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EST··nrmaf·ss atllttrit~. oF ' 9 3 ·

160

THE NORMAL COURIER.

·port Dr. N al ha.· donated a pi c of ground south of hi house fo1· that puq o '" and ha encouraged the boy · in th ir work. It is d e ired to ha>e the ground r ady a s oon a s po ibl . The wmk of the Philornat.h ean •'ociety ba · tak n a differ ent turn thi term. Prof. Nor ton ugg ested not long ago that the Society ta,k , up som e d efinit line of work . 'rh oci ty adopted hi ugge 6ons and have t aken UJ th ·tudy of cotland. It i. · propo ·ed fir ·t to tudy the gPography, then th e governm nt., litemture, etc. This change will undoubtedly improve th work of the oci ety and add greatly to it utility. W e vi ited the Ever ett Soci ty . L hort tim e ago, and wer e delig hted with the work done there. After r ecess the me mber .· drill d them elves in parliamentary work and th e coolne with which they adclre ·s ed the chaiT showed that they w ~·e not new at the bn ·in ess.

L. W . E van s, while practicing foot- ball a few week s a O O'O' broke his ankle and has b een confined to his b ed ever since. H e is g etting along nicely , and we hope he will soon b e in school a,.gain. Dr. Clark, in attempting to jump fr om a treet car in Nebraska City April 15, fell and di located his arm . H e is on the streets ag ain and will b e all right soon. Ernes t P . Carter, while playing foot-ball Saturday, April 22, dislocated his arm . vV e are informed that the hurt is mending rapidlyMr. N y'e had a rib broken in the foot-ball game at the City April 15. It occurred early in the game and a substitute was obliged to take his pla ce. Mr. Nye was in school, however , on Monday, and has not missed a day since.

f>X f· I1 n of tht 11111 Jpa s a nt f ~ <Lt ttn . urHion f A l'il1 5 W< · tha .· nnH f tlw t X cur ioni ·t. \Y t> n 1 f 't 1. n ·l) l'<.l.' 1UL t t • • . '1 JII')" w e1· the n<" m 1 p]l <-' <1 to g <"t a t< -·am a11d (lr i n • d wn to P f>n t. 1•

\.p1·il l i\ tlH· < nnal fo t -lnll l th ma lt a Jii o·l1 ' ·fl o )1 t •am at brask GL it r . Th n~ \\'a.· :.tll ._ . ('Ul' ion tra in from P " nt a nl a l> u t t ln1 · h llll in:• ·1 ] •rson took adva1 t cr fit. Th t rain 1 ·f t\J. 7:30a.m . and r urn d <L ou t 7: ()I. JlL iVhil in th city many f th ·tud >Jlt ~ d : it 1 tl1 Blind \. ylum , w1P r e <:L n· mn i c<Li Jl' rrram. wa 1' nd r ed to tl (-l d :.lig l•t of ·11l . Jan. ·. of th~:: tu<l nts h a d n ,. _r vi it -' d tlti · in ·t i tutwn ~Lndof ·om" -' w r " hi g hly }>l t: <L ' (' with 'it. app earanc . T lt P rtl boy s r a ch d tht. <rJ"Onn 1 ab u •>. p. m., th e 0 maha o ani v l. a li ttl -' 1a ter · Edga1· Harman was with t.h maha t eam, and a s he i .· not a m em bf'r of th e maha Fficrh School the Pt ru boy · o~j e ctecl to hi. r>laying. but finally , as th er e .· m ed to 'b e no th<: J' option, tbe g ame wa. · t a rtecl . Omaha'. t e:J.lU wa well drilled and tb e gam wa · play t t bard from th e firc:.:t. During th e cours e of tlJP game it .leaked out that a.nothE'T of O rnah~L\· player s wa.· not amember.of th e High chool · Some e ven went so far a s to s ay tha t more nf the play er s were no t m em hers of th e Omfi>lr.!L H i 0O'h School. At the d o s <~ of t.he score stood Omaha 26, P ent 6.

NEBRAS K A.

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Attention i s callf\d to t h e card of Dr- Hn~p: · tis d entist, of N ebraska City, wbo .eon'i s . wi~b thirteen year's experience and ·nw s t ·,:...- ?S:· . • . 'f' + h (-'1 • cellent credentials, and who 1s a r eader :o .·.~.~·~ :;{ ·\ . .,,. ' CouRTER. -:· ::~. ·~

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DIRECTORY.

r.s'l'- l L()Mr\THEAN. SOC

pH I . d uring school terms, a t 7 :oo. . l'" ' ~::ve nlngtin g a nd ori g in a l wo rk in o ra tory. . -ie t )' c ,·c ry l· n.c ,~~~ to deba . f. f-1. B EED LE, President. :">Pl.. t i O II g i\ S oeci ~d a ttc n -• 1.! - :o .·[T sOC IET Y. f.\ [:h ~ sc hool term s. New s tudents a re · 1 g d unn g 1 ,. litera ry " ·o rk. • T y· ·--p resi' d ent. F ' r v f· rl'da. y· eI \·en llJo in tiS. I ll CO lH ·\ R I.F S \ ·,. ~~ ~ ~ ' .. , .. I '

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' le so nth of N ebraska ity on lFTEE• mt M · R · R . ' and wi thin . co n> enient tb e B . " . . . .:~ · ' t d nnn g : 11 an ce of th e M . P . R. R. I S found the . ' II of P er n. A lthough an old riv er I! ttl ~ ' 1 ng · 1 1·eco,·ered fr om th e " arT st of de\ elop. town, tt 1ns ct enz • s many such town , and ment , w 111· , 1.1.1 chnra c c • • . 1 v·111 ()' enco ura2:mg growth m th e er cttOn 1 n '' JO\ .o .._, J JJ · a and nbstantial public buildino' o f ta t ' .1W 10 b • o · .r t wn in the state can boast of a more pictnr . E o o within • or s unom1 d'mg 1t. Ye ry e qne 1·eaion 0 ,·nri ety of land sCape be~uty here meets th e e~• e . 'rh o bold bluffs, the n~ er l ~wland, str.etclnng awn , to th e east, th e lnlls of e ,·ery. vanet.} of . . no two alike, th e winding vales b etween CO li t O UI, ' th e expan se of old M..issonri in the d istance, and far be •ond the purple bl uffs of low~ and Mi~s our\ more than all, everywh ere the groves of mmgled Oak and Elm, enliven ed by the R ed-Bud and the like, make scenes on every l1and not to b e for-

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gotten. Amid th ese delightful snrroundings the N ebrask a State N onnal and Training School is loca.ted . lii::;q. ·:,.. . ·.r: ;-,. --· p i AN OCTE il · Sixty acres of grove and lawn o verlookin o· the • •1 -i: • p HILLlP . · th e ummer. Especia lly for . o. 5 ' · - · dunn g th J' b·· · town a~d river scenery , constitute its "camp',1s. :' ' 'day eve n fll,£~ f . th e Alumni US ill g e I I elf)' · frt ' · ers o . p . ' d -nt , ve~y · ents a nd men J osE I'll G ri.I.IL A1' , re!'t t · From every point beautiful views present th em• s,t~ld . . • ' ~~ ·r ! ·aea u £'_!".: .. - .· . - ., <l I I) : \.;:.,.. < • ·;;;;.j E: ·~ '() &MAL lVIILITIA. . d t selves in end less .profusion . In N ebraska t r ees · l rt . • •. .. · Cornm a n a n . :. I . J].JJ.l"C'\ NSON ··. : >·. ." ." ··· ·:.' .' .' .' .' .' _ ·_ ·.. ... Adjut a nt. ar e appreciated , and he r~ we find th em in abun< tl· f?vt.f:¢.'r .. .. -·· · · · :.. ·.·.· .. .·.·.·:... ...... Captai~, Co. A . dau ce. The songs of bn·ds fill the air , t e 11 mg . , \N , • · . ........ .... Ca pt a lll C o . B c ' ~~ ·> ' .·_·.· .... .. .. "..~ ........ .... . th at th ey hav e found h er e a congenial resting g- 1 ~~,\,l· -: Ol'iVI L MILITARY B AN D . , > ·· 1-HE \ ' I ;F.T . . -··· ·· · · ·· ·· · · - . . . .. . . . .. . L~dader.t p lace. .. . •. ~: \ ; p ;, ·· . ........... . ... .. . . .... Pres1 en . . . ._ There are fiv e bnildi.nge, th e main 0 b . n~ euw l' Iwf- . A·:.•j 'tior: r' .. .... . . f or th e direct accommodation of th ~ h do H R T SII I·: U.: THLETIC ASSOCIATION. . . sc ool ,. . an '[I-1 G A . . . . ... . .. ... . ... ... P resident. therefore fitted w1th all the C\JlW ~I· ·\. ' d · · ·.· .. .. ... . . ..... . ... . .Sec reta ry , • ~ nc es for mo -rZ . . . . .. · · · .· ... 'R . D. MORI Jt'i' .. .. . . . orn school worlc. The cha-pe\ em the secoud fl oor, W ILL D Av i•: r> 1'0 ":; cHRI STI AN Ass ociATION . u NG 1\'l c;N - d Bibl e c_l asses in Normal Building. altho ugh l ar ge ancl roonry , is nlled every morning YO etin gs a n GEO . C. MERR ILL, Sec' y. nt nine o'cl ock . After th e devotional exercises. D e voti o n a l me:> eS· --T . F . D c, HBs , l r IST:LAN' ASSO C I ATI ON . led b y the cl ergy or xn embcrs of the faculty, n. r.]'!'S cHR · - B ·rd· )U :-JG \VtJ1\1v B' ble clas' es m N ormal Ul 1ng. brief s ynopsis of th e n ews of the previou day is y( . • n/ tin!tS a nd I ELLA S T E WART , Sec' y. -

pi.J S EUTUM . . . co R . 1-l !' days a nd sp nc g vac a u c n. 0 1 111 1\ ~ l\ \ ;\l_ c COY , President. fr '1d ay c vc ning d u l' g r . . .

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Mr. Atwater, whose announcewent app ears 'in another column; has organi zed a Colleg e C mp at the Wol'lcl's Fair, wb 01·eby gooc1 The weather i s growing waTmer and l awn ]:ao·irio· may be bad i n a tent for only $3.50 t ,nms 1 r eviving. The interest is growing o o 0 btain circul ars at tlle ' Post Office· . ., r a1>idly , and it lWomi e · · to b e the leading p er week . or write h i m direct.___.-..-..-...; gam ~ h er e in the near futme .

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p rese n ted b y so m e mcmbu r of t h e se nior ·Ia ·. U p o n occa ·ion th e principal at thi s ho ur '1 eak up o n some timely to pi c . Upon r p a irin g to t h vari o u cla -room t h ey a1·e fo und a nql c a nd con venient. E p ecially is thi s true of th e la bo ra to ri es. Al l wo rk in th e l:le ie u cel:l i c1 ne u y Jab orato ry meth d. Eac h s tud •nt o f ·h mis tTy h a lti de k and re -agents, and b eco m es a pract i ·a l

RIER .

tl1rco Ja r~ • IH>il ·r :-; fur 11is lr stt•arr 1 f<•r h<"atin w e ll as for JH >\\('1' . l 11 wi ll i<· r t ll' ('Jwillt' xhnu t ~ i11 t0 th h c atin~ pipe•;; s o tl1at it :-; at:tio 11 is :iutilu r to tlrat of a low pr ·:-;:-: u r t• t'lll!ill<' . Tl tt' 111 p 1· sto ry of th J f>W L'r-lrou sc· fu rn isl1vs atnpl . r om f o r an in lu s trinl apart ii H·nt to tire· sc·lt<l(d. li r a l · ' in tlr \\:in t •r tht· t hrv · 111 ilitary eorn 1 nni <·: co n11 · ·t d wrtlr tltl·i s dt<>()l dr ill a 11 d .·tt>l'l' til it·

·It m is t. On t h e lo we r fl oo r w e tind th at incli .- a rm l:l. pensab le adjunct to a o rm a l ; v iz. , t h o t r a inin g Fr rn tlr ,·al • n ·a r IJy a :-; t·e a 111 pun 1p lift, tir e .·choo l. Th e tlr eo ry o f t eachin g is h e r o e mb od ie d wat r a \' r· t i ·al di .· tan · · of o 11 p ltu ll drc• 1 ,1 nrl fifty ill practice . P we r to d is h er J eve l I I I y f a larg ta 11k in tlte tuw l' r u f the 111 ai11 build doing . All g rad es o f w o rk a rc h e r e f o und. in , fr o nt wh •n cn it i. l'oll d t1('tt'd t o thv 1 ow c r T e aclr e r a re h e r e taug h t to ut ili ze th e exp ri n cc h o us ·, Mt. V ·m o n JJ a ll , h:ll'll :u 1d g; 1·o u 1His. uf ot he r . in thei r own wo rk. Ab l teaclr c rs f 'ot ltin g can b • 111 (>1' l li g-ltt·ful t l~ a 11 th , ·p r i 11p; large cxperie n ·e ·np er vis a ll t e ac hin g, a nd by a nd a ut tiJJtn r a JJr b lc s in t it. lw att t if ul u r·o ,·e on Bugge tio n s a ud h e lpfu l ri t ic is m n co nragc what v ·r,y s id e o r t it • dri\·c·:-; in . ,·c·ry l 0 i good a ncll e adi n O' to t he elimin a ti on of w ha t g r eate r va ri ·t. ' of sc·e n c• l' \' <:an b e· fo und 1 lt nu i , i. bad in tb e wo rk of t h e p r a ·t icc tea ·It e r. I n fnrni It d b y t lr is r ·gicnr .. tlti way not on ly more advancem n t is mad e iit Th e ,. ·!too l It a · two '(Jtm:;n::; ~ f ::; tnd . . Tit , a in g le year than co nld lJ e mad e with o ut lr c lp iH m •n•ta• r'J CO lli'S' c·< >l "]J 1e·t.ltl g ·tt to t • . • n t it le::; t lt<>"' u l' a mnch lon2:e r time, 1 ut ·o m e thin g is . u ·ain c tl eu rt1fi ·ate Yallrl Ill tlt e e 11tin• ·t··tt , .,H;. ,.t :::ll' l'OIH 1 ~ !:' . • '> ' w lJi ch co uld be ga in e d in n o otlr e r wa.',' · g r aJ. c t n.t' c e r t 1h.c a tc fo r two .)' • C'l. r " . · 'l'l l l' •() til Th e next b uildin g in s i%:e i Mt. Vc m o n H a ll. 1 .I 't to n uf t ir. e . lll g lt •r c:o nr se i ::;· ('·d" ·t'I ·li l! (1 1 \' <l Built upon tlt e hig h est g r o und, it vvind owf-i co 1n - dt p l. J ,rrta ntl1d Ill t l1 e e ntire s t:tt l· ·' t '' .,« fll'::;t ' · , O'J'Hcll' 0 mand ch a r m in g v iews in eve r Jv direct io n. In c:e r• t tfll::lte for t ltr •c •)' e ''U'-"~ . ( · 1 0 11 !-'H t t. ·t. a c: t o r · w hateve r direct ion we ·t nrn , th e eye find . r s tand cv rcl c n cu of s nccesH fn l t •a c ltin ,..., o· for bl 11 . • yc•a r::> · plea. ure . The sleepi ng -rooms a r c la rge and a irv. befo oTad 11 ati o n cl . l1 flt 1tlttt . ·. OII c1 1 J • . r e or t •wo •)'ear s aft r e ~t·1t Tb c mu ·ic and r ec ·ptin ll rooms fo r 1.n doubl e par lt p lo m a wrll b e 'g- r a nte d ' ,-, n·11o cl i11 tir o U lltll' . lo r . ver y convenient npo n soc ia l occas 1·on s·. 1'] 1u , a o a tirot g ra d e ce rtifi cate for li ft· A po t - gr:• t 1dining- r oo m w ill scat e ig hty g uests. B a th-room IHlt? co nrso wrll S~)on IJc add •cl wlric:.lt will ,~tft~rcl 11 u · 1· 11 ::> llp e '\' t• and laund ry c:om jJle tc a bnildin g adm 1·1·ab l.v 'es pec ial opportlllllty fo r tra .1 •.adapt• • •. • ,ini b eel to render the l ife nf its inm ates att ract iv e and Tn thi s yea r , _Hi s t o ry nf E du cat io n A < home -like . The library i · th e onl y buildincr of P sych o logy, J\l{.c tltocl s in wood ·· Its windows a] so f lli'TII· S L. o ut 1oo 1c- npo n tin ct f r om O la s · .lYia na ocre m c nt ' ('.:xu n e hnd beautiful scene ry Hear and fa r . A large a nd a nd L i tera~urc, wrll f o rlll th e t-> ttl>j ec t-matt 11 ] d ]' · · cr wdl not OJthr b. we se ecte ISt of book s a re f o und up o n t h e tra tulD o ·' o m I a ce tlt e prac ti c helve 0 c1· bl · b t wil l b e s uppl c rn e llt e d l)y · . · 1 n r e a rn g ta es arc fou nd t 11e lates t l . . VI Sits to 1.1 · mag-azin es and j)nper· . sc h oo ls 10 t•ho co nn t ry ' all obs OJ. vat10 . 11 b~ - · .:. ~ co •

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Eve ry day for twn ho urs and a h a lf all availabl e ' \ ace. fill d b b d . · rs e y usy stu ents purs uin g r eading m connection w ith th eir r eg ulat· st tldt' e•s . T!J e story. forms a la rge a 1.1d )and practt·e 1. f -uball. for cali s tlwnics luppvr.

. ontL1 o lv.I.t. Vcl'llou Hall is t h e •>1J e rvato rv . H. ' re 1 · . ., . . .. c a scs m a stro n omy a r c oxCict. ed m th e u e of th t 1 c ' ,, . e es ·ope . Ihe e lcctnc lights fo r th nge arc furnished b e f!:rounds and bnild.Y a dynamo of 'JOO 1. 1 JJOwer, rnn by a 30 hor . · "' rg 1t powe r e n gin e. 'l'b c

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lo w e d b y d~scu ssJO n s . . Tlt o c on tinn e d pro .' r. , . elr:J.rac t e r o th o w<;rk tn th ese co urses fnl·t itil1l' 'l far b etter prep arat1un than th o j)., tclJWOJ·]· <, ' • . s t1tntwn . . s. ,. \. c )l11' c l' •R of so man y tn Tl1€ s ch oo l lS · um· q nc ill tlrnt it l ra s for i t' avowe d purp ose the d e v e lopm e nt of th e Pow e r t ~ r!lld e rta k e n g ltt t hin gs f r·om 1•1·cr lrt 1 n o tiv c 8 .... . ct n «II to do w h a t o n e nnd c r talrcs . 1-1 1· 0 .1 1 m o ral o~·~ . · . . . [- , " o . ''•;; <' n t n : o ab tltty JS a ways pla ce d aboY e t !J o a c qnt s it· . 10 know'l c d ge. Th e s tnd e nts tlt c refo r e, a-rcr c ] n. of ~ ' · d ll tt-e~ t e riz e d b y g r eat offic·i e ncy and 11owe r of a c ],it·,·C> w e nt. A . " .,. . "

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a r. a fl' \\' men i.u tlti ~ . c~uu_tr.'.· wl~. \\' r e 1 1 ,r 11 tn 1 du at 1 lt f. 1\0 1 to n 1 11 0 I' tl (' 1Jerri uniu g It hn c' lt wn tit · ' 1'0 111 I ~ lt 'ttt l I ·1· 1· 11 ·utI fc r ('of ·!tara t r whi ·h ' I'll t :1 1(' II t. " ' ' ' . .11 .,. t 5 c nr t it • lu g h ' t ·ucc · a n.11 • " 11 C' t'L't>:-l <t ry o · i II · t l'l t ·to r. 1 Jlin gt n No rt o n i · a s t nt N \\' :>rof. . \ < • • · I· d L ' · · ,. I b 1·n ~•t .:r t O\ e a n t\'lll ,...;.::t n C' 0 1111 t .), r ( ,. . bn , · ' . · ' t'f ul vnll ' II ar th o hi o·h ba11 k s nud l ll t It > IJ ;lll I , . ~ ·f li s f th e Ge n ese R tY Cr . Tlt e ce n c r tit 0' 1' nt .n . . . ·t of t h s tate r::; ·n b lim n nJ fn. inatiu g of t hi. S. p:11 . . to 11 b l tlr ngltt by it g rmt de nr , a11d

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\ . :l'll. i11 dn o ur · H r e h e am m co nta ct w ith that noted and lt o u r ed ducator P r e id c ut 1\In r t in B . n d rso n , wh o r cogn iz d hi talent and f r aw hi f n t ur n ef nln ~ . fte r crr ncl nati o u :mel· trn\· 1 and tucly abr oad b one mnr r es um d bi lab or ~ in hi l.to 11 prof " io n . He had c bnr o· f t h K "ark Acade my f o r t hr 'O · ars . Durin g thi - tim tb Acadmy re a b ed t h hi g h r ncce· which ba mark ed it hi sto ry . H e r ig n cl hi s po it iou f o r th <.: h a ir f Lati n in th Cook cademy HaYana

N. Y.

Besides his r g nlar ch oo l work b e was fo r se,·eral y ars o u e of t h e m o t p op ul a r instru cto r at t h e w e ll-kn 0 \\11 s umme r sch ool at Ronnel Lake . Hi abi li ty a s an iu t rncto r had D O\\ ' bee m wi d ' 1. · ku O\\ 11 , and h e was el cted p rincipal of t iiSJ) l l lllg . . . ~ . ' ' ' [lr SS IO ll hy Jt uc auty. I n g tit G ram m a r S ' h o9 l J nmb e r F o ur of the c it y of to pnl'tt e t · ' • . . . b·tllk s nf th e ~ trca m tit Tn d 11111 Jo ye d tlo \\' •r -s o \\ II ' . . , . E lmi.rn. _l~e r h e m e t w ith m o t r markabl e , s n c. 1 f e rti le v:dluy of 1\ \\' Y n rk · chnrnun g ces m g:a mw g t h e re p ct a nd affection of l · ;U I d Ill t 1C • . A ri c all n rtr· st ~ tine\ so m e of' t Jrc m ost '] d } li S pnpt ""' au t Je. s npport a u rl contiden ce o f t l1e pa11· \' L' r t Jt. .' )Illict ur es o f -till li h• A t th e npp c r an d t r on s . H• e n o w• b egan t o p u t in pract' < tee some of a tt r a ·t l' I . l~o r tage, G lc ll hi , :mel iu the t h e th eo n e s wbteh f o r yea r s b e h ad b .f-l]I S at ~ d ' een f o r muI O\V 1 ' ' f th e Ge n esee , Har ry F c nn an lntin g. Th e sc hoo l b ecam e known far· an d WI'd c I o·o r crC' 0 . g r a n t r-- "" . lt avc s ueces fullv tran f e n·e d t o a s t h o m~d e l g rn.m.m.ar sch oo l. Th e standard o f . f 11 ( w ·trtJ st f ·ublirnity a u d be· a n ty . ltt :-i e 1 ' . . 0 n es o , · . sclro la rs hrp was nnse cl t(l a r em a rkabl e deg r ee . l·Hll \':I S ::;t; f y oun g l'\ o tt o n wa s s n sceptrbl e t 1 G rammar on e o f the . .Sch.ool N nmbe r Fonr was · Tlt e so nl 0 ~ Nat nrc, uud h e r e in Iri s childh o od unte d w strtutlO n o f E lmir a 1 and was o j!te · d , . < L n Yl· Stte t it <' in fl ne tt C('S ()t t 111 a,nif est that tal e nt f o r inY esti by t e a ch e r s fr o m oth e r c ities w l1 0 me · 1 c b co·a!l o 1 d .. l r e unx10ns to ,. lt o tlt e 1 "' 1w e fo r t te tru e an th e b e a.nttfu th e secr et of Prnf e so r 11. 1 .to ' lea.rn 0 1 that , ll . n a n cl w 1n. c l 1 J.:~ n s s ncce s . g :1t .ro n ·utd ' ti . <1 111 0 r o tn expressiO A lllo ng th ese Yis ito r s w e r e r e pl·e sen -· t a t 'l\ es J!1rom ~ 1 . I w ·J tu Il l . '" 11(' .' . ·I d ltitn thro ug h ltfc. • tll)CI'tll 10 . tlt e State No.rmal S eh oo l at Osv"vego, . t h e o l cl est . lr a "'1 ic ::; tu(li cs w or e com pl e t e d m tlt c and lu g lt est m, rank. o f . these in s t't . . . , ·tCit( e JII 1 ut10n s of \Vlnch ll Hi . ' le m Y i 11 1 864 and lt c at o n ce b egrw .1, .A cal . . ' . . d th e Empll'e State 1s Jn s tl v PI' 0 11 d S . J · 0 hto·hh . N o w <tt l ose n pr·o t cssi o u b c uw a ssocrate . !ti s c ' , o pl ease d w e r e th ey wtth th e m e t]10 d s o f Pro f.es >'> " wurl;: JJI. . . 1 J Dorman Steele at t h e Academy No r ton, a nd the r esults of hi s · t . sor . . f J'If1 Cip <t. . m s ruct10n , that h e . . wtth 1. r ecetv cd a nuamm o ns el ectio . m . t h at l'\.l e \Vfll' ,, 'fi t 1. r s . . n t o a c h air n t ..t ' ·tate ce rtl . c u e, nn son O'h t b y u m, .w,t In st1tnt10n, whe r e hi s infl.u anc · b ec an se o f his s uccessful o . . . e wa at once f lt .. n cr e '·t 1s im manage a s an tnn g a 11cl r ege n e r atinO' 1 od . o p owe r . The ac ·o r d l·tss o f yo un g m e n . wh o bad for ye a r s ~ •1 c < • Influe n ce \VUS exerte . d n ot o nl y t:l pon t h e rn' l at m 11t 0L , . · 11ec1 o 11l y b y n nth o rit y and for ce. . bnt th e h eart s of h1 s sc h ol a rs . me s, trs t l ~t'5 e ~' r es lJi s s n cces s !t o re h e \Vas o ff e r ed a po s lT o ill ns trate this fa ct the l ~. w1ng _to 1)1'· Steel wh e n that gentl e man w~s C hurch of Osw eo·o h eid ~ r e . gooc o1c1 Bapti t o < nnton on tl L ' I of · twn \Vltlt f E lmir a Free Academy . H e re ht s JVIay last t o cel ebl'ate its , . 1e t 1rc foitu~th anni,,cr~ar Y · prin c ipn.l 0 ·Y :rcccptahle for fo nr years . Dnring M l o ro tum t b r ee hundred 0 .(!1 lts • " wmk was veL·. a ni zed the distri ct s~h ool s of A.ddim embe r (amo n g P th · l1 e QLg the m, r o f e~so r N o rtou . . ·d . . ~u time ·o n s ch oo l and g n dod it to th e e ntir e . ' W1Ll O ts ~t h e u 0 m.tnlss::>u. in t o .a nl11f th e pool' 1 ". R cs umi1!0' lns · s tu d'1es t e r of this chur ch ) r es pon. ded in per on o r bv ·atL•'lfactlOn o · o . tl. ·F· _ • . · t v of . ..e r, h e was graduate d l etter , and th e fir s t on t l te 1-IS t • Miss Emm· 1 at t I1(' l l.llV C l'S J Adams, f or ye ars a Rn ccessful te~cher i.n Honoinlu. · ., 1 8 73 ., and rerc~iv c d hi s A. B. nncl


