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Psaltiki: the online journal Volume 3, Issue1. Summer 2011

INSIDE Lifting our Voices everett ferguson | Chant

Holy Week on Mount Athos Award psaltiki | Mission

Logos & Melos p.a. paschos | Hymnology

Regarding Spiritual Reading and Ecclesiastical Chant porphyrius kafsokalyvitis | Fathers

Kanons in the Great Compline konstantinos terzopoulos | Typikon

w w w . p s a l t i k i . o r g

www.psaltiki.org/journal/


T H E P S A LT I K I J O U R N A L V O LU M E 3 , I S S U E 1. S U M M E R 2 0 11 Mount Athos

Cover Philotheou Monastery, “Christ Pantokrator.”

Psaltiki, Inc.

psaltikiMission Dedicated to the Byzantine Chant heritage.

Contributors

Everett Ferguson

Lifting our Voices The a capella nature of music in the Christian Church.

Saint Maximus Confessor (VIIth Century)

Mystagogy What do the divine songs symbolize?

Psaltiki, Inc.

The Psaltiki Holy Week on Mount Athos Award  The second recipient of the Award, the Rev. Deacon John Efthymios Afendoulis.

P.B. Paschos

Logos & Melos Prayer, poetry, the Psalter and the origins of ecclesiastical hymnography.


Elder Porphyrius Kafsokalyvitis

Regarding Spiritual Reading and Ecclesiastical Chant Saintly advice on the value of spiritual reading and the Church’s chant tradition.

Konstantinos Terzopoulos

Kanons in the Great Compline Discussing the use of canons in the Great Compline during the Great Fast. Tables for the year 2011 in both the new-style and oldstyle calendar traditions.

Psaltiki: The Online Journal — Editor: Rev. Dr. Konstantinos Terzopoulos, email: frc@psaltiki.org; Editorial Assistant: Thomas Carrol. Mailing Address: P.O. Box 149161, Orlando, FL 32814. Psaltiki, Inc. is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization in the State of Florida dedicated to the advancement of the Psaltic Art in America and its study around the world. Copyright Statement: All “content” of this publication (including but not limited to all documents, programs, and images on this page and related pages of the Psaltiki Web Site, www.psaltiki.org) is protected by U.S. and international copyright law under one or more of the following copyrights, or other copyrights to content of particular pages of this site. ISSN 1946-7532. Copyright © 2008 Psaltiki, Inc. and the Authors. Email: psaltiki@psaltiki.org All Rights Reserved. The copyright holders provide the content online as reference material for educational or cultural purposes. The content is provided “as is” without any warranty whatsoever. Commercial use of the content is prohibited except by express, written license. For submission requests, contributors should supply three copies of their transcript. All transcripts should be double spaced with generous margins. Footnotes and indented quotations should also be double spaced. Electronic submissions should be in the .rtf format with an accompanying .pdf. The editors will consider all typescripts as quickly as possible. All musical examples, tables, images and diagrams should be written on separate sheets and identified by captions. For general matters of style and spelling contributors should consult the mla Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd ed. by the Modern Language Association. Upon acceptance for publication, Psaltiki will request a short biography of the author, as well as any contact information that the contributor wishes to be included with the article. The Journal requires contributors to obtain clearance for any copyright materials reproduced in their articles. The fact that the Journal appears primarily online, with a downloadable print version may further complicate the issue. When in doubt seek advice. All accepted articles will be archived within the Psaltiki site in their .html and .pdf forms. Articles must be submitted in English, although they can also be simultaneously posted in Greek, German or Russian versions supplied by the author.


PSALTIKIMISSION Perpetuating the Psaltic Heritage saltiki, Inc. is a non-profit organization promoting the advancement and perpetuation of the Psaltic Art, better known as Byzantine and post-Byzantine chant and Hymnology.

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Psaltiki supports the chant heritage and tradition through the creative initiating of educational projects, the development of various multimedia, online resources, publications, recordings, as well as financial gifts in support of worthy projects, individual scholars, researchers and musicians engaged in exemplary activities and endeavors related to Psaltiki’s purpose. Ὥσπερ γὰρ τὰ τῆς ψυχῆς νοήματα γνωρίζομεν καὶ σημαίνομεν δι’ ὧν προφέρομεν λόγων, οὕτως, τῆς πνευματικῆς ἐν ψυχῇ ἁρμονίας τὴν ἐκ τῶν λόγων μελῳδίαν σύμβολον εἶναι θέλων ὁ Κύριος, τετύπωκεν ἐμμελῶς τὰς ᾠδὰς ψάλλεσθαι, καὶ τοὺς ψαλμοὺς μετ’ ᾠδῆς ἀναγινώσκεσθαι. Just as we make known and signify the thoughts of the soul through the words we express, so too the Lord wished the melody of the words to be a sign of the spiritual harmony of the soul, and ordained that the canticles be sung with melody and the psalms be read with the canticles.

—Saint Athanasius the Great (ad 296-373), Letter to Marcellunus. Helen Petriti-Stratigos Memorial Fund n Memorium—Helen Petriti-Stratigos (Aegina: November 8, 2010) Memorial Fund Established. At the family’s request, the Helen Petriti-Stratigos Memorial Fund has been established in order to perpetuate her heartfelt love for the Church’s chant heritage.

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We pray for the eternal rest and repose of the servant of


God, Helen, a long-time resident of Sausalito, CA. To donate visit: www.psaltiki.org/stratigos/ 2011 Psaltiki Holy Week on Mount Athos Award Recipient he Rev. Deacon John Efthymios Afendoulis is the recipient for the 2011 Psaltiki Holy Week on Mount Athos Award. He is a Master of Divinity student in his final year of studies at Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology (Brookline MA). Endowed with a keen interest in the Psaltic Art, Fr. John was a doublemajor at UCLA, where he studied Ethnomusicology and History, graduating in 2003.

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www.psaltiki.org/athos/ Mission saltiki is dedicated to education, empowering, and connecting the next generation of chanters in America. We are dedicated to enriching and informing the present environment of psaltic culture in America in order to enhance and cultivate a spirit of excellence worthy of this great musical inheritance and the spiritual benefits it provides via the Orthodox liturgical life, the arts and beyond.

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All projects are geared toward the advancement of the Psaltic Art, its application, appreciation, preservation and perpetuation by focusing on at least one of the following core areas: 1. Education, 2. Visibility, and 3. Psaltic Community. Established in the year 2007 and receiving 501(c)(3) classification in 2008, Psaltiki, Inc. is presently in its plenary first phase. In this phase the organization looks toward foundational development and strategic planning. Psaltiki is studying the prospects of providing educational services by utilizing the electronic mediums available


today. Today, Byzantine chant is a rapidly vanishing sacred art form in America. Unfortunately, past generations of chanters have not left behind a new generation of pupils. For various reasons, the Church has not developed a formal educational system to ensure the continuation of our Byzantine chant heritage. Partial, inadequate, piecemeal solutions have not resulted in the needed creation of a sustainable educational plan that could be fruitful in supplying the Church with a continuous, renewable source of personnel to carry on this all-important ministry and great spiritual heritage. It is not that the talent and desire do not exist. Whenever people of musical aptitude are exposed to Byzantine chant, they are often fascinated and desire to explore. The aural tie with our ancient Christian roots and this uniquely Orthodox art form is spiritually uplifting and inspirational. Unfortunately, teachers are nowhere to be found. In our seminaries instruction is aimed toward the practical, non-specialized needs of preparing the clergy, who are not necessarily musically inclined. Due to financial, linguistic, and geographic obstacles, schools of chant do not exist in America and have not been integral to the American Orthodox experience. Self-help resources abounding on the Web usually assume a certain level of familiarity and knowledge of the chant tradition and are not designed to produce chanters or provide a complete educational experience. Past attempts to transpose the chant corpus into Western Notation have often either over-simplified or distorted the melodies to the point where they are unrecognizable, awkward and uninspired, failing to bring about the desired results. In short, no viable means exists to successfully introduce and train chanters and readers to serve the liturgical needs of the Church. At Psaltiki we believe it is time to re-order and re-imagine how one can learn this rich Orthodox liturgical heritage. In harmony with the Book of Psalms of the ProphetKing David, the hymnographic and chant heritage of the Orthodox Church stands at the very center of its spiritual


