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No. w . HISTORY OF TilE NEBRASKA N ORMAL SCHOOL.

f O N TIILY BY

,1,1;"'H E N bras ka tat Normal Schoo l has ~ co mJl t ·d its ~w nt)·Se\ e n ). ears. _J t . · o~:-.- t:: r. r •. D E J. ZE J.I • may b fitting to . o· n ~ short rev1 ~ w of I t~ ·s 1 ;\ !I'·· J3 r ..:r' 1~1> · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · • · · · · · · · · • · · · • e r tan • hi t ry durin g- tl;1s l~ n o~ . T he h~ story o~ En r'1' 11 8 · · r::--~~o: s s :"\'I AXAGF. H S: it arli r yea rs ts o·n e n 111 th e ·'History of 'l'Jros . F . D Ti ll S , · J. TAx o r.r-: v. N bra ka.·· . • IVC !i •<•~ tr. r • . · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·· . ·. . . '!'re a -u •·e•· From this we lea rn that the N onn al p.O~ . School had it b o·inning in !J.t . . V e rn o ~1 ~ Te rms o r S ub scription: oll o·c th n unci r th a uspices of the M. p e r s c h ool y ea ·· · . ...... .. .. . .... . . . oo· E Chur h in braska, that Vl/m. Dail y; . · .. .. 1. C co PY • . . e a c h ... · · -· · · ····· · ·· ·. · ... . 0 •1 c p •e"'' . . • · · · .. 1~ R~ ,. H. Bu rch a nd D r. J. F. eal '~ ith ir• A' Je . ;o n> :1rc c ons ode red pc rm n nc n1 u n ti l Ordered d i . S bSc n Pt . Add res~ a ll co mmuni ca ti o ns to THE N o R sco ntonu eJ thcrs gave li be ra l! ) to its suppo rt. ,. 11 s u ,e , r~ • J· "'"t Co uRJE R. •o. r M! - - . buil ding 4ox8o feet, t hree stories hig h, d 11 r r• - - - oo t office at Pem, Nebr., as Second Class M 11 wa rect d at a cost of ro, ooo a nd J. M. 0 M-at-te~r_._ er ed il t th e pos - - -----=~==-:-------Mch.enzi , \. M. was p lac ed at the head of ~ - - sc HOOL DIRECTORY. th e sc hoo l. PH ILOMATHEAN . Thi s Coll eo·e opened in the fall of 1864 . 1g dur in g th e sc hoo l te rms a t o 'e r Messrs. W m . f ri daY e v e n t~ to jo in us in our lite rary wo rk, e ock . . f'! a nd co n tinned until 1866. verY . II" itW 1te tJARR tE M . DUN CANSO N, Pre spdec oa ly s oc ie tY e c ord •n ' urse s • em . Da il y and T. ]. Majors, members of th e stude nt s :t~~hi J::'h er co EVE R ETT S OC IETY. State Council a nd H ? use of R epresentatives osc of th • . . th e sc h oo l terms . New s t ude n ts are es nl: l'ater .:a rv work . W . E. ROB ERTs . Pres . cvenl.,, ",... dun in our fo r Nemaha county, m th e winte r of 1866-7, to jo in us GTON IAN S OC IET Y. Eve ry ..f rvido.Yd •te ELL IN the propert y, valu ed at $ ro,ooo, to tendered ~eci n JI Y 111 W P res id e nt. · Rrso ~ . the State for a J ormal School. . c utllt: US E LI TUM . .. MI SS GR ACE: CORP . , a nd s pri ng vacat1on. T~ e propert y was accepted and the du r in!; Hol1 da ) s ANNA M c COY, P res ide nt . . .. ..,e n •nJ::' Leg islature appropria ted $ " 000 to fi·nish Eve ry Fri claY c N SOC IETY. . . p HILLl PP IA r Es pec ia lly for !1i g her s t ud ents the buil d in o- a r1d .:> • . . th e s um me . dur ing vac a!l on. · ~· gave a n endow ment of in g dunn g, g th e L• bra rb J S TAND LEY , Pres •de nt. Every Fr id aY e ~~; Atumn • us •n . . twe nty sectlO ns of la nd lyin o- in L ancaster lnd me mbers o f AL MILITIA . county. b . T H E NORM Commande r of Cad ets. , d Lie ute na nt. Th~s ·will g ive suffi cient answe r to the ~-OF H . B. D UNC ANSON, STA f F. . · . Ad ju ta nt. . quest10n so often asked '' Why was the N e. na nt a nd a c t•~ g S ergeant MaJor. J, Ch ur c h, F irs I \:~ u t~e n o nt a nd a c t•n g Q M. braska State Normal Sch ool located at Pe ru lt, Good . S econ d _ • e~r e~ n t a nd ac t•n g · NY A. t_ H. Beed le , F • r~t S g INF A NTRY-- C~MPt J . M. Richard s on , 2d Lie ut . so fa r from the cente r of populatio n ?" ,. W De lze ll , , s t L• e u ' ~ The Act to locate, establish a nd e ndow a ·c l< Nea l, C a pt ; m. coMPANY B. C 5 Nor son 2d Li e ut. ' Lie ut · · · ' ' . G C. Me rrill , rs t. S tate Normal S ch~o~ was · passed Juo e 2 1 , •11 L. Dave nport, Capt • · CIATI O N. •W• , ATHL E TIC ASS O S e cret a ry , Will L. Davenport. I 867, a nd by prov1s1ons therein set forth 1 esi de nt , Dtck Ne a l. C A. . the school v,·as establish ed at P eru N emaha f r. Y. M . · ·n S ec ret a ry, G eo. C . Mernll. res ide nt. T hos . F . Do bbs. Co rr e spond t g county. 1 Six~y ~~re s of land acljace nt to --1' Y. W . C. A. Secretary Mary Buc h a na n. P~ru we re s·1v en m fee sim ple as a site fo r L~ . t Vin a C an on . C or re s pond in g ' AND ) pre s •de n ' NO RM AL MILITA R Y B . t W E Rob ert s sa1d Nor mal sch ool, provision also, for a L Serg ean . · · · 7

~

NEB R AS K A S T AT E NoRMA L S c H oO L .

Erected

1 8c72~ 3 .

Enlarged 1885.

Dedicated D ece m be r 23 , l t:i73 .

STATE

2

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,l -eader. P rof. Bo uc h e r.

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TJ-IE . N OR Jl!A L C ) Boa rd of Ed ucatio n to b appointe d by t he Gove rn or, th e S tate ~ re as ure r a nd th.~ S 't of P ub lic Instru cti On to be m m b 15 p ·s boa rd , ex o ffi cio ; t h'IS B o~ r d to a pofu thi po in t a P rin cipa l, wh o ~h_a ll b chi f ex . cuti ve in a ll matte rs p re ta mtn g to the ma nag e_ . . . me nt of t he sch ool. T h fi rst Board of E du cati on consiste d of S. P . Majors, P res id e nt ; D. C. Co le, S,ec reta ry; Dr. J. F ~ ea l, A. B. Fu lle r, ~ m . Dail y, j a me s Swe~ t (State T r asure r) S. B. Bea le, (S ta te S upt.) T he fi rst meeting of th e Board was he ld M. McK e nzie . wa s in Aug ust, r866 . elected t h e fi r st Pnn c1pal, a nd M rs. C h a r lotte Mc K e nzie , Prece ptress. The firs t regul ar te r m co mme nced Oct. 24, 186 7. In A pril , r868, S. P erry Martin was e m p loye d a s teac h e r of Mathemati cs. T he numbe r of stu d e nts the fi rst te rm was i 20, of wh om 2 5 ·wer e in the · o rmal Departm e nt prope r. In I 869, J. M . Mc K enzie, P rincipa l, se cond t e r m, A nna A lcott, P re ce ptress. No. stude nts e nrolled, r so. o. stud e nts in Normal D ept. , so. r8 7o. J. M. McK e nzie, Principal. Carrie F ull er, P receptress. Mary E . Osburn, T eac he r Prima r y D e pt. M r. Me ~enzie having b ee n e le cte d Sta te Supt. P ub h c Instru ction, ente re d u p on th e d uti e s of that offi ce, a nd P.r6f. H. H · Stra ig ht was el_ected Prin cipal a nd Teac~e r of N atural Sc1e nces. R. Watso n Smrth, A . B. , T e ach er of M usic a nd Latin. No. stu d e nts e nrolle d, 2 00. N o. st ud e nts in rormal D e pt. , r Qo. r87 r-2. At the co mme nce me nt of th e fa ll t e rm 18 71 -2 the F acu ity was constituted as fo ll ows :

.J ·.

Dr. A . D . vVillia m s, Principal.

H . H. Stra ig ht, N a t. Scie nces. K a te E lli ot t, P re ce pt re ss. E m m a D icke rma n, P rin . Mod e l Sc hoo l. o . stude nts e nro ll e d , 2 ro. No. s tud e nts o nna l D e pt . , r 10. r8n-4. G e n. T. J. Mo rgan, P rin. , T e ac he r of Me n ta l a n d Mo ra l Sci e nce.

T HE

RIEJ.. .

t ha t offi ' J a n. Dr. urry.

E li za . J l o r an , Pr c I rC' ss. R h ·t r i. . and En g li s h Li t rat ur ·. H. H. . tra ig-ht. . ·an r a l S i('n . : La n. g ua, s. J a m ~ s 13 ll a n -·, :Vlath •ma t1 ·s . . h Ma r y H. Burt, l' ri nc i1 a l \ I I ·I S . K a t D icke rm an , l ns tr u m ·nta l l u s 1 IZZI · L itt le. T c ac h r lr1 A li ce H itt a nd M od I ' ch o l. In t h wint "r f 187 1. I I n . S. l . ·wd H o n. W m. I a il y , m :m b ' rs Jg is latur · f . r 7\ ·m a h a · u n ty ~ _ fr o m t h ' L "cr1 latu r · an · t ·t g- 1\ 111 ~· a n fo urth mill tax a m un t in:-; t ... 30, ooo) f r the e recti on of a o rm a l h I b uil d ing . W ith the proc e ds o f t hi s tax as h oo l bu il:in g was r ct d in ~h · g- r u n I s ·a st of t _ buil d ing th e n ccup 1 l b y t h · sc h ol, co 11 stru cted of b ri ck, . w it h a li m s t o n · fo und: : ti o n 90x63 f ~· Wit h t h r s t o ri s a n d_ bas ll m e nt. H e re It m ay b sa i I t h a t v. 1th ~ th e broad ·id as of its f o u n I r s, as to _1t 5 future g row th , t h y, in pa rt, f a il l to reahz~ that th e g rowth mi g ht b v n r a t e r th <t d th ei r hopes, a nd th r o u o-h f a r th a t th e ful~­ would prove in ade q ua t the a r c hi t e c t s, Ro e rts and Be ll a ngee (or th e b u il d r s , as the case may be, ) w e re re~nir d t o co nt rac t th: orig inal plan of th e bud d ing , in co n sequ e n c~ of which the be a uty of d e s ig n was so m e wba diminished, and to da y, w e h av e so m e cl~ 5 ~ rooms reall y fo o s m a ll fo r th e c lass s w hiC . hC occup y the m. In the fall o f 18 72 , th e f o und a ti o n of .tidnew buildin g was co mpl e t e d, b u t th e hC ing was not read y f o r oc c u pa n cy until t ,., fa ll of 1873 . It \Vas d e di cat e d D e c. 2 J' r873. d Because of th e limita t ions as t o r oo m , a n in applia nces fo r s ch oo l w ork, Prir~ . G e n;. T. J. Morgan de~ m e d it w is e th1 s ye~t 1 87 2 -3, to a im ch1 e f ly , a -lm ost w h o ll y, the best a nd hig h e s t d e v e lop m e nt o~ ~th students prese nt ra th e r th a n t o p ut f_o of , efforts to se cure a g reat e r 11umbe 1 la -1 -· ~ stud ents · thu s p1-e p a- tmg a broa d f ~ un cthe " ' k b . d tion for th e w or . t o e c a rn e 0 11 111 Jture , \ new building, t e ndmg t owards tn.I~ c u l1ich A Wrs . e p nn . c l JJ!e v.rf th e ~ broad scholars h .rp. has large ly prevail e d in a ll th e hi s t o r y 0 ~ school. \

77. a nd " ·as s ucceede d by

R o b rt C ur ry. A. ~r. ,. P h. D. ;. M. C. D. : Prin cipa l. . e · L tte ratur ~ f I. C lVfo rO"a n. Rh e toric\ . . s· . Che m' IZa . H . H . N ich olsoi1. Physica l Ciet1ce. istry. . B0 odk·D-keepina . B to ne. Ma the matt cs, ·in ~ . . . BeII, N · c·· L a ng ua<=>o·e a..n h raR'·' ead<:>' Lydia S a lli J. Tri pJ e~t. N . G . ' G eog r ap y. . in a . Dra\\ mg . . · B v\ o rl e). Voca l a nd I nst. M usJC. . Jos. i . .L. owd e n, lv1\r o d e 1 sc Il O O I G)' mn astl cs. o. st ud en ts e nro ll e d, 265. N o. stu de nts P r ima ry D ept. , 7°· . r 877 -8. 0 T , teache rs a dd e d to th e Fac ult), : h . _ ., t[. E · D · · 1 ea c e r l r." J e nm. e B. C urt) of Me t hods. . !J.c D a ·1 t y,. N . G . , D .ra \\'iiw·>' R ead tng-. D t N o. stud e nts exc lu s n e of Mod e l ep ·· Ii ss D owde n re s ig n ~ d . 1: . L. S nodg rass. a ppo inte d. A rith . . G ra m. · . Draw ing . 0 . stud e nts excl us ive of M od. S c hool. 23 2 ·

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18 79In the fa ll P rof. S to ne res ig ne d a nd appointm e nts. we : e ma d e as fo ll ow s : ]. JVL Mc h . e nzte, A . M. , Math. Boo k-ke e p. mg . Prof. H e nr y M . Bla k e, M usic, R e acl mg . Cali s th e ni cs. O lli e Ol eso n, N . G .. G ra m. , R ead in g . J ess ie Bain, N . G., G e og .. U . S . H isto ry. Mar y E m e rso n, N . G., A rith. In 1879 the time for iss uing th e cata log ue was , ch a nge d. tha t t h e tim e mig h t con-espo nd with the fi scal yea r.

1

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188o. · FA CULTY.

Rob e rt C urr y, A. M., Ph. D., Prin. , T each e r of Psychology, E thics, and the

Science and the Art of T eaching. E liza C. Mo rgan, Rh etoric, Literatt1re.

,_

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THE

·T.f/E N ORiJ!/AL CO URIER.

i oo

H . H. N ichol son, A. lVi., Ph ysical Scie nce, a nd Che mistry. J. M. M cKe nzie, A . M . , Math. , Book-kee pmg . M rs. J e nnie B. C urry, Schoo l E conomy a nd Methods. A li c~ E . D a il y, N . G . R eading a nd D ra wmg . J essie E . Bain , . G., . S. History a nd G e og raph y. Mary E me rso n, T. G. , O ra l a nd W ri tt n A rithmetic. H e nry M . Bla ke, Vocal Mu sic, E locuti n, a nd C a listhe ni cs. -o. s tude nts, 276. Hi ghe r Course, 8o. E l. Course , 196. 188 !. E . M. Li pp itt , Vocal and l nst. M usic t o succeed !l iss ] essie S tock ing-, r sig ne d . No. stude nts, 2 74· H ig he r Cou rse, 8o . E !. Cou rse, 194. · 188 r. ·

H . L. G ra n t, P h ysical Scie nce a nd Che mi st: y t o succeed H . H . licholson, reSigne d to e nter N . S . Un ive rsit y as P rofessor of Chemistry. E l o. s t ude nts, 3 r8. H iO'he r Co urse, 8o. Graduates in both C · Course, 2 30. o u rses, 45 · · Dr: R obe rt Curry comme n~ed hi s ad min ;str~tlOt hJ a n. r, r8 77, a nd re ma ine d a t th e 1fe a _ o t e schoo l until Ju ne I88,., a pe rio d ~· o s tx J,·ears ' f or t h e, school a' {Je nod of co n stant <:>O'row th • ' His lo ngb term .a ff or d e d hun . O[JIJortunlti . ·e S t b · bo n ng. a out . SLtch goo d res ul ts as cann o t e attal!1 e d In a sing le year leav ing t o hi s succe ssor a fir m f d . ' . oun at10 n fo r ca rr ymg o n tl d 1e goo _wo rk, a nd t hi s b ring s us to th e 1 ate r unw ntte n hi story of the sch ooL . 188".) · FAC ULTY .

Geo. L. Farnham, A . .M., P rin. , Teach e r of Psycholog) , Ethics, a nd the Scie nce . a nd Art of T eac hing . E b za C. Morgan,. Preceptress, Tr. of Lite raH ture , Rhetonc a nd Ge ~ e ral History. · S. Gra?t, M. S., P hysical Scie nce a nd Ch e mistry.

J.