THE

ORMAL C

and gr·adna,te of the 0 ·wego Normal, wr te : " I wa 1 d to CbJ:i t through t h inti n n c f Prof , or A . V\ . Norton." nch men a r rar , and w h en they are afforded a n opJ ortnnity like that vou h a f d Profe so1· orton, th ir inflnenc a an ducating and upliftin o· p w r can scar cely b ov r ·timat d. In many of hi· plan for ilL trncti n a nd discipline Profe .. or N m·ton hn.. b e n a Colu mbtl to l ead the way into n w world· and ha b n fo1lowec1, at iirst with feM and trembling, by tho e who :oon Jta ,·e ace I tetl a. ·ettled hi · the ori · and a .· almo. t pnfcc·t his p lan . H e wa. the p ioneer f a n ew nL in higher dueation, pointing to ld f ll owt each r a, b etter way t h an that in whi ·h they had been walking, l ac1ing hi · 1 upil into the light and li b erty of self-dir0etion and s ultrength. According to Profes Ol' Norton'::-; theori · the . cholar i to have befOJ" him a . a goal of endeavor, truth and rig hteon s n c-) ·s, and to know t.hat if h e gain t h e ·e a ll otl1 r will be added unto him. H e i · to 1 a m rigl1 tliving a well as right-thinking; to do as well _a to know; to b e a.- well a to say; not ::;imply to ex i . t, but to exi ·t fur a purpose, and that a, noble purpo. e . Rig ht Ji ving, holy thinking and helpfulness are t h ough ts to be ch eri ·h eel by the schola r. H e i s to l earn to govern himself, and not to d epend upon the pre e nce nor to dread the eye of the teacher. He i to learn because of the love of learnin g, a:od, like the ancient athl ete, to look steadily toward the bright cr own of soul- s trength which i s to be the r eward of his endeavor, forgetful of the toil and danger s of the way. Professor Norton's m ethod i s n ot only attractiYe in theory, hut also s ucces.·ful in practice. Even th youngest sch ol ar.· l earn to r e p ect tb mse1ve , to take pride in their work, to accomplis h their tasks, n ot from a fe eling of obligation , but b ecause they h ave C0111e to be interested in them, and to r ealize in part the b neflt to b e d erived from them . The chools un.a~~r PTofe sor N 01 ton hav< d monstrated the fa('t tbat it i s saft~ i n our public Rchools to p la(' char act er p 1·ior ancl kho wl ugp RN'OJld. In h e.·e sc1 ool.· knowled crp h ut :wen bf'litt1Pd bTtt cl1araf'tm·-

THE

R ILR .

tJ1e p w ·r to tiJHl<• r t:.!l\.<' ri gl 1t til i 11g·.-; f'm111 l'i h t mo t iv ·.· a n l to do ,,·ha t Ollt' lllld <·r t<tk<·.·- has b • ll prop ·rl ' t·xallt•d. . ' I n 11 1g· i11 IIi :--; <'< nd ·t ion lJ:-.1-dng hig l1 :t =-'J>i ral io ll =-' t'nr It i 111:--;t·l fan ot11~r · f ullc1allllt<·d c-ol tl<l,!.!.'t' i11 tn·adingundi · · '" r ·d W<L\" :--> ,,-ll t'J'V lw :--:t•t•:--: t IH· tn1 ·~t .·u<· '1'." • li' ·, h e i.- a }H' r:--: <•11 : trot only a11 1 11 n, edu ·at(JJ' ·, 1H it ~l-111 ( 1 11 ."' Iltt'll t· \·,·ry \\"ltvn·. That. l1vti tuti on i .- .f'Oltunat·t·- t·ll;tt :-: tat<· is f< rtllll atL'-- ' .lli r·lt numlwt·.- al ll Uitg i t:--: l'tltll·ato r.·. u ·h m 11 as Princ-i1 a l "' m-toH.

Oswego,

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trip r.o B~t ·k 'rc>Pk . Hav ilt o· d<·c icl c ·1 t·o o·< the in ~vitabl t> q n ~t i on:--: <tS l'o l11n c·1 1. 1·o utt: · ti m· f ret.lll'Jl, d<' ... 11 111:-;t l>t• sdfl<'c l. . ' h n]l w <:> go dowu th e st.n·<· t t() tl~t • st<Lr io n a ll<l t·lt t• n follow tlt e road \\'estwan1 uwl e t· t l1 1• b) ntf:..; K o tl1at v; ma) look ll ]>\\·arcl a lo11g t·lJ t• 1'<U tk::-npon whieh the f 'I'll :-) g ro w _s<_) p t·oru . ' <: 1)' . tluougl1 the Tanks of t r e<-'H wl11<"11 <·o \·P1· t1; "' slope of the lti t.., n·h lli llr:;. :t.11d th a t· \\·<· 11 la,, · · • stand p eering into th ~ wtd< ravin e N whit·Jt teiTitina,te sn p i et m-e.-qnel y 1H·1'e ht . 'P~ Or ·h all W l' o·o ~tl'c'tl' Of. bo·1·een • wa1·d~. . I? ~ l·~t: from Mt. ·\ ernon Hall, d<-'s p i te <"<'l'tain i n hns . ]>it-able ba1:h wir e f<~liC·e: and the ab :::; <~ l l ·e nfl a pa,tlnvay, t urn ~1or~h war~l after e n teri 11 g a. ] a 1·g <,. w ell-kn own but h ttle h .eqw. . . :' 1Hec1 I'"...., v1·111 ,, ., 1\(1 g r aduall y w end o nt· wny to t h e bank s of t .. cr eel-.? Stay, l et us take th e fav01·ite r onte, non over Indian H ill, p erforated wi th t,lle n 111ll ~ . f' . 1 o n s bnrrowtng.:; . o va.n ous gen e rations of 81 11 ~11 boys and gnls, who dnring th e ir l ei Rnre h 0111.~ h ave brought to lig h.t. many 1-e]ies of the B. ~. . · Men , whose hom e, in th e d a ys of a n ot l'(~ ll 1 ot-. past, this r egion wa.s. Then w e c~ross th"' litq b1·idge a,ncl cli.m b the ::;teep s ide . of ''Pi)'- 0 .~ P eak' ' to the ver y m·est of thi s _ fn,n 1 0 ll~ hi]] where we pause t.o r est ~mel to v1ew t.lte p , ~ }JeCt str etched out h efon"' 11. like :1. grPat l>:tn01·ama. ~~

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tre an l ano·l ''" o l , and t.h cr k i b efon th at the 'ld a.yin o· mino·le<l to f<JI'Ill a :--:ct' lll' m r' fai r. 'l h ' •x - us! y n ,,·ill b >li ,. .. A cr k · l a:-~ a nLm ·: : . h rn. a :fiat. as a ltll i~-d t<' col o1·i n!.!.· u f tl1 • :--:1 r ing-t im P l" h e l·t•· 1at . a nd all t h kin o··s h or>-:e s uld n t pnll tilt• ;-;uhdu 'd l'~·d or thl' wiii 0\\":0: fr in!.!.·ing t·h j 1 ri,· ·r. tlll" ~ort !.!.Tel \" <f th • budtlin~· lin tl 'II. a~lt i t · trai~·lt t .' " <tppli -'· to thi - ~·t r .am . ,,- h e n ~- n 11 0 l ncl <t lld l,tickoiT . t.l lt' ~kli nltt' ,..\"l''t:' n· nn tl p ink:-; o f n r tol 1 tlw t it n o o n ' l' c m plete t·ha r it b e ,-in ' to f rm an th er He . It lie · in . . . ]· " tit. !.d -' <lllllll ,g \\" hi t~ t II • n uw hlo:--::--:oll l 1np: ,L' · ' .' a nry ' ntall ,-,Lll :·. anl c m seqn -ntl:- d r a in.-:; 'l '11 <' tll >r t I!' \\'] 1' I 111 \l . in -lwrp _r l't p1Pclsll1!!" . a limited a.r a . . ·ct i t i. a. 0 T<: at faC'tor in th1.:' . ])u"l . " ·h s ~ <' 1 '1111"-011 blo ::::t·l·a:-;t \\' I th tl 1,. n •t1.. n,·e f th o \\"h O oj oum a. p rn. Th . hft . . . •r thl'. at }ll t :-.. 'nt. l 'ntl · · '-' O ilt · h 1rl ,. <' 0 ' t s] p pn d in ; J, pr tty litt-le plain CO \' ' l' d \\·ith · · ' ·. . 1.. t lt e ,·ari ed gn· <'ll ~-' uf th e t c ncll:'r ht"lll('llt'' \\ 111 l c • • • , • for lll <L 1w rf •d <·o ntpl t'llH' nt to hlne-oTa.:S nnd ha,·ing :.L f \\" trl:'c S 1wa r the l ·)' (>1111 "'' l <·::t·\l,., · · .,. bit of ~n tun· . f' 1Hnt:<·apC' p:ar- hank ' oft-!11:' t r eam. tl ti::-; c·h <trlllllln Thi , l ocality i a fa,·orit hau nt f hird ~S <l<• llillg'·_ .11·111 ·· li n·ht thP ri\' PI' 1i:v1t e::; and a.nd qnirrels. llt'r e , too, t 1w d e~::'r t an-il'cl tl tt :--: l\l!ll <:' ' • l ong after t h e." h ad 1 ft tlP other pla t· "' wh e1·e In 0 . it·::; eOtll':-il'. :tclltnp: a~ mnch ro 1 ,. ]li S <.I 10 11 .~ th-') w er a.reu ·tom ecl to f ed. Pl a.nts h1 o _ g 1 ,L . . . r·otlld lli :-LI1}' anotll t'l' stn a.111 " ·h o · . \ ' I t• ">V ,t:-i • I 11 t ' • t· inclllll<' thv tra n ~ p orta t J n of , omfr - e lyh er~ . In sh or t,it. ~ m to be a . t - d oe:-; 11 0 l < tl .' f' ·ilt ·mn11alh· . lt com es 1nto sp ot fay or :.cl b . Dame N a tm ·' h r .,e1f. .A n d · t o 11 ;-; t1 ::-: · ' • . . clin,•· a p mnt 111 th e b luffs la st. but- n ot 1 ~a s t, i t i ~ the perf "C'tion of a m<lll,\ . .·. ,- ln· t o ll 11 ,., . nil I'' 1\' · . 1 ,. to tlw n orth ,,·e.-t :tncl clL.;- pi. c·nic ground, a many hundr eds will t - t H\ . . I ~ t tl'll. II IL. t> It i s t-o b fea r d t.ha t his tor y will not r eco;Tl ;t bo ll . . f'te r e ll l'll'l'll no· t'l101'a ·lano ·1 · f rontlf, ,_t th e u ames of th e scores of fa) qneen:s w ho ap1W<l ,., . t o tlw so u tl1eas t . Ancl a ' t.o 1111 (e::; . tin-' ·1 · ~ b l · t ha,Ye 1)een erowned . u nder t.h e tr "C' " a.u d. ;1hntl . , . 1 thPyaret·o nt.n Hlti.:Cl -:-rtnee tit<' lllll f-(;-;- \\ Cl r' ,,n Mis ouri :.lllcl N ebraska . who for on e bri~ f clay , haYe nj oyed th e h om 1 • () \ "' st·nt<'S . Ju.tllle.)' , h elp lwing pictnn'. qne a.ncl a.ge pa.icl to r oyalty wi th ou t b in o· bmcle necl . !"Lll t]l t'1 ] with the r espon s ihiliti t'S which snrh h oma..o·t so It O'' ' . · · 1cl eecl t wy are . . f' 1 ',-Ill<' 11 11 1 . . . a. b t•:Lnt,l tl , . , to e nJ'm · t n :--; n ew 1s pa.rt u s uall) brings in i ts t rain. . \\"1111( ' • Th e day \Yea r s on; the creek i s ex 1)lor e cl. '~;ovptng a 1_ Cr eel'- ' n. · a ll wh o j ourney . .· ) to B n <· '" . of tl> t- t tl! _ B t we " r esoom and cont.1nne the t l'ea.sures gathered, tlw l nneh eaten a.ncl · ther kn O\\ · u \ ll t' n :--a.ys, 1'or tl1e p a tl 1 tlw h omeward jonmt'y b egins. On the r t'turn Lh l -. . ·: ' ~ ·Sarnan t1U"t .o · ~1~ t 0 olh "' . •·;~ · 1. 11 . 111 s ·d o n o· the crest of tlt e Wt' go firs• t to war• d the m outh of t.h·~v ''I'L' '- ,1 _ \.. . ' J \VP 0 OW 11 • ' · o t lw tnrn 111 th e lulls . and t.h n k eep cl o ··e \\' ill<' 1 'II. tlll'orwh which the Cl't'Pk b. r eak ·, : :; nn. d er 0 . Ill !:) 1 . f th e l)lnffs, past. the one h a,Ythorne t . li n<' 0 • · tllO'llo:> . " J ' 1w \"i PWS tlnon o·h ont t 1e t'lltlre 1 C' P of . Jl ' ' M wltich that ]orality ·b oas t s and wt_· 1 tl 11LS g J\ 0 ' ' H' 1 l S (l ist.:tJIC' ~ : -jo·h t t.h e descen t is Yery ahrnp t in n ow r e splend en t with . rln ste1·s of ~.11l. t. e 'I'O th(-l 1 n • 1 d eenly fl11TO\\'ec1 by ra.\"in e S blossom s,• pa.st. t.be• lnll::;icle fmn cp·cl :::;, fo l· ' lnre. c.Ln c ~ . . .. ~ - yellow viole ts, unt1l " -e reach .• l'"\. · · ..-so lll<-' P 'fo th e ] eft the ..;lope 1s m or e g1 a.Cl '" L" 111(:• 0 _1'. n i n others-_ .1·assy n<~ar the smnmi t a.nd covered either side of which rise h ills from - ex 11a,nst1-1:->le s tores th e o· " '' l o.s e ·nog . t1 apparently m 1 ' na.l, b el 0 toVl~trcl the base. A s we n ear 1e . . lf' . l ::, CO Qo·l:::;t se w1t 1 lavish h anc1 r1 ° ·· wi th treeS . d two fin e bnn oak 'tl-ees, to which snpphes hm1 1 ~"'Te • • ·e i, n . b . t ' l :' 8 c rec { "' . }Ja" a tn nte of aclmua 1011. pause awh1le to b ecome acqna1n t -'cl 1 we ·' '~Ith as u s na ' stn.Jt cl, shapel)r, fri Pndly t r ees- a the1appearance of things sin<'P tl e . h ave was h e d d own Ut<-' l le sprHw rams . 1 He1:e theY . .ncit:i and Philemon. \.t a.nother v oo e sot1 an cl l 1. . ve nt.abl e J3;l· e a. fine vj ew of "the 1a.kes," a broug 1t to 1ght many fossil '' W h l' Ch 11a ve 1aln · poi:nt' w e 11<1' devote<:S f 1 '11 buned for 1o! thl:'se nutnv . Lyin ~ o, 0 . t l e o·nn, (l,S Wl C < J yea.1s. 0 · l\{l:'('t·a to t.hE' . . o n the very• snrf·t, f the oo-rou 11 c1 ese are f ouml there 111 gn·at about, • c ce o , l, ~U' l' (1n c1u; anr1 ge mnum erable foss1ls l ... e·a1·in o<•· suel1 1·11Yp1e n tllll hPn;. ()')' . hill. tb.>1on o-h a g r owtl1 of natnt~s as henu,pron ltes m·as u.s 1 8pi1·ije1· p lctRnrl'l_r llan·l>l uft'HIH1 ri,· ·r a nl \\"Ood e •111 -

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no onvex,ts, Tynclwnella o ·age·Jusis, myali17Jl su~qtr-adnda, me ke?la ·tTiato- ·ostrtta, sv n tnlasma k emiplicata, with whi ·h it i. · wor t l1 one' · wh1'le to 1J.;.L' a ' , pealun · o· :tC'quai11 taw· ' . UP thi l'aviJL ,,- go to tJL - pat h at t lt top

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t () fa =-' I· i l l<l II' I II< l l I \'. lJ l i ( ; II ( • g' j \ · ( · II 1 It e, I II I~ 111 1tl' s t d i 1'1 ' r-t i () II =-' f'u I' 1 •<1 c·I t ;-; I 1' p, all d 1 1I<':-: 1• <I I'I , fo 11 o \\'I'd hy lll <Ill .\' cI 1 ., in·:-; f'()J' ('; l l'JT i 11 ~- 0 11 r

t ll <'.·u dir<•ctio ll :-; . • \:-; 11·( · ltl l' l l it :-; !'".!..!.'(:;-; \\: l ' an• f on·<·<1 t al'k i iO\\' It ·d .!..!·t· i t tu h t· t l H· , 111 ,;-; 1 inu , 11 _ ICJI I H lll <Lllllal f()l' Jll'illl<ll'.\' \\'0 1'1\ \\' ( ' j 1; 1,. ,, ~ ·,· c • r

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follow d in tlt -' m rnjn o· n l 11 o· tl1 • hilltop. ~w·ain to " Pike'· P •ak,' ~vatf' l t fo r <L t]m th play f th e-! v~1 1 in bo· uali n·l1 t 11.1 on . n•· rand hl1df, d_. c •n 1 th e 1 eak , ('lillll Incli a 11 Hill , and th ~u co mplete th j OLll'Hey I! Jill (' \Yhi.ch w

~(' t' IL _,\_ ltlll'l'i(•d . i liL\'itlll:o; :o;l l]H ' I' illlt •ttd <•rtt o 1· p ri Jt<'i pa l c·aJ t pl ;tc· <· tl ti :-; l l lillttJ ;ll i 11 tlH' 1•., 11 I..;

()[' hi .• } Jl'illiC.li'Y l !'ilc· lll •t·:-; H'il lt Ill<' din ' l'l i o11 . " l•'oll ow tlt <· \\'oJ·k la id cl 1111 - 11 tiH 1'(' . ·· ' l' lt j , d one · Jt L' i ~ rv lit ·\·c·d cd' t(•ctt ·li i 11 g- t lH 'I ll lit>w 1;, kaC' lt r •acl1ng· to lH•gillne•J·;-; al \\'il ,l-;-; ;t ditlic· tll t

wondering b ow many mil e. · wc-:) ' \'C; tl·an•lc•t1 and nP vt L' c·om in o · to a ·a ti fac tury eon c] u s ion.

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"THE

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th~ 1·eahn of P1:im ary

1. tl wcl . · _<'v •r ->en Invaded by <:LHY work mrn·e c·aptn ·atino· and mor e popnla J· than t h • 'yn t lwti <' Nt>Xt ill t lt i s s t • J · i c~ :-; ()(' IJ rH>l-::-; i ;.; I j,,. ~j>(• j l e· . Meth od for teaching r eading ? How i t l1 as " ]3 1LS}' · v\To r k for L i f'l'lc · l•' itt 1"'0 o·c · t·:-; ' '' 11·(· 1.f<J , ( 1 1· ocWept o·ver ·om e pol'tiOllH Of th is and oth -']' • • , -Lillllg' 1) ( · ltl cJJ· - 011 stateH, ('a,nying 'vith it l JO;:;ts of -> JL tlw. ia ·ti e t lw t i t l e }Hl g<· . Un 1tld ;w . . (' \\"( ·1 follow-'rs fl'Om the ranks of . upe-! rin tencl ~ JJ tf-l, ('(JJn(' 1'<1 t lw a,\·(·nt g l' prllllH I',\' t·e'ctl'-l t 1 • 1- t ltct ll . k lJook 1e· ,·o t(• l to !>1 1:-i\- \\·c11 -] - 1 () . •t teacher,· a nd pa1·ents, thr atPn in o· in ·o nt , who . . . " "-· I I I t~ jn··t IJ<tO'( ' S WC.: il Jl<l}HI' t lll'C'~ f () ht• dJ"l\ , ) , plaee , to displace evet') thing i n o ur primary n _ . ' 1 n. t t c•:-: 1 • sehoolf:; that lta s evPr laid claim t o s nc <'eRsfnl so clt os<· n as to- .lt·nl-pl t <ttl_,. <' IJJ]d to t·,.·' . , 'r(··r l'e ' J· :-; 1'() Ute) l ll a <l(• an< L wo r e s t( , lJp c·olJi<·<-1· ti t" t· . work. . - . l -1 .. . . , , 11 () l ~ 0 11 1 . 1. · How can this Tapicl g r owth of a new m eth od l o w pages of ·l "'" · · f'- f . Ill. s, i t. w e l i' u 1111 • ll't. ' ~ Ill) (, t o Hl't.n.)' tl· ae l f 1 · ' 0 1 tl1e·y ·t1fon l . ., ·1 > · ] . • c !:io ll l lli' 1 01 . _ ~nd i ts increasing popnlarity b e aceo nn ted e upat!On tol .t w c llld , a ru1 ~o lit t le • (•ffon for~ Is i t the m ~th od itself. i ts enthns ia ·tic ·e·rJ"raUon for t lll' tt'acl J(•J·. . 'rl If' . ~(' \\' 0 1'( I ;.; .. (>J · achocate~, 01' the l'esults obt;ain ed t lw.t a re n- l~) 1 c•c•'t {i!'C1 Cl.l l cl are to hu lll''J·] -,., 1 ·l ) \ .. ~- ) 1(' ('l. iil dI ' (']as . C ' ,.., , , L< '\.d spoo. ibl:e for tbL~ mushroom, f::O fo rmidable Thro w h t ]JI S eln ss di ta.t'.i on ·t.n t · 1 _.l llg t· l~. 1n . ' ( 111Hl''t' • because so fa cinating- to the ca~·-mal observer? wor ds are h~m· n ('(L \ V Ililt cl o c· ~ it m :.t tt( 1· i f c'J ·; \Yhat a 1·p ·ome of tl1e condition s n,ttencling ever y pag e tlter u an' W(JJ·c11" t i nt c~o n nt h(·l · ll·. . 1 '~ , ' ) .L o n n· · tlw biJ-th H.ncl oTowth of t hi..; m ethod( F i1·st t P, t.hl~ c]ll ( L • \'O Ca} JH] C1J·)·I J -( rn JJ ·f.; ()lt n db . · e " of all, it kL. an ingenious CJ·eator; He,·er wa::; mark and pron o nJH'<' t.h e• n, ' is t; t h a.t "'I ~- I ·f'~'' ·- -11 0 11 _ any pri maty m ethod sent forth \Nith n oTenter c ie nt~ \VIt.~- not. lt·m· n t l w fo rn 1 n ow i n thn . . nt:rm bet of_ atttaeti ve devir e. . Next, comes beg inning y ea1·::;, th<• l ll PaJtino· ]t t' c• n n g (• t]., t Sl 1"1 ~ ( 'J ' '"1.th a sene · of books to a.1.c1 the tear h e r a,t m t? Tn he S UI'f, t.lli s i::; l't> \-l't··-:il li1: tlll' <''>ll. 0 " •r-y step. 1 kl\ h e h as p m ·s mng h (-·fo r(-~ h e e JJkl'<' <l ~c·hoo). 'l'hP ii u -;t of this_ ·'f>l·ie f.; of bookr::;, " The <: r·llPt'f-: )fanual ,' with it t WO h· lll1 d H :' (~L bnt h P l S 111 ,·('h ool n ow a.ntl Ititl:.;t <' . -pt-'c·t tn ' l)a;_:,,, :--.o ' tt· < c• t l· l'e 1.11. e•l·(•t-y detail, cannot fail 1<-'arn by J JUW m et hoc1s . Next'f'ollow.· t l w :':s. ' ll t]l( . f' { .(•ctdl •l·. _·\ ..:: ,.t> 1

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;-;nm l'tllillg' "·h iclJ " ·ill 1 ' :H1 the chi.ld t m nke tlwu \""""' n·h t-"·l't ti n t-> o· th <-' O .il \-' ·1illl f J'l:'<H.1ing-. and . t"'l a::: wlt L'll h•arn inp; to talk, ld th<TL'b' nt <:l·er:l

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A . H. Y .AN V L E Ji:T , Nebraska S t a le JV or m a l Sr !ttlo l .

