to the valuable discussion on protecting Europe’s critical infrastructure. Part of the City of The Hague’s 2018 Cyber Security Week, Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience Europe will include topics of discussion such as: • Risk and Resilience in CIP and CIIP • PPP Role in CIP • Emergency Preparedness and Response in CNI • Cyber Security Legislation, Best Practice & Standards • Cyber Defence Strategies • Cyber Technologies to Prevent and Protect • SCADA Systems and IT/OT Integration • Emerging and Future Threats on CNI • Space Based CNI • Human Factors, Organisation Risk and Management Culture • Risk Management in Transport, Telecoms and Energy CIP Download the Prelminary Conference Programme guide at www.cipre-expo.com/PSG Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience Europe brings together leading stakeholders from industry, operators, agencies and governments to debate and collaborate on securing Europe’s critical infrastructure.

Further details and Online Registration at www.cipre-expo.com

Confirmed Speaker include: • Silvio Mascagna, Member of the Security Union Cabinet, European Commission • Andrew Palmer, Border Security Lead, Gatwick Airport • Bharat Thakrar, Head of Business / Cyber Security Resilience, BT Global Services • Mirjam van Burgel, Researcher TeleVulnerability, Radiocommunications Agency Netherlands •Catherine Piana, Director General, CoESS – Confederation of European Security Services •Mia Wannewitz, Research Associate, United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS) • Eva Stock, Research Consultant, German Federal Office of Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance • Ivana Cesarec, Senior Advisor for Prevention Activities National Protection and Rescue Directorate Republic of Croatia • Alexandru Georgescu, Researcher, ROMSPACE • Assistant Professor Robert Mikac, Faculty of Political Sciences, University of Zagreb, Croatia For further details and speaker line up visit www.cipre-expo.com

Leading the debate for securing Europe’s critical infrastructure Hosted by:

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CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE  computer systems that resulted in the disconnection of multiple substations. With cyber attacks on the increase, what are a few key considerations for businesses supporting National Infrastructure when it comes to protecting themselves? CYBER SECURITY – ARE YOU DOING ENOUGH? Defending against cyber attacks does not necessarily require complex strategies; simple steps such as regularly updating software and malware protection, ensuring that all firewalls are robust and up to date and restricting access to specific users, can all go a long way in keeping cyber threats at bay. It can be especially useful to configure specialised firewall rules in order to restrict access to the networks, with such firewalls being inaccessible from the internet in order to be less vulnerable to attack. It can also be wise to enlist the help of a security consultant to help identify any potential weaknesses within a network and develop contingency plans in the event of a breach. A reputable security consultant with a wealth of experience and proven track record in cyber security can carry out penetration testing in order to ensure that the protection already in place is adequate enough to challenge ever-advancing cyber threats. The testing can also identify any weaknesses in the network and address them where necessary. DO YOU HAVE A RISK REGISTER IN PLACE? Perhaps one of the most important elements of an organisation’s contingency plan is the risk register. When planning for safety and creating incident management processes, it is essential that those responsible for crisis planning are able to identify the day-to-day risks they face and the strategies in place to counteract them. Businesses face a number of threats each day, including potential terror

attacks, the threat of flooding, an outbreak of fire and the ever present danger of a cyber attack, all of which have the ability to completely shut down a business. When addressing these various threats, it is important to look at how the organisation operates on a wider level in order to identify what aspects of the business are essential in its ability to continue to function in a crisis. For example, ensuring that employees can work securely offsite, if necessary, is crucial in ensuring business continuity. It is not enough just having plans in place in the case of emergency; it is also paramount that all employees are aware of existing contingency plans so that they may go about their roles as necessary. Such plans should also be efficient in their structure, making sure that incidents are dealt with in a timely manner so as not to compromise the business further. INVESTING IN FURTHER TRAINING As well as enlisting independent professional support from a consultant, it can also be worthwhile investing in specified training in order to ensure that members of staff are able to respond accordingly to potentially threatening situations. To be fully prepared for a crisis, employees, particularly those on a senior management level, can undertake specialist training courses on crisis management. Such training should be delivered by a reputable training provider whose comprehensive courses can help members of a business develop the essential skills and confidence to effectively deal with a crisis. The training available is extensive and can cover all aspects of incident management such as risk assessments, security surveying, continuity management and disaster recovery. Those that deliver the training should also be professionally qualified tutors with real world experience of the industry in order to provide an insightful, valuable course.