and liturgical life. The Church has always lived in a mystic link between earth and heaven using the Divine Services to raise the faithful to the eternal reality of the heavenly Church triumphant. Her divine poetry and chant are important partners in this process of anagogy—raising the hearts of the faithful to the Lord. Along with the beauty of the Church’s architecture, the oil lamps burning before the holy Icons, the vestments, readings and the scent of incense, the words of the divine hymns—logos— and melodies of the sacred chants—melos—point the faithful to the eternal reality which the earthly eye has not seen, nor ear heard (Isaiah 64.4; 1 Corinthians 2.9). The story of our Orthodox hymnography is one at the heart of our liturgical life, one richer and more surprising than we have been told. Beginning with the earliest known Christian hymn written with ancient Greek Hypolydian musical notation in a late third century papyrus fragment (Oxyrhynchus No. 1786), Orthodox chant notation continues to develop its unique forms. Soon after the Iconoclastic period in the eighth century, new forms of Byzantine chant notation emerged with the compilation of the Oktoechos hymnbook of Eight Modes by Saint John of Damascus. The musical tradition continued to grow, providing the Church with master composers hundreds of years before the Classical musical tradition even began in the West, including such notable figures as Romanos Melodus, Xenos Korones, Joannes Glykys, Joannes Koukouzeles, and others. The chant tradition was passed down through the centuries in the Church, both East and West (although it would take a different course in the West). Through the work of the Three Teachers, Gregorios, Chourmouzios and Chrysanthos, in 1814 the tradition finally reached its present notational form, commonly referred to as the New Method. For many Orthodox Christians in America, basic questions concerning the venerable art of Byzantine liturgical chant abound: What is Byzantine chant, and where does it come from? What purpose does it serve, and how did it take on its present form, style, and unique sound? How can I learn when I have no teacher? While


interest is on the rise, resources to learn this ancient art form and assure its continuation in America are inadequate. Psaltiki is dedicated to these needs. Psaltiki relies on volunteers and donations of money, materials and services to create and conduct its projects. We look forward to your participation! www.psaltiki.org


CONTRIBUTORS EVERETT FERGUSON (“Lifting our Voices”)

is Professor of Church History Emeritus at Abilene Christian University. He is the recipient of numerous academic and scholarly honors and a member of the Council of the association internationale d’etudes patristiques and past president of the North American Patristics Society. In 1998 he was presented with a festschrift, The Early Church in Its Context: Essays in Honor of Everett Ferguson (Leiden). Dr. Ferguson has been co-editor of the Journal of Early Christian Studies. P.B. PASCHOS (“Logos and Melos: Chapter Two”) is Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Byzantine Hymnography in the School of Theology of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece. A prolific author, his publication Logos and Melos (Athens 1999) is a practical pre-introduction to the study of the Byzantine liturgical hymnography of the Orthodox Church based on his course lectures.

ELDER PORPHYRIUS KAFSOKALYVITIS (“Regarding Spiritual Reading and Ecclesiastical Chant”) was born in 1906 on the Island of Evia. By the age of fourteen the young Porphyrius—then still known by his baptismal name of Evangelos—had dedicated himself to strict asceticism and prayer as it was practiced at the hermitage of Saint George at the Skete of the Kafsokalyvia, in the “desert” at the


southern tip of Mount Athos. His counsels to literally thousands of faithful who were blessed to receive his spiritual guidance have proven to be a treasure of practical spirituality for the contemporary soul. KONSTANTINOS TERZOPOULOS (“Kanons in the Great Compline”) is a Greek Orthodox Priest on the Island of Aegina, a theologian and published scholar in the fields of Byzantine Chant and Liturgy. He is the Executive Director and co-founder of Psaltiki, Inc., the author of Ὁ Πρωτοψάλτης τῆς Μεγάλης Ἐκκλησίας Κωνσταντῖνος Βυζάντιος (Athens 2004), the upcoming annotated translation with an introduction of the Protheoria of the Biolakes Typikon, a recipient of the 2011 Music & Letters Journal Award and currently preparing a critical edition of St Anastasius Sinaita’s Homilia de sacra synaxi.


LIFTING OUR VOICES BY E V E R E T T F E R G U S O N


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This article is adapted from Everett Ferguson’s book, A Cappella Music In Public Worship, which is being reissued in its third edition by Star Bible Publishing. Used by permission. February 2000, Gospel Advocate, pgs. 12-13. Psaltiki: the Online Journal thanks the author for permission to use this article.

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uring my graduate study days at Harvard, I lived in the same dormitory with a Greek Orthodox student who was a graduate of the University of Athens and a candidate for the master’s of theology degree at Harvard. I asked him if it was correct that the Greek Orthodox churches did not use instrumental music in their public worship. He said, “Yes.” Then, I inquired as to the reasons why. His reply was most interesting to me: “We do not use instrumental music because it is not in the New Testament, and it is contrary to the nature of Christian worship.” He stated my case for unaccompanied church music better than I could. In elaborating my reasons for defending a cappella music in the public worship of the church, I would like to apply a method of approach that I have found helpful in considering disputed matters of Christian practice. This methodology involves three steps: 1. an analysis of the New Testament evidence, 2. a testing of one’s interpretation of the New Testament by the testimony of church history, and 3. a consideration whether there is a doctrinal or theological reason that explains or gives meaning to the biblical and historical evidence. New Testament Evidence

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ccording to the New Testament evidence, instrumental music was not present in the worship of the early church. Singing incontestably was present in the corporate life of the early Christians (1 Corinthians 14:15; Colossians 3:16; Ephesians 5:19), and this was rooted in the practice of Jesus with His disciples (Mark 14:26). But there is no clear reference to instrumental music in Christian worship in any New Testament text. We may note in passing that the New Testament passes no negative judgment on instrumental music per se. It makes neutral references to playing on instruments (Matthew 11:17), uses instruments for illustrations—with unfavorable connotations it may be noted (1 Corinthians 13:1; 14:7) and compares the heavenly worship to the sound of instruments—



LIFTING OUR VOICES

probably under the influence of Old Testament and temple practice (Revelation 14:2). The situation is simply that instruments are not referred to in the church’s worship. Testimony of History

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n J. W. McKinnon’s doctoral dissertation, The Church Fathers and Musical Instruments [Columbia University, 1965], later summarized in his article “The Meaning of the Patristic Polemic against Musical Instruments” [Current Musicology, Spring, 1965, pp. 69-82], McKinnon presents information about the history of instrumental music in the church. His studies put the introduction of instrumental music—first the organ— even later than the dates found in reference books. It was perhaps as late as the 10th century that the organ was played as part of the worship service. This makes instrumental music one of the late innovations of the medieval Catholic church. And that was only in the Western branch of Christendom, not in the Eastern Orthodox branch, which we have seen still today does not use an instrument in worship—except for congregations under the influence of Western churches. Even in the West, the acceptance of instrumental music has not been uniform. The Reformed and Anabaptist branches of Protestantism eliminated the instrument as a Catholic corruption and only came to reaccept it— and then not uniformly—about the time instruments were being introduced into churches of the Restoration Movement. Thus, to abstain from the use of the instrument is not a peculiar aberration of a frontier American sect; this is easily the majority tradition of Christian history. Virtually no one has said it is wrong to worship a cappella, whereas many have thought instrumental music in worship is wrong. A cappella music is truly the ecumenical ground to occupy. The church’s nonuse of instrumental music is in contrast to the surrounding religious world. Any nonuse of instrumental music was not in the same category with nonuse of loud speakers. Instrumental