I N our l ati t u d , · f ay i s t h e m ontll f n ·tb uilling, a nd .June th m o n th of yo un g b ird s . A I writ I g l a n ce on t of th e wind w and e a pai r of B lue J a,y admiring th ir r e entl y c mpl e t d n s t, while <d ':.m a l " R ob in hops from cr oteh to cr otch (Jf a n oak , tc: t in o· e ac.:h on h y n t lin o· in H , fil· ·tin on e po i ti n a n d th nan th r . Evi d e n t ly .·he i. · n t ~a. ·ily s ati sfi d. What a,n impor tan t ev ~n t t h e ·el e c tin g o~ a buil d ing sit~ mu ·t b~ in b ird li.f ~ . 'l"b.ey vften p e n d day m cho~ 1~ a, allC.~ · v en afte r t h ey h a ve comm ,nee d b mld111 g w1ll lw com d i s.· ati n e d a n d el e ct a n w on e . I h av r e ad t h at t h e in telJi ge n c of a b ir l m~LY b e j udged b y th~:l n es t. it 1n~ilc1s . If. tlti .· statement were mud ified en ough 1t wo u1 L1 !Jkcly prove tru e. I t seem to m e t hat t b ne ·t.. i od icate pa t e nviro n mm~t rat her tl1 a~ p rese nt lD te le v1de ntl y l1 as not 1.tg ence. Th e JYlou rn mg .Dove . . . tb 1. ab it of makm g It nes w1th a h ottvlll b ee n 1n e I l< . I t wou ld indi cate t h at it fo rmer ly tsh n os·ou nd as 1t . yet J o01:; so me tim . es, to .It . 1 ndt on t e g 1 . s •tm p ly .k 1 o n ' t be rocks, whe re 1t ot· mo re l 1 ey , . . _· ' . t o k ee p th e eggs from roll'lJ g off. I t made a rnu . - 1n . a t ree , a nd 1t . ' 1 . ·n ed ho w to budd h a u ot yet eaton to fi nd t he egg u11d er t he 11 est i not nn coillm b~se fa lle u t hroug h an d b roken. where t h ey. le' n est 1.S t he ot het. ext1.em e. What T he 0 n orelopment it rn u t have tak e n to beco me d year o f e'i ert weaver. Compare its nest· with · s uch an exp · which is a r o ugh stru cture mad e 8 J the B lue ay ' .- sticks, au d a lm ost anythin g · ·t .1·ng. 1 of rags s P u 'fill p " Yet fe w bi rds are more inu ' · t l1-a t w l'll " b· d Neith er is th e n est . 1 th e Jay· tr . . tell~ge~t t .Ian f t h e b ird ' s stau d in g as a voca li st, an wd icatwn b d Th 1·asher bndd s a roug nest, an · fo r· the B rown se-bTeasted G ros beak I S but th e nest of t he Ro . g D - ove. that of the Mournm little better t h an . . . Wh ile n est are ns ua.ll y q utte chaTacteT'"s tw, bil ity uird · show to adapt th eir bnil din g vet th e a . · .. st!:ln ces .111dtcat what changes aro p os · t~ cucnJ1lT" e :ged- win gcd Blackbird, fo r in stan ce 11 lities n es t s ·In I ow 1J U lies or e . 1h\ . .' in some loca . . ' ven m , l t al so bul]d s ID t \1 ocks of g rass in low t recR. d ·f t h . man;lJy g roun 1, an I l.!rc l S mnch ·water it

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. up po rt. its n <•,.;t a iH,,.' tl1 · w a t<·r a t t ad 1i n p: it t' t!J g ro' i u ~ :·ec·d .· l1y ,,.<· n,· ill g I ·a n•s o f .rr a:-:~ n n 1 fta .· in a11d :trnu11 d t-Il(• sh tl 1,·."·' . '"1' 1ll' <1·lf.:1l' . · l' II · b tw • 11 t !J • 11 ·st in tht' t r · · :u1d t }I(• "Il l' at ta ·h <1 to t h r •d.- i. g reatt• r tl1 a11 is c ,ftt' ll s <'l' Jl b c•tw 'l 11 th f cli ff •r •nt k ind · of b ird .·. T ill' ab ilitY £( t liU a IHJ t th e u uildin glc •t h <·!-"l ll'r(J!IJ I( Iill .!.!; ('(lll d it i( li S J. ows a: 111 11 ·II in t<·llig<' IJ <·<• a s t h v a l 1ili t ,. ll• · oll ·o nstru ·t a 11 O r io le• '. ll<·s t , <I I HI s lH 1 \\· ,.; ; hat hi•· ilif i u ot · c ji.1:ed in it ' C' apahi l it il'o n ~ 111 nn v wo uld ha.\' • u.- b •li c•H• . \ h ·cll l \ •·i t B ut h (JW th o: uird .- do :;i l lg'~ of n .- t in th al . tnt ·t, c'r d,i!-" .11 ss th ' T r an .' mis i n f Inh c ri tvcl T '1Id t· 11 ·i(':-! .. wit h all tha t rnu .·i ·ring in g i11 hi s •an; ~ It has lH'l' ll t:lo 11 d v a11d rn.ill .)' f(J r ve ra! clayt; and t h e t, in l s ha ,.~ b •on a l111 ost s il ·nt l11 1t 11 •w o 11 .,. 111 w;t· ll aYt• n J·ri vcd in a lJ ll ll d an · · fu r th • , ,,.o H 1H are ,·oc·a l wi h so ng not II •a ni. II f(•r · t l1i \ 1u <, 11 o · tl . .· p ri 1w::--· ,.., I 'Ill a ll we cl ist in g HI . 1 t h a t of t l1 V\ o od Th n a; ]1_ m ot mu ·J. ·a I ,.o ., ·c o I': t l I O won d ::; . W ha t d l' JH l th . ·what . Cl'l: ll l• 1.u l "l< ll t ) ' H il t 1 RtJ]j'1 ()f Jl.g ui I rn lod .)' ! · ' ' ) I lit i ty. I t IS not a s o hI.r;. A ll t l1 e f ue lin .-.,u· ,·utd 1)( . a ll t , . . of a so ng f!CC i rl t o 1a ,· ' I c•o 11 eo n ·c 11 t 1·at c•d . t !J OSO f W ll OtCS. ll c is t·lll' III OHt h l"' lll t'1f ll (l l tt. . t he T hru s hes , and 0 \'(orv •t' ·' 111 uv e n w nt i::; t li (•· Ultll im eu t OT g raceful case a nd C:O illj) ::; Hro. )od _From t J. c i.Jra nch es of an c l111 C: O ill U I:> th c, !:-;(I . ll er of l (' th e R ose-b rca te e TI' Osb ea k. It is 011 0 () 1~ SCI'~'11 I co ntc 11 tm e nt. H e ( oe.· 11ot s in ~""o· t o t l1e world n t~ s I ~. . · d ocs t l1 e 'I'h rn s I1e-. ·r. . , -.11 5 s o• n g 11ev U. l . 1111p . 11 '::> n. 0 a ndi e u ce• . H e 1.n s to ·I . hiu1 su ' lf ::t.rl l 1 11.1 ntc . n 11 ' I.I O W of 11 0 S O ll g 1 \~ . lldl IJl' l'C' 1s . l' · 1 . ex pr •::;se c] wn ch su lf- co n ta ln cl satl s fa <.; tion '>OUC --' . . I 11111 . .1 . ::>. iJ <> l1e b r a nc!108 0' t . ~ b o ps !:l iD 0 11 o ' e attn g- tl1 e see d s o f t l 1-l is son g see ms to h . _, tc\ e 1rn. l a 111 c r e ·1 c c:on1 P'll . 1 t t o }Jis t 10 ng 1tR, a 11 cl 1 • . ' ' 11 _ men Ll IU s tn gt:> a s h e t\n.t • · g , s weet s tra,in N c ::S· H ow t h 0 sc s moot y. t1 o wm . a rn .),n.1, . ue f·I oro n mout h f1ll e cl Wit · 11 ol rn seed s 1s Iss . 'i . ::;_ I:Ie h as n ot th e 1 tery . . . . . e cgan co of f orm of t h Vv ood Thru sh, b ut. lll s sweet son . o. ,t!l . d bri ll ta·llt · e d lum age r e n et· hlln vory a t t l":tr·t· o 'fh e e as t P .b · , . t ve . e 1·n bird is d esCJ'l ed as a lover of 80 ]i tud e . l [' disposit ion must chan go as h e " GO I!les west, ,, ..,-l. ()l R[• . h e is a co mrn o n fr equ e nt er of g ro ves n ear d w -}] _

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n t btl ' ily e n n·ag •u j 11 o·l ' :w in <T t h ir b r a kfa t ft >11'1 th t r (' · t p ·. wh il a B la<"k -and-\Yh it \ ' a.rbl -' r in .·p ' C't:-i t:h • a ft r th " g r o11HL111l 1' of a, 'n_. ' P ' 1'. r wi t n edu t. rin 0' 0 '.rhi t h a· ·el rn.te d n o tP a nd o n g a I of bird PC i \. ' · it · n a.m I w a a firs t too much a 1'0 fi n a o \· rit s n ' t . o o· m:~.; th a tor in h e n \ l1iclcle n ~L111 01 JO' th · lea '· i s d i:ffi nl to b u h .. h a d n o o o n r r ach e d b t hi k t fi nd· b u t tlw nn·h o d \- i'ly o n a 1-'d it!clo t b " fir t p art of the pl a . w-as b ing r _ h a n ' · ' f t h u 0 \\' B 1'1·d ] - > 11 n t <! f ' a.p · t 1t ' " . " · p at d. I b gan to f e l t h at I ' as b eing imw h o . , eo·cr i t 0 ft; n <·ontmn ~ . ' ' h ear a l n d d up n , a ·tu a ll d h d. onld it b e ,...1 · t1 • >LD d ru 11 tv t h e win l O\\' in t im ' 'ttl' \\' 1II ' ~ . i b l t h at a ll th ose n o t en w r e u tt red b y ·L"'h of oran g _, a._ <L Baltun r Ori ol _, t.J . , ' ' t:L .,:ti • n bird . It wa th . m o t m ao-nificent xhi\. h eard t hi m ornin g , i tt:> on 1 I l l "1PP <• • b i t ion of \' ntril oqui : > m I h a d eY r lt a rd. W e . f, 1 .-Lnd ch e r r, h u ta lwar cl la t=-riu th e ] ' l' ' l c • . . . und r tanJ him b tter n o \\· a nd whil h in1 r e})ea t d f rom m o nnng t tll n1_0'h t , w e te r ts u ve u m or e t h a n th n , h can 110 ' · 'C ''L ·t lC!Jllf __. · . i t oTow s t ir -'som e ly m o11 oton o n ·. 111ttS . n . . l o n o· r so co mpl etel~ d e eh · u 1•, r o m t il e' clista.n t r a nne f'O m e a fa.1n t n ote . . . 11 0 o th e r bird <· o nld p r od u ce it, bu t w OB ER\ ATION ON THE FLO\ iV OF THE 111 e1) . . t. 'l' l . . · te n tl )' f ur 1ts r e pet1 to n . 11s t1m e . lu.:t<' ll .111 · llli stake, a n d \\' e know. th at th e MISSOURI Rl\ ER. _ 10 th nr e· 1 ::. 1 . a s ted Ch at 1s · 7 . · Of · · '\ 1th u s . a.ll om lT. B . DUNCANSON YP ll_O\V- 1)](: • t e u: · ~ t' - o · . < th " 111 0 ·t 1n s 111 0 . T' e• 11:'~· \'(:\ JV ebr a s J:a S t a ll! No r m a l Sr/10o/ . 1) ·11 d !:l )l e t s • l the h our w o n c1e ri.n o· e v "l'Y . th e 0 e Ye nin n· o l ) .<..; t:>j'\' t' c1 111111 )y -t?." It ' I. S 1n ~·all e y_ w_hi ch_ h a s b een er o d ed b y th e t ·' vV h at n es . m o nt ell . t in o· season t h at h e i s see n at . . M 1 s:so 1~l'l rn e r 1s from five . t o ten miles .. o· t h e Ilida -'0II fn,l' 111t0 • . son o· Cl Ulll1o t.1l e rn. no·b t }ns ll1 Wldth. rh e Ch a nn el i S from On e -fo ur th t ~n eve • lli ~ h -•st, ' s an accompanim e n t t o th e three -fourths of a. mile in width . T a kin o· ~ 1 ue ]te a r c a ( maY . 11 c·ltorn s . vV hu w o uld try to section of the 1·ive r thirty mile s in l en: th - _ · p o ur-w t vV Jil]: - 1. . . o·~ S neh a, s u ccession of g ut- fr o m n ear N ehra ka C i ty t o N em a ha City~ w~ __. ·cnb e. n SOl1 0 · • c cb 1 . h a r sh squeak~ , w e1rd , holl ow , g h ost - no t e th e foll o wi n g phe nom e na: t e r loL s, n Jl S ancl pl•Lin tiv e call s , inte r s p ers ed . vV ithin .. th e thiTt.y mil es th e ell anne l s t n.k~ es ·1· o'l'O<" < < • • the bluff. s on the wef't s ide of t h e nv . e r at ]l . _ e c:- • t<'hes of the m os t r a vts1ung m elod~ ~ itli s ni.L . . . ,v · · .,1 e·,·oln twns and bod1lv r ontortwn s ! seve n d1tfer e nt .points ·' e "a ch t 1·1n e tl1e- c h ann el . ·ll ;-er l<• J • S uc from on e- f o 111 . ·th t .o thr eell l o n o· r e me mbe r o n e of my hrs t e:s:per- r ebound::< , nnuung . s )l ~1 . b . 1~ ,1 · tll th e Chats . I h eard on e m th e fourth s th e w1dth of th e valle·Y t o t l1e eastern d b l ff t l . l. e n ce s \~. 11' (1_ w as car efull y cr ee.p in o· n e arer try - . u ' . l en g r a ually curves to tll e n-· g·11t unt1l 1 · 1~ c t <1 o 1t a g mn cu ts th e w es t ern b luff E 1. • .. . .tI C '- . btain a vi ew of it, ·w he n an other one · a c u t1m e e e nrre nt r el)ounds fro111 th e w es t ln g to 0 ·cl in almo s t the opposite d ireetion; th . . . · e rn bluff th e ea~t was h e fLl tll t' l' in th e direc t i on of th e first, bnt 1. t I S due c t ed towards . " ern bl u tf. y e t. then a,no n.y· the n 111 . . , does It cro ss the bottom ~ b n t' ln . o t 11e r du·ec tio ns som e 111 n o ease · a' l arge maJ. onty f·trther a W < t.h ' er s f a rth er away . The th ' of the c a ses n o t Ad tl ick e t ' l e chann el . d oes no t Cl.o ss n ear and o fnll o f t-11 e m , ancl · . to exceed o n e -h< lf . t:w c.e yet not one m d, th e d1s 118 . . s eem ed t o 1 to the e a s t e rn b luff Sin: . s 11 1 . .h -a n o t know w w .t to -111 .. k e of 1t. · a.r o b sen·:o~tilon Slg t. I (1l . '" . , t I ., g S'L[?' e th at t.h e b nd mu s t b e but m a d e n e ar Omaha furni s111. c onclu sive e11.·aen ee .1 s; as . W<• ~L fe w y ards fr o1:n m e, a_ncl e xp e c te d the n ext that the cha-nnel has ..a, t ,o. n d e n r.y to f'oHow tl· 1e mom ent to see 1t come mto fu ll vie w , the not.e s w est ern bluffs . 'l'he amount of ch"t:;cen t in t h e river- b e d would a g a-in s onnd from th e dis tan ce or from tlw op w sit<~ dirt· .tion. Sncld e nl y aJl s ounds throu g h this sec tion i s l ess t h a n tw el ve inch es t..

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The d e cenb of t h PJ att ~ ri\·c r a.r• prc•. · 'I'\'t'd iu tli<' iJ· 11atural ~l aic·. nnd pr n f t p 1· m ile . Y t tlJ:. n to f ,· ·nt a. \· 1 ry pl <·a ;-; i II_!-!: app '< ll'illll' ('. • ' oon afr flow i gr at r in th Mi · ouri than in t it ' our anintl a llllg'~' gong i.· :-;cnll ld c·d . I lap mar a Platt . H ence, tw poin t · are p1· · "n d f 1· g ·1· .· !tout·:-; . ··- Ul n ·ad., - f'or IIH· l"ll g l'ou t<· ·· p xplanation; (1 the riv e1· follow · th~ 'Y ,' G" l 'll nlil ·~) a.n<l a p<tl'tj- of a, d o ;.:t·JI }ll 'll ]d c·. atn on _ bluff, (2) the rate of tiow i. 0'1' '-'at ·1· t lHLil ,· m 1:: w l1 111 i. I l' Jf. K . fr ·c, 11 1 1l11' ( ' 11 in•t·~if' other , t1· a.m \Vith ix o r R v '11 tim e th< · d eof • 't. J>c• t ·nd ltl'g . n l J i 11 g-ay :-; pi,.; 1:-: . :-;f <tl't ·v·1 • c nt of b d. th1~ c·a\· '. 'l'IJ I'it· ft·i} J wil l t;tl'- '' c·i g· hr !Joul' ·. 1. The tufar'c of the arth at r.l t " eqmLt r Th' \\·ill IJ a\·<·l llnc-1, in til l' ' ' <l\'l·. a 1;d 11 0 d Htht hav I · h1· ugh p a <' e at t h -· r at f He <·njCJyit. \ ~our stay i:-; lir11il l' d to onPdar. thou and mil · p r h ur fa. t r tlta n at th e WI' d <:ei [,,on till' .· !JcJJ'I l'<• ll t 1• 1 11 j 11 1, nJil<•:-:) . at; L pol .· . H nc· , water tl w in o· fr m t h e ]JOl<·.· tll " .:'\lanun t h Dollll' i11 <tddirio 11 ('11 r whic ·h to the eqnator muRt n 'f'"' . a riJ y in cr e::v H.· pr i\'i lc•rr(' th1• lll tJd<· .· t .' llllt of.:·;~_()() j ~ n•qu '::'t< • L rate of . d one t.hou ·c:md mil s p ·r hou1· t At ·1:OC!]J. Ill.<~ patt.\· of fot1 J·. :\ Jr. I .• 1. T hnntpth ea twatd . Wat r fi wing hom -b ra. ka . on , 01 \\ a .· llln rr toll. D. () ' <L .\"011 " P: l'<t lll'llluau City outhwaJ·d i · con. tantly c·r o ·ill par al::L11<L 11 i f •, of 'I' ·x a :-;, a1tc l tl1c• wri 1,.,. ·t 1·c·<> lt ] . • ' I lcl ll l eL· with gr ater Jen oth of r ad ii.; t h " waU· 1· }J a f-) iC'cl by l i..cldi · H i.·l, op, lll1 • ht· st g·ttid t• nt rh 1 a t end u ·y to ma intain a11 nnifuJ·m rar.. of (·a.\·'·, \\' i 11 d o 11 r "'a y down t I 1c• l J;, 1 11 ro t iJ c, f c H t I "eel. R ene , in ·t ad of t li.e wat "I·',· at·c· "1<'J'- of tlt " }Jill , a 11d find o ttl' : · l·l\· 1'-l:-l a lli<-' •• \ . 1 1 ' . . . ' (' ( \ 11 atinO' it · . p eel i t ha · a tend en ·y to fan behind tn.L ll (: •. 'J lu ~ 1 ~ tl'ltl y :t pn ~ttr b i o· l)()lt· 1· . . . .-, II I h ~ the g netal movem ent f thc:J arbh'. · , nrfac· . n· 1· 1m d ·p ,·<.·n t·y i, ·t 1ncl( • <I ll l -tifry· (' .... 1 ' . ( ( l ( l \ l '1 and thu ' con. tantly wash e · tb we. t~ 1·11 b l11 ff'.·. \ ,V • s tand :wei f!'< lZ t' at t·l, J. · <' ll tl'< lltt· v f . . · . . . 2. A w hav a lread y noted, t l1 1·ate of lll e n t. I t 1 · d •t· o r:Jtc·d ,,.1t l1 1iowi'I·:-; j () ) d 111 () 11 flow a compal'c:d with tl1ab of the Plat.te a nd o·olcl ; l llfJ ,·se :-;. fl' l'll -; an 1l J.l (' .h t' Jh; i }llll'}l l t · 11 b t. \"( ' l ' \eern to be in dil· rt 0 ·iti on to th e d e,· }J acl l-; of u r ee n 1'0\' (T t]l<' !' Old , f.!' l'<J\· . · • l s ent of th e b ed. in ce th e J·ivei· i fj ·on.· ta n t- b ~L ,tiflll J>l'<L)':-:i of climbin g ]ll<111t:-; <1· (J(' ] '- ,.:· . . <111 o· 1e ly rro ing la1·ger ci1·cle. · of th eatth' · ·u1·- ove r t .lw ahys .· -lw l ,,., w!Jll u Jof t·y })lJtt ,...., 1 ' I ' ll II t,.:: ' . ~ace, i t i acting in ha1·mony with · ··ntl-iftwa l ·utd nt<•·o· •d ' oak::; "·uanl I'JH' l' l1tJ ·a·llc·< · 1 ' 0 () ,., ' for ce; by tlP rotation of th ear th on it axi s nt. t rllld <·J·o· J·Ollll cl }Jalac t' h eyc •n<1. ·\. 1. the water i thrown towa.nls t.he out"l' r'il'C:l e st ream of• wat ~ r I• H8 U E fn;m a c· 1·t· y · -< . Jt. 1 ' 1 ( ' (> 1 11 ,. h • • . (th · equator·) of the f'arth'.· s utface. H ence TOcl\: · abov e t l1 ' <~ nhan(' ·, and c· 11 n 1 , . 1 • _ < s sp <t. ·Itt~e r·at of flow i. largely dne to the dire(·tion ina· to th e l ut tonl.. ,rll(' b 1J·d i-; a n cl . . . ·t· . . of chann el. n , lll tH (. I' lq tl]e. tr·1Ja s ~ee lll to say "faJ ·c· \\' c•ll , ' "' "' • . . . ;l.S \ Vl' 1' 11 h • r· t.h e r egi on s ot e n dle. ·.· 11J 2· h t . Dow n llill <'t) -~ i; A VISIT TO MAMMOTH CAVE. \"'-' o·o ' . and at • 0J1C'e. 11'11(1 tl l( ' t I' Ill] Jl:' I ' CL t ll] ·- , S Ct' J7 • •n :. 0 _ , , _, · • j s OT8fLtly )Oil ( l e Cl, l 8<1. (' ] 1[1l g' ilff\' -f() ))l' dl'O' ]· · '"' . ~ · at. wl 1i\'l - · '-1 ·. · . · ,...., '(' ~' GEORGE .i. OO L E.\fAN, OLA. SR OF '87. above ;t; t l O, tp o ul t t 1 •~ a JJ· 'Ill I; IH-' , .._ ·.. ·tr ro llltc1. .h'. . c ~ n t · J· ~.:· nto fco ld· ··~~i~l:· r e mn ·tn s tl'· 1P. ,)-e ' c. .thou?ht it rnig·ht prov e a p l easant rn . .·h es pas t Hs ~l'Oill the ('a, ve , whi ch i s of't~.:·n chvel'slon from tht? ordinary manner of S t rono· eno ug h to extin gu iF>h tJ1._. ]i £r1J t ('a 1.1.. :) 1: . 0 . . c . · ',_ 1 (-> ( l 0 ) . ' 1Yh1 0' tl h f 1e 4t o July .· to spend i t nnde1·by each v1 ~ ltcn·. vVt~ a 1·e tol d t h e g T t'rt,t. C'n, \ ·" g ronnd. . hrenthes o nh;·aJ'C1 for s ix month s . Csn nlll'tt.•J· Weaniv~" at a ncll'ever ses tlw f'nnent th e otllt'l' s lx lYJont.h . .c e1r th" h < the cave about ll: OO a . m. a nd . e ot~>1 ,., h . 1 (whl teJ'). \ Ve com e to an imn g[l,tt, w l,i ell j~ ()f' old buildino·s .lc 1 we find to be a collec ti on o <tl\l()n ,~ vvhi.C'h 1. the j-' t 1 o· h:qJt sec nrely l ock ed to p1·eyent pe~p l e nt,d cahin er·eded on t1 , ItS Oo ll stat!:' p . 1 l~lat<~ti n.1 a fairly g0<Jd hot~l ' tom :lus ol e a nim a l s ftom wandel'ing in nnd 1Jef'()nnn g Jo s t. , ttllet'·cl '1~1H'}- t]1111 . 1t · li as b een ron- .. Ont grtid e opPns th e gatt' ::t nd ,ve pas into . ... · 0. r·hat c• ~ 3 Qt) l f' lt oOocl eno11o·h to cave . '"'· ' IF•J· c a ,, 01· · o -·" J ltR n se. Th e O"J·otmc1. Th e fir st nlil•<' of tho t-< 1\

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a sh mt c1t · _.1 " -e e :> lll< ' t o a sig n ''"ltieh s ay s t n n t.J ~~go on to pllt. ont ou1· Jnmp s a.ncl " t 1 , t-J 1en . . fl P , 1.;f./ t~ c.nt• l'e\\·nnlPcl by tlt e s Jgltt cf A milt- from t h e m outh W(• n ' to th e , '-- Ul1l e · l ool · bnclc l . l ' . . ~· 'f' ] 11tLs t, '" nc t . appt'<t J·::; to · stnncl m "Star C han11wr. ' n <' l'(' tl\(• ('<W e ·w ide ns and .1.-~ 11a u t 1 u . 'l 1 t-!1e pa, ..-·a.o·e ' ,,1' i·.1 wu t a,n y n :-;1 1le s nl:llJOJ-t , nn e forms a m ngn1ti<'(' llt J'()()l\\, atcmt fmu hhn c1 n· c1 to , of 1~n<: ,yhi !~, ~~·, ar~] <! . T~H:\ g nicle p r o- f pe t l o ng, se \-<'1\t.\· f t'et with~ and s ist.yf<:et. high. (lll('<'H it ll\-·]ett ing . •s Jtg ht sllllH! thr on g h a n \ VP Nlt on ::;Ol llL' hPn<·hP:::; " ·ltil v our gn i dt•, ta.k· 1>: · , ancl h en ce it i s s impl y in g all 0 111' )allJll N, h •<I\' L'S u s t o nj oy t he dark I


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ness, and such darkness as reio·n supr m in m or a,r f h · ' hUJI Cll' " l '<L\ '<J, • 111 E lru rr the cave we have no d esire to ;emain in lon er. un K e n tu rl·y a l o n . on In a short time we l ook up and lo th r w . D ept . A gl., D i i ·ion of !"'t i t h l g!l e e Innumerable . ' ' s tars and even a comet for and ffiammalogy l Va. -ld?t!]ton the g uide ha thrown h i s light in u ch a 'way a t o be r efl ected by the tiny cry ·tal of th ME H.£(-} \.1 1' roof, and can e t h em to sparkl . as th . tar . T EA !IE l i C 111 ' TO J y -:: . H e then operates so as to produce midnicrlt t II. thunder-cl ouds, and then we h ear th bl ating of s h eep, the cock crvws the do o· bark and ' 0 ' the "first g ray streak s of dawn app a r. " . A. the guide emerge with the lio·hts from h i hiding place, it is "Sunrise in tl~e Cave ." This b eing the guide 's '·last act," w e proceed to squeeze through " Fat Man' · Misery," a :t>ack-br e aking, side-crushing pa a O' ab.out forty yards long, and th en we r est i n "Gr at R e.lief HalL" We vi sit Gorin' Dome, the Mammoth D o me, and several other inter es ting a nd wond rful thing ·. W e aT told tha t w can get out ooner b y going up the "Codescr ew." It b egins w it h s t eps, but we soon find our el ves climbing around among th e rocks, wher e if we look back w e cannot t ell w h er e we came from, and l ooking ahead we cannot t ell wh ere·we· are going, bnt w e ju t k eep climbing for two hundred forty fee t~ and ge t up a p erp e ndicular distance of on e hundred fifty feet, when we land on a l e dge of rock thirty feet above the fl oor. W e clamb er down and find that we are in the main avenue, having travele d on five diffe rent l evels or floors i n our trip. W e make our way to the mouth and pass out into t h e "Blessed Sunlight" again. I have d escribed but_ a small part ·of the wonderful things to be found in " Old Mam moth . Ther e are two hundred twenty-three avenues, on e hundred fifty m iles of which have been exp l ored , forty-seven domes, ~ue three hundred feet high , twenty-three I_>Its, on e one hundred seventy -five fee t d eep, eight cataract , three rivers t wo la k es and one sea. . ' Thirty -ei ght pecies of living animal s inhabit the cav among whic1<~. are blind crayti . h and fi h. Bat are found in thousands in thP wint r but uone in tb e summer . ·'· pape r read be fo re th e S t a te T eac h e ' A ssocia ti o n Vi it th you want ' 1892, by H. W. C~Id;vcll , o f t ne Uni v rsity o f N'cbra_~.'