M. Mc K c nzi ,

~ I athcmati s

OR 1/A L COCR /ER. r

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pi ng, A . h .. G oudy, af and \\ rit <' 11 • r it h . Margar t R. · mith, S h I . F n my, M t hods and T ra inina . . :-., Mrs . lie oudy, I l'aJitw·, l ·r w in and P nm ansh ip. · C lara E. P. . mith , I .anguag·c· .. I sa b ·I R . 'c tt, .. . I li st Jry ·nd raph y. E . . I. L ippitt, \ 1 li g- h ·r o. stud nts, 7.. E l. Cours ' 242 . ; ra d ua t ·s b t h, P rin c i p~ l. l·arnh am s 11 sa w t h . n , ·- s it ) o f a n add ttt n to t h , ':\ rm ·ll S ·h o 1 B uil d in ·. I;! e I ·li v ·d th at i \\" ts . n l , n · ·s s a r y t tnform th · L ·g is latur . f t hi s T at ne e d. to sc:cur ·· a n a 1 1 r ri a. ti 11 f a u111 sL~ ffic t e n t t ma k ' su h a d li t i n . b ut n tall f n e nds of th : sch o l w ·r . sc h 1 ·ful. t t he next sess iOll f· th 1 · · 8 ~ · · . ' -g- ts h .tu r · 111 t • th e . . . B a r I la tcl t h . .1s . b ·f o r -- t h · L~gt~l at~ r ' a nd o l ta in ·d the c1 ·s ir d ctj p r o26 oo f 1 · J1 ?- , 0 oo )) n afton tn a ll f ' • W ll w re or the adJi tio n t th , s h oo l b uildi ng ... s ,ooo fo r a stea m h "lting- p lant. a n d . , woo · fo r wat r- w~ r~s, a ,..,, ·ll, a b o il r h u us a nd p um p fo r ra ts mg t h · ,.._.at ' r to a ta nk in t he tower. \o\'h nee th " w·:tt r is d is tri b ut 1 to th~ l~boratori e s, a lso t o oth e r parts o f th e b uii~mg a nd to t!1e b a th -rooms a n d the la un · d ry 111 the Dormtto r v. lmmecli a~e l y the ~ o rk w as b c; CTun a n.d as a r~st~lt, ~he capac ity of th e N o r~a l S ch o ol Bud cltng ts m o re t~1a n do uble d . T h e large chapel has a s e atm g cap ac ity £01- 4 0 o s tu d ents. Opening fr?m t h e . c hap e l a r e t wo la rge clas_s -roon:s with fo ldtng d oo r s . Th e s e a re avat!abl e In case a n a udi e n c e is too la rge fo r the audi e nce ro o m p r o p e r. On the first flo o r !3- r e t w o la bora torieS, E ach is on e c~e mi ca l , th e _o the r bi o logica l. s upplted with s Uita ble appa r a tus, a nd ~11 thmgs neede d by s tude nts in doing indivtdual work. There is a lso a g;en e ral r e c e ption room on the fir st flo o r b e stdes th e famil y rooms of the Principa l. In .th e base m e nt a r e well -

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rt d in to Phil -

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L. Fa rnh a m, M .. ~r- in. , T ac h r of P sy h_ Jo_.. ., y, E thi s, c te nc a nd rt f ·r · a htn g. Ph "to ri c, Lite ra tur n. Ji t3 . .£:... ' H i.·t ry . 1_.. . G 1·a_n t. M . · .. P h) s ica l S c ie n ce a nd

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d hi t ude nts to ga in mo re co mpre he nsi \· vi ,,. of th e subjec t. In r '7. a fiv -in ch te l scope was purchas •d. It w as found th at th e obse n· atory ,, as n t ad q uat to th needs. a nd in 18 a n bs ··n·ator y ,,·as cr cted of bric k. " ·ith a t \\' h· · f ot do m ··. a nd with a n adjo ining ro m fo r s t ud · a nd fo r apparat us. I 87. \A,. Ed 0 ·a r T ay lor. Bio loo·ica l a~n d Phy ·ical ~ c i nee ro ucc ed H. L. Gran t M. ..-\ . H. ·\ ·a n\, 1 t Ass ista nt in c1e nce D e pa rtm nt. a ra h N . Butle r, ss is ta nt in T ra inin g· an d · Kind .rga rte n. M. \ · ly n Birss, . C lass. No. · s tude nts. 438· Hig her Course, 78. £ 1. ours . 360. o. g radua te s, both ours s. 6 r. In 188 7. th e Legisla ture app ro priated :; . 5 ooo fo r repairing the Do rmito ry and addirw to it a win g· 40x46 ft. co nta in ino· o n b . I b fi rst Aoo r, kite 1e n. ·st ore- room a nd t\\' O bedroo ms. S eco nd s tory, t hree rooms fo r stud e nts. As t he Dormi to ry is t he build ing fo rme rl ) occ u pie d by M t. V e rnon College, th e re is a dispos ition to call it Mt. \ e rn on . H a ll. · 1888. A. H. Van ' lee t, Che_mistr y a nd Ph ysi cs. Je nnie _R. Faddi s, Assista nt in Trainin g a n d Ktnde rg arte n.

I. Me K e nzi . A. M . . Math e m a tics a nd _As t r o n o m y . . .. re t I<. S mith, Sc h oo l E -"\' l ;:tr g c~ e th o ds a nd _Tra inin o-. co n o my , ,. . M. . VI/ n g ht, Oral and \ F·v ntt · t'enc n J ; JO ~ 1·it hm d lC. S · Hu bba rd. U . S. H 1' s t ory a n d h·t ,.; i I P c"· ,0 o·rap h Y· f./ r ( \XTinne . La ng u?-ge aud Grammar. S troc k. R eadmg and Dra,vino1c.::t r t ha,. J~ . . o· J1 (1 3. i Jpitt, MUS I C. . ~ IVf. L lld e nts, 339· H tg he r Course , 78. J / N 0 . s tL ? 6 r. N o. g raduates in both - ~ co urse. P e n e l~p~ M. Smith, ~ eadin g, D ra v, in g. j·__,) ).cs e S. 4,..J ' 8 I 8 5· Ci v ~l Gove rnm e nt, 111 p lace of A i111a R. 3." ' Strock, vvho h a d lea, e of abse nce to c D J e nkins, School Economy, - Sara d · an d TraininQ', to succe ed N s tud y one year in B osto n, 1\IIass. }VI .r::.· ,_, . d 5 M e th o K S mith, resig ne . o .. stud e nts. 49 1_. Hig h e r Co urse , 7_; . M a rg are t · Highe r Course, 7 1 . £ 1. C ourse, 4 I 8. No. g ra du ate s fro m th e No . s tud e nts, 3N~. g raduates both class- . two course s, 55. . 1889. )S l· Co urse, 3 2 4· · Be ll e Tho mas, ~ ch ool E co n o m y, l\'I e thod s, 5 53· . 1886. t;:;· • 1e d succeed e d b y G. · a nd Supe nnte nde nt of . Trainin ~r t o M. McK e nzi e re stgAt 'Mathematics and su ~ce e d Mrs. S a ra D. J e nkin s. o' ]W. E llis, B. ·• A nn a I~. S troc k re turne d. Astro n o m y . Higher Course, 88. No. stude nts, 57?· Hig h e r Coti rse , S6. N o. s tud e nts, 49 2 • d tes ' 39 . El. C ourse, 486. No . g ra du a te s in both :;9. G a ua ' . . :f:l. C ourse, 4°4· r · the n teache r of In .1 8~9, th~ L eg isla ture g ra nted an ;tt>In r886 , Prof. Mcl~ e nzte , mall te lesco e propt:latlOn of $ I 3, ooo fo r the p ur pose of ~d~ s tronom y , c o nstructe d a s · e rectm g up o n th e campu s a b uild in g for t h e A <J. !l d e t-c. '-c.t e d a smaJ1 .. . o bser wator . .y and .so m

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TI-lE NOR M A L CO RfER.

libra r y, kn m.n1 a s the L ibra ry b uild in·g , a nd in g-, th sc h ol was known hroug- h its a a b oil e r ho use. Th e \\·o rk beg·a n in th · c r ·di t d s tu d ·nts, and h · cl<·m;,u1 I [ Jr t h summ er of r8 89 a nd \\·as co mpl ·ted so tha t stud nts a s t ·a ·h ·rs \\'as g"IT;tl('r t han th · the lib ra ry was tra nsfe rred to it fr o m tb · s u ppl ) . sc ho ol buil d ing in th spr ing f t890. T h fac ulty in 189- was Lh <' sa m · The re is a readin g room adjoining th · 189 1. umb ·r . f stuu'nts, -1-.1.:- . li b ra r y 1 ro p r, w~1 e r · a r · to be fo un I a Co ur s :, 1 2 1. J ~l·m·nLary ·<u r s' , la rg e num b r of clai l) a nd w }·d y pape rs. G ra d ua t ·s fr m H ig h -r '< ursv , 7, .1 : 1 The boo ks a re t opicall y a rra nged in s ·c- ta r y C u rs ·, 2 . tio ns in a lc oves upo n o ne side of the li br.a r y In J.u n , . 1892 , .1 r. F an1 h a m P'- ·s · nt ·d ' o n the oth e r sic! a re long tab! s) w ith hi s r ·s1g na t1 n w ~1 c h w · s · 1 · ·p t . I I th rac ks ~o r magazines, vvhe re all th e lea lin g B oard of ~ elu cat1 n t l'l k · ·ff · t J n . 1, m ag~z m e s a re t o b fo und ; the re a r oth e r 18 9 3 . T he t ny·ars'a lmin i: tnt i n f r. lo ng ta ble s with seats where stu de nts co n- F a rnhar:' w~s ~n p ch o f i 111 1 r m nt. s ult refe re nce boo ks in 1 repanng the ir T h ma m bu tl clln g : cl ul .l · I in ·a ac it ) , t h 1 lessons. la rge a nd co mm cl 1 us IJ! r· r y u il d in ,, th · O f bo und volum es the num be r is ,. - 49 obs rvatory, t h -· la r rr_ • s t ·a m h •rt ti n · a n d ' includ ing p ub lic docume nts a n.d ~;m ­ le ctric rl a nt, th -· im pr . 1 r r u nd ' a nd p hl e ts ~ 7 5, b e s ides u nb? und mJagaz ines. th g raded str . ts I ·a d in ,. t t h ·s . r u n ds,. Je nme H oyt was appomtecl libra ri a n t o s uc- a ll sta nd mat n a l m num ·nt. f hi s wo r k , ceed .~lie~ A tki nso n,. who resig ned to acce pt but tl~ schoo l was !'1 a rk ·d n ot s imrl y b ~lo~~tion 111 the P enston Offi ce, W ashing t o n , m a te n al g row th d unn D r . a rnh a m 's ad . mini s t~a ti o.n. r. Farn h a m b ]i v d that E lNo. stude nts, 55 5· Hig he r Cou rse , 8 7. e ~uc.a tJ ~ n ~ s a rowth , s t imul a t 1 by a fo rce · Course~ 468. .No. g raduates fro m b o th. w ithl~, '.t IS not a . c ra mmin of kn ow le d a 1 2 7· N ?· 111 ~ractlce School admitte d w ith- n o r . IS 1t fr om x t rna ! inAu n ce s . His · o ut mat:Iculat!On, 9!. Their nam es d o n o t ~upd s felt th at edu catio n ~1 ad a hi g h e r funcap p ear In th e catalogue. tton than t.h a t of s ec u~-tng 111 r e kn ow lJ The faculty was the sam e a s in r 890. e d g e, ·that 1~s tru f un.c ti o n is the cl e v lop N umbe r of students enroll ed . 4'" 6. Hig h e r m e nt of self 111 eve r y d1r c tio n th e s tr n o-thCourse 104 El ' J p . ' S h. e mentary Co urse 352 . e ning of the sp iritu a l and m o'r a l a s we ft as . ~tcel de ool, 95· The 95 we~e not the intellectual lif . mratc a n cu ate . When Dr. Farnha m re tir d from active Oma ha o pe ned T · · school work tru e e ducation los t a n abl e a nd pare its ow n Hig~ Srahmmgl S chool t o pfre ~ . . . . . c oo g radua tes 01 loyal servant, one w ho had e arne d his re st p ositions m Its ctty schools Th. nts and to whom it mi g ht b e s a id, ·"Nobly hast for th e diminish ed numbe r~ Is accou thou don e ~hy w ork. M a y G od's choice st . . This year t~e Legislat~re ap p ropriated blessings atte nd th ee . " $ I ' 000 to put 111 good workin g o rde·r the Each and e ve r y stud e nt of Dr. Fa r nham p~ant . fo r h eatin g the school building and has some pe rs ona l r eason for a ratitud e to t e h~r~ry. . ~ nde r D r. F arnha m's wi se him, and each w ill r e m e mbe r s~m e kindly supe rv.Isi? n this work was well done, a nd word of chee r, some h e lp in tria l a nd abo ve th e bml~mgs are th oroug hly hea ted. L a te r a ll · that be nig n influ e n ce \.v hi~h r a diated the L egislature gran~ed .a n a pprop riatio n of from him , cau sing a l.I w h o cam e in c ontact $ 3, ?C?O f o r an e lectnc hg ht pla nt. By hi s with him to fee l w ithtn th e ir breasts a lo ng Untinng effor ts Dr. F a rnha m se cured th e ing for a hig h e r life a nd a · r e s o lv e t o be effe cti ve wo rking of th e p lant a nd now the t rue r men a nd w o m e n . sch o o l bu il d ing , li bra ry a nd lad ies' d ormiThe love a nd ble ss ing o f th e s tud e nts of t o r y a re lig h te d b y e lectricity. th e No rmal S ch oo l a tte nd D r. Fa rnh a m a nd

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[ ·tctia n o th pa rt of both facult Y tud ~nt is hi k -' )no te. H e lis te ned ; nl)" h Ill . '11 'al. f r it wh n he ca me, a nd struck the full I <• C ., • r un I to ne \\ h ich has ne ,· r ' a e red for a F. \ TI.T\'. Ill me nt 111 e. ,\ . w. N HT · I . . .E ~< t :-.: II'AI.. . Hi I cture thr u ·h the state, "' ith his h logy Ethics. Logic and the Sct ence and Art of T<tachtng. htl r of P• yc o • ··Talks to T ac he r , ' th ro uo·h th e Co RTER , TefiC !f . . ~ gLI ;I,.\ ' . i\I . f< ; \ N. _P to-: 'EI'Tt<E . . ha ,· t fo r th his idea , "' bich a re the bas is • Litera tll re . Rhe ton c. Oen ral Htstory and Physiolog . reache r 0/ f ur r o r ,.. :a ni za tio n, go in g on a s rapidl y H. H. D ' \ ' )N. B . • · .. a heal th ) ac ti' it of th e scb ool indi cates Tt~ a c h o r of Botany , Geology a nd Zoology . r ad in ss to ma k ne '' appli cation of truth , A. H . AN LEET . Teacher of Che m istry, Physics a nd Astronomy. a nd tre n th to us , bu t no t a bu se, a l ~ rge r li b rt) .- .. o, not P rof. orton 's ideas. H e G. \\ . ELL! , B. Teacher of Mat hematics cwd Latin. 1 im nl) the .g- ro up ing , ap pli cation , and :MI FL R E E 1\ L W R I H'l' . x cution of ' ha t our leading edu cators Teacher of Om / and Written Arithmetic. all hold in theo ry. 11 · · J E NNI E 1\II c LA I , H is lo,·e of li fe is hig h as it is d ee p a nd Te ache r of Unit ed S tat e s History a nd Geography. broa d. H e recognizes on e proof of li fe, MI :MA RTH A " IN E , nd but o ne, action,- . ·a reaching o ut in th e Toachor of Languag e and Grammar. ao~{ a nd th e !te·re, of th e life that is for th e M I S LILLIAN R. K ELL OGG , 1t c/J tl r of Re ading. Drawing. Ciuil Goue m ment and Book Kee pit>g. li f tha t shall b e. f e::t :MI B E LLE TH MAS . T o be relia bl e. fi o·ures should be ta ken at . Pr inciples of Instruction and Supe rint endent 0 f r of PraL ttce. once. T" ice two a re fo ur, no les.s no more ; /J ci18 MISS M . EVELYN B IRS f i! First Critic Teaoll er in Praotioe Soll oo t: . d if it were fo ur .o n .yefsterday, tt was an . well esterda ) to wnte It o ur, tha t a s It was, :MI SS MA '!'TIE E LLIS . 0 ~actly. 5 0 th e world shall know it e ve rCritio Teaoller in Praotioe Sohool d Seoon , · ex F acts, too, t h e ' 'stu bb orn t h"m ba s,. " E . :M. LIP PI'!''!', 111 O[·e • Vocal and Instrume ntal Mu s to. f reacher o a re co ~:~n te d more tru s t\V Orth y~ noted at the M I SS J E NNIE H OYT , But life may safely 111 0111 e nt th a. n reca lled. Librarian and St enographe r. wait reportm g. fiN BL A NKENS HIP , Histori a ns ofte n say, '' W e a re too n ear JO Jan itor. evehtS t? write a history ~f this e poch. Vve be r of stu de nts, 49 1, G rad - mu s t wait for our e nthusias m to crystalize ~ 1: rj1 o l e nuH\ o·he r Co urse, · 26 , from E l _ into judge me nt , a nd for distance to focus "Vv f rom o . vision. S o ,,.e feel about the last y ear's t es Course, 57 our sc hool. It is very near to us. life of v ~ 11,t ar Y I 894 · W e yet feel t~e throbbing of its pulse; and e; is foUI1cl in th e (il f. r thi s year p e fa culty o . of thi s iss ue of Tn E a t a season , t o o, wh e n this m yste ry life is h eighte nin g th e effect of eve r y shade ~ nd 1 1 Directo 1 Y tint .in combin ati~n , and of eve r y gracef,ul ~ctl~~£R. a tes fr om Hig he r.Course, outlme , a n d d elt cac y of m eanin g in the coV vrnb e r of g ra dur Co urse, 55 · wo rld a bout us. rJfrorn El e m e nta Y. nds our g radua tes comme d . . ..z A-' of Norton re abl e of a mmtstra If one half the colorin g o f th e hills and ;; f!'pow · t 11emse lves · · h - sk y b e thro w n u po n a can vass; th e world . . ca.o · e xistmg 111 t e ott O s unde r cond 1 ~ 1011 ~he a ccept appoint- pr? nounc es it, a t o~~c e 1 ' ·a p a inting, ov e rt io'\za.tion to whtch y crradu all y as th e pamted .and un.re~l. vVhy? It does n o t g~~t, ma~ing c~anfe~1 aft de mand. B e- look wtth a rti st s eye. T h e arti st s ees Jtl~~th of th e sc .~ 0 • s the middle of th e b e neath the colo r to the life that colors , U'~ 0 ing as he eli 10 had a practical and paints lif e . Th e a rtist cl e a rs the fin e st rrt !l 1 ear our students ~c]:l0° :Y o'f h.IS th eor y . · Unity of purpose cob web fr o m hi s visio n for h e knows: tratwn

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THE N OR 11IAL CO R / ER.