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music was available and was part of the surrounding religious practices. Pagan religions used instruments to accompany their sacrifices and to arouse the emotions of their worshipers. The instruments accompanied song. If the church were going to reject instrumental music because of its association with pagan worship, song should have been rejected too. The temple cult of the Old Testament also employed instrumental music as an accompaniment to its sacrifices. Here, indeed, we may have a clue to the nonuse of instrumental music in Christian worship. When the Levitical priesthood and the sacrificial cult were abolished, naturally its accompaniments were too. Thus, the incense that accompanied the offering of animal sacrifices became a symbol of the prayers of the saints (Revelation 5:8), but there is no reference to literal incense used in early Christian worship and several references in early Christian literature explicitly disowning it. Similarly something external and mechanical like instrumental music was superseded by the songs of praise. Historical evidence makes it most unlikely that use of an instrument is implied in the term psallo, the Greek term for “music,” in the New Testament and shows that the absence of clear reference to instrumental music in the church’s worship in early days was not accidental. It was not mentioned because it was not there, not because there was no occasion to refer to it. There is no time when we can point to an original use of instruments in the church being abandoned. The Nature of Worship

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hus far, we have seen that the testimony of church history and the circumstances of New Testament times point to a negative conclusion on the use of instrumental music in early Christian worship. Was there some reason, other than cultural or sociological, for the absence of instrumental music in early Christian worship? We turn now to the doctrinal or theological aspect of our study. It seems to me that this is the really


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conclusive consideration on which a decision about our practice today must be made. I would argue that a cappella music is more consistent with the nature of Christian worship. It is really the nature of Christian worship that determined early Christian practice and should determine our practice. Worship is what we offer to God. The important thing in Christian worship is not our uplift, what pleases our senses, of what we find aesthetically satisfying. Instrumental music may put me in a certain mood, may stir my heart, and may stimulate high sentiments (as well as lower or lesser sentiments), but my feelings are not my worship. Instrumental music performed by someone else cannot be something I offer to God. Our worship is to be determined by what is rational,

→


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spiritual and verbal, not by what is emotional, aesthetic or sensual. Worship is grounded in our relation to God, as creature to the Creator. That means we must come before God on His terms. The gifts we offer are those He appoints. Instrumental music was an act of worship and not an aid in the Old Testament. It was a separate act. Playing an instrument is doing something different from singing. To offer mechanical music would require explicit authorization from God. When Paul was confronted with disorders in the worship assembly of the church at Corinth, he invoked the standard of what “edifies the church” to govern the conduct of the worshipers (1 Corinthians 14:4, 6, 9, 12, 19, 26). What goes on in the assembly must be intelligible, understandable. Rational, spiritual, vocal music corresponds to this criterion. “[E]ach one has a hymn, a lesson, a revelation, a tongue, or an interpretation. Let all things be done for edification” (1 Corinthians 14:26 rsv). It is difficult to conceive of instrumental music contributing to the biblical meaning of edification, building one up in the faith. It is more likely to interfere with the purposes of edification than to contribute to them. The type of vocal praise that evolved in the synagogue and the early church made instrumental music irrelevant. It is only the instrumentally conceived music of modern times that makes us think differently. It is no wonder, therefore, that historians and interpreters of church music agree that a cappella singing is the purest and highest type of church music. Many quotations could be assembled on this theme. Historians may not agree on an exclusive stand, but they do agree that this is the classic form of church music. I should not be understood as saying that just because the singing is unaccompanied it measures up to these standards of Christian worship—as edifying, spiritual, and an appropriate offering of man to God. I am simply saying that vocal music is best fitted to express the nature of Christian worship.


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Conclusion

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e are on good historical and theological grounds to engage in a cappella music in our public worship. This is safe, ecumenical ground that all can agree is acceptable. Instrumental music cannot be confirmed as authorized in the text of the New Testament. It did not exist in worship until centuries after the New Testament was written. Vocal music is more consistent with the nature of Christian worship. Neither side of the instrumental music controversy has had a monopoly on Christian love and humility, and neither side has reason for pride. My hope is that we can go beyond our recent history of bitterness and unite on the original undivided ground of the Restoration Plea. This should not be done out of the spirit “one side is right and the other wrong.” But let us be New Testament churches—in practice and in attitude, in loyalty to the Bible, and in the exercise of Christian freedom. ❦

Dr. Everett Ferguson is Professor of Church History Emeritus at Abilene Christian University. He is the recipient of numerous academic and scholarly honors and a member of the Council of the Association internationale d’etudes patristiques and past president of the North American Patristics Society. In 1998 he was presented with a festschrift, The Early Church in Its Context: Essays in Honor of Everett Ferguson, (Leiden). Dr. Ferguson has been co-editor of the Journal of Early Christian Studies.


LOGOS AND MELOS: CHAPTER TWO BY P. B. PA S C H O S


LOGOS AND MELOS

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t is well known to all how the earliest poetry of every civilization is religious. This is a reflection of their metaphysical roots, to which they return with love at every difficult or joyous moment, sometimes to receive strength and at other times to rest upon the Creator’s bosom, to give thanks, to glorify, to communicate with him, to open unto him their heart—whether it be full of pain or joy. And that is where the song begins, the Ode to the Beloved of one’s heart. With the word [logos] one can only speak, but one can chant with their heart, one can sing. This communication with God we call prayer. This very prayer a) can be personal, private, which is usually a lyrical word, an expression of joy, sorrow, supplication or petition or doxology, which proceeds with prose or rhythmic words from man’s soul to its Creator and Fashioner. Prayer b) can also be an expression of a religious community or group, in which case— according to the tradition preserved in the histories of civilizations—they are hymns clothed in music, which are often accompanied by religious dances when sung. In these cases the poetry helped the music and music the poetry in order to produce a synthetic form of sacred art, which would express the soul of the religious people at their liturgical gatherings. Of course, there have existed and do exist hymns that were simple verses, without a hint of genuine literary creativity and without the ability to touch the spiritual chords of man through sentimental means; these hymns, as is natural, disappeared and were slowly lost, covered by silence. Even when they do emerge from their silence, they employ the specialized philologist or linguist for that era, but not the religious or liturgical gathering. Conversely, poetry that pulsated with the esoteric power and intellectual elation in the hearts of men, hearts that wrestle for redemption, struggle to reach perfect repentance and to approach the paradise of salvation and theosis, that poetry, with is divine Byzantine melody, became the inseparable companion of the faithful at all their liturgical gatherings. But that poetry also became the refuge of each one separately, in

P.B. Paschos is distinguished emeritus professor of Byzantine Hymnography in the School of Theology of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. His publication Logos and Melos is a practical pre-introduction to the study of the Byzantine liturgical hymnography of the Orthodox Church based on his introductory course lectures. The Psaltiki Online Journal is proud and blessed to have the author’s permission to publish this practical guide in English translation.