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1ift• ha,.; h ' l'll Ill -i u ld ' d b y it " r Inti m::; tn th r I ·tl •rt. acti ,· ' . r ad.' · natinns. E ::;p eiall y thr n e w principl in r gard iu i! !u ·t r atin n nnd f 11 • yollng ·r ~ hi! lr u •sp •eially . f 11 ll or an • · lute .. L ~t mor titan 11n, author lw t\l tht• rc·lat inn · nf n :1 tio n · f w w hieh ur stat sm •n ·ontt•nd d . \\' ( uld b > d en.•lt p d and fix Ll in miud . · 11 ul u f r l' \ ' •ry il tiJ HH·tant · tat 111 tit. Ob T iter • <ll'l' t>tlt ' I' important ph n=- ·~ < f Lllr hi -·tory s ·n · \1 It tit •r tit ' \' :P>' r • in t'a ·ts and in c:oH·1 n io n . If tit r ·. ar". anY cli r pnneil',.; . look np thnt llll \ ' • n::; Yet onl y b •en jn ' t tn ueh d np o n, s n 1 ht• r • ar • ·ti.ll Yi t al prin ·ipll' ar nnd w hi It t) t lt ' 1 o i 11 t in c1 i , p ut . " ' ig It ·a r ·f ully a II tIt l' ~~ Htp f a ct::; fo r ·till :111 nth r r e Yi ' \\'. Tit' e ·n•vid 11 • 0 tai n ::~h l. thi n k an d gt•t y ou r pupil:-: t1 nomi · \if • nf tltL' p n p le i · yet to b' nul' ld d . \Y L' t ltink a n J t J111 , b ·o n• c• n1 n r th an a lllt' r ' !tt•ar · r 11 • x t t r n 'l' tIt . d " I p m •n t of t h ~ i 1 n < f ·1 ~ r of a pa rrot f> H)' •·F ll y wan ts a ·ra ·k c r. .. tocti n~ tar iff . and n ot· th ·• ·y ::::t Ul'-' )f t axnti )Jl nnt lt e r p t·in ·ipl in th t •ac hing of histo t·y litf r L'llt lt tW d to b . ,·t· r b •fo r ' 11 ::1, ,·iz. the• n e · ssity of adopted at d iff •r ' It t tim e · and b.'· th pa r ti ·. Tit • ft>el in ,.; nf thl' JH:'t)pl in r gard t ('IHIHta nt r .,·j w wo rk. But I belie ,· th e n m·taxl · to l.Htnk ·. to the pu blic d "bt. ar c a ll ro n h ' I •t h o d of ·o n d u din~ rt•Yie ws i: •n ti r •l y 1110 11 ttl • \\ L' go o,· •r the era upon ·utd in ,· •st ig nt • I a - fa r <1 ' timl' \Y ill p._t·mir. 8 ·r; o u l y C IT O II ·o u ·. . . an 1 · Fi u nlly w · go o ,· •r t it ' - aut ~ p •r i) l 11 · ' n1 r e 1 . d tn kit JO' C\' CI')'t Il li g Ill CO II I'St' . a nd t h t• JI go ·t n d 1 • ' · . tlt c sa t11 e work -: wa itt in th e ,·c r Y ·am o r e! •r. w ith t h i t' adin~ id e a in o nr mi nd )f t ra ei ug th < ,·e• · n . npp) ·incr p r im:i plcs 1 1 ..1 ]1 it ·1 r u,·iuw. Thi s m e t h o d ,·iulnt e · th l' ri s' ami Jm· •lop m 11 t I' t it H J) l '" ~ . . of fr•e dv m a n d ·Ja,·e ry f fr labo r a u d - l aY ) rin c ipk o t' e d tt ·at to n t l u~t tnte t·c•s t. can b e s n labo r. " • f limY t h e · tru gg Jc. - in Co n g r ess , ,,. , 1 . 1 nl )' wh e n sn m •t lnn g n e w 1 · co n ·tan tl y t ntn<'t o . '· . . ~;;e h)\\' l ittl e co n · ie 11 t it •r ' \\ a ' 0 11 t ltv s n bj • t : It •s co llt pa r at t,·c ly t d t o th e chil d 's nnnd. e ., 1' rcsc•n ; · b ot h e nd s and wh •r tit t a ·h e r h as w e t r a e0 th e• di,·e rg n ee of int r e ' t in tit 11 t·th '<l v· oga tll ., . . . . · " t . 0 11 a ma ll l!u nu· ·. •t 1s o n of t h (• an d so ut h: w •:;: e h o w fin:..dly alm o-t . ,. ~ ry qn · ·H· (·L ss , o e ' • . ' .. . ' 0 11 ti o u di ·n ssed t urn e d on it s s up pos d eth• ·t ' . IJ) 1 S t t·l llll · ,..,0'"o inJ !Lo· tn ab le . u pp o · t h e r a · C r tit~ t!ll j b f' 1 '7 o9 to 1~2\J, t ho C l' f\. or O lll' t hi s in stit ut io n: w e n o t e tl t E' law · p<vsc d t d ie( e ro nJ Ia ·k 1 )f la ws : t h e hli -so nri s tru ggl " ; in fi nv , all , H u. · • 1!I. Sto r .)' prepa rato ry to t h e st rugg le o n :> r rtr Jt is ·ues, wh e th e r e ·o n o mi c, po liti al socia l o r C'<' 11 1 ·' ' ] 'II uri ctl y d es ·ri b e the m etll o d l WI · m o r a l, ar e more o r less in t c rw o Ye n with :;laY ery fo ll ow ed in m y n WJl c iasses as a n slav e ry · r ~ nctu a ll y . I I i' 1 1\ w in I ta' . ~ fe y 1n e aiitng. 11 t 1e li'St pace or fr ecdo ut co nt e stin g for t h e mas t ry. ·. 1 t r at tOll u am . e ach r e v ie w c n n d n c t ecl in this wn,y, th e s n bj ·ct -1.! 11 8 ·.11 acl tnini strat JOII a:,; a wh ole, le arn. ~ u dce up e a c ' . . . prese nt s itselt' in a, n w li g h t, and t h e in te r es t is w~ . · ·1 d 1'11 0' e ve 1tt s in 1t. dw clllll g esp ecwll y . . ".: t it e fl, t"'> ' ~ • • l:e pt at th.o boi lin g po int , if I may so s p e ak.. In JJl g . f . nt iOll d •ve!OJ)ffi(' ll t and prlii C!pl es of : t he o J.lTI•• ' ' . . · 0~:. . . . , 1. -, ]i t ical parti es ' follnwtn g 111 o ntllll e o rd e r tt nn dcr sta.u cl f ull y t h e m e th o d I am · ano~'rs · p < th e ~' . ,~ ~p):~~lt.i oJ1·s g ive11 to th e n e w ly f o rm E'd atte mpting to illns trn,te, n,n othe r thought must be t !J O tnt, . . tl1, 18 fixin g fairl y w e ll in mind the kt•p t in mind ; viz . , that at e a c h time o ,·er th e . . titntt o n, ..·.. .. . co n s re nts p f th f\ time. Th e il f o r a r e v te W s ubj ec t w e mn st t r y to got a li ttle d ee p e r into th e matt e r , a 11 d that w e mu st d e p e n d each t ime m o r e )oadi nl! e \ chi.t··r'a.ct&l r o nt lin e of t h e life aml in''' I vc a · · 'II and m o r e up o n t h e o ri g in a l so ur ces . A g e n e ral .w , t~l f H ~1iniltou, a n oth e r of J eff e r so n , st1 . t1 nenr.e 0 'f C la y, a nd so on t i11 c n,ch m e•n b e r of v ie w is obtain e d , t h e n w e b eg in specia 1i z iu g. A ftr r w e h ave th e gen e r a l v ie w, w e a r e abl e ~n an oth e r 0 th e life o f so me ·lc ad in o· s tatesman t lt e class }l fLS · ' ·1 · 1· b , · t ' ' Tlie pnpt 111 t 11s work sh o nl d a uu o nnd e r stancl th e co nll ect.il) ll w h e n w e r e ad, fur e xto r e vi e w. · ]cad iu g t( · 1e.a 1n· s c h a n wtE' r stood f n r , ampl e, <> Hamiltn11\; Hepo rt o n · ~Ianufa ctnr es , . , "Cn,lh o nn 's R e p o rt o n Inte rnal Improv e m e nts, ., show w h at . t o prove hi s th es is b y m e a n s of a o r <>C la y's S p eech es o B t h e P anam a Congress .·' nud t h en t r .Y ju g of t.h e facts of th ~ life of t h e ("lrcfnl g rouP · . . stnd y. NJ e xt we r e v ie w th e p e n· oc1 Thn s, if l ha\'C' m.ad e my i<1 ea c l e a r , yon see t h at s •ioct of lttS : : . . .. . · · 1 .· r'L:! latlOJI t o f01 01gn aftmrs . D1p o · th e id e al nt Ptlwd, us it s e m n s to ro e, is t o co mbin e a e• ntn .,_ · . c· ·e q \th e 11 e ac llJ O' pt·in c il)!e OL m t e r- w isel y an d jndi c i nu s l~', the s tud y of tex ts ·w ith th e n f· Jnat·y an d . 0 1J'l .· · e .rei oped . · I u o·n in g ove r t 1f' st ud y of do c um e nt s . The t ru e st udy o f history 1.0 11ft t tOn:t 1· 1aw i:1 , •.. ·· , t:> , c m111ot b e sec ure d with o u t th e latte r is iu co rp ot s nbject_th i tiJ~e we try ty soc h ow olll' nati,)!l 'o

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ated as a part, at l ea t, o f tlrc wo r k . Wi t lt o nt i t the work will a l mo t certainl y d cv Io 1 int o a nt r c comm i tment of so many par ng r a 1 h s o r pag H, and w ill secu r e none of th res ul t that w e agr ·c 111u. t be attained f r om the s tud y f h i. t o ry . Th e n. of o rigin al d curnent wi ll aff r d t h e b s t mean t obtain mental culture · a w i. c u e f t xt. will fum i h info r mation w i th th e l east was t e of e ll •ru· r - a p r ope r ·pirit in e itl1 e r m e tl tou_ o r t lt e t wo ·n tnbincd w ill g ive the o-r atest m o !·al d cvc lopr n c nt.

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p , r i(J d . TIt e c.o II:-. t i Lui i (Itt <I I v Ji c'' ·It i,..: I, y a II nit' :ll\ ~tHt · t I 1 • m ost llli]J(Jr tau t , ttl' · illiVI"l",.:Jirt"· r- · I t1t1:-.· t ft•t't 11 _ f ttl an I I ·ast llltclen;toCid . r II a II S\\'V r t () I lt L· '"' t ' - O llcl (jll C ·tioll . ( ·:tiJltUt ],(' J()CI t·llr]dtati . ill :t,.;,.;l'l't ill g that the a r ts of pv:t<T an· 11 f f.u· gr·<·ah.Jn CJrno1it tlta 11 titu s< ' of war. \\' ar,.; al t ltv h · ~ nmk ' Jlll y th e turllin:; poiu ts_: uuly I Itt• lll!>lltt•tl wlt c 11 tlt ·a ·c·lltrtnlat iug lt <: w td <' a s. swvPp ont <• cx i. tu n c • t lw ()]d 11 r wlt t• Jt tilt' Il l" \\" an.· <:nt,.;lt ·d I \\' Hrs th tlll II<'<• . ])1'0\' rtilin r C"OJI Hl!l"\"clt i\· • idva s . r L·(; ·i ,. · at tc• ntioJI nnl Y as tlto r t•su lt s uf pt· t·t·Pdiu

Perhap · a word h e r e i u r ega r d t t l1 o sp irit i 11 w hich the tudy of hi ·to r y s h ould b e app r o a c h cl may n t be amiss . Th e o n e aim s h ttl d b to g t at the truth . P e rh aps a g r eat •r e Jtd st i II i t g t the pnpiJ o i n l ove witu th e t rnt !J t h at Lo wil I u ati fied witl{ nothing e lse . No w this •nd ·an n ot be r eached iu the o ld mctlt d of tea ·hin g and studying hi sto ry a method r q nirin g t it · mmi tment of o many page of ~or u s and date.· to <.;a u;;es aud tit ·n in t.Hr ll ns ·at t:-:cK of Htt "<·t'P<lil • memory . In thi method t lt t ca<.:l te t· do cs "fi Ot UX(•Jt t." . 1'] 10 ( 1e t at. 1S ( I r· ]) nttle · tit· tn r,Yerr t . 111 H 0' ~ · . . t ],e a t t lt e c: ri s i.- <>1" t It t· inve tigate, he ga in s no th o ug ht , in fact, hu do '· :t n ni ·s, xcC'p t I t lttt g 11 \Vrtt· t(J r •d. Tit. . · not dea l w i th thoughts at a ll; b e l1 a 11 0 i cl a of 1lta )' Le lH:a rl r o r q llt. t <. igt ~ . . . t "'"<·ta) · · I ul i rt c.: a I It t · of t ]H , principle , no proper co n ce ptio n f l1i s to ry . H (J<.;Ol!O ilti <.; r el icr iott H a n < ]> . P t'()pl ' I in te t· o,:;t llr g; 1 does not see t h a t law prev a il · in t h e h i ·tory of oH'c·r · : nc lt im p<)J"tant a ll< '· nntl.'rial . I tnd nt t<"l' . that tl , men a we ll as in the !Jisto ry f tu in g . H e d oc~:> n.tttl in ·n c h vo iLlllliiHJII S <l 11 l(•t· ~· 1 , . t d w u ll o11 tk' <f t·t . 1 not appreciate that the r e i s a cont i11ni ty in histo r y, li tt le 11 eed mH1 I 'ss ttu tc 0 . at s n , • · I\' •nt·toll t; { Itt• 1 b att! • ·. Th uadvan c •o 11 · <"t tar p>·, that the present is on ly th e s ummin g up of a ll tlw . · · . 0 [th a POJ ]c, . ..._ ~ cattse d tltc r c by 111 th o lr fc . . ' t lt c> ll ~ fo eces tlJUt have been at work in th e pa ·t. O r if . . ]t tt fO 0 1 Il l llt •t • of u c w procc ssc:s 111 aoT Jt.: 11 . ' l tu fnct ll 1• h e docs understand th e, e t l1i n g , lt e ge t !ti s . . Jt ~•ng c · 111 u r i11 tran s 1 o rtntJ< n; t h e c Wag l'- r at knowl edge not b e cau c o f_, but in s p ite of, hi · .f f th e p eo p le · t lt ,_ I l a nd iu th o h o m e - 1 e 0 . . ' <; HtJ·a <.;tt 1 teach ing . A tudent taug ht in th e >ld way has . · 1 · . . 0 t th e nms :-; ·of of t lt e hou ,u- tun n s llll g t h ' JW o...._ not been led t0 see that s imi lar ca uses undQr s imJ lc · a ll t be::;e fa c t s rna y be d wu lt n po ll , a nd ruad ~;,: ilar cir cumstances wi ll produce s imilar r es u l t s . Jf l ' . " s tnd y < >t . · · t e r es tin o- a n d JifJ)JO rt aJJ t. r~ · l il t! C·tu 'P the facts arc proper ly presen t e d, what b oy o r g irl JTJ o < "!1 O I) C 11 ::; " . tt p n t-r-n of twe l ve o r fiftee n yea r o f ao-e even, w il l u o t be and ctl'ec t s of th ose c h anges WL. ti e ld fo r t!J e fonnclat ion or [L ll Jll t ~ l l t ~t· n t ·i t· i%(')) intensely inte r este d in th e disco very that t h e Above a ll , p e rh a p s , r _Ltc pn~H~ tpl e~ o f R" \ · ...... : hip. princ ip les or idea in Magna C harta are not : imernrn e n t, a Jt cl t lt c r is e aud fa.ll_ of p :u·t·H· s, \V it . i1ar to tho e in ou r Dcdaration o f lnd e pend c 11 ce, t h e ir causes, may b:; pm·s u c d w tt h tit · ,n ust Pl· ,fit . an ri in the conte t that l e d to it , wi1l n ot his c1 eBut I mu s t c l ose . Th o fie l d i s t oo vat:it t 1 , li Itt be inten ified w h e n h e i s Jed to see that in . l w r.o '•t n d t It o r t• ' . 1I t< tl 1a u tou c l 1 a str·ay po1nt 11 the war of the R e b e llio n, th e Emanc ip at io n, a 11 d I 1'a,·£'' <' 11 <1<'a \" 11 <l l tw e nty min ntc s a ] Jutt-e d HI (~ . · the 13th, 1-±th and l:"tb Amendmen t s a r e 01 ll y 11!..' l p' to s n~·gcst t>O m p la n " tlt n t trt< 1Y b :t further deH•1opments of the sa m e pr in c i p l es ~ Thi s th e n ee d . . . 0 -eL a l II JeaHt by en m g mt e llt1 o u to , i.ll u tration i crn1y one in a tholl sand that may b e )

u ed to prove thetruth of thcco1Jtinuity of hi s tory, and the r e1ati<J n of ca u ·o an d

•ffect.

But it may be a ktd, if we a re on ly to to uch hc· t·e and there, in order that we may hav e time to go dec·per into ome things , (1) on wLat peri o d

b e in g o n t h e a le rt fo1· n ew id eas . 'I he.'. . . b . :1J'P J ic tl 11 1 tton s WJ c m o r e eas 1 .)' c advan ce d el ass s, bnt I f c:)l

,· nr o c:c u ccor dn'D a

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Th' applic·ntiu 11 <•f any principle• tlltl,t alwa\·:- hv lt>t't to tho:t• w] 111 undl'r:-t:uul tltl· ciiTtlltt,ta t<-v :-

rit 11 r.'· clainwd by bntll p;trti ~· :-: . B~·p:inning 111" tlw ,,·ar !~Iii... ::O:.lll"i t an' tht• I"L'::'lllt::-: 1 f till •

in wlticlt lltt·y an· plac·c·•l.

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One lll <•r<• illt1~l rat ioll . a11ti I :1111 dci!H· . T itv <•l d tt H.! Ilto1·itn pl a n pr e~dm·t· ~ nn n·,~tlt~. •11· rl'~ttlt..: tJt1\t <11"(.: at h v ~t Ill I Sill i,.;f:H"tnr_v . 01" Ill " " l i l t ' c·a , t•,... ac·tllal],· ],ad or ]udierott. onl' ·. .\ fl•w y, ·ar:- a;.!11 in tlti . ·c·c, 1111 trv a y 411111 ~ ]1 .ly :tppli <· lilt fur a t·,•rtif i<.:a tt• to il'<H."lt ~··lwol :LIIS\\·c· rvd tlt v '!lll'~ti••n . . · (~iq• :Ill nc·c·t1 tllll. of tit(• t·lositt~ ('\"<•ttl,. t1f I it<· I l' \·olutiolt:II"Y \ Var,., a,.; fullc1\\" ~: ·· ( ·,1 l"IIW:tl li,.: Hn r re nrll'n·d ( 1 i~ li \\"OI"rl to ."tclltl'\\",111 .1:H· k:-: 1111 • and . , . t.ttll . . a . f.,.,,. , I 1 y, 'IH'l'l'HC·t• wa:-: 11111 dt· at P :ll"l:-'~ . 1·on· 11 t ( ' ...:II 11·t' l hattlt• at ~ v,,· < >rlt·an~ . i11 17J; :; . ·· 'fl. t''' ilkllth· IH.·c·:ttn t• tlll· t l' :t<"IH•r (If till' ]) 11 •y liS l ;lC ],· . • . ]il'd a t"Oll]lll' of .n·ar:-: a~o ,"or adn1i . :-'i 1111 \\" II I l ,1 11 11

II u :' : ·· E,· r·IT\\"h<·n· th • llllThanit·a1. mind killing t <·:--t - J, 1H;k iH:-:Inl< ·ti< 11 ul" till' old :-:tyl<· i::-: ::-:up plallt ,•d 1 , . a 11<'\\' tll l'\lwd tit" fl';tt·hin_!.!· " · ith tlw pul;-;t• <II" lit"<· i11 it : and t·,· ~·r _,· wlwr' tltt• traillill!.!." l"nr thnrt~llgh :ti Hlllll'tlwdi!'allll· ip:itt;tl ,,.<,rk lw,.: t"nllt<' tu \w <"Uil:'idt•rt•d a:-: uiH' ~~f tlH· prillt·ipal ta;-;k;-; . Hut thl' l"<lllt 11\1\Titil ·;tl :-:t·l 1"-!.!.·luri li!';tt i<l\1:-' . wh id1 i:-: :-:ti II fn·q ltl'lll 1 ~- I lt1• l1;t Ill: of till' :-:t lliiJl. i;:; :-:i it'll('t'd iII I lt1• lllli \"l.' l':-:ity h· 1·tun ·- ltall:-: . Till' trllllllH'f tlotll·i :-:lt t•:-: of :-: ltut·t- · ;-;i .-n·lt! t'tl a11d t l l"t~·n II:IIT<I\\" - IIlitllit-d nariu11al \";t\ll t , . \t;t \"t' lwtt t > Ilia k1' pl;H'l' for tIt · <lt'l'pto\lt '<i. lll'<trt a11d bm iu -:-:l irri nQ· riug ~d· ripP lll:tll h<HH I":-: l'<ll"lll'SI p:tt r itl(l:::'lll. );ut h .\· \\" lli"d ~ · pn.t\·:-:.:-:itlll,.:. hut b _,- holl l':-: t ,,.\I rk " ·,·11-dt>IH' . t1u

to tit <' !"nin•ri'\ity . :tttd ~:t\"l ·. <luc•.'4tio·.1 •·(; i,·(•. :111 :tc·c·ottlll" 11f

111 : t ll~wvr t 11 tltv tltl' t•:t rl .Y :-: vt ll< '-

llt :·nls in .\llll'rtc·:t . and 1<•1 1 \ylt:tt n : trio11~ nt:tdl' tlt '' lll , t] J(' fo \],1\ri ng : ··Ti tt• fir:-:t· t< l't lh-ttH' Ilt 111 ;tdt· in , · ortlt At ll l'r ic·a wa :-: ltt;tck l>y ~ t·l>:t:-:tian t ft w a:-: llt<tde i tt 1"1~t• l +t lt <:l'lttury. \ bn 1 ,, 1 \. , t )II •· . F ly n r, tlt ll11 c: ks tll :td t• :111 l' :lrly ;o; L• ttlvnH'Ilt , >f[" 1 11 I t tl . . ' I1 f I l\t l' c · o ~ t:-;t of ~!:tss . 1 <~ lrst· SL'tt L' lll l'llt w as T he l >ut ·h w e r v IIC'XI" fll 0 . f ::; ]n 11 cl. () 11 l l llt:l < l ' Oil • ~ ' . nu cn t . c ttl ' ttl •n r · wlt c r e :\ •w y ork I 1 11 trl :l \ e a