Tf/E .Y OR.J/. L

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Five little beard · of c hes h eld n ear t h e eye, c a n hide from vie w ' Th e _w hole five hun d red ac re fi e ld of g olde n wh eat, In whi ch t hey g rew.

sa me ha l h nH· s . t h · s m lig ht f l_o · in th · fac · . f th · m _ h · r. H r 1n th h m ' b ·g- m s th · fr r s t ~ lu a ti n 0f th " chil d. T he u n i n b t\\· · ·n l'f A nd so, we say we'll wait to write this m o th ·r a nd hil d, th · I ,. · )r th · n ., a nd I e, skies of sober g ray to contrast, a nd th ~ c n fi lin g tr ust f t lw o lwr, t h c..:s . ·tr · for t1m"' to · . ... gtve pe rspective. t h c n li ti 11 s und ·r \\'h i ·h t l <' li rst I ·ss ns mu st b · taug ht. ' nhappy h e m · \\' h -r · thi s I v -'- bond is 11 t kni t ·I sv ly a n I s ·The Home and the School. c ur I) ··n ug h tor s ist n·n lin g, wh ~ n t h · g- row in fr ·d m a n I ir H.I CJ · n I ·n · · f t h e A -:\ . ' A B . ll EK I<I (; , · child d mand th · la y in _g· asi d t of t lw I "'d.d .Nebrrzska S tate Vo rmal Sc!tool. in g-s trin gs. Th · p ·t rt that t h · ·hil I t a k s in aft r lif · in la rg T ·o mm u n i t it' s . a nd t h ~ L~urCI~_G bac~ throug h th_e 1 age s _of re la ti on h · s usta in t t h ·m . \\·ill I p nd . · nat iO nal histoq · we d 1scov r vnth Ja n;r ly up on th · p ia ·c ht· n \\' ) ·u1 i ·s a n I no lntl ' ffi · ·' · g ra 1 catton to ourselves, th · ho m e th r ·lati n h · is no \\' I · I t o s us ta in t " • rc.l d · ·I a n the sch o 0 I · LIJJ sicl 1 y s1 c ". thi s fi rst li tt l<: ·o mmuni t y , tlw fa mil y. If h · H .arcll y h ad pg row1ng · 0 on PI ur lint-a n parents la nd ed up~ be I oun l cl s ·ly b y l v , if h . h ta u g-h t to f " . _y mou th R ock, \Vhe n they w re Y t r -·cogniz hi s d uty to\ ar l in li,·ic.lu a1 m ' 111 e\\ tn nu mbe h · '11 be rfi of this litt le c ir ·J '. h \\'ill I ' a rn t h e r, w en th 'lr homes s tl I. k etc ·eel all but th b ·· f l'f · fir st I sso n th at w ill in t h , fu t u 1· . m a k ~ him t 11e y tur ne d the· e . a re· necess1t1es o 1·1 h ' a strong ~ e n~ b e r f s o ·i ' t). Th · fa mil y i_s· lr attenti on to the cstab IS m ent of p lac f 1 ·rg a ni z;.tti 11 { hum a ni ·ld es or the "du cati on of t 1 ~ 11 th e fir. t l1 nk 1n t h l We h 1 f 01- ty. th e ~rst s cia ! c mmuni ty . If t hi s f1rst c 1I re n ave mu ch to be tha nkfu t o t h es · stu rdy old S · h e l111k be 11111 c rf ct, h o \v a n \v , cJ ·p ·nd up on · a vh e the streng th of t h e . . ,. h 1 ? clo ne mo re tha . · axo ns ' for th ey un ity of th h n \\ e kn ow to establt sh . t Many r ·suits in e du cati o n d e p e nd o n th -·ir . o- . • -~ orne and the schoo l. Spnng-u\:, Into e xistence at th . . th e tr first co mmence me n ts , a n'd t h s =- a r e iri th · sist h d e same t1m e, · e r oo recog nized f h fi t th ey hand s of th e m othe r s. In c hi! \h oo d ancl its h ave co me h . rom t e rs ' In ha nd throug h the yearsd perverted man age m e nt lies mu c h o f tlw . and o f ou r h Iston · · · wrong: and m ise ry of mankind. mutual streng th an M othe rl y I1e Ip f u 1ne ss ;ca' g iving df he lov e,_1f not mothe rl y instinc t, ha s le d even ' re or and protected b y t sam e powe rf ul head th S the Simpl est of wo m : n to a c co mplis h w~n ­ I n acco r d a nce ,- ,l he tate. ·the ders. But the g row111g ' n e e d s of hum a n1ty of nature, Th e c h 1'l d ' s fi rs t teach'' lt1 t e law . P e stalozz i a nd demand more than thi s . . ers are 1ts parents. love 1n th~ heart of father and ~other t?- Froebel, and all g r e at e ducators in the ir ,,,. ard t he !tt~le one earl y manifests itse lf w time, have made a ple a fo 11 th e e ducation of a care _o ve r Its depe ndence and a prote ction the mother. Th e cry has not r each e d us in that thtnk~ not e nl y of the present but looks vain, for in all latg e communiti e s w e find u nto th time •vhen the little one will leave to-day ''mothe rs' classe s " consi s tin o- of t he hom e- nest. W ith profound inte rest is women sensibl e to th e duty' that r e sts with w~tched th e g rad ual manifestation of con- th~ m , wome n '~h o are n o t too proud to a dSCiousne ss a nd_the slow unfolding of each mit t~at th ~re ts s om e thing to b e l e arn ed facu lty- pro m tses of th e li fe to be. eve n rn th eir work_. Th e day is p ast w hen Be ho ld t~1e p icture of th e H oly Famil yPestalozzi's cry IS n e c e ssary , ''l\r1 o th e rs, fathe r, m othe r , a nd Child, bound togethe r mothers! how ofte n have w e w is h .d to b ) love-tha t is h ome. It is not strange gather you unde r th e she lte r of .; , isdom , huthat a rtists pai nt the Child with a halo about manity, and Christianity, as a h e n g athe rs its h e ad. H ad we bu t the spiritual sense her brood unde r h e t; win o-s, and ye would to s ee, how ofte n we \vould recog nize the not. " Whe n once th es~ classes b e come

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Geography. BY JE-:\:'\ l E .\I C I..'\ 1:\ .

.tVebrask a S ta ll! \ ·an nal S clt ool .

gH E hil d _be v· ins th e. s tu dy of geog ra ~h y ~ lono· befo re h e le a rn s to o·e t th o ug hts from the ~printe d page. H e ca n1:::> d se n'b e t l1.e 11 - jo-hbo rin g· hill s. th e ri ve r a nd th e bra n ch in tr<=>rind e ts \-vith m o re accuracy tha n in afte r ve7t rs. Th li ve ly in te re s t · w hi ch the · child i' · ls in a ll things a b out him , t h e curi os ity to liscove r so methin o· is ofte n a le sson to 1:::> • th ose o f .ma ture r ) ea rs. In n o st{td y IS th e re m o r . oppo rtunity fo r t h e en co urage ~11 e nt ? f ti:I s sp irit of di scove r y, of p e r so nal 111 ~~s tt gat 10 n th a n in g e ogr a ph y. 1 h e stud y b egins a t h o m e a nd goes o ut t o the h om e of hi s ne io·hbo r a nd on t o the m ore 'di sta nt ne ighb o r~ of oth e r -la nd s. In prop orti on t o th~ pe rso na l o bse r ·ati on in hi s ovm co untr y is h e ·p re pa r e d t o stud y othe r la nds. Th e m or e the stude nt can find in his own reg ion the more mate ria l h e has tocompare w'ith that of othe r r e g io n s. Th e contine nts are made up of m ountains, plateau s, pl,ain s and riv e r b a sins. . _Th e . plate aus a re e levat e d p la m s : the

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T i l E NOR JVJAL CO . 'R/ER.

and th e fo!l o,vin cr pri ncip l ·s t ho r u. hly ta1g ht : r, ~ositi on affects thf. a ppa r nt fo rm of all obb~ts xc pt th s ph r . 1stance aff cts th a ppar "nt s ize. A pla n fig u r para ll ·I wit h the picturC' piE~ ap_pears fts tr_u · sh:;-t. J . g s para !! l WJth th pictur · pla n r a p pear para!] J. · T h farthe r abov . o r b ~ l ow th I v ·l f th ey , th e face at a n an crle with t h p ictnr pla ne , the wider it app~ a rs. . A s befor stated simple \·r o rk. in dec ra tio , cone 1 w1.th th , p r cccl . n sh ou lcl have b en tng wo rk. A t thi s tim it sho uld b ta k ·p LIQ thdoroug h ly. As units of cl esicrn a r btam f ro m geom ·t -· f r, f . e r1 c ·orm s, fro m na tura 1 ~r m s co nv ntJ onali z d. and from H isto ric hrnamen ts, it is necessary that a study of t _eh latte r shou ld b m ad in co nn ectio n Wit the WO J·k. T? cha_ract risti cs of th e lea ling sty les ~nc ie nt, Jn cl~ding Egyptia n, Gr k ancl ;_ Media::va l, in clud in g· Byza nt in ·, S aoman race n1c · a nd the · M o d e~·n r . ' a nd ( ..ro tl11c; R e na1ssa nc · sho ulcl b . e el b cl ·. ' · e tau g ht and J!l u strat. y rawmg s and pictu re's Th Egyl) t lan lotus pa"' . · · . ci ' r?w us and wa·ve scroLL; t h G rea n Anthem zon eclzinus t' d .fr et . the Ro A ', acan ~~us, a n .J , ' t' fl m_an ~anthus and scroll; th Byzanfon_l e~r-~e-lzs; the Gothic trifoz'Ls quartre. zclsan cz~quifozissh ould ·b ed rawn'a n d used In e coratio n c · . t' · . JVe as thoroug h w o rk as 1me and maten a l ,.vill . · If possible b . · pe rmit. a nd bring b, fo taJn samp l e~ of wall paper,! · h e o re the class a ny d ecoratec c11Ina t at may be b . 0 ta med for the purpose . Ob · · l~am from the students th e ideas that the 't"h'a s ohf oludr r ooms. are p la ne surfaces tha t cr ey -d s ou appea r P1an e, ( t h e same 'in r e o al to our floors), that the a e r on t h e ''~all s should fo rm a good bfc:kP d for pictures th g rou n ft ' . at natural representations of owers g ive an uneven appearance t o the surface, h e nce shou ld not be used. I n re gard to ~ur Aoo rs, we do not lik e , to ste p e rs o n b eautiful fl owers o r bouqu t f ft e so ow · ' h e n ce they shou ld not be re pres t d ·n -e n e I ou r d .1 1 h c~rp e ts a n 01 c ot s: n e ~ther should oan y d es ig n s be u sed that will g ive an uneve n appeara nce.

THE 1V RMAL CO R JER,

-----The C ultivation of Indiv idualism. 1.. A . (.l

1\'E\' .

Class of'93 ·

::.,·up'l City Srh ools, Coleridge, Jl.'eb.

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J-{1 S is a subject which w ill _b e ar a g re at

d ea l of co nce ntrate d , log ical thought. which h as b ee n bro ug h t to my mi d . It rs o ~edeal in m y e::<p~rience w ith studer~ts a g r e a rs I can distinctl y remember 011 d tuto · e an e teach ~ rs of ~' yout 11 w h o al ways of th 1 ·n ed of m y bemg so much unlike m comp ar n cl, in a mista k e n id ea of h e r d ut/ m:ate s,oafo rm me •in that mould which sh~ t n e d _~ered p e rfect, a n d to -clay I still a m clo~~~;~fu l tha t m y pare nts ch os e ,t o move t ~d ~ave m e fro m that fate. E ver s in ce ~h at it h as b e e n a patent fa_ct to m e that o ur oll ege t utors a n d our pubh~ 5 ~~ool t e ache r s the ir ide as of pe rfection 111 man and c h a ve ot satisfie d unle ss they c::n form t h e 11 are • · ds u n der the ir tuition 111 t h e ir own man min · · _ I once had the pleasure o f meet ing a net ed aentlem a n who had a t last got h is l earn b · .d f th e per fect man clown to a c h e mical 0 1 ea 1a . It was hi s opinion th at e very o n e fo rmu · 1 · h ld b e constitute d i.n the fol owmg man s ou Ps R G P; i. e . , that t h e re sh ould be a . . d t 3 f ner, b of thr ee parts o re1IgJOn a n wo parts with e no ugh G e ne ral 0 ;se Psycholog y, 2

2

Kn O\ led e a nd Physical Dev lopme nt to form the salt, which sho uld sa,·our the "h o le arth. T he gentl e man's fo rmula was o-ood but I a m ,-~ry m uch afraid that it w ould precipitate a majority of men to the lo ' e. t rou nd of the ladde r, wh o, through th e ir ,, ry indi idnal ity a r leaders amon o· men. T he r fo r e I am her to plead the .c ause of indi vidua lism, fo r it is through this th a t each mu s t vvin h is way to that niche in tha t spiritual temple. not bu ilt' by human ha nds. ete rn a l in t he hea ens . N 0\\T , in a n appeal to your ;;esthetic n a ture. indi' iduc>.lism comes fo rward stro ng!) on its irtue as the 's p ice of life. A brick .is a vel') neat lo oki ng p iece of workmansh ip, as it sta nds out b efo re us in its full relief, its three d imensi o ns clearly d.efi ned. but a fte r thorou o-hly e xamining a nd studying you r firs t b rick, you ''" ill find it a di fficult task t o rouse e' e n a p a ssing intere st in th e thousands of othe rs in th e yard b es ide it. S o is ; ce rta in man ~ ve~y inte res t ing pa-r t of na ture. but imagme, 1f you can. the poss ibil it) that e~re ry ~ the r man in the wo rld w ere exactly' li ke thrs fi rs t man. ever y feature exactl y the same, every _m ental a nd spiri t ual facult y rou nd ~d out 11~ th e same propor . tions. and reahze how s1ck•you would get of the likeness,_ ho_w very ~ etestable_ the h uman race m Its beautiful (?) simi·li tude, would become.. A ~ d t?e n , b efore we close this d rain o n Imagmatwn, conjure up th e fact that y ou, by the s~ ~ e hypothes is. would be a n e xac~ copy, sp m tually, me ntally ph ysica ll y, of your father, b rother a nd ali other fello wm e n. W h e re, then, wo uld b e your prid e ? ~h~t cause would be g iven you for egotis m. By h ypothesis you are equal, h e_nce you cann o t r ise ab ove you r fell ows. This,_~ou must su re ~ y see, would crush all a mb it iOn, wo uld kil l emulatio n , and there by effect ually lower the men tal and moral stan d a r? of the race. Back v. a rd we wo uld reg r ess 10 the scale of civilization, downward we would go year by year, ce n t uries would distinctl y mark our r trogres sio n, a nd a g-es would see u s a lmost in the sam·e co nditio n whence we came. Therefore, we ca n arrive at one co nclusion a nd o nl ) one . That is, individualism


210

T/11:. .Y ORJI..-J I. · C OC.RJER.