In order to ensure the training is truly fit for purpose, it is important to choose a trustworthy training provider. Members of the BSIA’s Training Providers Section are committed to working with fellow training providers, colleges, security companies, trade organisations and the government to drive standards, increase professionalism and ultimately improve the standard of training offered to the security industry. Keeping in line with these values, the section has also created its own ‘Code of Conduct’ in order to help safeguard the interests of consumers of services provided by BSIA members, as well as raising the bar of professionalism amongst its members. Adhering to the code provides tangible evidence of each member company’s commitment to proficiency and probity, helping them to keep abreast of current practice, regulation and applicable laws affecting training, in order to ultimately position themselves as the best in the industry. The British Security Industry Association (BSIA) launched a new Cyber Security Information Portal last year to allow members access to the latest advice and guidance to help them and their customers reduce the risk they face from cyber attack. The dedicated page includes useful links, guidance and training information. Ultimately, when implementing security strategies and preparing for the future in an uncertain world, one thing remains steadfast – the importance of quality. Whether it’s a security consultant, training provider or any other form of security, those responsible for procuring security products and services for their organisation should only be enlisting the help of a trusted, professional provider who meets with the necessary British and European standards. L





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The University of York’s Dr James Rogers tracks the emerging threat posed by weaponised drones and examines some of the novel ways in which these threats are being countered


he use of drones is widespread. Once the sole province of the state, they are now utilised by an increasing circle of sub-state groups. Weaponised drones, in their various forms, have spread to over sixteen state actors and multiple terrorist and criminal organisations. The use of a weaponised drone is now open to anyone who can turn an off-the-shelf quadcopter into an airborne improvised explosive device (IED). Traditionally, armed drones have been the preserve of the nation state alone. The US military’s ‘iconic’ Predator and Reaper drones dominated lethal remote warfare. As the IED attacks increased in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the coalition casualties rose, it was these armed unmanned aerial systems that became seen as both a panacea to the human costs of war, and the ‘poster boys’ for a new and improved form of warfare. Yet it was not just about the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, their utility went much further. Long-range data transmission, innovative computation technology, advanced video relay, and high-tech guided missiles,

allowed the US to deploy force globally, yet without any risk to allied military lives. One purported benefit was that drones also decreased the risk to civilians through precision strikes. ‘Precision’ became a buzzword, especially during the Obama administration. The argument was that the ‘pin‑point’ precision missiles fired by armed drones allowed for the ‘bad guys’ on the ground to be hit, whilst innocent bystanders were apparently spared. These claims were highly controversial and disputed by a range of commentators. Yet, whatever the concerns over so called collateral damage, the precision strike capability of the drone was hailed by the president as being ‘part of a just war, a war waged proportionately’. Armed drones and their precision strikes were, therefore, deemed to be a virtuous addition to modern conflict. Yet just as President Obama celebrated the precision nature of armed drones and the ability to target and execute a range of enemies seemingly without costs or ‘blowback’, the ability of the ‘enemy’ to adapt and innovate in the use of drones is proving to be a new part of the drone story. E



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UAV TECHNOLOGY  NON-TRADITIONAL THREATS As the number of actors who possess weaponised drones grows, the multitude of nefarious ways to deploy such systems has also expanded. Non-state actors, including criminal gangs and terror organisations, have acquired relatively sophisticated drone technologies. Civilians, aid workers, and various military personnel, are now actually the potential victims of drones operated by a range of groups and indeed individuals. Western military personnel have already fallen victim to these ‘improvised precision strikes’. The ISIS use of drones against US troops in Syria (June 2017) is but one example. US Special Operations Forces deployed around Raqqa have come under continued attack by small, hard to spot, weaponised drone systems. Armed with small mortar rounds or shells, and sometime HD quality live video streaming, ISIS is able to release munitions with considerable accuracy. Videos of these strikes have been posted on YouTube by ISIS to promote its new capabilities. This is not the only evidence of this type of activity. One striking case comes from the use of a so-called Trojan Horse weaponised drone. Deployed by ISIS last year for use against Kurdish military personnel and French special forces, the aim was to deliberately allow for the drone to be shot down, taken away for inspection, and then to detonate when examined. The plan worked. The resulting explosion cost the lives of two Kurdish fighters and caused injury to two French military personnel. This is an important turn.