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f;1Jn esto wn. 1u m·t ta n R m ad e :t sctt <.•In Itt :Lt ' ) • · . 1\ln ssa ·]Jtl sc tts at l lym o nth. Tl t (~y W<' r o m c nt Ill a r cli g iotl fi :;"O Ct ' nm1 . w t• r c. th iYen frolll th e ir J, ot 11 1 ~ g1v e a few THo r o s allt ]J les of <.:o nn t r y. ' f (' 1" 3 tn c mory t c• acl ti1t <'r . ''DaP ic l \ Veb· t· t!S ll It·s 0 . Ill . .• o edttn r . oc . a a 'g t·cn t. illtn ortn ut book fltcr was t l.1 0 t '"l to ·' s cl tc: f·tnnar ·'v un ab rid ;:--,o-,.v 1] • Jl e was Ca II Of1 VI 0 1)S 1 ·~~~·cat or, tM nnd writP I". . ,

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tltt· hi:-:tPri<';tl <h•p; l rtiiH ' Ilt=-' 11' all th' l t>a li11p: unin·r:-:it i1•:-: pf tltl ' l~ l'pltlli<' prul'iaittl. ''rbi 1' l orlJi . til<~t tlw _,. 1·11< w a n l adZll <..l \\· kd~~.· httt un<•la " · · ,.;uh.i l•t· ti ng tlll'l ll=-' l' [, ·~..·:-: t<) it a l.>."' <>llltl'l.' - · with<IILr any 1"< ~t'l "\" <' wha tl' \.t'r: ·Tn1th. st~·rn . LLIIh t.• tJdin g Tru th .· \\-l t:t r tl ul' :-: t·ha :-; i gnify ~ ~uth i ug h•:-::-: tll ~tn t ha t thl' H ·pu b liC' i:::; :-;a ft:' . no \\· nnd in f u tun• . 'Dol'~ tl tnt· ~t'l'lll

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tnt t it. T lt v ,· ita] pri n l'ip 1P uf a <lt' lH <HTatit· n'}llib1il' i s pnhlil· opiu i o n. ~\.:::;lo n g n,.; ;\ publil' opin i o n i s itt a lw;tlt h y con<litiun l1(lthing i;-; tn lH' f< ·an·t l. 1. "ot t l1a t t' \.l.' l ..\ ·thi.ngi ::; .i u~ t n;-; lllll' ::,; ]wlll<l \d ;:,;h i t. t·o lw, ()J" t' \"l'll <!,;:> i t llti ;-. n·il t 1H• Ul" o u p; h t to 1w. T h at i:-; i.mp us:-; ible i n any poli t J(' ;J\ alltl !:iO("i;ll P.tnil'tu r e . 'l'ht.• lnn1u1n lllintl van lh·vi::w, s impl:· hl'C:I.lt :::e i n t.' \·er _,- oJw tltu at'tcn·~ an· l11< 'll w it.h t l tl•ir co n tlit"t. i ng i.n tL·n·::::ts, pass i o n s and i1tte1ler tn;1l <UHl m ontl s hort -< ·<>llli ng s . ·\Ylt e n I ::;ait.l, nothi11p: i. ;:, to lH• f 1 ·arl'd, I m e an t that th t'l"(' must b e ::;uftlc 1 ~ ·1t t Yi t a,Jit.:in t h l' co mni onwealth , soo n e r \ll" lateJ ·, ftftt' l"

mon:\

Ol'

l ess ~eve n') n n c1 l):t1 ll tnl s trng~rJ es , to

'' Dt l'p ll Cll A . D ou g bs vvn s n. co l- · o\· e r cnm p a ll l t:-; ll<lhtl(' il l <lll<l :::: oci.:-tl ajlmc nt" ore d orator wl to d id m uc h fo r hi s p e op le." t;O f<tl" t. hn,t t h <c\ ulti. lHatt.:• l"t• s nl t; ,,-ill 11Iway :::; h e Fi ltall y, ••The can so <?I the ciYj ] war was t h o fi s h - n. C'ont inn o n s l)J·ugn•ss l.n the arduons rna1·dt eri es on tbe e 0 ~st of No w Fonn cl lanJ and t l1 c• t orof c i vili z;1t ion. That i s nll m a nkind ean a D e tn oc r nt. ''


Jj6

THE N

RM

achieve, and, th r efore, i all we hav a ri o-Lt to expect a nd demand from a n y p opl . Th di play of nergetic acti vi ty in th fi .. Jd of hi tori cal re earch , all aglow with tltl:. h l ) enthu i a m for truth, i ·, h ow vE.r , ab ·o ln t ~ J y incompatible w i th an unh althy c ndi ti n f public opinio n. 'rhe hi ·tor y of a ll th 1 a <1ing Europ a n n ation abound w ith .'trikin(l· illu s tration of this hig hly ·u o-o- ·tiv c fa t. And, if t h e a . rtion hold good with nwarcl to monarchie. and ari ·tocracie,., i :;; it n ot ·elfevil nt that i t mu t <lo so in an infinH "lY. hig h r d g r with 1· o·ard to a dt··m onati · J·epnbli c?"

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Tlli::; wot tl cl Jl()t ll l' ("l' s sa ril y lt ;L\"t• tna tc· riaii.\aff ct c1 t it ' p()liti<"al in s t ituti o n s f t la · 'Oll11tl' . ltad n o t tlt~• lll Ollk :-:, I lu•111 ' l ]\· alln o;.; t a .' i o· tt orant a :-: tlto s 1· wltott 1 It ·y \\' I" ·tridng t 1 rin g t·o rlt<· t rttl· li .!.dtt . in orl ·r tc obt::Li.n intltt~ ' tH· e O\' (' J" tl11· lllittcl s atlll Ji,·-':-< • the p t' CJ]>l <· , intr<J l ~t n• d pri tl('i]dt> s of' tl'tllP >ra l go ,·"rmn •n w lti <·lt ]tl;tt•t•d tlt 1• n ol l1, :1 1\t va..·;.;a ] in antag11ni s t i1· n·l;~ t io n :-: 1·0 t·:ll'lt otlt l-'1'. Thi · nt <•a.· ttr l' was adolJtt•d l>y tht• l'rit· ~t to lD ' 't t Ji l' n q t t j 1'\ ' Ill P II t ;-; () (' t,lw (·()Ill 11 I l H p e opl <' wltosl' lin·s lta<l bt· t> tt ittfltt~ ' ll<" ('(1 hy : s npc J·:;titiotts dt ·<'ad of ;.; 0 1111 . s tq ll' rn a t llral powe r wlt i<"lt gon• rtl t> d <tl I t·h i 1wn s - tt •tttl> OI'ct L l anc w l1 o lt•tnan clt• d a rl'li o·i 0 11 \\'lti 1·1t s ltonl d . n 11~ :-JO lTI P 111a11n -' r r vl it'\'l' tlt t> ttt frotll t lt v oppn'' FEUDALI. M ,- A MONOGRAPH. f-i ron nfth e n oh ili ty. In aw:; wPr t tlti f.i l'all tlt(' <"lttttTll <·staltli ·h RY H O \VATW TT. ;fONER , C L ARR OF 'OH . l··cl s chool s in tlw a1)1 t')'f.i for till' p tU'} HJSl' t f P<ltwat i ng t lt e l)l op lP. Frotll t:1 1 •f'l' so t~ reP:". V. - The Church in F e1tclal IIi. toT?J. c n~a.n at ~ cl tltt-> tPa(' lt i ngs wl1ieh g ra<luall~ · a tHROUGH the ce nturie · which h ad el ap ·ed ta uwcl aSt'(-:! lld~->nl· .)' in t; ltt· nti11 cl:-; of t;lH· )H' upl •. in ce th e adv e·nt of Chris t, while t lw C'hn,nging t.lt •i1· ;.; ol"ial t·Platio ns fro111 t. lt o~e o t• Roman Empire was crumblin g b efoJ· e t h e abj e (·t fe ar of t ltP r Pig nin g 11ol ~ l ·, tn t.lto:-:t • o advance of the ho s t. of the Barba1·ians, a nd almos t ;.; up ·t·stitious ~ · ~ ,· p rl'llt't' nnd o1 Pd it•1tl'l' n ew nation were sp1~inging into life , n ew t11 th e IH ad of th l' dtllr('h. 'l'lt<' nob l es stil l l'Ptain l:' Ll pnw e t· o\.-l'l' tht " people· in to power, the influ ence of th e church liv ·R · ~Ln<l pro p e1·ty of t h e vaf-i . a ls , h n in t e mporal affair b egan to b e r ecognized by the fear of t iP swo rd coulcl ltaq• n o : > II c·h th e monarch of th e world. tenors f< r tlt e m a::; t h _. f e ar uf 011(-' who '"'n, Thi · was not a steady g r awth y ear hy year, but on e w hich , though the doctJ"ines and s npp ose d t o C'Ollt1·o l the <~ ntntnre into th " t ea chings of the primitive church were g r eatly spiritual wm·ld. Th e ·we ·tern ·lturC'lt \\'a::-, ·o fax as tht-.. p erverte d hy its a lmost in ce s s a nt , stru ggl e again ·t the opposition of m onarc:h s and nobles ma sse ~ of the people W<:•n-' (' Ol1'Cei·nt~ c1, prn.cticaJl y a unit. It was n ot tlw person of the of th8 state , a s w e ll as with the fa n a ticism and j ea lou sy of rival pontiffs, r e tain e d t hat P ope which gn.v e hirn powe 1·, hnt hi s positioh H<~ 1 tcP , tJwng-1• po>ve r ove r t h e mind s of m en wbieh e nabl e d a s s n ccesso1· to S t. PeteL alou sy and s tl'ift-l may h:n e ltt··ld s way n r: j e i t to b ecome a n important. faC"tor , in fact th e Rom e., tlH-l oc·cnpant of th<~ papal e]l i:dr at a1 1:,rulin g factor, in mec1icevaJ his tory. particnlar time moY ec1 the m asRPS of th e }H-l op1~ It was not, h owever , through the intri g u eR and , trataa-ems of the powe rful Bis h ops of at hi s will. · Thll S t.lte Popl' wa.s fl·t thP ]tt>n.rl Rom e tU.a.t this power was obtain e d. Th e of a p ov.:e l'f'Hl organization . Th e chnrch was not t.ltt.:> onJ)' opponent ot' l owe1· stratum of soci e ty, so frequently ig nore d the rul e of the nobility . 'l'h e statt" waR di 1)y tL e ruling -power of a nati on , as w ell a s b y the hi s torian wlt o <'ln·onides only t h e achievA· . vided arnong a ntnnbe r of ambitions bru·o ns with widely diverging interes t s, <:>aeh n.ttt•mpt 1n~ n L of thofle jn. t1) e 'h igh er walks of life, ing to gain the s upre macy. 1: 1-' l· ~> iY (' d t hP germs of truth which ·weTe s rat'rhe pow<"'r of the monm·r h v.r a~ l it.tl e s np<'t(>t t>d hy th e monk wh o ca m e a mon g them ri or to that of hi s barons. It wn.s Jl t' ('l:'SStLrY ~ a.n<1 re. J..> Onde cl to th e (·all.

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Th t• t.:' Xl' "l'i n e s of tlwr h n u·:-: t' t'lli" O full tf m e anin ~ a s t> d ~ '1'\'l' ]'l' l't) l' I ;11\ L' lltph:1 Sl:3. J<:,·i th•nih· tl t ~ }lll)l il,.; >Yen• fo r th • t i m unn •.·o t· t to :-;t r:.l tt•g·,· · l' tl n sl'i t tts t:h:t t th l' g t'nfl 'lltnn lwf r " th 111 w a.,; 'l' J · · 1 ·1 tll" bal:u H' ' of l HJ \\'\'1' . 1 , . I(' t ' 1I lilT 1I 1I I' ( " . . \'l'~tl'll wi t h a u t h orit,\· : L' \·it1e n t1 :• i.t '"a s hi::; I . I' t it ('hurc·lt l;;:tn !.! :-: n• t g' llt ' d. tl l (, autw rttr o . : · p u q >O :'l' t u :::hl '" n ) ;luth rlt.\'. b u t to t <.tlk with ·, . · . ·It . fr >111 ttllll' tn ttll ll' do n a tv d l 11l' l't' ll t Jl l()ll(\ I ( :-. . . .. . . 11 a to tltt• t·lttttTh 111 t·l't n r n f ur tht• c ltil 11n·11 a ;:: \war t t) hPnrt . ·1::: tnan t man. 1.u g ' tr:td:-: o 1 1,L 1- rt'l'th >n t. t'<11'H t' "tn l' :-::-: n1111 ::: inc -' ri t ~· ·hara t'tt'l'. l'l 1 •ir f( ll'~· s llpp o r t 'l <~"; Lttt . · i zt•tl t h L' int ·rdl'\\': in f:l ·t. tlt l' Sl )hi t f th e ' ' 1 11 .,ti n :-; tltt• l'ltun ·h ntl vt l. tht• \ ' (' 1' thl':-i . (. () r oo m c >nst<l 11 t]_,- ::; u ~·~l' :3 t~· c1. ""C o m t , 1 ' t n,.; r -'a l > >t t•n t at t• P O }l P o·o \T l'll .Ll1 .,. a s. all>. . . t' artlth· . • l >lt' :-i 111 tl tt•tr <'<1:-· l lt•:-: ntlt d a::: :-:on tl ~l't ltl'l'. .. . r , ,. I n it· t lt c 11 . . . 1 l' ]\l \\. l ~ i,· ~· a fn · · l'l')ll't t1nct iu n nf that ' to f .Vll <ln l l o r <1:-i,. 0 11 1r• O\\' lltnp: :-: t nct allt·g·talll't • r1]I t•)' lt ;\ d ll () t. h {)\ .(' \ . (' I', ;\ 1)~ 1) llf tl' \\'hi<"lt l :-:a \\· n n tl1t Pnn1: tltP P o p l' · T ea ·hl' l' . ::--;l·n· ral \ \'l't: k~ a ~> I h·ft a ) tt t•s . •r tltl' 1woplt• a:-: h:ttl th l' h;t r u n:-: COll t l'll1 () \ l . t ion f or Yo tt tt) think ab nt. \\ ha t \Y a::: 1t ~ . l·l , 1' \t lti'Clt Jnf't•rfnt •d . 'l'h t' }lt' >p\l• k ttl 1w inre 11 . . • · • . .1 t 1.1 , .~, lH'< trtn g lwforP <t t n hlllt<t I o t tlt t• t l':at"lt pt;p il rai ::: ~:• d his hnm1 th u; h tf nl1 _,. and ' I, 1'1 o I ' cl 111 jcl' \tt·. ,.,·,•tt :tppt•a l t o tht• Popt' . t il L· tL' adwr inli nt •d who mi g ht. 1' ":31 m tl. \ ' - n. 1 n . . . t•\t ttl'<' I ;\ 11 P up il . Youa :::k • 1h tl\\' ll\ <1ll ~~ f n ·· ,,-en' 1 11 1c tl t:-; of' jlt :-:t ll't' \\'t'l't' gn•:t t I,. tli:-:' ' .' . 'J'Itl' S<' P l' willing t·u lwn· th ose pnpil::; wh o hinclt'l' l l 1)\. - tlw tt o blt·~: 1>ttt· tlt t• n·stnl't to n s J'( '"'Cl l'l l' l " •li t"i a l. ' l'lwy l t·tl to t h l' <1L'Yl' l np 111 l' 11 t t \w \\'ll rk o f thL' c] ; s :-:; n •m o n ' c1 f rcnn i t. 1 \ \ ' L' I'l ' )t'11 l . 1'Nt h er . Y e:3 . i I. o w m :t n - han:> d t•ci. d ~..· ( _ -l r<k r in t·lt t' ll L'Xt }>l'l'lO 1 <lll t1 1n· 'o f \a,,· all< o . f' E<tch. of tht• ll l1t t'tL•e n )ntpil ::: nti s d t l te hand . · . , .. . for tlw C'O IIll n g· o t h t• H\'fonna}H1J'l 't1 I 1It \\ cl ,\ Ho\\' ]mn Y O il d e l'i h • l, l-Ie nrY ? ti (l]l. H enry . I nm " ·illi.ng . T each er. Hnw m <m y a.r c willing ? ~ ~-\..H lHl t ' .- ]'l:>Ji\fgN'J' IN MOH. \J.J TH. UN r~ C+. t.\w };u·ge:::;t. lnd s ig nitil•c1 th e ir willin g n <-'s ::>. AN E:\ P '-' ' ' · . \\ h y a.r -• .-o u n ot; willing John? • ~(:\ RY Y . LEE . 1{'\'r Dl •. .John. 1t1o Hot tlti.uk t \w boy s 1l a.Yt.~ lmd a . . · ra l~ e n from th e i\ 1 ay number of the 1 fair l'h <Lllt'c. (I tlwn 1w ca.m_e n,\\' <1.l't' t h at t\\·o ~ .. [" \IOW IOg a rtiC C IS [rhc . s·· ·· JtCI' Jl•f r> llt ld l' for t Sl) l. !Jr. l\ lary v. Lee, of the boy s l1t:lo n g in g tu th e cla.s s w ert' a.l)sent. . Dnr· Phys1 ·cal 1: nun1ng · · · ,>'. 01 ·mal School l .J 11p u l ar · "t 'of 1· n t11c .. tate at v cpartrnen y who is a most criti cal obsen·er in chool Elhics in g th r e tt~e1.in c1 t:'r of t1 c l e s on the s l:' lH.>ys, N ., . , n•n:ment, g1 . ves the . fo\lowmg . 0 5.-' •e•' "' ' as. a model IC?s on " ·h on t \\' t: will call Fntnk c.wc1 \\Ta.1·d , w e n " fn.:' S h 1 I'·1an...., and_.. c. 00 vVe arc glad of this opportunity to call attention to q n e n tl y n·fc n L·d to l)y na.nH' .) in Eth iCS · , hn of work, because it is a solution for one s p• T ench er. \Vh a.t do yo n m e an? Yon kn ow Prof. Norton . difficult probkms wh1. ch educators have to cons1. der. 105 t hat I h a.,·e s pok e n to t h e m 1·e p t•a.t ed l y. Th e Y of the 11 t time it comes to us with th --- most 5ent · marked sign iliA.t th :: pre · kn o w t h ey hindu th e prog1·es s of t h e da.ss Ed.] cance.-. . · .d f } O l rJ_)E ,va1t111g 1~ a COlT! . or 0· ~': 1e s - b y t h eir conduct;. How h<w e t h e y n ot h n.d a I ,,· coo·o :N ormal S t'l tool htnldino· forty or ch a n ce? · '=' ' John . I don't b elicYe any of 'Us lta.Y e talke d ' '\,nc11asses from th e rn·actiee sch ool Ji.fty hc .c1S • ' qnaCLrnp ~ 1e co l umn }1a.st m e. They with Frank and \ Va.rcl. 1 mareh ob "''' "'l., . ·~ T eacher. Ho\\' m an y h a Ye s pok(•n. t o tht n> · ed 11 f l'f' 1 e, " '.....<Ln t , nnae con1pan1eCt wPre full 0. · bnt at.tt•n c1·m o· t() the dnty of the about th eir eonduct?. (Not one ·hand ra.i s d.) l.>vtearh el , (l,l1 ore1er1y mann e r. Th e company • . How many h av e don e a nyth1n g to s i o·n if)' dis... mom ent 111 ' 1lVlSl ~ ~.··tc h < On pn. ·s ino· t.o its own apJ?l'O\·al of i t? (O nt> of ·the oldE.r g·irls, with Hl'l":u·a t oct, • . . . a c\, hnef Interval I fol1ow e c1 the ' .)' room. A ·f te ' s erio u s a.nd e n•n a nxiou s <:\:S:}-!l'E's si on, rnh:;ed 1)ancl 111 atJ.e 1LP of boys and girls from fomte e n h er hancl .) \ V lu t,t ll<W e yo n to a}, Mary? to si.~t.e en y-ears of a g e . I fonnd the m c.onJJfary. I h ave not spoken to th e boys, bu / ver . in n· wi~h th eir principal 1n Bn eh m a nn e r

·r to t· o n t n 1 tlw h ar 11:-: . ,,·Jw .,, . •t ·1• alm~>:-<t i tH· v:-:~ an t J_,. ~t ri \'i ng a iiHlll~ l hl'tll · ·t•l ,· v:-;, an t 1 f' n· q 11 ~ . 11 t l,· . ,,·ith I It t' ntn nar('h . ro 1H h ·fo r , in

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the other day wh en v"Vard wa. d in a· "\VJ' n o· I s h ook m y fing r a t him lik thi ·. F anny. I hav n o t spoken , 1 u t I h a \' _, shaken m y h a d at Pra nk. T eack eT. T wo out of nine t ..11 ] 1 a ,· _. expr ss d di ·ar prov al of ondu ·t wlli 1t in t eiTupt the work of o ur ·la · ·. I am o·la<l two h av tried t o h elp by the w amino· han 1 and th warn.in iY h a d . It i .· a 1u .· ti 11 f th. r e n10val of Frank and \¥anl from t hi ·l as.· w h r e they hind r , t a r om · wb r th 'Y mn,; l earn to b h 8lp r s -m a y l arn by m 1· .·ever mea ·ur tha n we u · h er e to co n tr ol t h emsel ve . Only one in thi . la. s h a b'-'(m sent to t h a t r oom; h e m ay t •11 tt. · if b "i 11 o· pla~ed in i t h lped him. (T IL " lad 1· -'fen ed to r o ·e a nd ·tat d fl-ankl y that h lw.d bee n h elped by being in th e r o m n a med. ) T eacheT. F or w h o e good wo ull J:1'm11k a nd Ward be put in tha t r oom ? . P upils. r:rh ir and our·. Teacl~eT . Y es . The n why n ot . vo te t place t h em th er e~ J oltn . I think the class O[to"ht t o try to p et'sua<le t h em t o d o b e tter b efore th ey are se nt away. 1'eacheT. o d o I. I ·aw a p oli('em a n s tq ) up to a dis ord rly m a n on t h .·tret.t , put his h a nd on his s h oulder, and qui etl y say : " Y ou b e tter g o on, be tt 1· g o h om ; if I find yon d oing this a g ain I ·hall have t o gath er you in. '' The p olict>man was g i dn g fri e ndly warning t o the man. How m an y of yon are willing to warn Frank a nd Ward·? H ow man y a r e willing to talk t o them abou t their wrong -doing? (A ll hands but J ohn's raised .) T eacher . H ow i s tl1is , J ohn~ Y ou are not willing t o l1 a ve th e b oys take n from the cbs s, and you a r e not willing to t a lk to th em. J ohn . Y ou Ree, ~h. N or ton , I am j n s t a s b a d as tb y are, and I couldn ' t sp eak t o th e m. (Said with 111\•c h blus hing a nd g l'eat openness .) T eacker. I u m y sch ooJ i n - - - - w er e two boys . N I n m t n o t s a y my school , I · 1nn t f:lay QlbT ·ch ool for ther e w e bacl g ot on so fu.r that th · pupil u se d to s a y O'll.r ,·eb.ool. \Vell, in our school in - - - were t w·.o boy , N eel a nd Ton1. After

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],acl hl·,·n 1 11 t lH · :-w l~<• u l : l y •ar a n 1 )J: L< l g rown to ht· ;t n · l i; Jl>l l· ht 1 and ~L tr n•at IH•Ip to ll S all. t l1 1' sd t > ,} 1 a rd in \"o ll'd t·,, t <tk l' T o ll! !'ro m th • : ·h 1 h lltLc l lw<'ll atl<' llclill ,". ..., a11d t o Jlll t lli 11 1 in 0 1u· H ·It o l. '.1 <ll ll ·s l'atlt t• J· <·;LJIW ro :',( '( ' 11 11' a nll I a : k ucl hi m to t(• ll Il l ( ' ah o 1L t hi s :-; t lT IIi: i.· wlmt t h at fat ltl'r - lw \\·a :-; ;1 l;t\\·yv r a nt a ju. l <,·-·- . aid: ·· .\Lr. :'\ o rt fl ll , if Ill )" l •o .' · c·an lt l:t \ '0 a lull-cl ,Jg h a w ill c·ll <'\\" II} > (' \.1'1',\" <1 •.~r in rhL · tow n ; i f IH· <' <Ln own a g a 1n t·-<· cH·k til at w ill kn > ·k ov ·r ('\"(' I'Y ot 11v r g:~ 11 u· - c ·c H·k in t il t~ Gi ty· if h • ·a n ltan• a h o l'. '<' tll il t· \\·iII th r n dtt. ·t in t]w '.)" <':-; of l'\" <' J'} o t ll t' l' l! o r s <' i 11 t· (l \ \ · n h e i s h tt].Jl y . J3 ut , ~\r r. No rto 11 • t ll :lt" lwy It a~ n ot a s i1J g l<-' "li t• ral '.)" <LSJ>i l al io 11 ." 1 w:t : ll t }mltic: 1tla l·Jy a nx i o u .· to 1 1 ~ 1, ,. 1 • in 0 11r s (' lt oo l c. 1 oy 1f \ It< Ill hi .· o wn fa t h c•r - a nd ]H) a .i ttcl p- gav" . uc·.h an a('('O Llll t, o nt IH' (';t.Jll l ' n- i t· lwn fL p er .·o nal in v i ati o n f r o m n 1 -' . }'o r two <l<~:'" ·' h beh avod hi III SI·lf, bi t t. tl1 u tltit· l <1<l,\. l w W ;t:-::. at hi s o l d tt· i(' k s . \\ J1y lid Jw b ·lt< L\"(' 111tt t ·elfatfir ·t? Pnp il. . Tit• dicln 't know ]J o " · I l1e lH' \'p n J il s would ta,k · hi 11 1. ](to \\· a s .i ll St W<Li t i n _.! to :ec v;ha t ·t uff th '.)' wc r u nw.cle of. T each t?1·. ExH('tJy . Il l' inLrntltl<'t ' tl l1i :-; :tc co·mp lis lull ent.· o · 1·a claal l y . · ·vv h at c1() y o n