1!-JE N OR 11A L CO URIEI<.

is one of t?e necessary, indeed . mos t effictent components f ' on e of the life. I claim and base my cf. a su ccessful gument adva nced heretofore ai~s 0 .n t?e arality is the cause of ambitio ' t 1at Individu · n that a b. · . .i s the mcentive of concentr ~ d m ItJon labor is the only true road ta e la bor, a nd you doubt this? otice t~ success. Ca n the individual.. ''I am an ~Ind· reason in oa- of .d 1.v1 ual;- e n dowed by my Creator with which are not held in cena111 faculti e s commo b I men. can accompli h .n Y othe r would b e impossible to m s f 1 ~hin o-s which I am so differently consfi e ows, because is one drawback to my h 1 u~ed. Yet the re e·r men are individuals afpiness. All o th gifts peculiar to th~ma slo e ndowed with each and e very one s~ ves. More ove r through his endowme ~ my fe llows is forming certain acts wh~ ~ capable of p e rent within my power ~h .ar~- not at pre sfactory to me. I ml;st !Skis very unsatis. ord e r that I may remedy th 'Iwor . h ar d In .· s e vil " R · thus he will work and st . · easomng order that he may beco raJnhev ery faculty in ers in eve ry way. Gai ~e t e equal of othforts all the endowmen~1 :1 ~~rough ' his efthe n po ssesses an a Is fe llows, h e him h ead and sho'uldeg-greb gate which puts rs a ov h has become what the world ke t em, and he cessful man. nows as a sueAs I have intimated b f characte r which mark the ore, these traits of ual distinct and sepa e man as an individ. rate fr m e n, a re not acquired b om 111s fellowtraining , nor an; they ~i~ long course of with the world. It is ~n ed by a contact that there are no two acknowledg ed fact of the . g lobe who are p~so.ns upon the face of each other; and thft ytsJcal counterparts minds form ed exactly 1 here are no two hardl y more ne cessar t 1e f same, is a fact This, in my estimatio Y. 0 demonstratiOn. . . n, IS a pr . . { h ommscie nt Creator wh b OVIsion o t e of his childre n is assur:~e YH the happin ess child gain ed its first inti~ . ardly has ~he ing circumstances wh· 1 atton of the exis tIc 1 surro d . b f it ha s sh o·w n some t · . un It e or.e raJt whi ch 'd 'fi t T I .e nt~ .e s I from ever y othe r chil d . · hese Ind 1·ndual c harac. tenstics . h seem. to come t o, an d b y our assoc1 at111g t em w1th him ' fit tl1e c' 111.1d as

na tura ll y as does the nam e w h ~c h w gi e him. Th e history of th e fi J"St c hildr n \\ ho e ,·e r li v~d o n th_e globe b e ar m ou t in this. Cain, with all h1s se nsual ti a li ty , w ith his fi e rce an d u ~go e r~ abl pass io ns, was t h e exa.c t oppo It .of h1s Sf iritu I a nd, f o r that p e nocl I InI the . history of man , r efi ne d brotlH ::r Abe · t Is a most u nn c s sar y proceeding to foll ~ w the hi story of th r ae on down a~d b~w g for.warcl more p roof of the indi v id~Jahsm wh 1 ~h ha exist d s in ce the foundatiOn ~nd which f und its p re- ex iste nce in th e att;J ? utes of th e diffe r nt m e mb e rs of th e Tnmty. . ~~1 ile ~et ~ aintaining th e fact that our mdtvidua!Ity IS born w ith u s, it is yet a truth.' capabl e of the:: m os t log ical demonstrati~n, that these distingu ishing marks of the mm~ ca n be cultivat e d in the hig hest degr~e, In fac t, can b e brou o-ht into such p~omme nce that the m e nta l p~rt of the man will be .a monst~o s ity w h'Ic 11 can not b e equaIed 111 the . d'1_ . . physical . w or ld . A n d m rec t contra d tst mct1on the .t b neglected and eve n r~ p s e t~a\ ·s mah e so son may reach the low:sets sde tlat ft edl?er. Th · eo-r e e o me wc0 nty. ere IS th ts as we ll as .m ev. e n in tl1·. h ery ot er portion of ou _ 1. h h' h · . r 1ves a appY meanh WHic It lS d e sirable• th~t all may reac . ence that w . what the world, d . . e may be n e tthe r enommates a crank nor reac h those lower den.ths wh' h . ' h h c1· · · r 1c receive t e un appy Istmction of being . t' g perhaps f 1 untnteres 111 , ' a. oo ' we s 11ould e arnestly striye to asc;ertam the ways and means w hereby . m eac h an d every one of ou _ f - 1 h · 1 acu1t1es ay reaC1 t at prommence which will make it an equal of the others and o- · 1 part a full and well-ro o_Ive ~>Ur menta ·r unded outlme. H a pP1 y, we are so created that 1. 1 th e wa t e r . h 1 · 1 <e w ·hIc a ways se eks 1ts le v e l · d c · . , an l'k 1 e e 1e tnctty, wherem· the current 1 sses from the positive· to the negat<:t wayls ptaode, . . ll 1ve e ec r we as an mte e.ctu~1. people, im r e ss upon each other our mdtviduality dpb menta l shocks, ten~ to equali_ze ou; ~:nta1ity, a nd thereby a tta111 tha,t uniformit y n e ce ssarY to the proper d e velopme nt of a. race. The ~ean of this development, however, ~ust dtff_er according to the various stations which we hold in life, and through this fact

Tencral a,·_ " \. rc ·< neil· the ~aini n ~> pf th .. rag. and tlw 11laint ·n·u1 . r ur indi ,·idu aliry . Ho"·· th ·n, t aid th' :-.r winO' mi nd t gain th is appar nt parad x in it mental mak ·- up, is a pr bl · m t which r ach r: may w II g·!''e the 1 r found st con id rati n. Th e 1ault f m t t ·ach r li rather· in rh · r pr -·s ·i n f the in li,·idualit) in the child than in its undue culti ,·ation. . I haY . ai I b f r ·. almost Y ry ne ha ~asur · f th wel l-r u nci d man a nd ,.._ thcr person b) that m a ur , nd n •t xa tl c nfo r m \\ ith th at jf th y idea. cek so to 111 uld th ·m that in tim t h y w ill r ach th mo lei. 1~ or in tance. m a n y teach - r ha\·e an rr n o u id a of th e deg r t:: ( b di nee cl ue tO\\ arc! th ms lv s lt· m th - child. on e qu e ntly it is a. fr q u n t ccurr nc to h a r th x pr : JO n : ''I'll c nq u r tin t hild . ., Happ ily, 1t can b stat' I t h::.lt this ve nt d oes n t oft n hal p n : b ut u nhap pi l ·. n th e o the r h a nd, . the t ac h r ome o ut co nque r d. H ap! II). 1 s3.y. for s houl l th t a che r conqu er h h a irr p a ra b!) inj ured the child. r a r b e it f r m us a s t a ch rs to ha e it said that w - ha bro l e n th childs wil l power, an l in t h at ubj cti n tra nsformed him in to a cri n o·ing. tr ac h e r o us und e rling. In stances r pressi o n of in d ividual ism a re too DJ..Ime 1·ou s to m e n tio n, a nd we mu st has te n

.

ot

o n.

·

I mai n tain th at an y teach e r who seek s to rnake th c h ild a m e re .a utomaton, work ing by certain s e t rul e s, d oes wro.ng. Kn ow in g that in ou r ovn1 ch a racte r li_e s o ur s uccess, how can an y te ache.r, he edmg the cl ear a nd o ft-re p ~ate.d _prompt111g·s of_ co nscie nce, r-ep ress t~1 e 111d !vidual 111 the chtld. T o m e it s eems m exph cable. Natura ll y, there fo ll ows t h e ques tio n as to h o\V the re_ m ay be a comp!ete a nd free c ultivatio n of th e min d , whe rem the re s hall b e a ful l a n d harmon io us ~-rowth. _ a nd yet w ithout the t otal d es.tructJ on of m divid ua l .rna k ings. FoJJ o ,.vi _n g o n_ my own reaso ning, I see k n'o t ~o gl\re a f?rmu_la, b ut w ish -ro pre s e n t . ce r tain _su g gestiOns for tho ug h tful co n s i d e:t;a ~ IO n. F 1rst a nd fo remost, as ) 0 ~1 .may find 111 e ve t·y book o n pedagogy , is th e

- ll'

requ lm t dema nd , th at the r hall be a tud · f th e ch ild . No cursor y examinali n. n r fu llow in <Y of fir t impressions, but a om plet a nd xhausti\ e stud~, leading to a fin al unde r ta nding of the s ubject. T his is d o ne in ma n) way . The best, mo t pre babl-y, is th stud of the stud y of th · nu fro m a p ychological a nd ethical _ra ndpo int a nd fi nishin~=; b) a determinatt n of th e di ffe re ntiatio ns which distinguish the particula r peci mens of the g-emts jrueri fro m all oth e r . Ha' ino· made your cliao-n is, if it ma ) be o called, yo u. \\ill th~n proceed with th e treatment. L e t this be "·ith g ntl ne s, yet with determ ination. eek to stren o·then, up to a certain cleo-ree of \ hich ) OL! ~ust b.e your own arbiter, ) the ch ar~ctenst i CS \\ htth ha e met the appro a! of the "~orl d. Prune' those which are unnatu ral untd you have b rought them do' n to the normal. Further instruction it i al ~1 ost impos ible to g i\ e, you o nly are the . JU~ge . Fortunately, should you fail, ,. .;en IUS IS hard to curb , and you can on) y harm th ~ weake r ones to any g reat extent. Yet ae mu ma y be checked for a time, and conseq ue ntly not reach the place in the in tel!ectual firm a ment for which it was clesio·.ned. Now for o ne suppositi ona l case and th is mmt c!ose. You have a schola~ ,, hose whole m tncl ru ns toward literature and its kindred stud ies, rhetoric is his de~ ligh~, E ng:ish literature .a joy, wh ile mathematics a na the exact sciences an abomination: No. do ~1't se k to advance this pu pi I in ]11 s pet studtes alone, make him g rade up in the othe rs, but do not expect pe rfection in them,. a nd ~ est of all, sympa thize with him in h1s des1:es,. uro-e him to close and continu~d appltca tion therein , and when he has fims.h ed Y?ur .course, let him leave school w1th _an I_ nsatta?le desire fo r a uni versity. cours~ 111 h1s speci:=tl w~rk, and , a professto ~ afte:wa rcl w l:1ch lies in his line. By do mg this you satisfy a soul a ncl <Yiye t 0 the ·world o ne . v.rh o may h at some futu~e ti. n1e dazzle a natiOn , ev -1: .t e ~vorld , by his add·itions to the crud1t10.n 1n his SJ ecialtie . Let us, th erefore, cultivate in th e child a well-built , general f?u ndation, upon which he may. rear a magmficent superstr ucture in


2T2

THE .\ .ORi 1fAf_ COC.Rl.ER.

TJ:lE JVORMA J. COURiER.

that special work toward which his indi vidu - ringer board, t; l rc~cK, I. L \\' r nut, 1 . ality leads him. Cultivate indiv idua lism. T.:,tal. 57 p-tec s. T h ·' m vab l · fittinothen. and receive tl}e g ratitud e which will co m p n . thi ne n additi nal 1 a r t. : Tail justly follow from a world ben e fited by yo ur piece, L p. Buuon. f ur f ur foresight. strings. ound post. and h1·i l g- . The vio lin thus c nsists of s ·v c•nty cliff 1· nt The Violin. parts. all of which , <·xc ·pt t h . str ino·s ;,1 ncL loop, a r f w o I. Th \\' O c1 "1np1 d i· F. BOU CH E R. o f th ree sorts- map! . r t• th... ba k. n cl ' Nebr aska Stale Nonnal Scliool. ribs and bridge;_ o ny for th _ fi 1 g- ·r b ard , nuts, sc r ' ws, ta d pi ct: a n tl IJutton; th purt1.rHE violin is the most popular a nd use- Hin g is J artl y of e iJony . part!) f mapl ; ~ ful of all portable instrume nts, a nd t he ~elly. bar. b lock s . and so und 1 . t ar indeed of all instruments except the piano. ?f ~m~. A I_ I m tal is a 1 r fa n e: u b ta n " a nd it has considerabl e importa nce as be in g m vwltn ma kln o-; no frag m ·nt f it s h uld the principal instrum ent in th e orch estra, b e e mplo y d , wh -th r c n·stru tiv l y r t~e. ma_in b~dy of v~hich is composed of ornamental_l y. Th [<Lrts 111 ust '· I_ut v10lms, m the1r four s1zes of violins, Altos o r together \\ tth th finest o·lu . a n d '' 1th Ill or Tenors, Violincello and Doubl e Bases . v isibl e joints. Th ton , ~th r thi n g·s bein · It is nea rer to the human voic~ in quality. the sam e, dep nel s la r er ·l y 011 th e qLnlity o f compass, power of expression and feelin a th e maple a nd pin u s~d . T h , oo I must than any other instrume nt. Th e violin, as not be new; it shou ld h av b n c u t ·tt it is today, is abo ut three centuri es old; of least fi~·e or six y e a 1·s, a nd b w e ll seas n ed. all musical in~trum e nts it is the o nl) on e Both_ pme a nd maple should b e as <vvhite as that · has su_rv tve? unchang-ed thro ug h o ut poss1ble, with a ra i 11 mod r ate! y wi d , modern mus1cal htstory. V. incl instrume nts even, an? ~s a rul e p e rf ctl y str a ig ht. T he ~f a_ll kinds ha ve ~ee_n completely rev olu - oldest Vlo-lm s d a te fro 111 abo u t 18 so and twmzed, but th e vtolm has rema in e d fo r were made . b): Gaspar el i a l o . t h e t wo three hundred years the same . and it is Zanettos,. Glo\~It':l Roclian a. a nd Mag-gini. p ro bably d estined to remain so v~hile music The characte nstics o f t h ese m ake r s , who e xists, for tho~gh numberl ess attempts have c?tnpose what is somet im es call ed the Bresbee n mad e to tmprove it, they hav e all b e en ctan ~chool , ar~ in fact share 1 b y Andrea s abandoned. A:matl, the earhe_st kn own ma k e r of C1· mo~ .Violin making is so littl e prac ti sed in nta .. The most fa m'JUs 111 a k e r o f th Ama_tL this c<:)Untry. th at a ::ew words o n its con - f~mdyhwas N icho_las ( r 590 _ 1684 _) After ~IS struct_IOn. m1g ht prove interesting. · The t1me t 1e Crem~:m1a VIolin was carri e d to Its question 1s often as ked whe ther th e b e lly u~mo~t perfectiOn by hi s pupil A nto ~i a Straa nd back of .the violin are not ' ·bent" to th e dlvar~ ( r649- I 73 (.) w~o was close ly · o llo w e d re quired shape, and the enquire r hears with by .the_G_uarn1en_ous family o f which Josep h su ~prise , that o n the contrary, they are <;; uarnten d e l Ces u w 8 s the m ost cele··digged out of the plank " to use th e words brated. of Christopher Simpson, 'with infinite la bor 0£ all mu sical in s trun1e nts th e v iolin is a nd care. The only parts of the violin to the cheapest a nd most e xp e nsiv e , co \re ri ng~ which the bending process is appli ed are a rai1ge of price a ll ~h e wa y f rom o n e doJla~l the ribs or sides. . to ten thousand dollars. 1 h ave e ·en r e<l _ ~he numb~r of separate pi ces of wood of one "A Stradivari ': to h a v e l( ee n so~d f~~ whtch are g lued togethe r fo r the fix ed fifteen thousand dolla r s . . T h <: q_u e st 1.:~ll structure of the violin is as fo llows: Back. often asked , are ol? Italia n v101tn s ~ d fdr 2 pieces; _Belly, 2 _pieces ; Blocks, 6 pieces; .worth· th e high pn ces which a re P~ 1 Ribs or stdes, 6 pteces; Lining s, 1 2 pieces ; them, and are not the b est mod e rn mst~u · i-'s op1 n· Bar, r piece; Pu rRing, 24 pieces; Nut, I , ments equa 11 y goo d ): , I n th e wnte

,

italian ,·iolin . be t r hio-h ir intrin ic x-

a nd more than · ny u ·h - np ur ha and ab \. sum in th ,. n clor f r

Play . FLOREKCE G. BEKXETT. JVebraska S tate iVo r mat.