Prayer and Poetry



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their personal hour of great sorrow or joy. “Is any among you afflicted? Let him pray. Is any merry? Let him sing psalms” (James 5:13). Hebrew Poetry

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he religiousness and reverence of the Hebrew people is most clearly etched throughout all their literature. In the Old Testament we follow almost all the stages of their spiritual life, their experiences, their transitions, their joys and sorrows. Especially in the poetic books of the Old Testament, that wealth of varied feelings and emotions of the Hebrew people are expressed and which break out in hymns of wonder, thanksgiving, and gratitude to Yahweh. The infirmity and sinfulness of weak man and God’s greatness and omnipotence are revealed. From these contrasts and parallels effortlessly comes the hymn of praise to the redeeming God, who, after a few or much trial give redemption and salvation to the righteous, while punishing and chastening the unrighteous and “lawless.” If one excludes Job, where we have epic and dramatic elements, if not even tragic, the rest of the poetic books of the Old Testament are lyrical. It has been remarked by specialists how in this lyric poetry belong the following forms: hymns, vow, thanksgiving, various odes or canticles, elegy, parable, allegory, apothegm, testament, proverb, enigma and silos [satire] (cf. Th. Borea, Hebrew poetry, “Analekta,” 1, Athens 1937, pp. 255 ff.). In the majority of the poetic books of the Old Testament, their lyric elements are incorporated with historic elements in a characteristic way, often giving the ultimate impression of a didactic and gnomic poetry. The same holds true for a good part of the historic and prophetic books, but even more so, of course, for the Deuterocanonical books read often the festal vespers services throughout the liturgical year (Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach, etc.). The Psalter

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rom the simple and less artful in form ancient Hebrew poems we reach the first period of development, the years of King David. With David


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and his psalms we enter the second period the poetry’s development, which is simultaneously the colophon of its glory. David and Solomon are its master composers. All later Hebrew poets continued or imitated their poetic art, with either more or less competence. The themes of Hebrew poetry are joy, sorrow, love, anger, lament, repentance, and most of all the feeling of dependence on God. Especially in the Psalter of David the religious elements become more intense and deep. For this reason the Psalms became the liturgical book of Hebrew worship par excellence. The shape and content of the Psalms compete to see which will reach the height of perfect first. This marriage of beautiful aesthetic form and rich, vital content make for the basic characteristics of every high form of poetry. Origins of Ecclesiastical Hymnography

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o matter the theme being addressed and no matter how it is sung, the poetry of the Psalter always contains at its depth a religious hue, if not a deep and clear spirituality. For this reason it never ceased to be used liturgically in the Jewish Synagogue, even after Christ’s appearance. It is not strange, then, that the first Christians “from the Hebrews” continued to use the Book of Psalms in their worship, which, according to Saint Athanasius the Great, “contains even the emotions of each soul, and it has the changes and rectifications of these delineated and regulated in itself ” (A Letter to Marcellinus: pg 27.20). The Fathers of the Church see in the Psalms the voice of the Messiah speaking prophetically to His people and the chosen people to their Messiah. Saint Basil the Great does not hesitate to call the Book of Psalms “the Voice of the Church” (Homily on Psalm 29: pg 29.313). This is the case because the main creator of the Psalter, David, enters the center of the new Church’s worship, as emphasized by Saint John Chrysostom:

And everyone offers him with their mouth instead of myrrh. In the churches there are vigils, and David is first and middle and last. In the singing of morning


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hymns David is first and middle and last. In the tents at funeral processions David is first and last. In the houses of virgins there is weaving, and David is first and middle and last. What a thing of wonder! Many who have not even made their first attempt at reading know all of David by heart and recite him in order. Yet it is not only in the cities and the churches that he is so prominent on every occasion and with people of all ages; even in the fields and deserts and stretching into uninhabited wasteland, he rouses sacred choirs to God with greater zeal. In the monasteries there is a holy chorus of angelic hosts, and David is first and middle and last. In the convents there are bands of virgins who imitate Mary, and David is first and middle and last. In the deserts men crucified to this world hold converse with God, and David is first and middle and last. And at night all men are dominated by physical sleep and drawn into the depths, and David alone stands by, arousing all the servants of God to angelic vigils, turning earth into heaven and making angels of men” (On Repentance: pg 54.12).

In agreement with contemporary witnesses, the religious poetry of the Psalms had not only penetrated the liturgical life, but also all the other moments of personal life of the first Christians—whenever one needed to express his faith, either alone or with others. Based on information supplied by contemporary witnesses, and especially the Apostle Paul, later researchers note that parallel to the use of the Psalms, other hymns and ode began to be employed. Paul’s Epistle to the Colossians contains a representative passage, which is repeated in Ephesians (5:19-20): “Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom; teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord” (Col. 3:16). Many interpret the terms in this passage as being synonymous; however, we should accept that, as the term “psalmos” came to be exclusively used over time to denote the Psalms of David, the term “hymnos” must have referred to early Christian songs of worship (P.K Christou, Θεολογικὰ Μελετήματα 4,


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Ὑμνογραφικά, Thessalonike 1981, pp. 18 ff.). Of course, other interpretations of these terms can be from various researchers; among them, Egon Wellesz stands out. In his A History of Byzantine Music and Hymnography (2nd ed., Oxford 1961, pp. 32 ff.) he maintains that in accordance with the character of the feast a psalm refers to either a simple recitation or elaborate cantillation of one of Psalms of David. A hymn is a poetic text with initially a character of praise, like those preserved in the New Testament. In this case the music can be simple or advanced. Finally, the spiritual odes were songs of the melismatic type, exultant songs of praise, which passed from the Synagogue into the Christian Church (cf. K. Metsakes, Bυζαντινὴ ὑμνογραφία, vol. 1, Thessalonike 1971, pp. 39 ff.). Notwithstanding the interpretation of these terms, the irrefutable truth remains, that during the first Christian centuries the faithful felt the strong need to express their faith not only to God, in general, but also to the Christ-Savior and Holy Spirit, to the Holy Trinity, and new hymns are composed for this purpose. Certainly, when the various groups of heretics would compose their own hymns with beautiful melodies, appealing rhythms and meters, but with heretical content, the Church would analogous hymns with even better rhythms for use in the new common worship, requiring melody, rhythm and meter in order to be attractive to the believers. This the Church did out of its concern to maintain the Orthodox faith (A. Phytrakes, “Ἡ ἐκκλησιαστικὴ ἡμῶν ποίησις,” Epostemonike Epeteris tes Theologikes Scholes tou Panepistemiou Athenon, 19551956, p. 13 ff.). Witnesses from the first Christian centuries (Pliny, Justin, and others) we can assume that the first Christian hymns were written to be chanted during the celebration of the holy Eucharist (E.G. Pantelakes, “Αἱ ἀρχαὶ τῆς ἐκκλησιαστικῆς ποιήσεως,” Theologia 16, 1938, p. 25 ff.), as well as for other worship gatherings. But we will say more about those hymns below (Chapter a.1.c). •


MYSTAGOGY M A X I M U S C O N F E S S O R 7th centur y

What do the divine songs symbolize? The spiritual sweetness of the divine songs reveals the beauty of the sacred good things; that which moves souls toward the pure and blessed eros, and also arouses the soul even more to despise sin. The divine melodies of the hymns reveal the divine pleasure and gratitude, created in the souls of all. Those who mystically intone them abandon past struggles of virtue and are plunged with youthful energy into the ceaseless struggle for the divine and incorrupt good things yet to come.


THE PSALTIKI HOLY WEEK ON MOUNT ATHOS AWARD

Panagia Glykophilousa: 13-c. panel icon (122 x 73.5 cm.)

BY P S A LT I K I , I N C .