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think hi s cln1:1s m at"' .' o ug h t to "lt; L\ ' <' t lo n e \\·lu•n. he~ b egan to p erfun11 ? Pu.pil. No t look at him. T eacher. Goo rl . If wh e n h P 1m l s too <l o n his h eacl in o n e c onJ cT - 1 clo n o t lll t •all to s n that was his p art ic·td ar f orte - an<l h:. tl l o vkecl up f o r adm ix ing appro\·ai, lt t' l1; 1l fo und all tll clas : a.tt<-n·cl in g to s ('h ool -wol · - .. if h e had th e n t n1·ru:•cl hi s b E.s t s omersc."Ltt1t, h 1t s till co n1cl ratrh no e y e ""' a ncle ring fro m t. ,. r eal bu siness of t ll t' hour, wh[t.t clo you tlti 1 k h e wo nlcl h a ve clon d P zbpils . Stoppe d l1i s non se n s e . T eache1·. Yt>s,Ithink s o . Bu tt1 10 8 ~-'P 11 l)i · ~ · . l at ..&7 l o o }" -~ c.at 'I' o nt oc•ra.s 1onalJy w J· th a c e n . <-l1 · · · 1 eY lt ad l l( d '-''-'o0 'l·ee of' a c·Lmu·1no· lntel'es t; t1 g r own a l toge thel' self- con t.mllt·cl . \.Vh ~.t. w c> "llJ l b e the effe ct of t11 i s atte nt ion .frotll th e <'hl.s, ·? Pupi ls . Tom woul d cnt np rr.torP anclrno1· T each eT. H e dicl. On e clay !'l ed, i n a tal w i th m e , s a i d that h e a.ncl T ul.n n "t: •d to l

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~ t·v at fri ' 11 1 ~, th tt t t l11·...- 11=-'l'tl to lll:ll'-1' i r ,.,.n· ln t •re.-t in ~ f r th1 •ir ·t 1·ad 11 •r;-; i 11 I II<• orh1 :1' ;-;(' lJ oo J· w ha t OJH• ('nul l not tiling of 1 ht• t " ·o . nt l cl. l ;t:--l;;_l' d r l'd 11(.1\\" it \\';[:-' IJp had :h a.ng1·cl had =--top] >l'd m ;tkin g it :-;o int l'l'l':-;tiug fo r th t• tt•a<" lu•r, and lt :.l( l h1•conll' n·l i:~ h},. :1 ud att •nrir!' to ;,;<·h no l hll :-cit l ll'=-':-' . li t• :-:aid . · · .\1 1•. · m toll, t·IJ • h oy :-; ditl i t . \\-lwn I cut up 1 j 11 . , . t·a lkt ·d t o Jill' , <LIId t ill·. · k Ppt on I ;II king- 1 i 11 · 1 .i ltst lt n<l t·o qll i t· Ill)" o l d . '" <~ )":-;. " TIH •JI 1 :-:aid toN •cl , " \\ lw i s go i ng- t·o t<dk tu 'lon 1 ~ -l iP n •pli t•c l q1 Ji ('k a:-: :1 II<J :-: h . -- ~ l r. 2\ orloll . 1 J H '\' (' 1' co 1dcl. f or y o u .· t•v T o n1 a n d 1 u:-;t •tl Ill lw ·j 11 tiJ , s a Ill' bw1.t· ancl if'] :-:l tu ul d t:tl k Ill 'l' uJll ]H ' \\-o 1ti cl J;wg lt at·. n tt• goo d." ] di (l ll()t a :-;k ]Ji l l! to s p l' <Lk t ~ > ltJ s fr i t' lllL h1t t 1 did a :-: k hi nt "\\· It o \\"O itld do Lt an!} lJ L•Ip IJ i 111 <-<q•t o il t l I I , 11p g n t d t•. To lll <l b ! t il l' :-:; trq·.\- :-: lt u l"t, t h l' n utc o Jll • \\· ; t,S tlt a L ~vd ,·ol unt·(•(•n·cl t·u ralk to Tum. Toll ! t· lll'll<' d 1'01 !11 <.1. :llltl i 11 <l y var t·ha T o n1 wl)() ltaclH <> L <lC'<· o nlin ,n· t·o lti :-: ll \\' 11 f:lt h l• r':-; ;-;t <t t <•nH•nt , a, ~ in gh"' I itc nt ry a ·pi r:t ti o 11. dt •l't <.•( l t o <' ll kl' th e al'a<l L·my nn c1 go o n \\"it·h hi:-: t·<.l ll ('tL t i o n. · 1•tl did <l g o o <l work f u r T u m . 1' (l llJ \\·n s tlt t• lt :l rc.Lc- .· t boy I e 1·<.·r kn -•w wh o t 11 n wd rig lt t aho 1tt; a ncl set l1 L fa( ·e towa r d t lt 1• t ' JP o f ti lt' hill. I ll; t\"1' kno\\' 11 \\·u rs <.' hny:-i \\'ll<J:-;v f tt<' ( 'S W< ' l'l' alw<~.Y "' tow:.Lnl t"lu · foo t of t it . hill. (D 1.rinp; tll l' pn•c·t•<.ling na.nat i \'L' t) tt' (' la:-; :-; \\'tL· a ll e ng ao·ing s ight. 'l'lt l~ i r facl' ~ , g r;t \· <.· a t iir::i t·, hroacl(•n ecl. Tltl· l i t tll• l'h<Ll) \\'lt o -ltall g ot o·oOd in ~ ' that 1'0 0 •Jn'' l':;oq ::tiiCkd ti}l lt v ('()Y o (• reel all tltat p ar t of hi. ~ ( h·~ k Sl'IJ <na.t in g llim f r o nt nfr . N <..n ton; h e }mt hi::; lll'all on lt i s o ut f.!JlH'acl t"Ll'l.ll S a,l:c1. O!)t'li L·cl e H'l'Y ;t.\·e nn e to llt t\ rcceptwn of mfunnation rvp:anlin g t h e bo ' S ,\· ]l o h acl JlJ a.cl e it 11e1·y i n f cr('sli ng fu r

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a whilt• ·t!..!.'< in w hil'h \\"l'l't' fathu· , n;oth<.'l' . 1h n•t• :-:u11;-; ;nHl two tla u!!·ltrl'l':' . 'llwr' wa,.; a snJ:dl :';tlan· ·tml H lir ti' far111 . Thl' l ,·;:; W\'l'l' ro Ill' ~~·nt 1 > n l11•g •- t \\· > ''" l'l'l' tlH."' i·l' . - \ II 1h1· n il'l'st frn i t nn tht• f :.t i'Il J. the 1. <.·:-:t H· ..:~: •tnhlt•s . till' t•n• ;n n W l'l'l' ;:; <. hl . a n<.l th • f am il .\· li\·1·d ( 11 th1' p lai nv:-;t fond . rh a t the b )y::: nti .!.dtt lH' ,·dnl':t tl't l. Till' farht ·r w >1' -' o 1<1 l'lol h1·s t' e-: l'l']lt· w lw n Ill' l l'l' :t l'IH·d . l'hl· lllt)tlt l' l' had Jill 11 il'l· (I n·::: :-:1' :::. ~hP '" >l k · 1 h a n1 . h t> l ha n<l:-: \\" ('l'l' nni p r l'tt .' · . an t1 h1' t· fa 't' \\·n::: f u l l 111' wrinklt ·:-: . Th t• L1 t h 1' l' a nd lltotlw r \\' <.' 1' • :II \\" :1 .\ " :-' dl 'll,\" i I I .!!." tht• lll:-; ('l\·1':' l' \ "l'l'.\" lli Xlll'.\" :\ ll tl lll:lll _\" t'oJlll\> r t :-: f'ur i h t• ir childn•n. f) > .' · 11 :O:I l Jlpn:-:P t l11·.'· g·ain L' d :tny rhinp: lh ·<.·a n:-; l' t h ,•y di•Jl it• d t ll l' lll :-'1 '1 \" ( ' :-'~ PltjJI'/.,·. 'l'h l'.\" p_T l ' \\" p_"Ol tl . Tht' :O " P: l'l' \\" _!.!.'1' 11 \'I'Oll :-;. Tl11 ·y w o lll ll kl\"t' rh<.• ir rt' \\·a n l. 'l'<'a cltt' r . Y •:-;, pa t il' ll ' t' , fol"t i t·udt·. 1o Y <.' , go<Hl m• :-::-: :-;hmn•<1 in t·h <.' f;U' L'::i of th a t f a t h L'\' an d n tot lt1· r. .·\. I'l'\\·a,nl c ) 111-' S t o an ~- n n t' wh ) d l·ni <· :-: him :::t·lt' t h l'llll g h lo n· of an )t h l' r: h e i:::: n ut .i n :-: t til l' sn Ill <.' a t't l'r tit · d c ni;\ ]; h <.' i ::: lwt t l' l' <lltd :-:tro n p: <.'l '. ~ \. t th i::: p o int· 1 \\"Cl ;:; callt•<.l f r o m th , n o m . lll tt 11 L' <II'll l' ll tl1<1f" l ' <ll'h IIJ L> ll1b ' 1' uf t lt p l' l as:-: prn llli :::c•<.1 t o lin lti ::: (l n ty h .'- \\~anl and F 1·a nk if t it <.·.' · n•J n a. im•(} i n th t• <"la :::;::: . 1le arm·d t hat th~· "' <.' l )(l: · :-; \ \"l'l'l' tul<l h~- :\Ir. Nurton t ha.t th e ir ~ · l a:-:s ,·ntt· d to l'l'taiJ\ tlu•m. Tlw bo~· ::: p r n m l::: P <.l to tr_,- to tl.o t h l'ir Ll n t.L ~J r. ~ o rton t n ld t h <.' lll tha. t b y ::; l'('pc)l'tt'<l that tlt<',. ha cl a o·noll tinw \\·h e n th e y taJk t•d with hin~ in h1 ::: (~l' e. 1I<.• \\" a ::; g lad thl'.'. had a goo tl. ti. n1l' . lw a 1:::o t' ll,j OY t •cl• i t ; On t llll\V tha t t ll._,, . 1t·~ d o ·l· \ . e n t J.It ' .ll" " ' .1 .u . 0 \\·on1 of honor to tiT t o do tlwir <'lu t-..-. h e thought, h e ong h t to h aY e e ...-ide nc e that tht-' l'l' S nll p r esse cl ehnekl es slt<.J\n'tl l~:Hl lwt-'11 m on-l t h a n a gnoc1 t im e . " \Yha t

teneh er s . 1li <td nlirnt ion for Mr. Norton's wnrcl-pirtun•s of hoy::; . l~v en M'~l·y s milt>tl pl·ot l-\ :"t in gl~- . In Ne cl' ~ l'el;Lr,ton to l om, .John sn.w hi s to \V:n(l <~nc1 Fra.nl'-; th e He n s <:' ~)fhi::; ohli g h.t ion to t.l w m gJ·pw ·tron!;·e ·r ' ancl finall . Jv lt e scre we o:~ 1n· s ronen.g e n p tO volnn teenng to lJl'o Jni se to do hh; d uty fl.nc1 t ~dk. to them when tlwy d ist.ru·lwcl t.lt e class.) T erw h e7·. I know it i s n ot a lway s e asy to Rp ' ak to a fri t-ncl who i s doing wrong. O ne has to deny qne's self for oth ers . I ...-is ite d a

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.slwJl Wt' , do , 1\[r. Norto n1'' ,, ~._\·1. 11 J-.: t1n· n 12: y n • • , • 0 llk<·. . 1lw bo)-s conft·ned ' t] . ' • ' . l<.-' ll "\\TOt (:' . a n cl :::1g n e Ll. a prom l RP, whi eh t h ev 0 .. • • ' .J <LVP t 1ll"'l l ' p t·1nc·1p::tl a n cl n.sked him to 1''-' ' ' 1 1 . ' n ll tu th e ir m atts that t l ey 1111g ht know that \ t le'r ,.v e re in earn e s t . r \.. ft t 'l' th i s t lH.' Y . .J . . . \\ l-' 1"\ • l'eturn ed t o t I telrroom , which i s in e1t·, 1. . · t .. " ' o ~· of r en IC <-' o r pnt.ctic<-l tP<u:1 1p 1·. "' an a.pp · _A fl' W cla.yN · '' \.hl' J'· 1 n· ~ it e d. th e r· Ja Si:{·- an CL:J fonncl \ Yard ·<ll)(1 l 'l'H ' llk cl oino· ·w e 11 . L a ter tl1ey l'P1ap s ec..1 s om e what. Dnt i~g thi s relap.se. .

L


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180

Ti l E

RMAL

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I m t Mr. Norton andreport ... d i to him. H sm iled h p fully and ·aiel: "Yo uno· p ~:. ·o n donotm ve ·t aclilytowarl t h d " ir l l mnm· t h ey drift, ad ver se w ind· s w eep ove r tit em; in fa ·t the ir pr ogre~ i ver y s imil ar t t h at of ad nit . I d o not a k h ow fa r on tb e way my pupil ar , but whic h way t h e y are tending . F r a nk ::1.11 1 W urd are t e nding t ward t b c ha ven. 1 w ill se t h e m, a k th em h w t ll ey arc d ing , n co urn.ge wh' r ~ I can , r emind them of t h ir promis O I')' n t 111 my pocket, warn th em if I must. vV a r e n tlt e up-grade . Character -bu ilding il::l a :>lo w p r ·e ·s ; h ave you n ot f .und it o in yo ur wn cas ·? ' "Ye ," was my r e ply. "B nt , M r. o rto n , w h y do ~hild re n so hate to go illto that r om, s !t a t e t o vote to ha ve th e ir mates go the r e wbe u t h 'Y frankly say it is f r the good of . th.c pupil s \Vh go, and for the c lass r e lieved f r n. tim of t it ir pre e nce~ " "Because they are comin g to appr eciate characte r , to admire th e pe rson who can govcrnlti m ·elf. They s e e a difference.between them u in pri on wh o do n.o t use w his k e y b ecau se the y cann ot ~ et it, a nd them n o u tside w ho do n ot u se it beean se they will not. The y are f eelin g t il e dignity o f fr ee dom a11d the r esponsibility that accom panies it. They l ook upon the ir class-room as a place wher e the 1 u.p il is f r e e- free to do his own c h oos ing . ·w !t e n h e s hows by p e r s is t ent w r o n g-do in g that h e ca n not be truste d to ch oose, h e goes to 'that r o o m ' whe r e anotbet· ch ooses f o r him and e nfo r ces hi s choi ce , if need b e ' b y the u se of th e r od. T h e mor e str e n g th fo r ri g ht cll oice th e pupil s get, tlt e mor e reluctant th ey a r e to vote th e ir m ates d estitute of powe r o r deter m in ation to ch ooee wisel y, which they do when they banish th em to t h at

had h a :·d wa .· tit <· lat<·"t 11 !' In a n y .

T h<' f r ·dolll.

th • H •ri ou.· u •:-;.·. thv (;CI!I:-> id <•r a t io ll fo r otl1 •1.· . !llld th fi nal d • ·i ·io n t <> ] 1<·1p. iud iC'ntc·d t l1 :1t tlti,.; cln ~ h a] pa ·~ e d b •y 11 d th e• pr i r11a r y g r ad e· ill nto ruf ~ . not lt .,. tiiiwr w a :3

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pupil·

w r h •!1 •d to a ·otT<' ·t <' t!lot iu11 rc•gan li n~ d ut; . Lut t h n1att •r l id 11 t c· t•d i ll •rrr o t·io ll ; t h v,r w •r iwm ·di at ·ly an I p u r p J. '<' IY s o C' ir ' lllJI :->t a n ··I 11 to hav · m ti nu al oppcJit 1111 it y to d •C"id e· in a ·cord wit lr tlr ir i I a l. of r ig11t .o r t o de(' id t• a ga in ·t it. Fnrt lt r, it wa · ,· id •n t ly Mr. · n rt o n · s p la n t ) s lr ow t l1 .· ri ll ·I

puvil lri .· own g fHJd (>111'( u . · w ln'll <' •r he fa il I t1 ex '(; li t • it· :111d t o i11:-: piro lt in l

a g a in w ith hof · :1ncl d e ·i oic 11. I 11 0 t t lri ·l a Hs in tl 1 • I r acti(' e ci P pa rt·rrr e nt of 'orrn a l ,'<.:]l{Ju l getti11 g III <> l'itl traiW ing , ll(J t s in1pl y JJJ Or a l in :-> ti'II C' I i<Jil( li~··l tt ,,. • 11 0t i1rdul g • in ·h •e rin u ,. ·Hion · of tl1< :it·ir.r' 11: ur ·hoo ls mi rrbt ,. a r w •r c n.ll JUr ·IJil lr n ,rrt· t ing s imil a r t r n.iu inO'. . (t i,· u a · 11tll l',\' < f s u ·h w o rk in o u r l::lelr o() ls and SII Cit a n arti C' l ~ m; t h n£ o n Edu at io n a 11 d C'rin 1e, i n til f o n tl Jly , wou ld

th 0 'W 'g

Le a ·urio . ity. NIYI'E. - T oday, t ove m be r 2 r ·t., n t:a rly a m o nth afte r the P~ ced ing was writte n, th e prac ti ·e t eac h e r in c harg-e o f th · c i 11 "~ be fo re co nsidered re p o rt s th a t F r a nk i dail y impro v in g , bu t tlltl~ . . . '' ~aid s h e j' a g Jor j otl~• W ard tS s ti ll a n a nn o ying lad. "]:lut, ' h d 1 'J' . •ere h ard a t 1\'(>rl· · 1 th ing a p pe nc t o e ay. he: pup1 s " ' · w 11· )' th'.• • •· <"11\ t · e xce pllo · n o f vVard, who w as ve ry tro u b lesomc . ' IV h,. ~ n 1· r~11 " ,... him a s t e rn re buke a nd the n r e turn ed to hi s il:sso n. o yo u · Frank is g ro w in g in self-co ntro l a n<.l in d esire to h e l p in ouc little community. " - Pop u l a 7· S c icli<•' Jlfonth/ 1·.

.

r oom. " I b elieve lessons like the OLJ C r eco rd e d a r c un u ual. The points which s eem t~ d e~erve empha ·i. are- the freedom and s mce nty of t h e pupil , the ir en tire l ack of antagonism to s nch dis c nssiou th e ir c le a r perception of th e fa c ts iu the <.:ase ~md at the r e l a tions of cause a nd effect, t heir a ck Bowl edgm.c nt f t h eir duty a nd their r e S<l1ve to d o i t . While tb ' '" wa r ef erence to th e c1 •1 duct of W ard a nd F r ank, the discussion mainl y rel_ated t o t h e ir ow n duties and responsibilities. Bein g acqu a iLt e d with th e average y o nth of t h e age , , I &>'>~ thn.t the c n v(}r atio11 I

l ' R l l-: k.

RIE R.

TALKS TO TE.AUHERS.

I V -Changes in School Organ'i.zati on. BY PRIN . A. W. NOIJT ON .

.[n o ur second t n.l k, the fa ct th at t h e r e ara t hrc•! clements in sch ool o rgn.nization, vi z; .' lll.e mbcr: ship , purpose, a nd dutie s , was s e t fortlt Ut s oi1J<. ]e n gth. · I n onr la s t ta lk w e gn.vo n. Jess · . o nt cm c1'1° J1 : . . ttnntz atio 1 tt' l 1 · tn c li a n O'e t 10 e x 1s tnw s c h ool o r o 0 . 0 · . . e r slti ]) of m o r e dcs n·able o n e s . T h e m c1nb t .• t .)1 ange cl h ~ t llJ"' . sc I100 I m · Cl a ss o f cour se JS u o c . J talk bnt the s e cond and t hird y OlJJ ts, Viz. , tl 1 ~

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1 l) UI'p,ose f o r w hic h the sc hool is org all iz e d :tn d t l £ 1'1 J1(' duties of p upil s , are change d. .Ac.c o r ( l1 g t o t

sell tim n.t o

the school a

f th' ·h n l i:- lt • lll:tk<' the 1 n pil : > I •am aud t o tunh t h<• n1 lw lt an• . T h<· pu p il :-:t•t•::> f i't >I11 thi ::>

le ' 0 11 t hat th 0re i:- :-:<> II H' t hi ng l 1 i~her an d 111t •n· c nd uriu:" t ha n kn <>wl t•dgv. l1 • a l::::n "l'l':- that i i::> t h duty of t h e· pupil to pu t h i nr:-:l'lf in lh <· right ·.In~ : ,·iz . . tit<' go" d c·i<1:-::. Ou r :-:<·ltcu.] nl';!:llli z a . l io n th I'efn r C' Ita: 11 L' ll n ry 1na tvr iall y <·h:t ll gl•d botlt a.· to it:-: pu q Hlli, :utd I h<• d u t iP::> pf it::> 111 ~. 111 _ he r . . 1' 1, q rg aniz nt io n >f t I t<' li (' l I ' H I] lu\'iltt:: hvt·n t hn · r l1 an g d in t lr ' n1i n d of t h' p up il. t 11t• .ll':u·h C' I' 11111:t a ct in a· ·onl:IIH'L' wi th t lti ;; <·ltaJwt·d u r ga niz a t icnl. E\'l:ry p u p il, un til ht• Jll'l >\' t•::>....t tl thP <·nntr nry tJl li ' t be tn t ·ted . E\' t n pu p il. 11 111 il h l' pn ,·e s tn t it • c·o ntTa ry , m n, I IH· a:-: ;; 11111 l.d I n hl'

RMAL CO URI

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AD V ERTI SI N G

m nn , l> nt is Illctclo b y "keepin g at it·, .. a l'L' t·o rd mu st h e JJlncl e of th o a c t ions. T lt c g )od <IC' t in n . if reco rd e d, w o uldiill !Jlany b o o ks, t lt e bad n c t io lt .·. w o nld n ot fi ll many b ook s, tlt c r d o r e t h e t a c hc r will r eco r d tb o b ad a c tio n s . \ Vlt c n f r olll th e 1111 111 _

111 a 1:1 g·t• r::> . .I .\t' .

K DELZELL l

l' u·,.· t·d l~t· 0 . II.

W]1e tl11:-'J' ·p aternalism i.::; a ao·oo d t lJ in oo· o r a 1 1)ac1 thino· cle}Jen c s ~l po n ""110 th e fa th er is . "l'll t~re i s oa great _difference bt•tween a hot}I eaded h nre-hrmn ed Ge1ma 11 K'a iser, ,vh o 8ay s to ' an Ger mans, "I am Y011I" fath er ." a nd t.h c-J sixty-f-ive millions of in telligent Am erican s w h o ·ay th at t J1 ey are their o w 11 fath f i·.- _R ·v. Dr. H. L . TiVctyla?~d .

-- --- -

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Faeulty. .'\ . \\', =" 0 1' '( =" · .\ . P.:-..y chnlo~y . ~ 1 1 ,.: ,;

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·r~..·.l.-lll.T o f L itl'r: tu n .· . 1-\ hl't p ric. G l·nc1·:tl 1\ i:-h H-,. :t :Hl l ' h y::--inlo_~!T · I I. I I . !)l' =" l..' .\ ="li t =" · H. ,.:, ' 1\ ·:tdh.:r of l;nt.tny . ( ;\.'nlo:.ry a nd Z uolug·,·.

.\ . I I. \ ' . \=" \ ' l. EET . t~. \\' . E l. l.l~ . B . . \ .. "1\ ::tt:hL" t' n f :\ la tht: lll:llh.·:; :uul l .:•tin.

:111,.:s FLO H. E =" E ~1. \\' B. J( ; llT. ~ 1 \.:: l l" h ...: r o f O r:tl and \\" ri tt~ n A rithrnet ic. :IITS,; .]1-: ="=" I E :lld .. \1=" . ·r .·:H: hcr o f l · n i tc<l :""it.!tc:; lli ~tnr ~· :tnd ,t..·o gT:tph y . ~lhS :1 1.\ I: T ll.\ \\'1="=" 11·:. "l'c::tc hL'r o f l.:Jng·u:t;.:c :11Hl G r :u tnn:t r. ~ I I!"S 1.1 1.1.1.\ =" 1:. 1'- El.I.O t~( ; , . ·rl': H:lu.~ r nf 1\,·: ulin.~·, J) r a wt n l;!·. L'i,· il l ;o ,· ~..: rn n t «..'llt :u Hl l)onk · l'- l' ~ p t n~-

i\II:';S H E L L E TII O \ L·\ S .

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Pr·inci pk~ o f l n~tn~t.·tio n . and :--in p t..- rintl.'IHlc.!Bl nf P r :tet ic t..:. :III Ii~

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J Oll =" !H ..·\~ K l:: X S TIII ' , Ja n i t o r .

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l3oatrd of Edoeatior1.

i n tho bad cla.ss .