HE

sp~)lltan e ous activ ity by w h· fac ulues a r e ?evelope:J is pia . Ich ~be d ga 111 es remam maten a ll y th~ Chd? h00 race, as they ar th e m ean s b sam e_ 111 e ach I p m e nt b egins. Throu o·h tt( ' ;..' h 1ch deve ~eacl no t only the grov,,tl1 of ~hrn :ve _rr:ayd, al but the advan ce m e nt of th e In d1 V1 u ·s' nature's first r equ ire ment e race . fl ~~ b1eo·ins b y poundin g everythin ~- Th c hd1 di e s eve r ything; la te r h e run:·1 _th en 1-. e d 1anither acquam · ting · 111mse · If with 1Hh P II e. r 1 o t1 \~ r · h l a a.. __ unclin o·s. ' \ It eac 1newplay h bhJ s tJil o o .1. '11 ' . ab e es es more famt tar wtt 1 t 1e .t 1lings c'?rn · He is takin o· in the oute r that" h e out ptJ11· . a m eans t~ sh ow his inne 1- 111!fay 1-. ave . . 1e J• o· h e oo·am. s w 11at Inst ru c t·ton· 'fh r ou oa h doin .-:::Jcl n e v e r bnno· t o hun. c0~1:ovement is ·his first a.nd cJ:ief rneans d va n cement. The chd d w dl 'a lw of da some amuseme nt whi,ch ·will r eqtays fin h' . lire 1 (flotion fromftmh: e ~H e maly glT~re on)y a 1s . time to or lle feW In inutes do . eac 1 t 11ner o a , spe nd ays tn t r y ing to _acco n1 pli sh ~ ) lans. \ t\The n h e plays w ith Nature ~:if ~sually testin g one of h e r laws. H ~

4

lSI'

2I

find_ he mu t comply with the req uirements .·he m:1ke . \A. h n "·ith bo) and girl friend s, hi play ften b come careless. un kind a~1d c\· n cru I. H ldom has any defimte purpo in mind . H must be doing somethino-. Hi. r ulrs are usuall y diffuse and half work d out. \ hen some older person m s t pia ' with th hild entering in the play "ith z I. h i ure to b welcome. h hould not imply direct but be able t play. howin o· th best '' ays of doing and wh) thos ,,.a s used are the best. Trustino- as the hi lcl does ·in those about him wh:::>o are o-row n, h e delights in being t ld how to d thing by them. Th adult or t ache r should ha,·e in mind particular r suits to be gained. S h~ should 0 fro m one step to another .carry mg on a i o·ical line of thouo·ht. The child could not play in this \Y~Y \\'hen alone: . Fro b l recogmzed that pla : ts the ch1ef of developme nt_ in childh_ood. He 111 an ·a\r th r suits of ungu id ed play 111 all the hilclren about .him. R ecogniz~ng the pos'bilitie for children throu o·h du·ected play, ~ 1 b o·an a kindergarten . In his child gaTd1, 1 h aimed to de' elop the little ones by Cl ' I " H ~ never . '::trt in a garment o f pay. us cl a play e::~ept w~ ~ n he kne\\ _1 t would touch th ~nd1_vtdual_ 1t1fe of ~acdh child. He )Ut the chdd 111 a ng 1t att1tu e to nature, Iman a 11 ci God · v\ hat he did first many are no"'. strivin-o·. to ·do. By m eans of 1 these 1 -s the chdcl wdl grow to have a O\ e for I~ a~e· about him . H e will think of their t : 0 1ts and n eels as - .vei l as his own. He wa1 . f h' .·11 o-row to have a personality o 1s own. WI L;st th~ ~hi!? migh~ '.thin k only in the ]' es o·iven hun Ill the dtrected pJay Or Weaof beino- told always what to do, he r)h' ld 1-e· criven tim for free play. H ere s ou u o Th 1 . h e fo ll ows his own thoughts.. . e O~Ica] e \rith the teacher, wdl gtve h1m. a d I p a) on h 1 1- · f . precedure. I-I may s ow w 1at 111uasls O I b'J' h I f l. ventive and creative a ' It)' e 1as o 11S dom 1']11·olJ!Yh . teacher own. ;-. his .fre. d' . the may speciall y r ·' ad his Jn 1\ .1 1ua 1_tty. In order to enable the t c1chc1 to carry must 0 11 this play wi th the chiJclt: n, sh ha' e h er tools. The t,,-o chtef 0~1 s w re carefully planned by Froeb I. 1 hey are

l!:


T J-J!::: 1V 6J!< :11: 1£ C 0 l ,J? I f:J( .

THE

J-lc-, the gifts and the occ u patio n s. Th e g-ifts t he m, h e \\·ill soon bv lo Yinc th ·m . consist of bu ild ing mat -·ria l se l ct c d t s p(· - m ay imitate th differ ·nt tra lc-s of man. ·] ccially to show form a n d a rchi tecture . in o.- a b la · k sm ith, a COO !JlT 0r a sho mak r . Th ey an: made of t h e m ate ri a l m'ost fa mil - T l~ ·sc in lust ries <·· sp · ·ialh· int('rcst him I ··au se th ·' y ;.u • fu ll of 1110 ;C)n. T h ey l ring li ar to th<:: child, ftn is h ecl ctnd unFini s h ·d h im in to sy m pathy \\·ith manual hbc r . " ·ood and iron . These· g-ifts bt:g.in \Y it h t h e Th <:· c hi ef a im of thl' S\' mbo l i · \\' OI· k is to mos t simp] typ , of u ni ty, th ha ll, in -reasIJ rin g th t.. hil d in ro a ri ;ht r e latio n w ~ th J:i s ing in d ifficulty unti l t h ey s h O\\" so li d, fac<-'. edges. conwr, line a n d po int. T h (' c h il d s urro 11n Jmgs. L3 y clothin o- t h e h milll a 1- l1 f< a b o ut him \\' it h a C()\'( ri 1~ >f b -·auty t h e plays ahYa y :-; analyticall y \\· i t h tht· l,. i ft. This line of pl.a~· . i_s espec ia ll y df's ig: n t> d to c hild is turn ed to t iH hi o· lwr t h LJO'h ts sug-sbm\· th(' P9SSJbd ltles by m ean s of di v is io n ueste cl. 1n hi s p lay. thcs<' s ym b-. ]s come hirn in clu ctin' ly . and artistic arrangcmc: n t. of a hu] k of m ate Th e c hil d 's na ture is so m a 1 t h a t it cl rial. Through t h e d irec ti o n of th e te ache r , th' child may make forms of life of oo·m - p e n ds c hi Ay· on ]lay f r its d cv ·lo 1 m - nt. tion and of beauty. ' ·""' Tf t h at p lay b e cl gradc·cl r e le v a t in g th Turni_ng to t~1c occ Ltpatio ns, \Y find in re s ult \\ill sh o w in t h e ·h il cl ' s !i f ' . Th place of anal ys1s, sy nth ·sis . T h e chil d is k inde rgartn e r s h o u ld s I - t t h m ost truth g iven diffu s e _material t o b e bro ug ht t oget h- fu l a nd ha ppiest o f pl ays. The c hil d w ill C'r a n d made mto a w h?k. Th e occupations usc th em an~ b ~ h apJ y. Fro b el sa ) s, ar~ c~wsen that th e ~hd d may sec t h e law o f " R ea l human JOY 1s o nl y ]i,·in c w o r s hi p f o r ' hu dd m~.,. u p \\·hole~ and hi s ow n n<"cessity in i't is o rd re d by (;o d. ·· th r::. \\'Orld about h1m of co mbi n ing m a t e rials to make a ''"hole . . Th e child fo ll o ws in hi s · Biology and Chemistry. p lay th e most typ1cal li nes of occupa t io n in racr:> developmen.t, s ucl1 as st.. win g , weav ing H. B. DU • 'A?\SOl\i . a nd pottery maktng. · Nebm ska .<:;tatr• N 0 1•111 a t S rh oot . . The _ain~ is _to sho\\' th~ c h ild th e pos s i_bili tlC? ot diffri nt mate n a ls \\·e ll co m bt n e d According to for~ e r th e orje s it w.as supan?. to e i_:table t~1e teach r t o fi nd o ut th e po_sed that the_ oxrdation w hi c h occurs in abrbty ot thE-' ch d d in i1we ntin o- a nd c r e at- soils was du e s1mply to contact ' w ith oxying from th e se ma te ri a ls a sa'?isfa cto r y r e - g~n; at. prese nt w e take a , e r y diffe r e nt sult. v1ew w1th r egard t? th e s e c h a n g es. v.re _In t he k i~dergarte n p lay d e a ls dir e c tly know that t h e or~~mc 1natte r of soi ls is browtth symbolism. nd e rstanding- a nd sym- k e n up and ox1~1zed by m e ans of Jivi~g pathy are _m ade s tro n ge r b y symbols. ~ge~ts. Our fertil e so ils are t e e ming w1th Through a h_tgher m eanin g ap plie d t o th e life 1n ma~ y forms. Ma n y o f th e s e fo rms common . thmgs abo ut us . t h e child is are to~ m1nu te to be see n \Vithout th (;; aid of brought 1nto clos r re lati o n with nature , the mtcroscope . ye t th ey a r e producing man and God . change~ on a mam n: ot!1 scale, up o n w hich Each song, each story a nd e ach 6-ame h as th e. vanous fo rms of hr g h e r v eo·e tatio n d e ::, · its aim. Throu}:;h im itatio n of th~ fl 0 ,ve r s pend. and birds, the child comes nearer t o na ture VIe may snmr:'arize th e s e li v in o- a o-ent s 3 5 and disco' ~rs t h e C reator in nature . (r) a nimal life-1~sec ts anc} worm~. ( 2 ) v e g Throug-h these symboli c action so n g s and etable life- fun g r and bacteria. T h e v ege:games, h e grows· to lo"e C h ris t. t~bl e matter left £:om forn 1 er c r ops is oxl Action is th- maki ng rea l of the c hil d 's chzed in th e bodres of the lar v e:e . vv orn~s, id eas and thf' sho\\'ing of h is indi viduality. e tc., ~nd exh~J ed as car~on dioxid e ,_ w htl~ Throug-h the ga m e s especiall y. th e chiJd the nttrogen 1s excr e t e d 111 simpl e forms ~ may Ji;-e the life in imagination of the p lants combination . Th e fungi f e ed u o on th e .ni and animals. 1 n play ing h e is · caring for trogenous organic matter of soi.ls and ltke

fo

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-

i QRJJ>.J.L CO tRiER.

2£_-

SCIEN CE NOTES. Notes From the Astronon!y Class. HERBERT 1-J.ROW:'\ELL. 1\ "ebra ka

e

r.

taft-

~·ormal

cliool.

PRECE '1 :'\ (IF Tl-11:: EQlT'\OXE

y notin o· a' urat ly th

pia e of th s un \\'ith rcft'r 'ncc t th · . tar upon the ba k,.., r und f the h aYcn · \\·h ' nit is at the \" - rna I Equin x, it h as been found that \\'h - n n xt it is in the ·am ·quinoxal point (aft r th e 1~1~ -- · of 0 1_1e y 'ar) it is not _ in i_ts form ·r pos1t1 n r ·latin' to th -· . tar . - 1· till ·1 little . h rt f ha Yin,..: completed a circuit of th' hca \' llS. [t has COillC in its path-tht: E ·lipti - t th ·· ECJui no ti al at a point to the \\'. t \rard of the f rm c r point of th ' inters. ti n of the:c oTcat irclc -. Each y ea r it is f und that the e quin octi-tl points 1110\' · further \\' ·st\\·a rd. !uf c nccrning . th e r ' lati,·c letigths of our yea r (fr m c~lutrwx_ to eCJu inox.-cr;uinortial l'car) a nd ot the ttm c requi red for tht sun to make a ompl .te circui t of the lwa,·ens tsidtrod war). . l" rom . the ~it _raJ m eani ngof the ':' ord jYC"t"CCss~? on, u':) . thL' sign ifi _ ctll <' ol the c:-.:presston , jJretessimt l~/ tltt·

IW

·q?tiJI0.\'1: .

.

T he La titude ()j stars is found b ,· rdcr , 1 L' to tables pr(·parcd at man\· diffcr,·nt Cl . j . • ' . t ·s to h;n-c rc ma1 m~c pract1cal ly unc hano·cd cI,I . R 11' . "" f r cc n tun~s . . 'd.: ~ a tng hom w h ::tt L 'tti tu clc (Ulesltal) 1s r d~onccl, \Ylnt in/ermt'c is J ··ducecl? . . . . . The D ecl tnat1on ot tars JS +ound to ,·an· from year to year. R cca_ll~n g ,,·hat ](' t in ~{_. tion is. and that the po~1t10n s of the stars . ·e fi xed to u:. make ~1n mfer eu({' the refrom. ell · ) . I1t . \ sce · , ns1· on o f. a II the stars is ·1 he T·ug foun d to ha ~c 1ncrcase.d a i_Jout 3?o('ach in 2 00 ,·ears. h~J.. 1_1 0\\' tl-11s 1s. Calcula tl' \\'hat has been thts ~ncrea sc pe r year. Calculatv th e num ber ot years_ m·cessary to make this i n crease~ ,' 6? ];~j. " ·hat this tell s of tlw \'erna l 1-:-qutno:.:. 1t is f~un l th a~ t~w ang-l e forme l b,· tbc planes oi' th \ E cltptlc and the EC]uinoct·i ~tl is constant. hy llSe <1 1/;e slclc!on sjlurc. illustrate all these ·ha nges. R ecalling which of th ·' S<·' planes is shittinn· its p osition r elatire to th e otlwr: rc, llin ~ t

0


the re lation of axis and pole to plane , £nf. conce rning theN . P o le (of Equinoctia l) re lative to th e N . pole of the Ecli ptic. h if. concerning the Pole Star a nd the s ta r P o laris. II.

SiG~S OF THE ZODIAC .

C e nturies ago that po rti on of t he heave ns exte nding a s a b e lt s o w ide on e ithe r s ic! ci~ .the _whole t:xt e nt of the Ecliptic . was. dtv ide d tnto twe~ve e qua l parts called Sig ns, and numbe red 111 orde r froni th V er naf Equinox. Al l the stars w ithin each of the s Signs (a sp~ce 30ox r6 o) ~ve re grouped as a Conste.ll aw~n . C~nn ectmg the s ta r s in ea~h by 1m~g1nary hn es, fari.cifu l re prese n tatio ns of ammals. or parts of a nimal s we re ma d e and to the . Conste ll a tion was g i ~e n th e name of the an1mal, as the R a m ( r ies), th e Bull (T a uru s), ~tc . T o the Sign in which such conste ll a tiOn appeare d was g ive n the same name . . [ L~arn the names of these Signs of the Z o~1ac In o rde r. w ith the symbol fo r each. l the fo~mer position of the Vernal Equmox relative both to the s ig n and the constell ~ti o n Aries a nd to the constellatio a s ign a nd the . . n Pisces . R eca 11 .111<=> d. . . t hat the . !VISIOn .mto S~g ns is fro m th e Vern a l Eq~w ox, Anes be mg th e fi rs t . 1-12 of the . zodtac, Taurus t he next part, e tc ; r e calltng the _amount of re troo-ression of the Equinox, . znf. the r lative positions of th e Signs and of the Conste llations at this time .

f!if

Notes From the ~ical Laboratory. SU:'.DIA_RY OUTLI:\E E'OR ACIDS, BASES A)ID SALTS

I. ACldS •

THE 'VOR31.AL CO CRIER.

1'HE NORMA L COURIER.

2!6

1.

2.

. Prope rties (a) sour taste (b) ~urn blue litmus red (c) 111 exchang·e for ca m e t a 1 t h e y . • _::'_tve up of their H (basic I-f) Compositio n (a) a ll acids contain H exchangeable wh o lly o r i11 par t f or a m e ta1 (b) this H is combine d either vv ith an ele m e nt or a gro up of e le_ment s (~n A~z'd Rad£cal ) (c) somettmes this union is dire ct

(Hydracz'ds)

(d) sometimes it is by m eans of 0 ( Oxacz'ds 0?1-J ydroxyl adds)

(e) the acid ra lica l

r I m n t is fre d at th e + c l · tr c.l (is

I 11. . al

11

11 -

l -

( 1 ) ':\ ·u t1·a I

-) :\ ' d - \\' h ·r ' 1 Lit part f th I I 1 f t h ' a ·id h as I n ref)la · ·d ') Hasi ·\a) wh 'IT t h l' m e tal i .. substitu t d : pa r t ly f< r th _, H of th a id m o lecul e I· a r t ly fo r th, H of a \\'ate r m I u] . (b) In nature it is : p a r tl y a sal t . p a r t l y a base 4 · T ~ rtTlm o log:y -?·rle; -ite; -ate (wi th re lati o n to a id s) .

(z) lt;·dr- and -z'c, in hyd r ac ids (3) ?JZO?Zv- , d1·-. tri-, u d w ith 1·efr n c ~ t basic H. nhydrid s what re main s f a n ac id aft r r moving from it th b a ic I-I a n d e no ugh 0 to mak w at r fo rmerly w r - call 1 ac id s (anlzydrous), as C0 2

II. Bases r. Proper ties

2.

-

drates, ltydrnxides)

where a m e ta l is s ubstitute d for one-h a lf t h e H of a wate r m ? lec ul e ( 0 1- molec ul es) a umon of a m e tal w ith h y droxyl (OH) . (d) some . ~ av e o nl y 0 with the pos Jtnre ~-ad i cal (Basic Ox-ides) co mbtne d w ith H 2 0, hycl rates of t h e m e tals a r e form e d a wate r• molecul e all of ,;o,rhose H h as b ee n re p laced b y a meta l an a nhydro u s h yd rate 3· D e finition- s ubstance s which n e utralize acids, consistina often of an e lectro -positive radical a nd H connecte d b y 0 . 4· A lkalies

n rm al - \\·here all tht · t id ha. b' ·n

Ih JJ f r 'pia C'd

(r) ltyp(J-,- -ous: -i c; pc1'- .

destroy . (ne utra lize) t h e prope rties:. of ac id s · Composition (a) all contain a m etal o r a m etaT · li e g roup • (b) thisradicalisfree dat the(-)~ e lectrode (is electro-pos-itive)' (c) many contain H a nd 0 (Hj'-

t ,,·elfar a nd pro-

F rma rinn - 1 \' IWutralizing- a n a id \\' i th a h a sv · I L.:C is a S ( ' . n uan· pr duct ·tinition - a n m-1 uhd ( rm I hy n·1 hcing 1nrt )r all f th ln s ic II of an ·t id 1 \' a 111 t'otl ,, . I- in Is 1.