T H E P S A LT I K I H O LY W E E K ON MOUNT ATHOS AWARD

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ince 2009 Psaltiki, Inc. is the proud sponsor of the Holy Week on Mount Athos Award (www.psaltiki.org/athos/), established to provide the opportunity for a student of Byzantine Chant to spend Holy week in a Mount Athos monastery. The purpose of the Award is to allow students of the Byzantine chant tradition to come into contact with the living psaltic heritage in one of its most traditional settings, the Monastic Republic of Mount Athos. The Award is geared toward providing access to artistic excellence and reinvigorating the chant tradition in America, where most students of this traditional art form do not have the opportunity to witness the chant in its native liturgical setting. The 2011 Recipient: Fr. John E. Afendoulis

P Psaltiki is a nonprofit organization, tax exempt under Section 501(c)(3), based in Orlando, Florida whose mission is to provide educational resources toward the promotion and advancement of Byzantine Chant. Psaltiki is dedicated to educating, empowering and connecting the next generation of chanters in America in order to enhance and cultivate a spirit of excellence worthy of this great liturgical music inheritance.

The Sacred Monastery of Saint Xenophon, Mount Athos

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his year’s hosting monastic community is the Sacred Monastery of Saint Xenophon. The year 1998 marked the monastery’s first millennium of existence. Tradition places a certain Hosios Xenophon who was also a senator on the site as early as the 6th century; however, the

www.psaltiki.org

saltiki is delighted to announce the 2011 recipient, the newly-ordained Rev. Deacon John Efthymios Afendoulis. He is a student in his final year of the Masters of Divinity program at Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology in Brookline, Massachusetts. Endowed with a keen interest in the chant heritage of our Church, Fr. John was a double-major at UCLA, where he studied Ethnomusicology and History (2003) before enrolling at Holy Cross. He as also conducted independent research with Prof. Maria Alexandru (Aristotelian University of Thessalonike). With God’s help, Fr. John will be spending Holy Week 2011 at the Sacred Monastery of St. Xenophon on Mount Athos, all expenses paid by Psaltiki, thank to our generous financial supporters. Psaltiki also expresses its gratitude to the Geron Abbot Fr. Alexios and his brotherhood for receiving our recipient.


T H E P S A LT I K I H O LY W E E K ON MOUNT ATHOS AWARD

Saint Demetrius: 11th-c. mosaic icon (136 x 73 cm.)

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T H E P S A LT I K I H O LY W E E K ON MOUNT ATHOS AWARD

monastery’s documented history begins in the 10th century, when the then abbot of the community, another Xenophon, attains funding to build the first katholikon (main Church) next to the existing chapel of St. Demetrius. He dedicated this Church to Saint George the Great Martyr and trophy-bearer. The Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Comnenos is the monastery’s first benefactor. Like many of the older monastery’s on Athos, the Katholikon is a monument to 10-century Byzantine Church architecture and art. The original mosaic floor is still in place, as are the 6th-century Christian columns and the marble panels of he 11th-century templum. The iconography and wall frescoes are from the 16th and 17th centuries. The new, Great Katholikon was built in the 19th century, is adorned by eight domes and a marble iconostasis sculpted by a certain Antonios Litra of the Island of Tinos. Housed in the sacred alter of the Great Katholikon is the famous Xenophon icon of the Panagia Keharitomene, the beautiful panel icon of the All-holy Virgin Mary and Theotokos that adorns the front page of this article. The present Abbot, the Archimandrite Alexios came to Xenophon on Athos with a small group of fathers from the Meteora in Central Greece to assist the then elderly remnant of fathers that had persisted at the monastery after the Second World War. In those thirty-some years the brotherhood has continued to grow and is one of the most vibrant monastic communities on Mount Athos. The Xenophon brotherhood has a long tradition of dedication and cultivation with regards to our Psaltic heritage. Only two years after Abbot Alexios arrived at Xenophontos with his small brotherhood of 20 fathers from the Meteora, a group of German musicologists produced an album containing live recordings from the Paschal vigil. It appeared as an Archiv Produktion in 1979, “Easter on Mount Athos: the celebration of the night before Easter.” Since then the recording has been re-released as a cd with additional tracks from the Services of the Holy Passion. Psaltiki is humbled by their participation in our program of psaltic renewal. Past Recipients

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n the year 2009 the Psaltiki Holy Week on Mount Athos Award was received by another Holy Cross seminarian, Mr. George


T H E P S A LT I K I H O LY W E E K ON MOUNT ATHOS AWARD

Livaditis. A native of Corpus Cristi, Texas, at that time he was in his final year in the Master of Divinity program. He is presently working at the Saints Constantine and Helen Greek Orthodox Church in Brooklyn, New York. He spent Holy Week 2009 (April 11-21) in the Sacred Monastery of Simonopetra. The hospitality and Christian agape shared with George during those most holy days of the Orthodox liturgical year left a lasting impression. This is most evident in his reflections that have been published in the previous Volume 2 of the Psaltiki Online Journal (www.psaltiki. org/journal), “Pascha on Simon’s Rock: a personal reflection on my Holy Week experience in an Athonite monastery” (Vol. 2, No. 1. Fall-Winter 2009). George arrived on the Saturday of Lazarus and stayed through to Tuesday of Bright Week. The video below was created using photos and audio files he brought back with him! Click here to see a VIDEO glimpse of George’s visit to Mount Athos! http://youtu.be/yoTDxZsJKqc

Saint George the Great Martyr: 11th-century mosaic icon (136 x 65 cm.)


T H E P S A LT I K I H O LY W E E K ON MOUNT ATHOS AWARD

The Psaltiki Holy Week on Mount Athos Award

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saltiki, Inc. provides transportation to and from the select Athonite monastery for Holy Week, as well as securing the invitation from the monastery to the successful recipient of the Award. Transportation includes air travel to Thessalonike, Greece from Boston MA, as well as expenses for transportation from the Thessalonike airport to Ouranoupolis, the port for Mount Athos. A paid hotel reservation awaits the recipient there. The next morning the Diamoneterion (official visa to enter Mount Athos) must be attained from the Office for Pilgrims and departure on reserved transportation from Ouranoupolis to Daphne or the specific monastery commences. The successful recipient need only obtain a valid passport for international travel, as well as the necessary paperwork needed to enter the Monastic Republic of Mount Athos; details Psaltiki provides. The recipient is also expected to respect all monastery etiquette and rules during their visit. Psaltiki also asks they submit an article about their experiences to be published in the Psaltiki Online Journal. A Final Word

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f course, there is only one more word left to say. Psaltiki would love to have your help to make this and other projects a reality. Financial underwriting was proudly provided by Bold! technologies for this year’s Award. Please keep Psaltiki, Inc. in your prayers and if the good Lord leads you, visit our Web site and send a tax-deductable gift today. God’s blessings, always! •