yet another who actually crashed a drone on the White House lawn in the middle of the night. Although in both cases the drones were unarmed, these breaches of security highlight the risks posed by drone systems and the difficultly in countering attacks. WEAPONISED DRONES So, can such a threat be countered? The answer is that there is no single ‘quick fix’. Shotguns or modified anti-missile systems could, in some cases, provide a sufficient countering capability. Yet, unfortunately it’s not that easy. As the case of the Trojan Horse drone demonstrated, sometimes terrorists want a drone to be shot down. For example, if a drone were packed with a noxious gas or hazardous powder, it would be preferable for the system to be destroyed in mid‑air, or forced to crash to the ground. So there are no quick fixes, but more considered options are being developed. Governments and arms companies have invested in a vast array of experimental techniques for dealing with the drone threat. These have included the rudimental use of certain animals to assist in countering drones, but also the deployment of some systems that would not seem out of place in an episode of Star Trek. In the former category, for example, drone hunting eagles have been used in France to patrol the skies at major events as a means to combat what the L’armée de l’air considers ‘a credible threat’ from so called ‘terror drones’.

THERE IS NO QUICK-FIX AND NO SINGLE SYSTEM THAT CAN COUNTER THE FULL SPECTRUM OF THREATS POSED BY WEAPONISED DRONES Whereas drones once allowed a state military or intelligence agency to strike down suspected terrorists, these same terrorists are now using armed drones to deploy their own form of deadly precision against the forces of the state. This is just one part of a broader global trend. Military personnel are not the only target. Since the 1990s we have witnessed attacks on aid workers in a variety of guises not least as hostages for ransom, but in Iraq ISIS has explicitly targeted aid workers with modified commercial drones carrying 40mm rifle grenades. In Brazil, drug cartels have waged drone ‘dog fights’ against each other in the skies above cities. In Japan, a so-called ‘radioactive drone’ was flown up onto the roof of the Japanese Prime Minister’s residence. It sat there radiating for up to a month. In Washington D.C. the Secret Service arrested one man who was trying to fly a drone over the fence around the White House and questioned

The positive scenario here is that the eagles can track, grab, and descend with the drones, meaning that they will be less likely to fall on to crowds below. The negative feature, however, is that if terrorists were to use weaponised drones in swarms – say for example ten or twenty drones launched simultaneously – the small number of eagles currently available for the counter drone tasks would be quickly overwhelmed. A not dissimilar problem is found with the Japanese attempt to use drones carrying nets to capture other drones. The Tokyo Police have developed a fleet of single net wielding drones that can be used in a so-called ‘drone denial’ capacity against suspicious airborne systems. Yet, once again, if faced with a high number of offensive drones, these systems may quickly become overwhelmed. Other, more high-tech options are available, yet they also need to be operated with caveats. The US Air Force is in the process of developing a laser and microwave-based

system that uses direct energy beams to rapidly destroy single or multiple weaponised drones. Other laser systems, such as the US Navy’s ‘Ground-Based Air Defense Directed Energy On-the-Move’ will be fitted to armoured vehicles and used to destroy incoming small drones whilst still advancing towards the enemy. In both of these cases there are positives and negatives to the counter drone systems. Although potentially useful in zones of combat to rapidly remove multiple threats, if used in a civilian/public space, these anti-drone systems would be subject to the same pitfalls as merely shooting the drone from the sky. With no control over how to dispose of the drone, or where the drone lands, these systems could allow terrorists to adapt and deploy more weaponised drones that are intended to fall to the ground. One system which seeks to remedy this issue, however, is the ‘drone force field’. Straight out of a sci-fi film, the anti‑drone force fields (such as the Sky Fence) are made up of a number of signal disruptors placed around a high‑value location. The Sky Fence can offer a 600-metre‑high electronic barrier to stop drones entering the area. These systems will likely need to be accompanied by nets to ensure that the drones do not simply fall from the sky and hit the ground. In addition, they will need to be frequently updated to ensure those developing weaponised drones have not developed their own system to counter the electronic barrier. However, the force fields are considered to be a positive addition to the anti‑drone arsenal; especially when used in conjunction with a number of the other systems that have been outlined above. Finally, one system worth mentioning is the ‘tractor beam’ anti-drone rifle. Aptly named the Drone Gun, this system uses 2.4 and 5.8 GHz frequencies to take control of drones up to two kilometres away. The utility here is that this ‘gun’ allows anti‑drone operatives to take control of a weaponised drone and render its previous pilot impotent by removing visual and motor control of the system. As such, the anti-drone operative can then direct the drone into a safe area away from vulnerable targets. As the system manufacturer states on their website, ‘it allows for a controlled management of drone payload’. Overall, therefore, there is no quick-fix and no single system that can counter the full spectrum of threats posed by weaponised drones. Yet some promising technology is being developed. As such, when used in partnership with each other the current weaponised drone threat will likely be kept at bay – at least until the next generation of weaponised drones come our way. L