-electro-?tcgati< c) 3· D efi niti ons of an 1\ c i 1 (I) Th un ton f 1 [ w ith (a) a n n-nwtal . r a m 'tall ic . r r o u 1 (b an · 1 ~' tr - 11 ,rra - . tiv mcnt or gr u t (2 a salt of hydr <P n 4· T erminology .-,

2/j

Til e JV,orma/ Battalion. C. S . :'liC l F:.T0 :\1'.

I

natio n s b , c o m e c ivi lized war b ecom e s d . mo1·c . . abn m 1re a thin <=>o· of t l1e past. Ch nstia ni ty r oug 1t p e ace o n earth o·oocl will to w·:trcl . .m . e n,. a nd · the· 111• 0 te e' n I"'JO'1lte n e. cl o u r e n dJ zatt on b econ ·e-s · tl 1 · , . · 1e n1 o r e <=> w e s__ tn ve t o attain .· t'Ian · . 1. . . .unto t his Ch .tis 1·d ea I: o r _so m e time c1trfi cu ltie s b e tween corpo r a tl o_n: a n ~ e m_p loxes haYe been settl e d by bOcli ds o f a~-bitrati o n, a n d r ecentlv E n o·land , '"' lves a. nd. the U .nit ·d Sta t e s· e." 1evatec1 themse a- nd ma n· kin d to• a hi <=> o·he r plar1c b y su b mit· _. " a n Inte rnational dispute to · -b· · t jnO' <=> . f - · · eli Itration. ;YlJ._n)' 0 o ut Wisest a nd b est m e n of t o -da. IJe h en:: ,th~.t _t!1 e rul t~ o f :VIars is bt-o ken an~ th(;lt the:: ell th ~hall n o m o r e b -' tro ubk:d \\·ith w~ r. 1n ~·t ew o f t h e se facts, t h e r e is :a doubt"! .th e mJn ds o f som e in regard to . tlnc aclvisab tltty of e i_lCOu raging and m a inta1n1n•cr military co mpa ni es in o m schools, beli e\~. ing t h a t it foste rs a marke d sp.i.rh 1Nhich ic; .

. are : . aso n. \rhich ju tify the ma!llt nan ' f m1~1tary department in our . h o ls. ,\ g-r -at in:proY~ment in t he phy 1 al den: I pme nt o t th mdi,·idual results fr m milit·tr. · trainin ,..:. Th . Infantry tactics onta in wlnt a r called ''s ttino· up ' Xe rc is s ·• t.lc_ ig-n d to k ep th · mus I ~ ·u1 p i and e_lastJc. a nd capable f strong-, h althy a tt n, and at the same tim e strai~.;ht ~ nin g· th s h ould rs. Du rin o· th '"int r t rrn. the N o rm a l Battalion, t\\~ce a w -e k. too k x 'r ises in Indian club besides othe r lig h t ;"Ymnastics. At all t ime s the m n arc r quired to m ai ntain an e rect car ria;· \Yith h ad up a nd shoulders well back. If th w ath ·r permits, all !rill is carri ed on o ut of ~l oors, tin.' g·iving op~n air exeri. . 1n ·1 len tally 1t may be remarked that no mall amount of e xe rcise is derive d from carryin a a h avy ,..:n n during- drill e xe rcise s. But far abon:· ~h 1 hysical benefit is the tnin ing of ones power of execution. I t re quir · s ~~~ ·m all deg ree of perso nal po" e r and abtltty to prope rly ex ecut the command s. and to successfull y perform the e ' olutio n . ·I t requires a le rtne ss of all th faculty " ith ~ut an_.- respite . I t trains t he recruit to s e qutckly. to hear correctly. a nd, hav ing- heard , to do instantly. An acti\·e attitude of m ind is necessary at all times and this activity \vill b-· of se n·ice in any pursuit. On the drill ground th e d ifferences in men ma nifest themselve s ve r y quickly. I t is not diffic ult to select those who have individual po,ver and who w ill succeed in \\'hatever they unde rtake . It is fo r the d evelopment of this hio·h e r ch a racter d rill is mainly instituted. ~[he N o r mal Batallion consists of t\\' O · com panie s, gracl·cl according to height, Co. A havin o· the talle r me n. and Co. B tlw sh o rte r. "l:'> The re is still another company of practice school members ;vho drill __ \\·ith \\·oocl e n .o·u - , ns an d h a\'e their own otncers, hut an:.' under the s up n-ision of the com mancl1;,uut. This c mpany does vny cr ditahle wo rk for soldiers of their age a nd x per ience. Th e battalio n is in charg of Commanda n t Duncanson, who holds his comm is.siOn as I ,i .,utenant fro m the State L' niYersi -


• 2

THE 1VORMAL COU-RIER:

I8

ty. Each company is manne d by the full g<;tn to s tir, and then to str t h his l ittl quota of commissione d and non-co mmis- arms up, and hi s lit,tl · f ct as far do,,·n as sionecl office rs. Th officers a r s e lecte d · he co uld reach. a nd g rade d according to the ir standing and T ap! tap! tap' canie th(' su und again . . position in school, a nd the ir ex pe rie nce and "D a r m , " thought the "·akcd u1 baby ability in drilling. The state furni s hes "w ha t can that bu? I crt te ss 1 II ~ to th _ g uns, whi~h are ke pt in case s in t he a rm o r y , doo r a nd see·. " T ap! tap! tcq ! a me~ aga in "·hen not m use. A ll of th e office rs a nd th v r y ge ntly, but still a dett.:rmin ·d sou nd as m a jority of privates have un iforms, a l- if th v is itor m ·ant to k cp on tap J in O" unthou g h it is not co mpulsory. Th e me n dri ll t il h a roused som • O IW in tlw h u s·. twice a_ v.-eek on Monday and 1~ riday, Mont last the little round babY manarr d t · clay b e1ng d evoted to ma nual of a rm s and g t to t~1e door, and pu t his little h ad utcompany drill. while Fri?ay is occupie d b y s id e of tt. Dress Parade and battal to_n marchings. At . ''Come, come, ·· said th \' IStlor. · 'why Dres; Parade the con:pam s arc assiste d b y don't yo u p .OI?Ie in th r ~ wal · · llJ. ? Th ·un t~e ~orm~l Band w h1ch r ncle rs ve r y cffi - h as b e n shtnm_g , th h1rcl_s 'tr a ll si n gi n ,...: cte nt se rvtce. At re~u l~r inte rvals clttrin g and "" · a r ha\ tng a fin · ttm · out h e r e . ,;.0 the te rm_target p ra_cttcc 1s indu lged in, th e , and call to yom broth ·rs and sisters. and one makmg the ht g hest score receivin g a te l! t h_e m that th~y h av · sh•pt 1 ng c n o u o·h. me da l a t the close of the vear. I t 1s ~~me to get up and com< u t of doo r. Thi . i~ brief i . ~ ge~e~·al outline of th e n O\\'. The d ar, li ttle roun~ l;aby nodded hi s \\·o rk ~f the :Vldttary D e partme nt of t h e Sta_te _ orma_l School. ~~s p reviously stat- h ead a nd se m ed to smd ·a ·'thank you . ; ' e el 1t IS th~ aun to make 1t more and m o re I t was so good toi) r ~ath, in t h e a ir a n d a n e ducatiOna l featu re of the school, as we ll to h ear_ the chirp ing of the ] ir Is a n d ~ 0 se a s dthe means h~or r~creation and exercise , how thtngs look e d out doors. an we trust t IS obJect is b e ing attaine d . . So instead of goi n r ~.>ac k, the d e li g h t d CHILDREN'S STORIES.. little fe llow called to hts b r th ' r S a n d s is te r_s to com? out. . A nd soo n they a ll cam e . On a Rainy Day. gad y nodd1ng the 11· h ~acl s and say in g· as \\·ell they '~ere a bl e : · '1 hank you ·T1• • Rain , KA THARIX V. LAXGER. thank you for your tap! tap! tap 1 tt&\ LO -G time ago th _ . . A nd th rain s e m cl t l.a u o·h o-ood 'P\ e re 11ve d m a queer 11 b natured ly and say : '' llri erJ t D ·? \~ 1- o l e t 1 . o c . ro":n house some v. ee ,vee . dP'kl h . /:") ats v . ba bie s. Tm y bttle round tot l ' ]]I . -s, o 1 so sma . a n 111 . I ~houg t 1t was t i111 for y ou all to S rna 11 er t h an midgets or fa·1rtes. .· wake n~ that 1s w hy I r a ppt.:cl ta 1 t a p! tap! . Th e h ouse m which th e y 1· d p· _ . so lo ng at your doo r. " 1ve vvas a ve ry ld h d o ouse, an a ve ry dark h I d k . ouse. The Call of twas so ar- _mside of this o ld house _ the Flowe rs. that the funny little b rown bab' fte r h· · b · . 1es, a \ G:\ ES J ACK . eekn put ~n mce, soft warm b e d s , d 1~dvmg not ,,.a e up for a long 10110. t. (t~ELL, ,w e ll," said the s un. . ·\i\Thy D d d , <=> tm e . . ays an ays passsed by a nd still the do n t_ tho_s e s leepy little flowers babtes s le pt on. \Vhat funny littl e s lee )\' a ~aken. It IS q u1te late a nd th , h ave not h eads they were! [ - stt:red yet. " So down h e se nt s~me war ~n By and b y t he r e came a gentle t 1 tap! bn~ht b eams to r emove th e w hite coved1d tap! a t th door of th e biobrown. 11ouse ap . w h1 ch the s novv; h ad spread over t h e earth . o Th e tappmg was so cre ntlc at fi . t the last fall shortly afte r th e wi nd calle d the . d 'd h . ;:, IS b a b1es 1 . not 1 ear 1 It. But tap! tap! tap! leaves to the ir win try b e d s, a nd after the came aga1n . tap . tap . tap 1 we nt o n just out- birds _had go ne to the ~U.C.1.l.1 y south to spend side, until at last one little roun d baby b e - t h e wmter.

-

·J

.

THE \'ORJL L COCRIER.

Th sun ~hon 1 rig-hter and brighter a n d soon th tl \\' v rs t ·It it~ '' anmh. tH:' l ittl' ,·io l ~t ruhbecl its slc..•t·p~ t·yc · ;,t.nd

pc p ·d a~on· rh e grou ~HI. _I t h ear~ th~ ird · . ingmg. ·tnd the spnng- \\'tnds wht:p 'r.l nlr anH.>no· th · tr' ·s ancl ,- ~n·thin <,. sv cm~:d ~

~

~

~

b · invitin~·· iL out intn tlw \\' a rm sun:hin ·. Th · Jittl · ,.i let call d L< th<' oth ·r tin\\' r. t •

and s n th' hi! bid· "·as dntt <'d ,,. j h · ·tlw darling-s f th · 1 ril rai n: " rlw m od ·st littl, ,·iol t~ that ha ,. ' tal · ·n a bit f tlw blut· h a,· :n s f t' their c lor_: tlw squirr ·l corn that amt' t br ·tth I rth fngra n c . and th clan 1 lions that "Hch th e golden beams [ sunshin . L ucl r a nd l ucl r . ung the bird:: warm T ancl w·trm c r sh n' th e sun until finally th . ~ ' e_t-\\_illiams h ard_ the call ~nd a n sw r d . SJ nn <.rt n ll l s fast that tn a v ry f , lays th w ods were ~)lu · with the m . Th n h w hst t h e c lumb111 e s cam . calling ,,·ith th ir. trumpet unttl tv _ry flow e r " as touch ,d 1n to l ~fe and , how d 1ts oT.?.ti tud - by li [tin UJ tts hapJ Y fa c · t '=' I. g r t th · 1 le n s~_n_ ~ ~~~c~ __ Miss Butterfly's Vis it.

'M t ired of liYing a m ong the li o\\'c rs all

t• l

·-l . Jo' n "'. o· '"ith nothin•r to. do. · but cathcr c a) . "" . ;:-.. . J ]w !J evC f ]] take cl \ ISlt t o tlw 1 ne ) · · · 10 d.. Th e y ·tl " ·ays loo k so c h '<··d ul. " '''<?~ ~littl e white butte r fly l)llC' cl ay in ~·I a\· s<:L tcl ~ ·ay sh fl \\. to a la q;;c old oa k o n

a nc

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~

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2f9

, un fro m burning h r soft o-re_n coat. _-\t nig-ht you im·ite the h c ry little de"·d rop to ,.j -it h 'r. making he r softer and pr ttier. ·1nd happie r. \" ur C ll in, th' \\'illO\\·, OTO\\'S el0\\'11 ncar t he · brool·l t O\'Cr hado~rincr it "·ith hcr bran h e • . · H c:r th littl rippl s laug-h and hatter gaily t geth- r a th y haste n on their \ny. Th y ar thankin,..: the tree for kee1 ing the un 's hot ray. from comin; do\\·n at d carrying th m 3.\\'ay to the loudlet . , o mc o{ your brothers liYc in larcre pa ture. . Th er on the h t _umm r da,· , the cattle a nd heq r' ti n the ~hade and colts reach th ir h ad hi,_:h u 1 into th tree to ~ 't th' frc ·h .,_,T .en I ·a,· . . The t r i g·lad to gin' UJ his lt•a \· s for he knO\\' the · lt. "· ill soon b · do in (•· kind deeds for "" others. " . \\ h ·n birdie had lin isl1 d h r wo rds of praise to the oak and his ncar r 'lati\· s. ),fi s Butt rtly qui kly repl ied. " l do n't ee ,,·by that ·h uld make the trc s so happy. I don 't kn O\\' what T should Jo if I had to "·ork for others. 1 o·ct \·cry tir c1 of m\· 0\\' 11 little \\'Ork: ., :-· ', 0 you funny little butt · rfly 1 \\'hy don't y u fly clo\\'n amon,..; the little child ren and sh o\,. yo ur pr ·tty c lors? They lo\'t~ to see ,·ou ancl l am : urc you \\·ould be much hapj)i r. That is \\·hat makes the trt'<' , so hapPY· ;.Jo\\' Hy ~1\\·ay to . the Ho\\·ers. Carry kin d tokens ot !on·· ±rom one Ho,\·er to anothe r. Th(· y \\'il l be delighted to ce yuo conung. 1 kn o\,. you \\'lll then be happy. L et us hear h ear \\' hat \ ' Ou ha,·e· to say . i\lr. Oak. '· · -' Tbl ·· oak ~:i,·ing- the m a cr~... ntl e rock no 1... d cd a det~p ~sscn"t. ~

·]1 -sicle . . ,- , •I shall fly n ght to your t op, 1\,~1'. .Oak. d s ee ·what m akes ·you so ha pp~· · ~(1.A d -'ar li tt le b it-cl with her 'lo u ,_· baby i'l'di e s lived in this tree . Sh e h ean ng the Mission of the~ Birds. 'lj sco n t nt d. butterfly ~ang _out loudlyc• t 0 ' cleat- Mr. O a l·"-, it ts so k1ncl ot .;vou to A ' TOR\' SL' GC ESTCO B\' l.U:\GFELLOW 's BIRD,· -.d out yo ur la t·o·e ha n dso m e lea\ es, makUF J.;JL LT :\ .\\'ORTIT. ·e t• l .-: :. I' I ~ d a swee t 1ome for my 1tt c ones, a nd a l 0 ;::::> 1 shade b e n eath which littl e childre n ]0 ,JUDAH HO \\'AR IJ . C00J}c1y, a 1:d under whos e friendly_branch ,s tO Itt' r e d fath e r r ests. y ou call the li ttle _c:.. PRIN G had come. that time of 'the year the · - drops ±ron:t the clou ls to come and @.} wh e n ever y one is so l')usy. A ll the trees were puttin <Y out their rrreen r~cl1 e the pre tty . flow ers, then you keep the b und moist w 1th your d eep shade fo r our · ]eaves to the warm sun. The apple tr<-'es dro e fri e n d . tne 1. To ftttl ll'lOss. ' r' ou 1,;:eep t h e ho t were v,rh ite with pretty blossoms. )'JJ ,


THE .\· R.JI. · L CO RIER.

TfJE NOR 1AL CO RJE R.