REGARDING SPIRITUAL READING AND ECCLESIASTICAL CHANT BY E L D E R P O R P H Y R I U S K A F S O K A LY V I T I S


REGARDING SPIRITUAL Elder (Geron) Porphyrius was years—from 1940-1970. READING AND born in 1906 on the Island of In the 1970’s Elder E C C L E S I A S T I C A L C H A N T Evia. By the age of fourteen Porphyrius laid the the young Porphyrius—then foundations for a monastery still known by his baptismal Church in Milesi, Attica. name of Evangelos—had Plagued with illness dedicated himself to the strict throughout his life, the Elder asceticism and prayer as it eventually returned to the was practiced at the hermitage Kafsokalyvia—the monastery of Saint George at the Skete of his repentance—but on one of the Kafsokalyvia in the of two visits back to the Milesi “desert” at the southern tip of monastery, on December 2, Mount Athos. 1991, the Elder Porphyrius Soon after his arrival at the reposed in the Lord. Kafsokalyvia he was tonsured His counsels to literally a monk and received the thousands of faithful who name Nikitas. At age twentywere blessed to receive his one he was ordained to the spiritual guidance have Holy Priesthood and received proven to be a treasure of the name he would become practical spirituality for the known by, Porphyrius. contemporary soul. It seemed Gifted with the ability to beneficial to translate into Geron Porphyrius of the see prayers and discern souls, English some of the Elder’s Kafsokalyvia is counted Porphyrius quickly attained a advice regarding spiritual among the bright lights of the readings and the ecclesiastical spiritual firmament of the Greek name for being a charismatic spiritual father confessor and chant for the present offering. Orthodox Church that has guide. His reputation brought The excerpts that follow shown itself in the last century. many people to him in search were translated from the The excerpts that follow were of spiritual guidance. After a publication Γέροντος translated from the publication number of parishes on Evia, Πορφυρίου Καυσοκαλυβίτου, Γέροντος Πορφυρίου he ended up at the Chapel Λόγοι περὶ πνευματικῆς Καυσοκαλυβίτου· Λόγοι of Saint Gerasimos at the ζωῆς (Crete: Holy Monastery περὶ πνευματικῆς ζωῆς Polyclinic in Athens, where Chrysopigi, 2004 & 2008). (Crete: Holy Monastery he would remain for thirty Chrysopigi, 2004 & 2008). Through spiritual readings your soul will thrive and will be sanctified without great difficulty

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o you want to find joy in your life? Read the Holy Scripture; go to Church; approach Christ; love Him. Be attentive at the divine services, orthros, hours, vespers, compline, etc., because the Saints write their words. They are holy words, words of adoration toward Christ and our all-holy Mother of God. I give great emphasis to these things. Read each word clearly,



REGARDING SPIRITUAL READING AND ECCLESIASTICAL CHANT

with meaning, great desire and intimate devotion. If something makes an impression on you study it again privately. We write the book within us and we possess it whenever we need to recall it in order to deepen our understanding. Study it for a little while and write it inside yourself. If you love the words they captivate you. They contain treasures. When you chant the kanons do not just say the words, but relish them. In this way you will be sanctified quickly, without realizing it. And when you read the Psalter, read each word clearly, one by one. If only I could hear someone read the Psalter clearly! Oh, I would sit there in order to not miss a word. That is how I learned the Psalter, listening in Church. The Gospel, however, I learned by section, memorizing verse by verse. The kanons and troparia contain treasures

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received great benefit from reading the Psalter and the kanons; I learned not only to read, but whatever advice I give I learned from there. The kanons and troparia contain treasures. In them we find the ways of the Saints, how they loved Christ and triumphed over evil. They have equal value with the books of Saint Isaac, Saint Ephraim, and the others. Theophanes, the Damascene and other Saints wrote the kanons to the Saints. They praised the Saint whose ways they knew and showed us the means of repentance. The hymnographers were Saints. They included their own sentiments. This is why I say to you, pay attention to the kanons, the troparia, etc. Give yourself over to them with your soul. Savor them. Study them. I pray you come to love them like I did. Really, I never get enough of them; I relish in recalling them all, reciting them, chanting them. I received much from the kanons from my youth. I loved the troparia so much that after hearing them once or twice I learned them by heart. But learning them by heart is not the goal. The aim is to understand them, deepen your understanding and


REGARDING SPIRITUAL READING AND ECCLESIASTICAL CHANT

receive benefit. We study and memorize the kanons of the Saints, Holy Scripture and the books of the Fathers not to delude ourselves and be amazed at ourselves, recounting the number of books we have read and the number of verses we know by heart, not even in order to expand our knowledge, but we read them in order to learn them and put them into practice with the fear of God. The Fathers write their texts and troparia with the Holy Spirit; this is why they create masterpieces. Their composition is prayer. Each word is engraved, placed in such a way as not to be unnecessary. Like the builder who wants to create an edifice, paying attention to each stone that he will place, watching the lacing of the wall so it does not fall, the one who writes with prayer writes in good order, with harmony, because that harmony exists in his soul. Whoever lives something, lives it, is intertwined with it and writes it effortlessly. There is great benefit to whoever reads it, hears it, and is moved by it. There is, however, one danger. If we are not careful, we can hear them or chant them in a routine manner. We need to say them and hear them. We often hear the same thing many times and become bored; we grow tired of them and then comes the reaction. Then we feel no benefit, no joy. Despair begins and the devil does not miss the opportunity for evil. For this reason, give attention to every word. This needs holy ardor, commitment. I love the iambic kanons

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love the iambic kanons! John of Damascus has very lofty meanings. What good is culture? Here we have the Spirit of God. There is one line I really love, where it says, “And now they humbly pray for the regeneration…” (Νῦν ποτνιᾶται τῆς παλιγγενεσίας). I believe it is in the iambic kanon, in the second verse, third troparion of the Ninth Ode. Find it now.


REGARDING SPIRITUAL Πόθου τετευχὼς καὶ Θεοῦ παρουσίας READING AND ὁ χριστοτερπὴς λαὸς ἠξιωμένος, ECCLESIASTICAL CHANT

νῦν ποτνιᾶται τῆς παλιγγενεσίας, ὡς ζωοποιοῦ τὴν χάριν δέ, Παρθένε, νέμεις, Ἄχραντε, προσκυνῆσαι τὸ κλέος. The people that delights in Christ has attained its desire, Being counted worthy of the coming of God, And now they humbly pray for the regeneration that gives life. O undefiled Virgin, grant them the grace, To worship Christ in His glory. Listen, so you understand. It is one manner of doxology, prayer to God. Of old, when something unpleasant occurred, they would shave their head and cover it with ash, wept and mourned when they grieved. Like what happened with David when he sinned. He did something similar to show his contrition. We have comparable phenomena in the New Testament also. In ancient Greece “Potnia” was a leader of the Maenad women. Have you heard of the Maenads? There are the Maenads, Bacchae, and Eumenides. The Maenads in ancient Greek religion were ecstatic women in Kithaeron pines and worshiped Satan in an orgiastic manner. The “Potniadae” would bring themselves to a satanic frenzy. The poet uses these words, but with another meaning. The word “frenzy” is used by us Christians also, but with a completely difference meaning. There is a great difference. There, in idolatry, it occurs with satanic energy. Here, with a divine energy. There, Satan destroys in order to enslave a soul; here, the Grace of God comes to inspire, to sanctify, and to create a leap in the soul.


REGARDING SPIRITUAL READING AND ECCLESIASTICAL CHANT

Say the entire troparion: And they humbly pray for the regenerations that gives life. O undefiled Virgin, grant them the grace. To worship Christ in His glory. νῦν ποτνιᾶται τῆς παλιγγενεσίας ὡς ζωοποιοῦ τὴν χάριν δέ, Παρθένε, νέμεις, Ἄχραντε, προσκυνῆσαι τὸ κλέος. Okay, this is very important. It is a manner of prayer, doxology, and devotion. “Others mocking said, these men are full of wine” (Acts 2:13). Did they not say this about the Lord’s disciples on the day of Pentecost? There is another troparion that talks about the Bacchae, too; find it. Τὴν ἀγριωπόν, ἀκρατῶς γαυρουμένην Ἄσεμνα βακχεύουσαν, ἐξοιστρουμένου Κόσμου καθεῖλες, πανσθενῶς ἁμαρτίαν. Οὓς εἵλκυσε πρίν, σήμερον τῶν ἀρκύων Σῴζεις δὲ σαρκωθείς, ἑκὼν Εὐεργέτα. Though hast overthrown by Thine almighty power The fierce sin that raised its head in wanton pride, And raged with blasphemy throughout a world gone mad. Those whom in times past it dragged down, today Thou hast delivered from its snares, O Benefactor, who of Thine own will hast taken flesh.