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020 8532 0055 www.psi-media.co.uk


Taking place in Hall 5 at the NEC, Birmingham from 19-20 September 2018, the Emergency Services Show will focus on learning from past incidents, collaborating to protect the public and save lives and preparing for future emergency and terror incidents

INNOVATIVE LEARNING KEY TO KEEPING THE UK SAFE D avid Brown, event director, explains: “The recently published Kerslake Report on the Manchester Arena bombings specifically highlighted the importance of collaborative working between emergency responders in the event of a Marauding Terrorist Firearms Attack. The Emergency Services Show is a free-toattend event which promotes and enables such vital collaborations at all levels.” Four separate free-to-attend seminar programmes at the Emergency Services Show offer visitors unrivalled learning opportunities - Lessons Learnt (sponsored by UCLan PROTECT), Collaboration (incorporating an International Collaboration Forum sponsored by the Resilience Advisors Network), Health & Wellbeing, and Communications (sponsored by Excelerate Technology).

INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION FORUM An exciting programme of seminars focusing on collaboration between the emergency services has been developed in partnership with the Resilience Advisors Network and the Emergency Services Collaboration Working Group. International collaboration case studies will be presented each morning by representatives from Canada, USA, Belgium, the Netherlands and Slovakia.

Medical countermeasures available to UK responders to protect from the new CBRN threats post-Salisbury, psychological support for call handlers and opportunities for UK experts to work within the European Civil Protection Mechanism are among the topics to be discussed. Expert speakers from Emergency Services Collaboration Working Group, Kent & Essex Police Directorate, Shared Service Architecture, Canterbury Christ Church University and i-Three will lead afternoon sessions in the Collaboration Theatre. Jon Hall, managing director of Resilience Advisors (Europe) Ltd who has helped to co-ordinate the programme, said: “As we approach Brexit, the United Kingdom’s automatic inclusion in many international initiatives and programmes have been thrown into question. As part of this year’s Emergency Services Show, the Resilience Advisors Network have bought together key speakers from the UK, EU and USA to discuss the impact of this and, more importantly, to highlight opportunities that will still be available for UK emergency services and individuals to stay connected with international colleagues to make sure that the very best of world developments can be seen and introduced to national and local solutions.” E






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EMERGENCY SERVICES  LESSONS LEARNT In the Lessons Learnt theatre (sponsored by UCLan Protect), Paul Argyle, multi-agency strategic advisor to the Mayor and Deputy Mayor of Greater Manchester and the Combined Authority will open the first day by covering the key learning points from the Manchester Arena attack. Professor Paresh Wankhade from Edge Hill Business School will lead an interactive-TED-style talk examining the organisational and management challenges for emergency services in the light of the Kerslake Report. Speakers from Public Health England (PHE) will share learnings from Exercise Context ’18, a European Nuclear Emergency Exercise. Staff from PHE’s Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards took part in a European nuclear emergency exercise in Denmark in June of this year, working with teams from eight other countries. What made this exercise unique was the use of real radiation sources instead of simulated sources. The organisation will share the lessons that were learnt and can be incorporated in to the UK’s response to radiation and nuclear emergencies. Metropolitan Police Detective Superintendent Mike West will cover preparing for and tackling corrosive attacks, outlining how the Met has improved their response through operational preparedness, changes to data collection and working to the national action plans set by the NPCC and Home Office. Martin Carnell, group commander, Devon & Somerset Fire & Rescue Service, will look at reducing vulnerability through intelligent data use across the public sector. He discusses how bringing together of organisational data in an intelligent and targeted manner can reduce individual risk and vulnerability leading to demand reduction. COMMUNICATIONS New for 2018, the Communications Seminar Theatre sponsored by Excelerate Technology will among other topics focus on the future of connected vehicles. Seminars will look at the future of communications for fleet responders including satellite technology and blended communications. As autonomous and connected vehicles come closer to being deployed on UK roads, speakers will also examine how the future of vehicle communications can positively impact emergency service and counter terror operations. HEALTH & WELLBEING The effectiveness of the UK’s emergency services depends not only on the training, equipment and technology they are provided with, but also on the way in which their physical and mental resilience is supported. Speakers in the Health & Wellbeing seminar theatre will include emergency responders who have experienced mental health challenges, and organisations who are implementing change and offering support including Mind, Oscar Kilo and the charity PTSD999. Response Pastors, a unique volunteer resource that has been deployed to major incidents including the Manchester Arena attack will give an overview of the ways in which it has helped the communities and emergency service workers affected. TRAUMA CHALLENGES Hosted by West Midlands Fire Service (WMFS) and judged by UKRO, the Extrication Challenge will take place live on the exhibition floor enabling visitors to get up close to the action. Competing teams from UK fire and rescue services will carry out extrications from simulated crash scenes. In the First Aid & Trauma Challenge, competing teams will experience visual and audio from an incident that has been set up and filmed specifically for the scenario, which takes place in an Educational Immersive Tent. To add authenticity to the trauma scenarios, West Midlands Fire Service Casualty Simulation Group will be providing casualties with realistic make-up and prosthetics. Their knowledge of first aid and trauma, combined with their understanding of excellent patient care, will give teams competing in the challenge, as well as spectators, a full and completely realistic experience.