220

th se, t h bird had c m t buil d Lh ir homes, and rnak p pi ha pi " r wi h th e ir ch e rful s ngs. Th robin came as s n as Lh _, s n J\V ha d gone, s his · nest was a lmost rna ·. Tht' pretty br wn thrush a n l th · IJu sy liLLi e wr - n work ~ d all day carry in g s r ic l· s a nd straw for their c zy n esLs. Th hltr · ja y s qua rr _d . a nd wo r k ·d ·t nd sa ng an I \\ ·r · the no is iest of the I i rcls. xcq t Llw cr w s . Afte r the farm e rs ha d 1 l u.~·hed Ll c fi e ld s and p lant d the corn, th es no isy. hun g- r y crows went many tim es t the li ·lc.l s Lo e ·LL the corn wh ich was not hi dden t I '~ p in the g round . The fa rm ers saw th .. row s in the fields and said . • •\\ e wil l n t ha v mu ch corn this yea r." The n the fa rmers m et tog h e r and t al ked a g r eat deal a nd wonder ~ d what t d?· At)asttheysaid, •· \Ve must ki ll the birds, not only the c ro ws l ut all birds , fo r the others take these "d s from th ~ gar l n . " ~ So the birds w re ki ll e d. \Vh " 11 th ·hot, summer days came no bi rd s wer s in ging in the tre s. Out in the g arde ns a nd fi elds th e 1 O J' plants we re having a v "ry ba r I ti.me. A g~eat many worms, bu.r::·s. be ·tl -:s a nd cate r pt!J~rs were eating the r,l an ts. l hen how the t;la n.t s wish e d th e bird s would come and catc h th es · hu ,rs a n d wo h rm~. I)Ut th e h rm e r s a lso, be.~·a n hto 1111 s s t l' btrds and fo rgot th at tlw)· ha l eve r ca~led them · ·rh ie ves''. rh e farm e r~ m et to ue t h e r <l,f;cllll an l t~ll · ed some mo re . ··Wh y .·· t h e y said, · ~h e few seeds the b ird s take w wo ul d n ot mtss. \Ve ou g ht to o· ive th e m the see ds in retli T rn f or t h e wo rk t ;--. h e y do for us. bey sent away in t o a noth e r co u n frr a '!c .-::.· o r so m e birds and le t th e m 0 ?5 e ll1 t h e fi e lds a nd woods. No on e eve r satd th b . d · T h e Ir ~ w e re u se less ao·ain. ese use ful little b ird s ~re ha pp y and busy a lways . To prove thi s just. -

!

"Thiuk, eve•·y m . · The ui 111 , leaf-l at~itr:ntg .' 'ihe n the sun p eep · t h ro ug h

H CJw jubilant t h e hc;d Wtn?ow;; of th e g rove, T h e ir old m e lod' PPY b_trds renew 10.u · m adngal. · of l ove! And w h e n 'Ti. 1 . you tht_nk of th is r etnembe r too Tl a W <LYS :noru mg som ew h er e and <Lb ovc te awhakeulllg con t ine nts . f rord shor~ to s h o r e S Olltew e r e th e h ird e · · ' · '"are Stng tng eve nno re . ··

SOC/ TY

OT

PflilomatllCilll No t es

Tlw li (' rar ~ \\ o r k 11f tlw pas t ~· <'a r h IJ •t ·n on a diffc ·n·nt h,to.; i-.;. I ns tt ·ad nf h in.~ c·a ch prog ram a 1 n llc-ct ion of su bj · . IC) rt ·ir..:·n to c·ac h oth <'r. ;r -.;lJ l>jc·n lor tl w t t. ·rm·. ,,. r k h as lwc·r1 c hnsc·n a nd a ft t. 'l' a " tr ·fu] s Lu d , · l> y tlw prog -;tm cc >mmit ·. an >utlin. has lwl'll rnadc· and lollcl\\ t·d out in he· li ·fC'IT il s ·ssions of tlw "'cwic t \·.

Thi s p lan nl s tudy h a s - don t' mu h t ma k'.' it 's _m t·rnlwrs ~ ,roa d . _ d cTJ >. c l111pn _ h :ns i\T t lunkf ·r <.; . \\ r· an· JII S l f1ni : hin h s tu 1y of Sha k c·s1 warl' 's Juliu s ;.cs ar. :--.. \t Lh !' ()p t: n sc ·s s i on in Junt· the· l Iaf J uliu s ~a.: s ar \\·ill lw illu sl ra ·d l y th, c i ·ty.

Th e: 1..- :n: r r: tt is a;..;<(in s in.t.!· rw { it' most s11 · Tss ful Lvrm 's \\'O rl · " . i th a Ja r ·e ancl int ·n s ·ly intc r<·s t in.~· l ist ·of 111 ·m l ; . T h c ( 1u c:d it y of tl w "'or I· has I v c: n 1111 p r y _ rng. .. . . T h · l·x _c ·rclt b~·Jn.~· lc r t h l' mo s t 1 art -1 soc iety t thc U c·nH ·n ta ry co urse, t h e .-·ub j · ·t . U . ~-. l l is tory . h as ;dfo rd <:·u ex · -' 11 n t O ]J IJc rt un Jtres . l ·~;u: h _ C"vc:n in .~· sonn· j><t l:ti ·u! ar pha. c t f t h (' su i>J CC I: 1s d 1s ·u ss ·d . l·u r rn stan 'C' , at t )ll l ' m e ·ting· t h 'to ! )i c, ' · .\ Tate ri a l Pr o.~-rcs . .. is cli sc u ssc: cl. at ano t h e.: r r-lw "Ri sc · a n d I"all of t !l l.' S lav<.: P c)\,. ·r. " anti ~ hu s t h e p t-in ipal s ul Jccts \Yh lc_h .~·o ro m ake up a n ·t tJO ns hi s tor y a rc s tuci Jc cl. Tn r e li cvc· the pros in ess o f th e program. a n occas ional ta ble a u a n d s ce n e s are i ntroclucecl. Th' ac~ tb ct i c n a ture is J~ l e ase 1 by t h cj voca l an d 1nstru m e n ta l mu s tc t hat 1s h ea r d at eve ry m ee tin g . Th e ge n e ra l s pirit of pat ri otis m p e rvad es e v e r y p a rt of th ~ , w o rk w hile th e folds of th e sta r s a nd stnpe s eve r sta n d unfurl e d b for· th e eyes of t h e soci ety. Th e society owe s m a n y thank s to Prof. Browne ll a n d l\li ss B e nn ett. f o r it is through the ir h e l p th a t th e \;o,rork h as b ee n so s u e -

f r

sful. a n d th · s n c iv ~ h .l sh \\ n iL ~ rc a t ...... h '111 ap r ia ti t n of tlwir lw_ll' . h · t• lt- ·tin•T to h n ra r~ m l.· tnlll'r: lu l'. c

" I n all labor tlwn · is p rnti . ·· Thi~ erm has wi n<ss('d a d(·c id n l l' rng rc ~~ in lit\_'I'~HY w rk. Thos t· \\'hn ha\ v l:th\l rcd .-n la1 hfully r tJW hi o·h vs l ;ld\· l l l lTilH'Ill I f till' .' O J y. ar, ks(·;,. in ~ nf mu ·h praist·. . Th pr gram f >r p ul li' s~.· ~:inn is .1: I !. . .rlu ic . . . . .. · · · · · · · · · · · T abl au- "Jnn HI s :-.in g- tlh' :-;~a::-

a nd 11:-. • •• .• . ' • •

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Mu ic-Pi a.no · 1 · · · · · · · · · ······ ··· r.'ff · t f N atnr c> ~ t n \ y 11 r Y a n . P ape r- '''I' J1 "" · · Papc r - " Lif. a n t.! \\' rk -. o f Tlto n~a n . .. .. · · · · · · · · · ketc h - •T u It ,.; f N alnt'l' · .. . . . . . . . . . . ... Bnl't' n g- hs Rcc itati n - "A Tal· f ' 1 11 ll :ut d . .. .... .. .. · · · · .. Mu ·ic- V oca l. ol o --"A L e af f r 111 t h e ::pray. " . .. ·

w1mmer

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f. b irds. not dif-

that

Talk ·:O u tofD o rLi f ·i 11 th•Aip.;;. O u t of D oor Li fc in t h e .N l'th . ut of D o r Lif e Ant u g· li te l11 dia n ,;.

Life o tt t h e S a. M ·,1 le ()u a rtet - "Br 'ak . Drl' ak . Bt· •ak. " ... ~

· JM U JC-

Th s u bj ect {o r study n_c x l h _ll i_· .. H _ist r y of Huma n Slave ry. " l_t 1s ~u_1 m t "' re t_Ing ·ts w 11 as a profita b le ~o_p t . ~ts tt 1 e ·u·. · d 1rc ctl y upo n Son1 e o f t h e l1 v1ng· 1s su cs ot th da y.

the .\· are m a kino· ;:::, raise the standard of w h e n they become

state Normal Junior Society.

1n f e w s c h ools vYh c r c pu p ils of a ll hTad~ s a re in atte ndance do w e fi nd th a_t th ose_ In the Eleme ntar y c lasses h an~ t h e 1~1 stru ct1~1: in lite ra r y w o r k a n d and p a rl_t <.un entaL: practice t h at th e y sh oul~l h ave b cfo r~ ~ n te1 ing the g rades \\·h e r e h tera ry \\·o rk ISJ L~stly_ con s ide r e d a part o f the r egular co urse o t study. Finding this to b e tr ue in our State Normal School, Prof. N o r to n p r oposed ti: a t a socie t y be oro·anizecl in wh ic h the p upils b . of th e lower classes m1ght h ave an oppor-

m e mbe rs. Norm al TP.xt Book~ at Lincoln B o ok Exchan g e. 126 S o . I 2 t h S t. . Lin coln , Ne b . S end t o t he Lin coln B oo k Exchange for n ew and se co nd- han d books of all kind s , at lowest p rice s in the west. H un dre cls of b ooks s uitabl e for prese n ts.

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J H E _\ .U.RJIAL COURJJ::R.

THE NO R IV.fA L CO UR IER.THE N o RMA L C ouRI ER BU81N 588

DE,Pf\RTMENT.

A d vertislng Rates . P e r inch, s ingle colum n . i.ng-le i.n c rtio n . . ... .... . . 50c . Spec >al rates f urn is h ed on app li cat ion lo Bus in ess M anaJ:"e rs,

T H OS. F . D B BS . 0 . J . STAN DLEY . B us in e. M a n age r . .

--::-

STATE

NO R MAL

-=-~

SCHOOL.

FA C G LTY . A . \V. NORTON, A . M., P R!:\C IPM .. Te ar,her of Psychology , Ethics, Logic and the SCience and Art of Te a ch i ng.

MI::>S E L I ZA C. MORGAN. P RECE l''J'KcSS . Te ache r of Lite rature, Rhetoric , (hne ral His t ory and Phys iolog y .

H. B . DUNCANSON, B. S., Te ache r of Botany . G• oloJy and Zo olo gy.

HERBERT BROW E LL. Teacher of Che mist ry, Ph ysics and As t ronom y.

G. W. ELLIS , B . A .. Te a che r of Ma thema tics and Latin.

:VIIS ·

FLORE'NCE ' ) f. W R IGHT , Te ache r of Oral and Written Ar ithm e tic. MI

·s

JE!\N IE Mc LAI N ,

Teacher of Un ite d St ates His tory and Ge ography.

:VIISS ::,\IARTHA W I NNE . Teache r of Language and Gramm ar.

~II~ S LILLIA N R. KE LLOGG-. Te;cher of Reading, Dra wing, Ciui l Gove rnment and Book Kee p ing .

MI ' S

1\

NNA R. H ERRI G.

Teache r of Principles of Inst ruction and Superint e nde nt of Practice.

;.\liS

F LO REN CE G. BENNETT. Prim a r y a nd Ki nde rga r t e n.

MI ·~ MAT T IE ELLI::> . Pr epa r atory De partme nt .

FRAN COIS BO t. CH E R. Teacher of Voca l and Inst r ume nt a l M us1c .

IDIL LA JEFFE R Y, Librarian.

JuHN BLANKENSHI P , Jrznitor. ·-----~-

BOARD OF ED L'CAT IO N . H o n. A . I\:. Gou dy . .. Supt. P ub. I n s . . ex-uffici<'. Lin col n. H on . J o,.. · . B ayrtle y . .. . St ate T r e <L;,·.. ex-ojjiciu . Lincolu . H o n . B. E . ~ · K e nnedy . . . .. Oma ha; t erm e xpires 1897. H o n;. J . T. S pe nce •· . .... D akota City : t e rm ex p ires 189-:!" · H u . Ch u~ch H ? w c .. . . .. .. . . A uburu; terlll e'X pi r es l 89::J. H o n. W . FJ. ~aJ or s ... . . .. . . . .. . P e n t: t e r m ex pire:; 1896 . H o u. J. S . V\ e,t . . . ·· . . ... Be nkelm a n . te nn e x pires 1898 . OFF LCE R S O F '!'H E BO A RD .

B. E . B. K ennedy .. . . ... . ...... . .. . . ... . ... . . Pre ide nt. A. K . Goudy · · · ·· · . · .· . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . .. . .. Secr e tary . J osep h S . Bartley . . . ... . ....... . . . ...... .. . . Tt·ea ure r . EXECC'l'l\' E COi\1:\flTTEE .

Ch 11rch Howe .

W. E. :VIajor s,

.

A. \ \ '. N o rto n .

EDITORIA L.

\V ith thi s iss u th pr s n t m a na cre m e n t of Til E C L.'R I ER ma k !; it fi n a l bow a n d st e ps do w n a nd o ut. B ··fo r · \\·e g o w e wa nt to e x pre so ur th a nk s t o (; \ ' rybod y in a n y way con nected \\' ith th is p a p e r it h · r a co n t r ibuto r r r a d r . T o t h t ·ac h rs w e a re g ra t · fu l for the ir n e ve r f a ilin g zea l a nd int rest in be ha lf o f Tm:: C ' R l ER w it h o u t w hi c h T il £ Co R I E K co u ld n eve r hc:l \ e a t ta in e d the h ig h p la c a m o n a d u catio n a l jo urna ls that it n ow occ up ies. \ l\/ e fe e l th at t h e yea r has bee n a h "' I phil o n e t o u s a llt o o urse lves p rh aps m o st of a ll in the e x p e r ie nce a nd 1 Ieasu re \\' e h av . d e ri ved f r o m b e in g connecte d with s uc h a ;rr e at th o u g ht directo r as a n cl ucatio na l jo urn a l o ug h t t o be. T he re has bee n m uc h ac co m p li s h e d, b u t th e \·vork mu st go o n t ill t h hig h e st good . has be n rea li ze d . 'vV e mus t co n s id e r o ur sel ves u nits, m us t n ot lose o ur pe r son a lit y , but a t t h sam e t ime a nd in h a rm o n y w ith the hi g hest g o o d to o u r s e lv e s w e mu s t co n - · s id e r that W.l' are f ractio n a l p a rts t o o n e g reat uni t a nd t hat in wo rkin g o ut th e s o lu t io n of thi s gre at u n it we w~ rk o ut th · full est solutio n of a ll its fa c t on;. vV ith r·e g •·et we lea ve th Ne b ras ka S t a t e No rm a l a nd TH E C ou RI E R fo ~ we h av e b ee n p r ou d of o ur conn ec t io n with it. P r o ud in a sma ll inoffe nsiv e wa y , not be li ev in o· vv e we r e the le ve r that moY e s t he wo rld b:.t f e e ling t h at ''-e had a h a nd in so m e s m a ll m easure in a idi ng and g uid in g s t ud e nt op ini o n towa rd w hat is hi g- he r and b e tte r- a nd wo rthie r. A nd as we g o \.V e le av e o ur bl ess irig u po n th e pape r tha t has b e co m e so d e a r to us . ViJe sha ll watc h w ith inte r est 1ts futu:e g ro wth a nd d e ve lo p m e nt. lVI ay it g row 111 crrace a nd influe nce , a d vancin <T a like th e b b d h o nor a nd usefuln e ss of e dito r s a nd s tu e nts a nd dear o ld A lma Mat e r.