This one, too, is important like the other, the previous one. It has another meaning, though. It shows what the idolaters did with the idols. But “the snares” it speaks of has the meaning that Christ delivers man from the snares of sin, set by Satan. Let’s see; is that how it works? “Though hast overthrown by Thine almighty power, the fierce sin that raised its head in wanton pride, and raged with blasphemy throughout a world gone mad. Those whom in times past it dragged down, today Thou hast delivered from its snares, O


REGARDING SPIRITUAL READING AND ECCLESIASTICAL CHANT

Benefactor, who of Thine own will hast taken flesh.” The “snares” are the nets. He set them free. They were caught there, enslaved. They were stuck in the nets. Today He frees them. Now you have come and freed those who were before ensnared in the nets by Satan. Think about how learned Saint John of Damascus was! He knew about the worship of the idolaters, how they worshiped their gods. Since when would we know these details so well? Music sanctifies man bloodlessly

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yzantine music is very beneficial. There should be no Christian who does not know Byzantine music. We should all learn. It has a direct relationship with the soul. Music sanctifies man bloodlessly, without difficulty. You become a Saint rejoicing. Harmony exists in man’s soul. In our primordial spiritual state this harmony existed. For this reason we say some people have charisma. This is because they are simple and primordial comes out. We were in harmony, but now we have fallen into disharmony and we are happy in it. Do you see these pans people play today? They try to make harmony, but it is hard to call this harmony. This, of course, has an effect on their psyche because they are confused by the harmony they think they hear. They enjoy the disharmony they hear. Am I saying this right? We now have the unnatural, the impostor. This is what man acquired in the forest. The “pans” agitate because they cultivate the deceptive. While the other one, possessing the primordial, authentic harmony is delighted and gratified in it and displeased by the “falsetto.” Byzantine music is very simple when the soul is enamored by it. What benefit this harmony is to the soul! The one who knows music and has humility also acquires the Grace of God. He may start to anger, to explode, but he is afraid of the disharmony because all sinful conditions are not within the score of harmony. In this way, a little at a time he comes to hate evil and


REGARDING SPIRITUAL READING AND ECCLESIASTICAL CHANT

to embrace virtue, which is harmony. All the virtues possess harmony. You cannot have anxieties if you have harmony. You can live in joy. If you see that some dark cloud is coming on the horizon of your soul, there is a troparion that says that even this darkness becomes a hymn to God. The same power that came to disturb you and would have devoured you is changed; it is as if you snatch the same power and sanctify it. There was once one who had a demon, King Saul, and David would go and chant and the demon would leave. He would go with the psalter—the psalter was a musical instrument. When the noonday demon of melancholy would seize him David would go and play the psalter and the demon would leave him. Where are all those seeking treatment for depression? When they learn Byzantine music and see the dark cloud coming to overwhelm them, wham!, they chant a doxastikon and the darkness that comes to overcome you in spiritual melancholy becomes a hymn to God. I believe this. I believe it completely. I tell you that a musician who loves music and who is pious came transform his difficulty into a musical composition or a song. In this way, instead of crying and being suppressed offers a doxology to God. I tell you, this is how I believe it; this is how I see it. It does not matter if one is ten years old or fifteen or twenty or even thirty years old. Everyone has the inclination from within. We all have it, if only we awaken it; it is enough to love the art. When you sing, however, if you do not have the Spirit of God the temptation of vanity comes and will trip you up. That joy, that rejoicing that I tell you of does not come. Jumbles of egotism come instead. Music, this holy thing, is supposed to pacify and harmonize. You cannot think of persons with music. You must be in time, in meter. Many were lost because of music. Many souls stumbled, became ill from conceit. Over there in the desert my Elders didn’t tell me to learn music. I wanted to. I didn’t learn, though, I was deprived of that knowledge. It is good to chant in the


REGARDING SPIRITUAL READING AND ECCLESIASTICAL CHANT

desert because you are unaffected. In contrast, when you go to Church you have the entire congregation on your mind; you may be looking at the icons, but you may also be thinking that everyone is listening to you and your ego grows. The musician can often lose his concentration and quality of performance; the spirit of egotism snares him. His mind may wander where it should not; a lot can happen. But you will say, “Should we shun music because it puts us into temptation?” No. We should learn music to enter into the spirit of Christ. •


KANONS IN THE GREAT COMPLINE KO N S TA N T I N O S T E R ZO P O U LO S

Whilst hymning thine Offspring, we all praise thee, O Theotokos (23rd Oikos of the Akathistos); 17th-century wall painting in Church of Hagia Kyriake, Paliachora, Aegina Island (Photo is © K. Terzopoulos)


KANONS IN THE GREAT COMPLINE

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rom Monday to Thursday in the first week of the Great Fast of the Orthodox Church the Great Kanon of St Andrew of Crete (circa 650-740) found in the Triodion hymnbook is divided into four parts chanted in the Great Apodeipnon (Compline), either directly after the doxology or at the beginning immediately after Psalm 69. The question is often raised as to which kanons should be done in the five weeks of the Great Fast that follow. The following is a discussion of this liturgical circumstance, offering historical context to the use of the kanon genre of hymns in relation to the special veneration reserved for the Mother of God and Theotokos inherited from Byzantium. This point of departure will be utilized in order to preface some practical matters regarding the liturgical function of the Compline Services, both Great and Small. In the process a word on the service’s theological interpretation as it has come down to us through the Church’s mystagogical tradition is offered, a review of it’s liturgical rubrics (taxis) and, finally, a pointed discussion on the diataxis in the ancient typika and so-called Biolakes Typikon of the Great Church as it relates the use of kanons in the Compline. The present contribution concludes with an addendum in the form of tables listing the kanons to be used in the Great Compline Service from the second to the sixth week of the Great Fast for the year 2011, one for the New Style and one for Old Style calendars. The Services of the Great and Small Compline: an historical glimpse

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eferences in the New Testament to daily prayer devotions (Ac. 1:14, 2:42, 6:4; Rom. 12:12; Col. 4:2) occasionally mention particular times of prayer, such as midday, περὶ ὥραν ἕκτην (Ac. 10:9), night, τῇ νυκτί (Ac. 12:5, 12) and midnight, κατὰ τὸ μεσονύκτιον (Ac. 16:25). The Didache1 clearly speaks of prayer three times

1 The Διδαχὴ also known as The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles is a late first or early second century Christian text referenced by Eusebius in the fourth century and recently re-discovered in 1873 by Philotheos Bryennios, Greek


KANONS IN THE GREAT COMPLINE

No hymn can recount the wealth of thy great compassion (Oikos 20 of the Akathistos); 17-th c wall painting from Hagia Kyriake Church, Paliachora, Aegina Island; © K. Terzopoulos

Orthodox Metropolitan of Nicomedia. Cf. Cyril Charles Richardson et al., Early Christian fathers (Library of Christian classics; London: SCM Press, 1953) at 167168. 2 Jean-Paul Audet, La didache : instructions des apotres (Etudes bibliques; Paris: Gabalda, 1958) at 8.3. 3 Paul F. Bradshaw, Early Christian worship : a basic introduction to ideas and practice (Collegeville, Minn.: Liturgical Press, 1996) 96 p. at 70-74. 4 S. Basilius and M. Monica Wagner (Tr.), Ascetical Works, ed. Roy Joseph Deferrari (The Fathers of the church, a new translation; New York: Catholic University of America Press, 1999) at 310. 5 Paul F. Bradshaw, Daily prayer in the early church : a study of the origin and early development of the divine office (Alcuin Club collections; London: Published for the Alcuin Club by SPCK, 1981) x, 191 p. at 100, 124-25, 130. On the patristic interpretation and significance of Psalm 90 to the theme of night protection, see Joannes Chrysostomus, ‘Αἶνος ᾠδῆς τῷ Δαυΐδ, ἀνεπίγραφος παρ’ Ἑβραίοις. Ψαλμὸς 90 [In Psalmum xc]’, in J.-P. Migne (ed.), Patrologiae Cursus Completus (series Graeca) (55; Paris, 1863), 759-762.