COLLABORATION ZONE In the networking hub of the show, The Collaboration Zone, over 80 emergency services, voluntary groups, charities and NGOs will be sharing details of the support they offer, while members of other partner agencies will be available to discuss co-response and other areas of partnership working. Exhibitors include British APCO, ResilienceDirect and the British Transport Police. PHE is exhibiting to raise awareness of the health protection services which are underpinned by evidence-based scientific and medical research. Its Emergency Response Department is promoting its trusted health EPRR services providing assurance that emergency plans are fit for purpose and applicable to any event. Its Radiation Protection Services is also represented, presenting its mission to advance knowledge of the risks of radiation, and how to identify and mitigate such risks. The Emergency Planning Society (EPS) is looking to attract the next generation of resilience professionals from among those involved in an operational, managerial or professional capacity in emergency management, and those engaged in full time study related to emergency or disaster planning. L



Páramo – the clothing choice of professionals Páramo was set up by the founder and owner of Nikwax, Nick Brown. At first considered too radical to succeed, Páramo has altered people’s expectations of outdoor clothing. Nick explains: “The difference between our systems and conventional approaches lies in ‘directionality’. Our fabrics do not merely hold water back (waterproof) or passively pass moisture vapour (breathe), they actively direct liquid water to keep you more comfortable in all weathers.” Using unique Nikwax Analogy Fabric, which mimics mammal fur, Páramo waterproofs actively move your perspiration in vapour and liquid form away from you to keep you dry. Páramo clothing does not use membranes, laminates or taped seams that break down over time and the waterproof performance is not compromised by puncture.

Hence, they are easily repaired with needle and thread. As a result, many original Páramo jackets are still performing equally well after over 15 years. The membrane-free polyester fabrics can be recycled to basic building blocks and reformed into new high quality fibre. Páramo is currently the choice of a broad range of emergency services. NILO, line rescue, voluntary mountain SAR Teams, dog handlers and fire arms officers all benefit from staying dry and comfortable wearing Páramo.

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With the football season in England now a few weeks in, Counter Terror Policing detail their ‘Know your Game Plan’ advice, and why supporters are integral in fighting the threat of terrorism at sporting events

KNOW THE GAME PLAN SPORTS FANS URGED TO BE VIGILANT A fter a long summer of international sport, the domestic football and rugby seasons have kicked off with a reminder to supporters to be vigilant and ‘Know the Game Plan’. The appeal comes from Counter Terrorism Policing (CTP) and is part of the work officers have been carrying out in the sports sector to encourage fans to report any security concerns to stewards or staff. CTP has been working with the Premier League, English Football League (EFL), Premiership Rugby and individual clubs to enhance measures designed to keep supporters safe, and to raise awareness of the threat from terrorism among club employees and supporters. While there is no specific threat to football or rugby grounds, the project is part of a wider police plan to work more closely

with different crowded places sectors such as retail, hospitality and entertainment. Other sports such as cricket and tennis have also been supporting the initiative, while former England football internationals Alan Shearer, David Seaman and Paul Parker took part in a police ‘Know the Game Plan’ Twitter campaign during the World Cup in Russia. Additionally, nearly a quarter of a million sports event stewards have been issued with a short guide giving key advice to help protect crowds of spectators. This takes the form of a compact, credit card size booklet that acts as a quick aide memoire on actions to take in different security situations. These are predominantly, but not exclusively, terrorism related. For example, there is information on how to deal with exposure to hazardous substances E