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lJ e r of r ecords t b e pupil appe ars t o be k c c pino· at

w ro n g J o in g , tit ~ ~~aclt et· may t alk t o him ~)OJ'­ s o na lly to ascertnm tf h e b e i.n t t•!lti o tt n ll y pu t ti Jt g ]Jims elf in th e b ad clnss . U sua ll y t h e talk w o u l ~l be s nfJ-i c ic u t . S h o ul d h e, l• o we,·cr , COll tinn to do wrong a n other l~erso u al c o nve r sation ns na ll y effect s [1, ch at~ gc . It, h owe ve ,·, h e p e r s ists in p nt tin g him self lit th o b a d class , t b o teacher m ay r ecog ni. Z0' th 'a.t· f act and oo·i. v e l11'n1 a s e parate p 1ace . e t apart f.·o r t h ose who wdh1 ll Y P1a c e thomsc lvcs

R A T ES .

t'l' inl'lt . ,.;in~ k t'nlumn . ::> in~h' ins ' rt it n . ~ - ') ~ Jll' C' i :ll r :tt t•s furn i:-: ht'd o n a p p l ie :n inn t ) ns in ::: '

111 nul . •. J t is ,f .IH n ,·a il tltat tlt t• t t•nl' h <'l' l'i t:l ll "'l' th e o rga n iz atio n in t lt u Jl li pil":; t11i 11 d 1 y lti::; le:-:s ~It li ll ie ·.· t lt t<·a c ltc r a ·t in n<·c:o r l:t n c:t• wit It th at o rga ni zation . '.flt c p u p il Ill ltst h a \'l' a c· han ·t· tu direct him s e lf. In ca rry i ng o ut in t h L ::- ·h tlolr of11lt th i: ii r ·t lc:·so n , t it tt' a c: lt c r en n ::;a v t o t he ·hil tli· ' l l t h a t s hu ii':i d e ' iro ns of k1 Hi w in g ~d w :lr. in t l1 • goo d an<.l wh o a r in t h • b ad <: las:;(•,.;. Sit • Rli all t il e r f(n·c wni'C'h f o r good :l t:t io n: . S it ,,·i ll h e t;o rry wh e n s it e o:; bad a c tio n::; . 111 n: 11111 c: lt ns o n e. bad a<.:t ions do ':> nu t lll:t k , :t had

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K: ;;ouDY ... .. . .. ... . .. ... . Supt.

Pu b . I n"' c.. •'.\ ·o{irio, L in<.: In .El II ~ ·-~l~TLE Y . . . . .. . . S ta te Tn.:asu r<·t ·. ,·.r·o~rio, L in co lu TTO !'i. n .E. B. h.I.:-.;:-.; ED Y O · . ·res r89.l Tr O ~ . C.\\· . K ALEY • .. .. . ...... .. .... .. . '.""h :t : tcnn c ~J~ 1res r 89-f l! O =" . .J . T . S PE ;-.: C E R ... . . . . .. .. .. .. . ... .. l{ l·tl (_ \o n ly ,cn n c~P'· res r S9~ liO N. C II lJ R l i 1!0 \\: i::· . .. . . . .. . . . . . D a k \lt a lf.1 /"n" .,";.~',·c~ r&J~ II ON . W . E :\L \ j0.1'S .~. l>i n:s ~ ~··"\ .. "" . . . .. ....... .... ... ... . •' C</. 1:' twrm c rn1 c.: .... ...yo., liO N . A.

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t h e . by numb r (,f Education, i1 r m r a rl i ·I · u titled " 1'1I e 1\,( d 111 . ·C1100 1l ' U)', , llj) '1'\' .IH() I' H' 0 U o rgc II. 1a r tin , we 11 t i ·e tlr c fo ll ow in r int'J'oducto ry pa r·agra.p h: ' "o t ve ry e x i t in g clr oo l is t h nr ocl •r n cbool. Antid ilu via u id a re m a in un d r p o tdiluvian C(luditi n ·, an I th e m ·d ireva l HJ iri t cl ·fie tho r 11 a i · ·an cc . Th m od e m · ·h ool i still in p roce f ev ]uti n . A in a ll u ·lr 1 rocc.s~;c tho indi vidual p rogre ·s lln cveul y ; S() Jn • • !()w]y ·orn e r ap idl y ; som e a lo ng 0 11 0 lin e a ncl so 111 c anothe r ; ·o tlrat b.)' a proce akin . tu co uq J." itc I hotogra 1 hy ca u we get ."O m e idea of t h ty 1 . Wh e n we et thi id e a we fi nd that t he llt Od •r n cho l lta l> eco m e cl iffe rCJ rti atecl in fon r· pn rt i ·trla r : In pu r pu c, in s 1 iri t, in st ud ies, in m •t hod · f in t ractio n . "

In tb i ho r t outli ne Mr. b r t in c rtai n ly ha s included all the p ara m oun t 1 bases . o f m oder n educatio n . We re on e to w ake a d ir ·t compariso u betwee n t h e scho ci l of o nl y fi fty years ago and the modern sc h ol, t he p r e. en t p lan s nf ope ration wo uld ind icate revo lu tio n rat h e r t ha n cvolutwn . But, n oticin g t uc pe rio d ica l c h a ng ,. alouD' educatio nal lines even duri n g the p re c n t century, the term "d iff e r e ntia ted'' has a f rc ib lc ign ificaocc . In thi s l articular case it m ean s a development fr om s mall a u d el ise nrag ing b eg in ning. to propo r tion g rand aud p romisin g . It mean· to ns today that t he Ame ri can c hi ld has been emancipated f ro m a vast num be r of b a r bar ic limitations and that h e sta nds on a. foot ing w lr ich a ll ow him to be self-d irectin g a nd se lf- d e terminmg.

I

TL e purpose of the mod e rn sc hool is n o t to c r ::~m •'. r::hild w ith kn ow le dge , bnt to rem ove .)elte\· , t b ts ' powe r t o a ct . 80 that b e ma y e xe r hin<lt·n.l\t:~T ir the e nd and. k n owle dge is b u t th e ' 'I. do"' ·t · 13 ~ e end . ' Mode r n e d ucatio n co n sists 1ncan tc, t · · 1· h · . t . · 0' pupils b nt m rna u 11 g t c ClJ Vlronuot 1n n1. · , o ' . ts sucb _ \,, t. t hey may t r a in th em e lv es. T ir e m e n. ·s n ·w• .a tuacbm . e· L l t eac h er 1s . n ot a L 1e 1 1 \) U1)1 ' , ' ir·11 < •11 ~ 1s u -powe r nn to hi mself , 1,· lmnws, dire<:.ts a11 cl exec utes by , 1 ~ p1 ,' eptial ity . \' 1·· od n ·cbo(ll prese n tE< a m ost ~ (' 1 li ·i:·.o ~YE sec the tea ·h e r

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nnd pu pil · lta,· illg a <·oiJIIIJetll ill1< ·n·:-:t :11rcl n :-pir of It ·lpfulllv;o,. :nrd 11"1)(' '11llll':-':-. J•<' l'\' :111<·:-; th • t>llli !; ·h cHol. \\' l' lt~dd tlrat it i:- tlw d11ty of (•\' •r. t ·nc·lr 'I' tto n~:oi:-..t lti,.. J>llf>il:-: let "('\' (•!up tlt(•JI!,.. h in t(J ill tl·lli!!('llt IH•II'<'r.-. . :-..1' tlrat . l,y ,· irtuc· of h;l\ ing d <·,· •lopvd tiH• )HI\\'t•r tn dis <·<·rll . t11 grn:-:p. i\11 to a .'sc wiat <· . tiH·\· :-!rail fi11cl 1lr<'lllsvl ,·c·:-: fa111il r \ it h tire• c·< ncluc·t. cof atl';r ir:-:. •a ·h . twft·nt looks 11]1"" lr i:-.. f!'llu\\' · St lld l'' aHa ·<>- I rc• I 1 c•r, <til< I II]H•Il 1I ll ' 1t': l!' I It'!' a:-: a gn•nt

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pr ,,. ' I' a ·tin u· i11 tiH• sa 11r c· clin· c·1 it•ll. J t lr as II C>t h e<•IJ IIJa ll\' \'Pars ,..,i ll<· <· 1lr <• i11trndu t iOII Of', ·i e Jl(•(•- l(•S:o:OII:" , iJ; tr• <olll' ('11111111!111 ,..;('JrooJ, I t Ira. Hot IJ (' (' Il 111 <1 11\' \' c• :r rs :-; ill !'l' sC JII H' o f il lri g lr e."t \'CJtari e~ ad\'Co ~· a1 ~ · d 1lrt t tlr v st 11d \' (Jf _·,. ura l 'c:i 'II C(' h<·lollp;t·d to tlH · 1\ c- a d <· 11 1,.· : 111 d 'c l •gu :tll d tlwt putt'i11g a pj a r nt 11 s i11 ! 1 ~· !rand:; • 111 tlrt• 111 c·hi ld re n waH a dang<· ru us p as tillrt•. e rn ·' ·hcH1I w0 find t lr(• k ·iJtdr l '(jC II ' ( f'll f 1 II of apJ·•· atl r.", s inrplt· , yet ade(l tlatc, ll l tl c·l 1 0 · it Jwr ill h o n bo r row e d fr()rrt tl rc• l a l>o r atc " ·ic•:-; o f tht Acn.l ' '" •)'a nd ( 'c ,JI '!!( . f ll cl cc· cl ' tl t"" 1'-,)·) ( l (')' 0'111 ·t l' ll • • is vftc n n rni ni at 11r · Ex p<· r i111 e n t 8 tatiu 11 i n('~ 1 d ill!... ? b s ·.n·a:io n -wo r k i n c a ·lr d e p nrtu re nt . ft j:" ::u 111 . 1 u·at ro n to n n \' Ull e rg·"ti . 1t"l <" ll<' l' t· · ·l' tlr • J ' <1 n ntl< s l~ dl a n cl case w ith w lri c:lr c.: lril d r •n g r a s p 1·]J c idcll::-o . of ·a usc a ncl ct!cct. F r o1 n t·lwi r· ·< .,t • Il l' '-~ t tHi i<'·' t lr .Y ea l'l y di sc..:U J'I l th e r e is a n conl01· (Jf

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a ncl so a tT uo CO il cc p t io n o f n nttrr a l I·.t \\' 1:? . , ~::>rrri~d\1 a lly b ui Jt up, a nd is exe llrjlli {j(•cJ irr a l l tJ J<.',\' 0°: ,

B u t cl nr i 11 g t lr is t i 111 u

11as lJc·(• 11 be1 itt I 'tl. l\1at lr e ru a ti cnl p r o bl c rit R (w hic h a 1·u pr· ndi ·;rl ) t:nrg"ge ·t t h e rn sc h ·us o n e ve ry lut n d , aJ rd 011 0 c n n11 nt 1 1o

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lost,

w lril o 111 n<.: lr lrns · bee n added a nd m oru wor k is a cco r,n n li s lr c cl i 11 s am e ti m e . l

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as exemp lifi ed in t h e kind c r gnrt<m ; fo r t h e· ( ' ;,j . ve rse is o ul y a k in derga rt e n in its fn l!es t <'x p tl ll sio n a nd o ur s un o nn d ings a .-u bot t h o up p n rnt us w i t h w lJic h w e at·e cx p e rim cu t in g .

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T ] I EHI•: i:' <til id<';l :tlll n ll,l.!.' llll' p;rtrcon:-: ul' l ll:tll .\' td' Oll l' 1lllhli•· :'<·lt noJ :' that th~· itll }Hl l'f:l ll f di!.\' ol' till' ·' t•:tr. l'rcllll :Ill <'dw·;tli4>li:II :-;t<Jn d po illt. i :-: t!H • tl;~y wlt t•ll :'t ' lll aul ll}lt ' ll:' . t lt<Jt t lrt•n ('OI1 lt' :' t l!t' f'l'i .' i:-; ,,· Jtif ·lt .... Jrall dt ·· tP I'lll i ll<' :' llf '('t :-':0: f I' I':Ji ]ll ll ' ;t:-< !))( • l ·lll! 4 ll !l' 1 f' I lrl' r••nr·:-: wo rl ;; . 'I h i:' idt ·;r. it' a t 1'114' n 11 •. }ll'<t!'iil'al l.l· n lit ·,···:-: t il t· I atrtJII:-- or tlrl'ir ,..!J:~t ·•· of' l'l':'}H >Il:-<i h i 1i ,.,,. fo r t ht · •· nt rd llt'! 41i' tlr 1• :-:1'! 11111 ]. :t 1. 0111 rorl in!.!: t lr o 11 g- lt It> tlru:-:t• \\ltu ; 11 ,. :-- 11 t' ll.!.!,TO:-<:-:t•d i r; h 11 :-: i llt':-: :-: tl~<r1 1111 ·.'· Ita,···"'' r illll' to c·o~t :-: id•• r tl lt' \u •H;rn• Ill' tltc •it· t·lri lclrt •tr. \\~ f' (';Jll)lOt, Jlll t lw1 it• \"t• . llf l\\'t ' \' f•r . tJJ;It !Itt• t•lt •f'tioll o f ~· f' l t niJ I ()fli< ·•· r·:-; i:-: an illlJ h 'l' lanl :tf' f, "· lri!'ll c;~ :-: i ly takt •s l;ll rl· " ·itlr tlr•· ti r :-:r IIJ<'l' 1 i 11 t~ or t t • ;t!'l~t • ] · nntl }litp i l:-: . !'or 1q 11 , 11 til •· 1.1 .:-< ttl t o l' t l1at t·lt·c·t i()ll d t'1"'1ld:-: tIll· l'lrar:tl'l t•t· t It t• 1ro rk o l' tl tt· ,,·!rol l' .' · <·at·. Til t· :\1 1 i i ud 1 • to\\' (11'<1 1 ·d tlC'at io ll; J1 i ll lt •rc•:-:t :-; ,.(· 1It t· 1111 . 11 ;-; 1 ._ l f•d f' d , 1 ~~ Jll t·n tl ll't·:-: or 1Itt· li11 ;1nl l' v r ta in l , · dt •11' I'l l I iII< ':' :r/J l[ III •:-;t·i 0 11 ;-; f' Oil <'t ' I'll i ll g' t·Jit • ]llll'<··lt;t :'f' o f :·W l'}l] iv;-; ct ll d :l])l l<l l'<l 11:-: , 1Jr v jJI' J'.\' 0)/ Jtd of t i ll' j· 1•;)( ' !1 illg fO IT(' :111a t.lt t• ;t lllOII Il of :'<lh J·it•:-:. lw:-: i(lc ·:-: lllctll_\' otlr ·r :' " · lt il' lt }l('J't<t in t·n t lH· gt ' II <'I'Cll ltlCl lt<t p,"t" ll ' L'll t of :dfa ir·:-: . lt i :-: i lli] Hl l'l:a ll t. tlH• Il t il <~ t 01 11,\· t lr n:-: t· \\' lr u Ir a ,.t. <Ill ;t<'t in· i I l i<' rn;t· i 11 :-:< ' l 100 l \\'O l'k . l> t' "'.' ' I ' ' 1 ' t t't I . 'l' l~t · \ · · ~ol :-; o lw t·llo i'Ollg h 1llt :-: i lit •:-:;-; , 11 11 11 I 1,.!I '.ll I ;-; I lO ll I wl ro c·nl l J·v c·, ~~" n i z t • otlH•I· \' ll'l'tll •:-: t itan f t·u g;\ li t\· i rt 1,x 1w r)(1i t u1·l' :"i . Tl wy :~ll o ttl tl h · 111l' ll of i 1'1_ ·Httt •nc· t· . p op u~ a i· in a p]'()pt• t· :-<t 'li St', :tiHl :-:lr n ul <l k il o\\· t ill' so t· Ja l ns \\·t· l l ;t :-: t lt v t•d lli'CI t io ltill Jll't ' tl s of tlll'i l' ~· ~>l~nn~t ni ty , ,,·l wt lr t•r i n lt >\Yit 01 . A cl rfhcu] ty ;·n·1,,•. 1."', , 1Hl\\·c· 1- 1, 1•' lit .,. • ( '(111 11 t l • · • . · . . il is tr id s, 1 n 11 1d n <'in <>· t lt o :-: t·• w It o · 1 · • l llilll. . .. "' ' !l <. 0111 pl •te n t t o 11 11. , :"i lt <'1t o ffi cl•. tc 1 ,'ll'l't '}>t· t·lt l •l ll ~,. 1 1 1' 11 o ffe n ·Ll . E .\:p o:-:.11 1' 1' to nn ldm1 n1 t i<'i :-;Jtl , ' Ll lli O\' l:LllC'8 ot { '.] ]C)()~· l· a.11d tW ' ' .J • • .., n g nm on n· m n n v t · f o r p o;;;1tl01 · · • · :t.Jl}l1il':l n :o. ·- ·• ts a ~ t <.· nc lt e:-·r s, an_. Jrot . 1 rm e n t.' · w 1u ('h l11 't ll . . . tlit ' <'litO 1 · . ' .) J·<:·garcl n s l n c1I s . t rJ t h os e• w 1ro h o]c. )(' 11 :-:nl>k · · l. · 0 ·[·f'l <·t•. T 1n. ti rd n c \ c<' t o ]1'1l l' n '-'o· Sll!'h 'l }J tan .. ' . osl· t l· o n u f nvct •ss n J-y 1 he m ·t·r <·n nH• . . · . ·.' •Lll tl t.J n f' can h e 1T tu.;t s1wlll( cl one onl y t1tro ll g~ t n, \ \' l l1 tn g lW8 s 0 11 t1n~ pa t·t of l'lt o se w]t O an· 11 1 c1c•lunn c1 :fc)]· s n t•lt tn ts t to t1cv u t<-' :t p nr t of t lw ir l'l1<-' r~d e .. and t h<· i. r l o n g Rtrlf't n·in g good 11 a~ un• to t ll <.' gom1 of t lw ge n ( ral coHlllll tll i t.,r · 'rhc work of c cl :Lca. ti o n s ttfl:'t~ t s ~ro m fricti o n

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\\'lll'llt' \' t' l' an ,\· l':u·tcn· 1 f thl' ,,·urk 111 )\' l'=" :::lu;!.!.· ,l.!..i:'hl y . hut ,!.!.'tH d n·:-:u1r:-: :11' • t•a:-:11 .' · appan•nt · "ht•n t lll'n ' i:-: h: ll'lll llll ." anron~ al l thl' pn rr:-< (lr th•· :-:.\· :'tt•n r. 'l' l~t• lw:-:t w urk of a t·nmmttnit:• dt·Jn :t nd:-: rlw :t tknt io 11 tlf t lw lw ::: r Pll' nt <.•nr lf 1 hat •· nttlllll ttlit,\· : if t' ud11 ·rl•d h ~- t h .>::::l' \\· h) l't'!.!':trd i r \\'i t h h11t :-:1i ghr in tl• n•:-:t 11·lan' tol ··r:rt int t. i t :-' :-:llt 't't':-<:' 111\1:'! 1w l'tHTl' :'l't H tl in ~.!:l ~­ :-:nrall.

I I E HE m· ,···r \\' :1:' :t tinll' " ·h1·n tlt1• w o rh1 ,,-,t::: :' ll f' t~ll of 1 ppnr t u n i ti •::; fu r tht..' <.1 ··\' t•l o jllll'llt ol' 111;1 11 . :1:-: ;\ t thl' pt'L' ::'l'll t t inH'. 1•::-:pt·C'i:tl l. · 11111,\' thi:-: lH' sn i<.1 l'Oil< "t' l'llillg tht• i ••acht'l'. a tHl the tkg n • · l)f tle r l' l Ol nwnt t1t' }H'ttd:-: n pun lhl' i tn pru\'l'llll'll t tf >ppu r t un i :-:. Tilt' \ \.m h l' :-: F a ir . t h ough u seful i n mnlt . di H',•n• n t \\·n y:-:. i::: :1n oppo rtuni t ~· f ur tht• :-:t·l ~tl•ll- kat·ht•r . ;n lll i t' rh i:::; t'-l ir is ri ;l'h t ly :-:t ltdit•d h.,- hv r. i t \\'i ll pron' n·l·_,·lwnl'1iei ;11. .1 n:-: t :1 t th is t i nr t· l)f' tl rl' YL':H . thl'n· ·n · hund t·, •d :-: of :--·,l lt llg JWnph• wh o i n h•tu l tc lw.!!.·in ,,·o rk i 11 tltt~ ::-:t· h ool- rn ) Ill tlt is co111ing t::ch tH'1 \' t': ll' . .:O it :::t nf tltc•nt lta H· a spt•ci<tlt:'- " ·h ich i·ltt •\· ,,.tllll d like to fp ll cl\\·. an tl so h aYe aln•nd )h l' l.!.: llll tu t hin k nb on t. t ill' \\·or k \\· hich thl'_\i ntt• trd t·t> d u . . Fn r a SlH' t't:•::: sfnl s!'lrf_H)1. OH' <'il llii O(· bt: ttHl J1il l'l'i l' Uli\l' ill g ;ttl H'l' il\)2; thP :3llh .i t•t·\·-l ll<lth•l'. ;-t, n d in lt;tr i l tp: i t· r e nt1~· fur ll :-il' " ·lt t·n lH't 't':-: :-:i t·.' · t':l 11:-: fo r i t. _\ JHll·lti:-; \ \ "o rltl':-: Fa it· i s n· ·,c ......,. to f nrllish :111 : 1 b t!ncl ;t n t· t· tl f' Ill:\ tl' t·i:l 1 · ' .I I' tlt P tl' <H·h er . l·: n •r y t·t·n<'ht·' t· \r 1w aHt' lltl :-) t h t• F a ir :::.\t nn ltl <"<tny '" i 1·1t lt<• 1· a :::; m a ll l\ lltl'- ho nk n n d }W H t i L , ,· i tlt \r 1ri t· lt ;:-:l rl' <'< \ ll n nt·t-• t h nse t hing::; ,,·Jti. t·h an· no t ::- o l'a :-; i l ~ - r e v. H·m l>l' l'l' d, snch H S tht' ;:-: i zl-' o f tht• b n il<lillg ,· nnd of " ·h a t n; ate J·id llJ<td e, th e l oc atio n of t llt':::>t• bu i l c1ing:s . t1w cliff en• n t f <.Wt' ig n p eop l e SC' t~ n a ll!.t a ·lt ol't d<·s nip t j on of c [l.c·ll , ancl1n a n y o t1w l' t hin gs not k rw \\· n un t~l o1w l' t• aclu,•s t h e ' · \Y hi. ~L' C \ ty . T lw n g h ll1 ll to s t ~ c1 10o l s t h e "·o1·k i fo ll nd to b e proti tablt· a n d in t<:n-' f-' tl1\ \l' n ow i s the . bl . hm c t o m a k e i 1~ d onb l y s u . · \V h ~o' l' l' i. s t1ll-' l' t·· n tt• a. c\ \ 1•1. \\·h o cn nn ot g i v e a d es ni pt.i on of a lake lH..' tt eJ' a fttl' ha.vi ng: s 'f'n ol~L', . tl ta.n h y the m e r e l 'ea a jn g abo u t t hi. s h tk . · \~ lll C'h 1S t.h e S t.l' Oll O' E' l' teach er. t h e o n e \V } r ::-- ,g·nht ed povver f 1· Hh ' 1las tl'aYell'cl , and lt<ts


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p erienc , or th one who h a btain l h er knowl dg from book ·~ At thi graud bition ther will b · m thing whi b rna l earn d and which v.-rill br·oa 1 n t h kn w 1 w already hav in e v r-y lin of .·tu l y . Know l ed · i a good thin o · if put t th r ight u · , and: if the u.· ful thi.n o·, at t h , World Fair a nd tudie l w 11 w ill 1 many an opportunity in th 1 ro m wh er e th i knowl dg may b u alvan ta.ge. Among a ll branch f . tudy ther p rhap more infOl'mation b ear·in g up n raphy than upon any otb -r. Th ·i tuation of Chicacro, th . ituati on of th cliff ·r nt buiJding in r lation to each other, th in g of one of th Gr at L a k es, the s tudy f th _. f rei o-n p opl , their mann ers anu ·u t 10 . ·, ar all v ry imp ortant point whi ch may well be notic d. Th n in tb tudy of the differ en t c r -a1 ·, gra e and forage plants, _·ug m·, lair·y products and food s, pu~·e and mmera.l waters, th er e will be opportumty for many a h elpful

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R ev. B. Wri g h t B u t ] r of 't. fury ' .:; ,-e lln t Iano-uage l e son. Cong regationa l c hur ·It of Olltaha ha . 0 en s •cure t There w ill b e much for th primary t eacher to cl eli v3r tlt 1.0 c ia 3 1 c tnr 3 . primary t eauh er t o see an d ·tudy · What . . On Jun o J 4, fr o m 8 to 0 o' d o ·I ~> ;\L th ' w ill a . tbe E skimo ~rll ag" w1tho~t stopf\orJUtl. } . ; ·el y not on , for h er e t h er e 1 · som e- Peru c ity ban I wil l fumi ·h mu sic ·o ll tlt pmo·. m . cam pu s. r·thy of our attentwn . .b t h ln o· WO • . On Jun e 14, from 7 to 8 o'cl o ·]- J '. l\1 . , th e The littl e 1 lks DJOY h eanng about these eople rh en you know them only Battaliou and Band wil l g i,·e n D r ess Parad e nntl queer P h R eview. Ad]uta1 Jt Ge ne ral Jn.s . D. G a o-c as itJtbooks bat n ow yo u ave a chan ce to t h rough ' . . become p er onally _ acq~amted w1tb tb~ 1:U · ecl by Lie ut . Gov ern o r T. J . Majors, wi ll act n~ The d escription of th eu app ear~nce, hfe, r evie wing officer. h b ' t a n d implem ents can be g rv en mo 1·e Th o ca1c J?_d:u· for Corumen come11t w eek is n 1 8 d th e children will be almost sp ella foll ows : cl ear 1y an Th u r d ay , Jun eS , 7 :Jo o'c loc k P • . ~.-Se ni o r C lass Day ExC'r, :~ '·t· they know that you w er e r eaDy a bouncL 1 · h . f tlJ e t hings wh1c you have told c is<>s . . c: . ·. Frid a y, June 9 , 7 :]o o 'cl oc k r. ~r. , - l a s t RC'g ,,J a t e~s10 n Witn ess o . them. t h e higher b ranch es t h er e are c: ocie t ies. Saturday. -Jun e Io, 7:30 o'c!r:ck 1'. ~r. - Op ::: n seSSIOn of Eve t·Tlwn a;:nong f. t er est. The combinations many l 10ln_ts 0 f~~m s in the buildings will be e tt Society. J II , rea te Addre ·s Sund ay, un e ' 4 o c loc k P. ~ 1. ,- Baccala u . · · ~f ~e?~:~"~~l . t o t hc S3 in G:ometry . Tho se M o nday, Jun :! 12 • 8 o 'cl oc k A. M ., -'7 i ~JJ o~Y ,' ;:>J: t 3 · ' ry 1 . y Geu ·t·u,1 H is tory w11l take pleasure M o n day, June 12 • 7 :30 o'clock P. ~1.-0pe fl ~ t:Ss t o n I hi! >. ho enJ<: 0 • the a,.,.~h'ite tu1·e of t h e buildings m a th ea n Soc iety . 1n tnO} Il1o h" fort>i m -p, -ple ·. Tue3day, Jun e 1 3 , Io o'c~ock A. ~ 1 . -Gracl l.lati n g Exerci ses , , h-'c1 by~ cr~t e nun,erate the things t o b e Tra ining C l ass. · .r> on lUI:::> b t plan will b e to ' ·va· t d Tuesday, Jun e 1 1, 2 o'clock P . ~I. .- T e nni s ;ourn a.lll ent. \' b t t 1 e "S · · l an : n . u 1. -npor·tnnitJ e by ob erving whr'le Tuesday, June 1 3 ,7 o'cloc k 1'. M. ,-~ tud:::"ts Re uni o n f'ra y.::rlllliH' OVe 0\.U'

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Tuesday , June 1 _' . ,; ·lod> 1 . \1 .. - .-\ nn u .ll :'\ lectin!-!' o f \ lumni ·soc ia ti o n. Wed nesday. Junt• q , I) 0 · doJ<: k ' · \1 .. - '(a,:~ L<" lUr.:. \\ edncstla y, J une l.j , :! .,· ·In<k 1 • \1 . •- Alumni Banqll<'l. \\'edn e d y. J un.: q, i 0 · do ·k 1•. \I. .- H::ntali' "' llrc,, 1'. 1r a d e and l<c1·icw. \ \ cd ncsda y, Jun · q. ' 10 • ·lock 1.. \t. .- i'rincip. tl':- Rt'ccption .