-- 3

isa dap rat i< ns w ht· rou nd in ·d[ "·a l~ - f lift> . \ I if the . ub•jt·rt ,,· e r r~ rl st> l)- foll o \\·ed up• . .. . ·'. lc ll .<''... • 11<. Th . t ·a ·hi. ng· p r 1. ·:. .I n <' 11JO~ it ,,·nuld he fo.und th.ar th t· grea t bod y t \\·i h so m . in i lenni li a h ·a rHagT : , at kas L di:cnlllt'IH in · u1~· professi on or body of 11 a h ·antag"<" t h at in t lw h t r_nid s irtnllll' l' ' ' o r k('rs in :\ mt'I' .IC'l .1s Iarge I )' t·o thi. mi:. s .., . \ ' C'I'\ ' Vl1\·ia1 1 < · tliH', !l<11 1H.' I y a 1 1 11 da\ . . pl ace d con ti nge nt . whi c h h ,,.r,· ' I' is l a r.~ e ., < • • • ~ . ""' ·a io n fr m th . h.ttl'r 1 n n nt J unt' 0 1 1 'I H tig·h a nd lou d t• n o u .~· h to a lm o. t ma ke 1t. t ~h fi r·s t f s 1 tC'ml c r. ·tnd . in th ' n s <· 0 \ \ ' 11 .pt·ndiar ,,. ri c ,·a nct· : et> m the ~· ricYanC t:' f l1 R :s a nd hi,,. ., h s h Is, vxtt·nding n t of tlw c hss \\' o rkcrs to ,,·hom it belong·s. infr qu · ntl y to t h : mi ld1 c· nf th(' li r:t ~ o r tint tlwr : ·u·e no real gr ic,·a n .,. n T hi s rs o'(' n ra lh · f autumn . .-.. . to ;-...<T nuim· t <' a 'lwrs. \\'ri re r. , a rtist . cle rk , 111 n th · t l 1 n · y a at i n ". n t to me n· kn wn as · 1 ;-. a nd oth ·rs, but to th e a rn e t fa ithfu l at us ua ll y a t ur lay f ca h t h t f a 1 ,,. rk r ada pte I t hi ". rk th gTi ,-ance. ti n t 1 . · ' ' · . . · . t r m ti m IS a h o lt la y . 1 1 k f \Y hi h he OlllJ la in s ar m o re im ao·inar y \\' (. \1 1' 11 ...... . • h ~ ., a w • hav sa 1 I, th ~ ,.a ·a-· 1) th a n rea l in m o:t case s. a nd a t least em out t u g 1, . . · ·_ . e m v r) n\' Ia b l t o m . t Ji o·ht \\'h e n ,.i '" ' I in th <:> ir t rue re la tio n to 5 1 t iOn I I IOC s . . f \\' h m hi k . oth r pu rs Ui tS. m a n ) h s n lif ,,. rk . In th m atte r of w r rs In f t at if t h )' s ucc d t ac hing S - · o a yea r e ms a ~ m a l l sala ry e st rn t h ms lv 5 r .u n . .· ·111 cr t tm . o· a t \V w c k s · ,·a catio n rn a y .a r y t _ 5 a y a r ,,·as th e hig hest ~a l ar y .r.I ~ ­ . . . h b. t. t h 01 wo rkrn g , as f r In sta nc d n · Ly o n. the fo und e r ot o ne ot m · n ca s an ma n) o ' ll . . "S not o n! ) o n a s m a ' r sa la be t sc hoo ls fo r g ir ls ,·e r rece iYed. I t is a c le r k s In s to r • cre t eac he r. b u t a ls o wo rk . ra h h pity, of co ur · . t ha t u h an ca rnrs t. in spi_rry t a n t a' ;:-. . p e r cia ) the g ne ra l pub lt c . . I in ·. fa ithf ul teac he r \\'as not bette r pa1d in g m o r e 10 t.ll 5 11at t 11 g- - n uin ·' ·h fa ct t fi r~~n c i a ll y, b ut. so far a. \\' E" kn O\\' , she \\'as . · a crr e d UJ o n t IS · . . t' t le d t o a ll the vacat 1o n he not I ... ha ppy o n tha t account. · 'The t eac h e r 1s n I . ,;<, , o rth m o re to t he co mmuni · is l') e d Jleasa nt prof ·s io n of teac hin g ' ' is a s ubject . . 1 g e t s, a n aso n of t 1ese va cat ions. ' r e :1 ot discu se d as oft e n as it shoul d be. we as a t eac I1e r b ) . . . . t yh w o rk in whi c h h e IS e ng ag e d IS th e beii e ,·e. b y t eache rs t he mse lves, a nd not ~o:t imp o rta nt th.a t ·c a n be intru~~ed t o a n y half as fu lly beli e ved in as it o ug ht to be. 1 a nd th e p ubli c h as le a rn ed f i o m e xpe o ne, · d · The des ig n on th e cove r page of THE . ce tha t th e b est w o rk 111 e ucatio n r e CoU RIE R th is month is th e production of the rJ~:~es th e b est co nditi o n of b od y ~nd m ind qon t h e pa r t o f th e t e ac h e r. . ~T o In s u re th e stu de nts of.th e Ar t D e partm ent of th e State 1 b est r e turn it pa y s, th e refore, ~ n t 1e w h o le .. Nonnal Sc hoo l. T he pra irie ro se is the class Ao\;<, er of the Class of '94. <:1 fa ir sala r y, a n d , fo r abo ut th1 ee I m o nth s of h eye ar, ·Ieaves th e t eac he rto co _what he NORMAL NOTES. ~vill b y w a y o f r ec l:e ati o n a nd se lf-Improv e J11 e nt. Sc hool closes J u ne 6th , a nd most of the T eac hin g is , in fact, o r may b e a nd stude nts wi ll proba bly return to th eir homes s hould b e, a pl easa nt a nd in sp mn g- p r ofe s- on th e fo llow ing d a y. :\ lost of th e j ~cu l ty . ion · If it is n o t so to th ose wl:·o ar~ fo l- a re pla nn ing vis i ~s to th eir for me r ho mes. Prof. a nd Mrs. Brow ne ll \\' ill sr e nd the ~owing it it is beca us e th e y a re fo ll o,.,. Ing a vaca ti o n at the ir home near l' ti a, • 1 e w rofe s sion t o whic h th e y a re not ~dap te d . Yo rk. ~his is onl y a no th e r case of the too fr e q ue nt A Pl ensa nt Pr ofe s i on.

ll

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THE

224

ORMAL CO {. 'R.IER.

Prof. and Mrs. J)uncanson e xp e ct to spend the summer in th e intere st of sci e nce tra velling in th e northwes tern part of th e state, and probab ly crossi ng to th e Pacifi c coast makin g Botanical and Zoo li g ical co llections. Prof. and ::\I rs. Bouche r will re main m Peru. Miss

vV :-ight

will attend the teach rs A~so: i atio ~ at Asb ury P ark, stopp in g a fc:w days tn Ch tcago, on th e way, th e re ma ind r of the vacation w ill b e spe nt at h e r hom e in ew York. Miss Morgan spends h e r vacation a t h e r ho me in Avo n , Y. (\s soon as the Summer School closes, lVI1ss \Vinne will go to Asubury Park , a nd af~e r the close of the Teachers' Association Will spend th e rema ind e r of va ca.tio~ on the ~ew .J et~sey coas t. in Bosto n a nd lD the h1 ston c New E ng la nd states. M_i ss McLain goes to he r hom e at Fort Collms, ~ol.. visitin g Denver, Fast Park a nd Lungs Park . ~Iiss . Lilli . an . IT '-- e 11 egg w1·11 spe nd a fe\V days m :Nl tchtgan visiti_ng fr iends the n go to A sbury· ~Park, afte r w ]11c 11 she w ill o-o to h e r home in e"· y or·k state a nd re main b . untl·1 t1me to .resume her labo r s In . .:Jept c b e m e r. M i s Ellis spe nds he r vacation at h e r ''old home" in Minnesota. ~Iiss Bennet t s

. y , · p e ~ d s s ummer at Ruttan, c.r~ 1 ~rk, stoppmg at Chicag o and ! e\k·e an en route a nd expects to spend a or more e · · g wo rk a t t h e 1wee mm 0 sweo-o .,l '<. o rmal Tr xam · · S '- T , , o . . amm g cho ol at Osv.rege 1 -" · .. and ant tctpate b• . . t s a n ef outm o- a L ]- G· eorge and the Ad'Iron d ac k s. o a ... e · re mains t·n I=> ' M iss H e rng d · e ru unt1' 1 Ju ly J,r ' to ass tst In the wo rk of th e Su mrner School. After . l1 - spendi n g a f ew d-ays wtt f. · d · nen s m C!11cago will sp d h . d . . en t e rema111 e r e f t 11e vacat1on visitin o- he . S . l\1. l . o r parents m agl- ICk1 . . returnmg in th e fall to resume hnaw, er wor . Prof. and Mrs . Ellis ,.,• 1·11 re main 1n P e ru.

-- ::>

Till; .\'ORJ!.IL L OCRIER .

Lill iau R. .Ke llogg l-H

Con t ents to Volume If ..

N

~n.

. I.

Sal u tato ry ~:c1 ito r i a l;.. R ev . B. B e d e ll W hy ot? . F. L ea r H ow to '.( e a c h . S . Hi story. 'o!o n e l Parke r Mann , \\ e bb, F a rnham , I< at hariu V. Langer Eve ry-day P oe try. . S . Jones A Stud y iu Zoo log y . Dick Neal Th e Philoruath e an . 'oc ic ty, E li o t Martin Th e Eve1·e t t Soc ie tv Faculty C h an ge::., · A lumni otes , Th e Y oung \Vomcn' s hr1stian Associatio n · . . . Vina Cannon . The Y o un g M e n ' s hri tian A s soc iation, Th e R eceptio n :VIi l itary D ep<trtmen t, Norm a l Notes , Library D ay, . Lis t of th e· L ocation of th e C l ass of '93 ,

1 2

3 ~

9

10 11

12 13 14

15 15 15 16

17 18

NO . II 19

Editorials , . R e la tion of Dis ci pline at H o m e and at School, . . . . . . . H e rbert Brown e ll 20 Entomology a s a S tud y, Lawre nce Bruner 23 Study of P a i nti n gs, Katharin V. Langer 24 '!'h e Moral Value of Fairy Tale Fran k· M. McMurr); . 25 Lillian R. Kellogg 27 Fo rm St udy a nd J)r awi tt g, H . B . Duncanso n 30 T eac h the Trut h , Dick Neal 31 P a tri oti m, 32 Normal N otes, 33 Import a n t E ve nts, 34 Am on g th e Maga~ines, 35 A nnoun ce nte n t . , 3o Stre n g th e n th e Hom e, 36 Moth e rs and th e Kind e r g art e n , W. R. Davis 37 S o ng , . 38 S election fr o m J a m es Ru ssell Lo·well , 38 S e le ction fr o 111 Ali ce Cary, NO. III. Primary S t o r ies, Language Tra ining , Form Study and Drawing, Eng li s h Co mpositio n , Entomology; Absolut i.· m in France, Tbanksgivin g, A Than.k sgiving Id y l , John G. Wh.itte r, Normal Notes, R esolution of Condol e nce, P e rsonals, Editorials, Announce rnen t s, Among th e Maga zines,

F lorence G. Bennett · Anna B. Herrig Lillian R. Kellogg W. H. Skinner Lawrence Bruner ·• \V. N. Delzell Adelia M. Slack Clara M. Gil bert Frank Beedle

39 43 44

48 49

50 52 53 55 57 58

58 59

6Q Will L. Davenport

60

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Fo rm . ud · <1l1d l r a w i n ' · L i lli a n R 1\:e ll ;.:" h u g •e:-tion f o r l) • • mh ·r ~ o ri •,. , , · Fl n r .· n ~··· , I e nn~tt ;,; F o<Jt-U all in he lli • h, 'd H~tl l. J . \\' . L'r.thtr •c: t•~-ofr 111 th·Pil\·,..i · •ll L a h l r.ll >l',\' · · . · . . I kr b ,•rt Hr< wndl , • :\l a t·th a \\'htn~ f'l .H ,au\)'. :'-1. Fn· yn Hir. , • 11 ·rhe '' ft ·r-t; l o w. lufl ue n <' > and \\' . ,. f :. ru ,.. ic. hen . M i rg1·aphy. Tb J.., ibrary. ' hri s lli HI.-. i u A ad 'tllk t>'partnl •ut. ' hr is bn a;; i n rimat' Y l> <•parttll'lll L •. , n fr 111 Hi;.t ~- ,. . nif r~n £ ii ll1 i n a iu a;,.., Ecl.iton a l. . Is

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P e al"l R ockwood 161

~.- io le t.

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1 ~ . )f. J. \\ all a e 165 Het·b rt Brownell 165

t <' h f'"' h nh e rt . .\ ,.,\ ronou:y ~ utes . 1\ote f rom th e lle m.i al Labo r ato ry . .B . n 11 166 H e rb ert row · · · H. B. D uncanson 1 . cic nr e N ote . . 169 rut a l ~ ot es

C . •· .J o n <!.

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F. B u~hcr • 1

c· . .... . . . "ort

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'0. IX .

. nn onn e lll n ::.,

\Y. K . I• wi er . J r. Hi tor y f :'l[a th m at i :-; . a t·d f'lt· a d . \ . E . 'l'ayl r \\h at \\ e }{ •aru •tt t h e E n11 ll::t R 'M i l le r T each er's Li ra t u r , >arl R cl,w ood - D evelop 111 11 t. _ Ft·auk Becdl apole o n D o n <' p a n ·. P oe m , . otcH_fro 111 Ph;.- s i ·a I L a bo~- :L t .-y. H r b c1· t Bro w n II Fl r 11 ·c ,- . B uu etr '\Va. lu n gto n. Di k ea l )1ilitary Depal'tut " '[ nt. 'fltos. F. D 1 b s Y. 1.r . C. A Y.W. •. . , . V i n a a un o n G. '. 1\l n ill llltpo rt a nt E,·c nt. ·. Fifth M nthly R c i ta1,· Res oluti n s o f Tha nk ,; .~.\. n n o un ce •·n e~ • ts . Edito rials, N onn a l N o t e .. .

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100

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N . \I. pictures at th e W o r l 1, . • . 1\,r ,· ss G . M . Y o u ng- llS · c s 1 au· :.L !O n of \-Va s l·t ' ' p., ar! R o c kw o od 117 A 'fr·acltt - tn g· t o u ~· rl'h e Stgn afi canc e Of th e G . . . . . est ut e. c e G Be n nett 117 . Fl o r e t! · Entomology, . · L a w 1·e nc e B run e r 119 "Notes- f tom · . l L· ·. torvt 1te Ph_v s tca . . . ::tbor a .He rb e rt B r owJLe ll 1 ~0 122 ]'l o ra. ~f ~ebras ka . :gxerctses iu n 1Se · ase , ?~ . 'f· C . S \\·e r?. ey • M . D . 1-.:> plul.o · . . · . • g n es Ja ck 126 JZ e vt ew of Fan ,.,., · r e t t •s OCl·e t ) , , . -'-ern1 's ·'T T . 1· - Eve . . . · '' o r c 1 tl " E. lYia r tin 127 . w e llingtoni a u ~ 128 . . Ot es :E)d tt onal s , . ' 130 :rJonnal Notes · 131 1

.L

NO. vrr: ':['he State and th e "" A. K . Go udy . -'- eache 1·, d' Who I S th e B e tt e t· L M 1 e r th e Iu tan o r th e 1 F a ,. , T a< ' W. E. Ta)•l o t· P a e ace? . . . Pictut·es a t th e \Vorld's Fair. Mi ss G. M. YoungSuggestive Story of Spring , . Floren ce G ._B e nn ett ':['he R e l igion and Super,;; titi o n s of th e A n c te JLt Ge L"· •uaus , . . . . . Et h e l Dave npo rt

133 1"-' ~-. 135 137 139

graplty in Our Pu_blic _Rda\i u s of Hi - ory a n d G e _ A. Q mvey 173 cho Is . w . K . Fowler. Jr. 17" Hi tory of M a thematic , Elizabeth Dempsey 177 'fh A rn Dau -e . Kate hu t·ch 17 Elsie 's I n dian - . . L a wrence Brun er 179 £ntontnlog y · · 'priug in H ot p 1·ing , o uth Dakota . Jenni. Borst 183 · 'N'ot fr om th ' Plw _ic a l Lab_o 1·atory . · · ~ · H erb ert Bro,,ne 11 1 8~ lT t"'Ui.n a ti~u l\1.a u if . stat~on _ .' . Florence G . B -: n u ett 186 1 7 pr f . N orto n ' s F o rty -Ninth Anni~·ers at-:--· 190 F,ditorial Lnln Evans 191 Philowathe a n N' tt·- . Fra n cis H . Meader 19~ \\elling-t ni an Ro ie ty. 192 Eyer ett ciet~192 Y. N ·tnd Y W. . A R · ceptinn 193 r onna l Note · 19~ Q n l' ' n n~t n cr , h ool

N' O. X Y of t h e Ne braska State Normal Sch ool H ·.:tor h •

. • 'flte Hom a nd th ' h ool. . Ann a ~ - H err~ g Geog r a phy . . J enn ie McLatn ])'onn Study and Dra win g, Lillian R. K ll_ogg'!'he ult iYation of Indi\·id ua li -m L. A Qutvey 'f he Violin . F . B ouch e t· Floren ce G Beu n e tt pl ay, H . B . Duucanson Biology a ncl C h emi ·try , . H et·bert Bt-o \\·n ell Sci 11 ce Notes, . No r ton 'fh e onn a l Bata ll ion. K at h ari n V. Lang r On U1 R a iny Day , . Agne. J ack 'I'he Call of th F l ow e1·s . An u a ?deCoy Mi ss Butterfl y'. Visit . Judah Howard Mi:sio n of Ut e Birds, Philo m a th e;t n N ote s :Everett S ciety · Well ingtoni a n Society State Nor111a l Ju niot· Socie ty Editorial · N orm a l Notes Ind ex

197 ?04

- _ 20;> 206 _09 2e 213 '214 215 217 ::!18

::ns 219 219 230 220 221 321

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BRRNGfl GflllERY fiT PERU OrEN ONGt f\ MONTfl. ·

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Profile for Peru State College Library

1893-1894 Normal Courier issue 10  

1893-1894 newspaper issue 10 for now Peru State College, Peru, Nebraska

1893-1894 Normal Courier issue 10  

1893-1894 newspaper issue 10 for now Peru State College, Peru, Nebraska

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