EXPLOSIVE ORDANCE DISPOSAL – THE TIES THAT BIND In the heat of World War II and during the blitzkrieg on London, German airplanes dropped bombs that often did not explode. A very brave group of men were formed to disarm these devices and protect the people and property of the UK As Winston Churchill noted in 1941: “The work of the Bomb Disposal Squads must be facilitated by the provision of every kind of up-to-date equipment.” After many hard lessons learned in blood, British Bomb Disposal operatives hosted American officers to teach them the trade of both bomb and underwater sea mine disposal. This relationship has prospered for over the past 70 years, and today remains as strong as ever. This cooperation is critical because bomb disposal – now known as EOD (Explosive Ordnance Disposal) - is widely regarded as one of the most dangerous jobs within the military. From World War II to the more recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan British and American bomb disposal and search forces have fought side by side disarming countless improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and other ordnance with courage and valour, helping not just their comrades but the local population too. AFTERCARE AND APPRECIATION Their service has not come without a price; many members of this community,

along with their families, are battling the physical and emotional wounds of war. There are two charities on either side of the Atlantic; the UK’s Felix Fund and the US EOD Warrior Foundation who are here to help this unique group of men and women and their family members. Help is provided through hardship grants, to serving military, veterans and their family members when they find themselves in times of need. This can be as wide ranging as home adaptations such as the installation of a lift for a multiple amputee, funding for a specially adapted vehicle and in the purchase of specialist equipment, such as electric wheelchairs, and bespoke sporting equipment. In addition to this both charities focus on training and support work through courses and retreat programmes. Back in 2016 Felix Fund and the EOD Warrior Foundation joined forces for the inaugural EOD charities Gala which was held in London. The event was a resounding success with the then US Ambassador to the UK, The Hon Matthew Barzun, attending as the keynote speaker. Not

only did the evening raise awareness for both charities but also a substantial sum, nearly £50,000. As the two charities continue to forge closer links, we will on 15 September 2018 be holding a return Gala evening in the USA. This time the joint event will be at the Lansdowne Resort, Leesburg, VA. Again, raising funds and awareness for the Explosive Ordnance Disposal community on both sides of the Atlantic. Ken Falke, chairman of EOD Warrior Foundation, said: “Following the success of the 2016 dinner we had always planned to hold a return fixture in the USA, as we continue to forge lasting relationships between both sets of EOD and Search personnel.” Karl Frankland, chairman of Felix Fund, added: “With less public awareness for the work these personnel carry out both at home and abroad it is important that we continue to raise awareness and much needed funds. The support Felix Fund and the EOD Warrior Foundation offers is actually needed more when the guys and girls are not on operational tours.” This destination event will be a major focus for the EOD and Search community in 2018, and anyone with links in the UK or USA should consider attending. Not only will there be the Gala on the Saturday evening, with the opportunity to network with serving personnel, veterans, key industry players and representatives from both UK and US governments, as well as a not to be missed auction, with money can’t buy lots on offer. There will be options for a round of golf on the famous Lansdowne course or an evening of painting and wine tasting over looking to Potomac river during the course of the weekend. For more information regarding sponsorship opportunities or to purchase tickets please contact melanie@felixfund.org.uk in the UK and nicole@eodwarriorfoundation. org in the USA. If you are interested in finding out more about the work of Felix Fund, please visit oue website or find us on Facebook and Twitter @FelixFund. We can only continue providing financial support and welfare assistance to those who keep us all safe if we, as a charity continue to get support from elsewhere. L