Th P ri n ·i1 nl' ~ r . •ptioll t lti: .n•nr ·a ll :-; fo r f urth 1· 11 t i ·c . On .r1111 t-+, f r•I JII , · t n I I u ' l'lm·k p . Ill. Prof. ' )!'to n "ill ~j,-, a r C'l'l'p t i<m tt t hl' ' nio r Ia · · an] th •ir fri ·n I,.:, in elu din!! I h ·

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I nstrumental ' ol .. .. · · ...... .......... . .. A. :'It a " Da ,·ic,:. lass l l i!'tory · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · . . . . ..... ...... :'. l a y ~I . \\' ync . Pocrn · · · · · · · · · · · · ·' · · · · · · · · · · .... ..... . . . . . .. . - . : . J onc;:. Oratio n ... · · ····· · · · ······· · · · . . ......... . T . ~-\ 'a n \' !eel . u::trlCl. .. . . . J uli a W o n , :\l ay D:wi cs . II. 11. Ju n ·s . :\. lui n :y. Toast ... ··· · ········· · · · · · · ..... . .... . ... II. A lie · \\'all an:. I~ espo n sc. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · . . · .. . . ........... 1-: iu y T y n<l ll. l<el:itatiu n · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · .... .. ... . . .. . .. Ora A. F -rg-u so n. Duct . ... . · · · ····· ··· · · · ........ . . :\l ay Oa\'i c:- . II. II. Jo n.::<. Prophecy .··· · · ····· · · ·· · . · · · · .... . ..... . . . ' a rr i · Emcr,:o n.

~~~~~~~.'.' .·.·.·.·.·.·.·.·.· .·.·.·.·.·.' ..'.'.'.· .' .·. _ ._-_'_' .·: .·.-_- .' .' .' j~,;i;:\~~~ ~~~-c~ . W ill ... ···· ··· ·········· · ··· · · · ······· · · · · ·· Jas. II. l b. ,·« . ,cnior C ustod ian . ... .. · · ··· ·· · ·· ··· · · ·. Ed winn a l{ o · kw o:l~ : Ju ni o r Custodi a n. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · - . . Th us . F. !J obbs.

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la n, att o n ... . .. . . .. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ··· ·· .. Es the r Gr D ec< ' cgo ry . f;~sa Y · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Co r <a S , wan so n. -:vjus ic . · · · · · · · · · ·: · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · \' ocal Sol ' b tc··-Aflirmattve, Frank Maj o rs: Nega ti,·c Non~ J 1 o. pe a · : " o 1n!'on. ,r oast . · ··· . . . . .... ... . .. ······ · ····· ... · Edtth Hutchinso n. :Res po nse ··········· · ··· · · · ···· · ·· · · · · · · · · · · · · · . Di c k Nea l. rf ·ic. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · I nstrumcntal Duet 1\ u ~ R E C t·:ss. · I , rdess Dri II. S h eP w M 11 5 ic · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · . Quartet. Invec ti ve .. . .. .. . . . . .. . ... . . . ........ . .. . ...... R. E . G i fll n. 1::1 ti o fl· . . .. .. . ........ . .. ... .. . . ........... . . C . Vv' . \lest. 5a Address.... . .... . .... .. ... . R D ~1 · · 1· a .. we 11 ······· ·· ' · · h' ontz. Music .. . ···· · ······ · · · · ·· · · · ··· · ······ .St a te No rm a l Band. FIELD DAy EXE I{ C ISEs.

Fo1l 0 ~jng are tho spo rts fot· gent leme n, for . l1 en tl·ies have been received.. h w 1C Fi ft y yards dash. -

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as a n Ameri ca n ci ti zen th a n th e lta li :1n ." AIIirm a ti1·e, Vv. N. Del zell: l\ eg;a ti1·e, \ V. L Da ,~enport. I\lusic-Q u a n er- · ' Extrac t of Ope r a '' .. .... .... · . F . II · R ,•ol. O ra ti o n- ' ·The G rea t Emanc ipati o n ' ........ Fra nk H. Beedle. l\l u s ic .. . .. . . . . . .. . .. ... . . ........... .. State No rm a l B:1n d .

M iss E liza C . {o rgan will r e main n11 ti l abont J nl ,) 12, wh en sh e wi ll go to Yisit the Colnmbian Exposition and f or vacation remain ing will visit fri end s York.

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P rof. H. B . Dun canso n, as ide from visiting the Exposit ion, iutend s to do m uch in the lin e of Scientifi c investigation dm·ing the summe r . Miss F lorence M. W right wi ll r e main in Peru shor t time . She will tllen v isit Chi.c ago aud afterward spend h er vacation in New Yor k. a

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Miss Jenn ie McLain expects to take advantage of the vacation for reviewinothe Jaugnages . Rh e >:::> will , of course, visit the Columbian Expositiori Miss Lillian Kell o,gg,

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tPac·l li •J· i11 tl11 · .· ixt 11 grad <· i 11 1 IJP p,., t<'ti<'.l' I }>a-tt n, ' li t f I lw Co k Cu1111 t ,. ~ •Cll'lll<ll .'t·hot Mi Bir s w ill d e v tc th e m onth s ,f Jul.} el i I(! J'.'dlf!; ll' \\·c,od . ) hie-ago. _\f i :-::-:. l ~ir:-::-: lln:-: lw Aug u t t th o W riP· C o lu mbian E x ] c, iti o n. I' C lllt <•f't •d w i t l1 1Ill' :\ JI' IJJ <J I I'() I' t l11• Jwst .· i_ )'<'C.tl '.' 1 ( in cr f o r t II 1'('1' r i'H 1'1-' t(';(I']JI•J' of th Prin. A . W. o rtun w ill s p e ak at 'y r a ·us •'c·c·m• cl P n •J>aratuJT a1 id t l11• tl! J·c•,• n·M~ fol ..May 2u, a t A lma Jun 1, at Brow nv ill Jun o ::.. ] '"'i" "' C'l'i l i1 · t~·~u ·IJ ;• r i n t h 1· Pr:tC'I i l·«·. lh'l ;u ·t lie w ill a ddres t h e Ul1a utauqn a at J~o u :r Pin. ,July In July h e wi ll attend th Edu ca ti<ma l 111 1'llt. l11 ::Uldit·io n t·o t·lr i :-: s liP i.:-: \\' 1·11 · kn ""' ( 'oug r e. a t 'Li ·ag o_, and vi it all d partm n ts of t ln ·cm 'dJ t ll 1· s t at« · <t H H I ! l n :-; t i t lll l' in:-:trllt'tnt· t he Expositio n . ]Juring t h m o ntl1 of llg 11 ::; t h u and <Ln a.c· t i ,·c· w cJJ·k c·r i ll <'c! ll l '~t I io iJ<tl ;t:o':-:cH'it. tim .·. W l1ilc· n w g iiiz i JI,!!.' t iJ<t t ii!I H' I' t ill' ~ n1\l t a ch in the T ach e r ' In s titut 'at T c un1 s •h , Jllal] •' •.· 0 111' of it.· 'JII OSt t•.friC'i <•IJ t l ' <.l1'111 ' .'1 :l llc a nd wi l l add r s th a t body dnring i t~:~ oss ion. 1' 11 tlJJJ. •i:_ t:-;ti c \\' rkl'-.·. ·, k11 o win g rJ 1:. 1 r- \\· i t ll >11 tP r of. E L!i · and fami ly will ::; pond a m o n t h witJ 1 <1]>] )if':.L t i()Jl ()II 111 ' 1' )1 <-.L I' l <tlld <t t <Ill n d \ ' ; Lll ( ' l'<l_ f r i en d in Ul!icago, visiti11g tL1e Ex1 J.· iticJI!. Tl1 .·a la ry s ]Jc· gcJC'H to a No nwll , '('] 100 ] \\·]Ji r h i~ r mainder of vaca tion w ill b e s p e n t i u th o East, ~tc·klJ C~\\·] wlge d a :-; cmv of t l11• 111o::; t 1n·op; n•:-::o; h travelli{€5 a nd Yis itin g r e latives. lll tln . · f'()LLntry , V\(' t' Oil _4'1'atllla.tt- )1<'1' II J>n ' I t i wit h d eep r egr e t that we le arn of th e res- tl Ji. · }riPe·<· of w e lJ -d psc•1·Y<' d goCJ tl f 11 r tli 1JC. i rnatio u of fo ur m om be n:> uf o ur fa cul ty . I lesir • to oxp r Rs lll,Y lll g" / 1 ap]>l'l ' <' ia ti o ll of t h P rof. A . II. V an V leet, of tL!e d e par tm e nt of c o n luc;t and s r> ldi o r l · b e ar iJI 9.' ul' a ll JJl (' ll l b C' r· ~ C lJ emi · try~ Phys ic ancl A strono my , who has of t l1 ormn l ] att<~ l i ou dJII' ill,!;' t h ~,_ tau()'Lt i n this in tituti on fo r s ix years, r esig ns p r s n t yea r. I fool v e ry gr;.tt·e fld fo • !"1 strtll t k 1 1 h i posit ion f o r the purpose o f m a ki ng still m o r e s uppor t g i,·o n by t h o c a l e t·s l)()tl indi,·id ually 1 c•fficie nt p r e p a r a ti o n for h is work. H e expects and co ll ectin;ly : I am undl' r >;pe t·ial o b lig;nt ion .., to take a co ur e a t .Niadi ·on U nive r sity n e x t year to J->r of. A . H . ·v~t n V l eet f (l r t:l 1e otfo -t w id ·h h e 1 prepar atory to a co urse at H e id elbe rg, G e r many . li al:l pll t f o rth iu t l1 c ba 11 d . I d es ir e t o c:xpr·c·, , o ·

tfiss B elle Th omas, Super inte nd e nt of tlJ ~ lflJ t h anks f o r t h o IJOarty c o -opo rati 1111 of nil 0 fti~ P ractice D e partment, came to tl1 e p osition four <.:er s in t lJ c e x e c uti o n O [ t h e ir V<L I'i OI I S d11 t ics . 11. B _ D uNc ,\ N::;ol'l'· y (•il.r ago, w itb a bz·oad e xpe ri e n ce in Norm a l C o nlmall dant C:•cJct::;. S c hool work and a t bor ough know ledge of the "n o ds of t he public schoo ls . U nd er h e r s upe r On \ iVedn es day, J nne J 4 , at 2:00 p. 11H f h.Pl· Yi io n this d e p a rtme nt Las b een p r acticall y r e -or'- w ill b e a banquet s e 1·ve d by t h e A111Hllll a. (. . . 1 . g anized . The numb e r of pupils en r o ll ed has Mt. V e rnnn Hal l. Toas t s by the j'ol 0"-~1 11 P..· b een d o n1J\ 0 w hile the work of traiu iug teac h e rs p e rson~ will b e givun : "Th e C iti"'eJ1 ~~' "' - ~ 1 ' "-tcm at iz e d a s to b ecome v er y cffccth as been so ~>y Fac tor l11 State Edu<'ation ," Hon . J3. 1 ' · · i e . I t w ill b e <.:x<·~ ding l_v diffi c ult to fi ll sati s- K e nne d y ; " The L egi s lat ure a.s a F'ado l' fa<·bJJ·ily t he po iti()n w hic h h e r r esignation r e n State Fdueat ion," Hon . Chnr<'h flow e ; "T ch r va ·a nt . State Normal S<'hool as 9 · · .T eHn •.:: Hoyt, who f o r three y e a r s has Educati on, " P rin . A LJlmuinu , lia: nat ural abilit ies fo r the posi- Nor mal Uumnj ~,, 1 j, • l1cr ,.rent power w it h tlH; s tu< nts . t i.on ," 1rs A 1

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Uolumbu Day at the Normal, 'ra .J on .· Rambling Thought about Flittino· Bird. , II., A. lf. an \1 t Lord T nny on, Kitty Tynon NOl'mal Not_, N atm·a l R eading, II. , Bell Thoma.· Phy ical Training, II., Anna K. trot'lc How Hi tory May B Male Int r e ting .Jo.·ie E . York Characte1i. tic of an Id al Teach er , Fr d R M n ow 'rh Old R ed ' ·hool-hou se puem , .Julia H . May in Erht £·c {fora tat Examinati on , A. K. Gondy Editorial L egend of Gilpin' Gulvh, I., " Jaltl-chee" Elemen tary Botany in the Pub)ic ch ol · I., ut.rle. E. B Normal Not · Amono- th e 1ag azine ·, 'anie Enu:~r. ·on Nebra. k a 'tate T acher ·' A· ociation Academy of Science To Oliv " l' W end 11 Holmes poem , 'urti · Guill, in B ostrn1 .Journrtl. P rof. G o. L. Fa1nham wi th port1·ai t , A . H . Van \ 1 Pt Ptof. A . W _ NOl'ton (with portrait , Oswego Dai ly Tim -.c; Conversational Latin, G. W. Ellif:l · E le mentary B otany in the P tLbli · •'c hool. · II., ' hade-.· E . B.e:·. ·py Current 1 opic , H em-y f enke Zoological ()ollectino·, I. , Ge01·cre A. 'oleman Editorial s 'rh e L egend of Gilpin'. Gul ch, II., ".Jahl-ch e " Om Wodc1 (poem ), N . W . Rand, in J oltrnal of Erb..wrcUon Feudali ·m- 'rh Germ a nic Tribe. , I. , Howard H. J oue · T11 e Mental S ide f Mn. ical Inte rpretation, E. M. Liypctt N orrnal Notes The B l ne J ay ( Cyanocitta CTistrcta), A. H. Van V leet E lementary Botany in th e Pnblic Schools, III., C ha rl es E. Bessey F reedolil and D iscipline i n the Public School , B elle Thomas E ng lish Composition, I ., W. H. S kinn er G-limpses of Switzerlan d, I ., J ennie. McLain Geology and B otany of Neb.vaska, 0 . S . rJ ones Object of theY. M. C. A., A. W. O ste rhout Feud alism- Landed Property, I I. ) H oward H. Jones The Recitation, S. Baughman

Editorials The Cnrr·ent year in Hi to•·y, CuT1·ent Literature Norma\ ;r otes D epa1truent <)f Super vis-io n , A . K. Goudy . . _ Talks to TeacherS--ProfessiODfl I Preparation, L , A . W. N OJ; ton 7;n

1ogica1 Co11c<:ting 00 the Gar£ Coast. II., George A. Cole man · f Switzer-1tlnd? II. , .Jen ]l.ie McLain ,J oseph G iliilau • "m1 1ff th a:vajo India ns-, I., T. Stanto-n Van Vle ple De ·criptnoiJlJ~ U.~ W . H . Skinner lc.'Ct

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.... 'han g s in ch ol Or~ani z n t i o n , III., \. \\. :\ () l't n nt· Patriotic Soti<r · '• '• J on t:l ' tate and the Pu bli · '.] ,oo l , Fr •d E. l\[on·o w ' hould Occ mtion Day be O btle rv ·d , ,) . F . H osie F at·s p o m ) Jc t:~ i o. ·w alke r, ill Ocer1and J[unthl.lf ggcstions in R co·ard to T eachin g \m •ri ·an History . l. . H . Vv . C':llu\\ II ttary Botany in t h e Pnhlic 'chool , \ 1. C'ltas. E . Bc':o: y ical Collecti ng on t he GnH Coast, III . . Georg \.. C'ol c m:tn o Mcdiciuc- .Meu- T hc Mis io n o f t h e Ya: -Bi-C'Ity ', II L. T . 'tan ton Van \ leet ure in o nr P ublic Schools, II, C harl es Fo rdyce Compositio n--Simple Dcocriptio n , I\ ., '" . H. ' kinn c r ism- Econo tn.y of Feud a lis m , IV., Ho\\ a.rd H . Jones s ca r in t he Y . .M. C . A.. , c. S. J o li os J\"otes cbraska State N ormal 'rt·n.ining School (with illnstrat ion!"), A . W. Norto n fA. W . Norton (with pol'trait), Hcv. Lewis Halsey , D. D . Hill s and ~ a1· .Awa~ , lVI. Eve ly n Birss uy Story and tts F n e nds, B ell e Thornas Bird Nests, A; H. Van 'Vl eet a j o tl · on t he F.low of the Missouri R iver, H. B . Duncanson J'S -

it to Mammoth Cave, Geol'o·e A Coleman Suggestions in R egard to Teachino· American H is tory, II., H. The Church in Feudal Hist~ry, V ., Howard H . Jones tin Moral Training, Dr. Mary V. L ee chc::>-01 Org anization, v ., A. Vv .. Norton

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\ THE, NEBRf\SI(f\ STf\TE,

ORMftl, SGHOOL.

PERU_, NEBRASK A .

THIS IS THE ONLY STATE NORMAL SCHOOL FOR THE TRAININ G OF TEACHERS IN NEBRAS KA •

. TH E L OCATIO is in th e mid st o f a thri \'ipg co mmu ni ty, s u r round ed by influ ·n c ·!< v f th · n· o. t wh o ! ·st n . · !<o rt. ·1 h w h ich com p rise sixty ac res o f bea utiful , na tura l wood land , o ve r loo k t h e :\lissu uri ri v ·rand \'all ·y for m a nY m iles . · TH E B UILD! GS a re la rge, pleasa nt , a nd cumm di o us , fo u r in numbe r , o n sist i n ~ o f th e m ::Ji n s h oo l a n d basem en t, M t. Vern o n H a ll , a dormito ry fo r lad ies, a t wo -s to ry library , and a ho ih: r, e ng-inc , and clyn :"•n <J workshop at tac hed. A ll the buil d ings a re lighted by cle t r ic ity, and warmed hy s te am , ·x ·pt th e.: d o n ni wrv. EVERY DEPART ME:-l T o f th e s choo l is we ll ·quip =:d w it h applian ·cs for g i\·in g- th · l>..:s t in s tru ·t io n in ·a ·h r ·s p r.: ·ti \' t;. T he CHEMICAL a n d P H YS ICAL La' o ra to ; ics ar..: w:::ll fu rni s h ..:d wit h ap p ara ui ·, so th a t ea c h lll ..: mhc r of th e sc v ·r ut performs h is o wn exP.er im ents, acq uiri ng fa c ili ty in rna ni p u !a t io n, and a prac ti al kn owled ge.; o f the s ubj c ·t h e p u rs u · ·. T he B IO LOG I C AL Labora t o ry is s u ppli ed w it h cab inets o f the s cvc ral d c pa1'tmc n ts o f 1'-: a t ural

H i~to ry, G co l o~y, :\

etc . , and with m ic roscopes and o th er in st rum e n ts fo r ac tu a l wo rk .

A n AST RO , OM ICA L Obser vat o ry i's furn is hed w it h a good cq u :llo:·ially m o u n t ·d te kscop:- . T he E L EMENT A RY a nd R EV I E W classes h ave acces~ t o th e cabinet -, the lal>o ratories , a n d tlw <> I• =' ·rvatnry, a n d arc a! ·., • ? lied wi th a ll necessary helps fo r e n a blin g the m t o ga in a ·o m plct c m a ste ry o f s ubjcc ts; a n d for g iv in g Illust ra t io n.

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The LI BRARY -cont a ins m o re th a n seven th o usan d vol um es a n d pam p h lets , a ll selcc t<.: d w ith the ~ r-: ates l c a re . the freest access to these books . T he Read ing Roo m is furni s h<.:cl w ith a ll t he leading 1\llag-az in cs, , .c ic11tific

JOurnals, a nd wi th a la rge nu mbe r o f dail y and wee kl y papers. CO URSES o f STUDY . T h _re are t wo cour:;es o f stu dy-a n E le me nt a ry a n d a H ig h er course. O n com ~le~i i g ~he rl~:n course, wh ich corn p r ises a t h orou g-h rev ie w o f the common E ng li sh b ra n ches, together w ith a co urse in th e p nn c lp lt!s nf i n~t anct practice in t eachin g un d er t eache rs sk ill ed in the art o f crit ic ism, th e.: stu de nts arc g ra nt <.:cl a seco nd g rade stat e ccn ifi cat fo r t wo year s . Grad u ates fro m a n acc red ited Hi g h 'ch o o l- a n d o r d in a ri ly teac hers h olu ing s econd grade rc rti fica t t~ \' an a nd take the trai ning in on e yea r. · On com pleting th e H igher course , th e s tud enl is g ranted a D i plo m a, wh ic h is a Pro fess io n a l S t a t e Certificat e, f('•) o tf fo Years; a n d u pon eviden ce of succe~;s as a teacher fo r t wo yea rs, a n a udi ti o n a l d iplo m a is g ra nted, good fo r life , unl ess •t is a ll l~pse hy...rcason o \eaving the professio n. G rad u a tes fro m acc red it ed Hi g-h Schools a n d Coll eges a rc g ive n full Crl·clit f <>ttain m ems, hut they a re expec ted to t a ke the P ro fessio n a l co urse . . The P R ACTICE SCH OO L. This is the onl y in st ituti o n of th e sta te with a ca ref uii y o rga ni zed a nd gra d ed P ra ct Lc S.: Wh:ch every one g rad uatin g fro m eit her co urse mu st t a ke p rac ti ce in th e ac tu a l wo rk o f in stru c ti o n , und e r the s u pe r ll i io n Pen enced a n d skilled c ritic teachers. ROA RD in p ri va t e fa milies, a n d in clubs, is m odera te in cost, ra nging fro m tw o t o three a n d a -h a lf d o ll a rs per wee_~;.. : The R. &: M . R. R. p asses thro ug h the t ow n, m aking the sch ool co nve ni e nt o f a ccess from m ost p a rts o f th e s t a te.

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GRAD U AT ES. There is a much g reate r d em a nd for th e g ra d ua tes fro m the sch ool th a n we a re able t o su pply . . rin ci Faculty are ·lad t o correspo nd with Sch ool Boards , a nd to put th em in communi cati o n with the g ra du a tes wh o a rc see~ng m en ts t 1:; . u t"<lch . . E TRAN · .. Students ca n enter a t a ny tim e, but the best time is ir Se pte m ber. A m at ri c ul a ti o n fee o f_ five d o ll a r ; u l:ed on entering t,,. th e firs t time. This is a ll th a t is required exce pf t h t t stude nts rrf the hig h e r course, wo rkw g in 1 ones, a re required to '"'Y a labor a t ory fee o f o ne ollar a term a nd for a ctu a l b reaka • ·· Graduates return for a p<.,.,t-~~;raduate course, complete or pa1'tia l, pursuin g s u ch st "' T e fall term of t h e sehoul will begi n eptem ber 6 , I 89J · Cata logue a nd info r

Profile for Peru State College Library

1892-1893 Normal Courier issue 9  

1892-1893 newspaper issue 9 for now Peru State College, Peru, Nebraska

1892-1893 Normal Courier issue 9  

1892-1893 newspaper issue 9 for now Peru State College, Peru, Nebraska

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