FURTHER INFORMATION www. www.felixfund.org.uk




FOOTBALL LED THE WAY BUT SINCE STARTING THAT WORK, PREMIERSHIP RUGBY HAVE BEEN DOING A GREAT JOB TO ENSURE THE MESSAGE GETS OUT TO THEIR SUPPORTERS  such as acid. This advice has already been shared with emergency service first responders and is now being extended to private sector security workers. A SUCCESSFUL SECURITY OPERATION National police coordinator for protective security, Chief Superintendent Nick Aldworth says: “The chance of being caught up in a terrorist attack is low but it is important the public feel confident in coming forward and report any concerns to matchday staff or police if they see something suspicious. We know fans can play a role in a successful security operation and the more clubs encourage supporters to do this, the more likely they are to act on their instincts and not worry they might be mistaken or wasting time. “Most concerns will turn out to be nothing and that’s absolutely fine. It’s far better to say something than risk an important piece of information being missed. Our mantra is Action Counters Terrorism. If you see something, don’t hesitate to ACT.” In the week leading up to the first round of Premier League fixtures, CS Aldworth visited Stamford Bridge to see the security preparations being made for Chelsea’s campaign. He followed this up with a trip to the EFL’s Stoke City, where similar work was being undertaken for their first home game against Brentford in the Championship. The visits were an opportunity to see some of the developments over recent months put into action. Bob Eastwood, security and operations advisor for the EFL, played a key role in bringing clubs and CT specialists together at security workshops and seminars. He says: “Getting supporters to think about security is just part of the work football has been doing in partnership with the police. Over the last 12 months we have held many events all over the country so counter terrorism officers and stadium security managers can share their knowledge and stay a step ahead. “Events such as these has helped clubs gain a better understanding of the threat and the many options - large scale and simple - available to them to further enhance existing security measures. In turn, the football professionals can bring our experience of matchday operations to the discussions and help police understand what the challenges are for us.” SPORTS VENUES Building on the work with football authorities and clubs, police opened their workshops out to other sports with representatives from cricket, tennis,

horse racing and netball among the delegates attending sessions. Officers also addressed the Sports Ground Safety Authority annual conference, attended by a wide range of sports security officials. CS Aldworth adds: “Football led the way but since starting that work, Premiership Rugby have been doing a great job to ensure the message gets out to their supporters. Our next key project will be to work with the cricketing authorities to look at how we can collaborate on arrangements for next year’s World Cup. “Again we are stressing this is not because of a specific threat to sports venues but part of CTP’s overall strategy to work as closely as possible with the different sectors that operate in crowded places to collaborate more. Whether you work in a shop or at a sports stadium whether you are out looking for a bargain or cheering on your team - everyone can play a role in keeping our communities safe. We want everyone to go out and enjoy themselves but feel entirely comfortable in reporting any concerns.”L



The key ‘Know the Game Plan’ advice all fans going to stadium based events is: • • • • •

• •

Arrive early, allowing more time for security checks Minimise what you carry, fewer bag searches will speed up entry to the ground Be vigilant at all times and if you see anything suspicious, tell a steward right away If you see anything that could pose an immediate threat to safety, call 999 In an emergency inside the stadium, listen to the Public Address instructions and follow them If told to evacuate, do so immediately, do not wait around to film events on your mobile Move right away from the stadium as quickly as possible for your safety and to allow clear access for any emergency vehicles Once you are safe, follow the local police force on Twitter

NEW NATIONAL POLICE COORDINATOR OR PROTECTIVE SECURITY Chief Superintendent Nick Aldworth is the new police National Coordinator for Protective Security, replacing CS Scott Wilson who has retired from the service. Nick started his career in policing in 1990 after serving in the Royal Air Force Regiment. Initially he joined the Thames Valley force where he worked in a variety of uniform and armed policing roles. On transferring to the MPS he joined the Specialist Firearms Unit, SCO19 and was the Tactical Firearms Commander for Central London throughout the 2012 Olympics. A year later Nick was posted to the Palace of Westminster as Chief Inspector Operations and Security, responsible for the day-to-day leadership of 500 staff delivering the policing and security plan across both Houses of Parliament. Later he was promoted to Protective Security Operations (CT PSO) with the responsibility of delivering security measures and advice across London, as well as providing intelligence to armed protection operations in the UK and abroad. Nick successfully led PSO throughout the terrorist attacks of 2017 - a period of his career he says he is most proud of. Earlier this year he took on his current role and the responsibility for helping all police forces deliver protective security as well as working with partners to ensure UK policing is resilient enough to respond to terrorist attacks. The post includes supporting the management of the National CBRNe Centre, the development of specialist CT armed policing capabilities and organisational learning for CT across the UK and overseas.



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