Konstantinos Terzopoulos is a Greek Orthodox Priest on the Island of Aegina, a theologian and published scholar in the fields of Byzantine Chant and Liturgy. He is the Executive Director of Psaltiki, Inc. and a recipient of the 2011 Music & Letters Fund award.

a day in chapter 8, section 3: τρὶς τῆς ἡμέρας οὕτω προσεύχεσθε.2 After St Constantine the Great prayers in the Churches would be conducted at particular, designated hours. Even ascetics in the Syrian and Egyptian deserts around Palestine would develop a mix of communal offices within the framework of their ceaseless prayer, according to the ancient Pauline admonition to “pray constantly” (1 Thess. 5:17; Rom. 12:12).3 Although uniformity cannot be asserted in either the east or the west, by the end of the fourth century psalmody after the evening meal and before sleep can be attested to in a number of important sources. In his list of suitable hours for prayer St Basil the Great relates in The Long Rules (Q. 37.), “Again, at nightfall, we must ask that our rest be sinless and untroubled by dreams.”4 Even though the earliest references to this psalmody before bed comes out of both the urban and Egyptian monastic traditions, the office would eventually make its way into the cathedral order. A common trait not only among the eastern forms, but also in the west, is the use of the 90th Psalm. The Sixth Hour usage is possibly associated with verse 6, “nor for the mishap and demon of noonday,” and the Compline usage with verse 5, “thou shalt not be afraid for the terror by night.”5 The 90th Psalm was also one of the three Psalms used in a liturgical relative of the Great Compline office, the cathedral Pannychis; it was


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chanted antiphonally with the refrain Φύλαξόν με, Κύριε.6 Other Psalms in the Great Compline also allude to the night, specifically Psalms 4, 6, 12 and 30: Be angry, and sin not; feel compunction upon your beds for what ye say in your hearts. Psalm 4:5 In peace in the same place I shall lay me down and sleep. Psalm 4:9 I toiled in my groaning; every night I will wash my bed, with tears will I water my couch. Psalm 6:5 How long shall I take counsel in my soul with grievings in my heart by day and by night? How long shall mine enemy be exalted over me? Psalm 12:2 Look upon me, hear me, O Lord my God; enlighten mine eyes, lest at my time I sleep unto death. Psalm 12:3 Into Thy hands I will commit my spirit. Psalm 30:5

In addition to the psalms, arranged in sets of three, the Great Compline—considered to be the more ancient of the two offices7—is also punctuated with especially beautiful specimens of early and middle Byzantine psalmody and hymnography. The antiphonal singing of verses from the Prophet Isaiah (chapters 8 and 9) with the Ὅτι μεθ’ ἡμῶν ὁ Θεὸς — For God is with us refrain is well known and beloved to the faithful. Possibly one of the oldest hymns is the Ἡ ἀσώματος φύσις — The bodiless nature of the Cherubim, an elevensyllabic poem which has been preserved in a papyrus from the sixth century—London, British Library Papyrus No. 1029.8

6 Ioannes M. Phountoules, Παννυχὶς (2 edn., Κείμενα λειτουργικῆς ; 2; Thessalonike: [s.n.], 1977) 40 p. 7 Phountoules alludes to origins sometime between the 14th and 15th centuries in Ioannes M. Phountoules, Λογικὴ Λατρεία (Thessalonike: Patriarchal Institute of Patristic Studies, 1971) 390 at 200. 8 Paul Maas, ‘Ein frühbyzantinisches Kirchenlied auf Papyrus’, Byzantinische Zeitschrift, 17 (1908), 307-311 at 307-311, Paul Maas, Frühbyzantinische Kirchenpoesie: Anonyme Hymnen des V-VI Jahrhunderts


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The most common names for this office appear as ἀπόδειπνον or ἀποδείπνιον. This means, literally, after dinner. The word compline in English is derived from the Latin completorium, possibly referring to the completion of the day. Some manuscripts will also refer to the office as ἀκολουθία τῶν προθυπνίων, which reveals the service’s clear correlation with sleep, as opposed to being a thanksgiving for the evening meal. As such its character is more of a private devotion and not always numbered among the “seven praises” (Ps. 118:164) of daily prayer.9 A Theological Hermeneutic of the Great Compline

I

n his treatise On Prayer, the last of the great Byzantine mystagogues, St Symeon Archbishop of Thessalonike relates the following regarding the office of Compline. During Great Lent—both in the large monasteries and everywhere—it is sung separately after Vespers and the meal, which takes place only once a day. [i] Compline of Great Lent, which is called “Great Compline,” is [ii] divided into three sections as a type of the Holy Trinity and for the propitiation of our sins… [iii] the psalms and prayers of Compline are penitential and confessional, seeking forgiveness and propitiation, and for us to pass the night unmolested and unpolluted by satanic fantasies, and to arise with zeal and eagerness at the time of the Midnight Office and Matins. [iv] The so-called “Small Compline” is termed so because it is briefer and one service, not divided into three sections like the other. It is recited daily, and its psalms are the same as the main ones of Great Compline. [ii] They are three as a type of the Holy Trinity. The most holy Creed is also recited as a confession of piety, and “It is worthy…” because of the incarnation of the Divine Word and the intercession of the Mother of God. In accordance with the patristic tradition,

(Bonn: Marcus & E. Weber’s Verlag, 1910) 32, Leo Schrade, Wulf Arlt, and Higini Anglès, Gattungen der Musik in Einzeldarstellungen : Gedenkschrift Leo Schrade (Bern ; München: Francke, 1973) v. 9 Phountoules, Λογικὴ Λατρεία at 199-205, Ioannes M. Phountoules, Λειτουργικὴ Α´: Εἰσαγωγὴ στὴ θεία λατρεία (Thessalonike, 1993) at 155-159.


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after the Creed we invoke the Mother of God and the angels and saints to intercede with God for us, as we invoke them in the Great Church, since it is essential in many respects to invoke those intercessors and helpers who are closer to God and have freedom of access and power. After that the prayer of the Trisagion is recited, being the start, middle, and end of all services, plus “Lord, have mercy” forty times, for the sanctification of the hours and days of our life—as also according to custom the invocation of the Mother of God as more honored than the Cherubim takes place so that she may keep and protect us under the shadow of her wings… [iv] You know that out of penitence Kanons are sung with Compline in the evenings, as also the Great Kanon and Kanons of the Theotokos, and the Service of the Akathistos every Friday evening—both in the holy monasteries and by many others.10

Just as St Basil revealed almost ten centuries earlier in his Long Rules, the Compline office’s ancient purpose can still be detected in the above description: [iii] sinless and untroubled rest. St Symeon’s description offers a distinction between [iv] the Small Compline for the entire year and [i] the Great Compline reserved for fast days, especially the Great Fast, [ii] the trifold Trinitarian structure of each, and, finally, [v] the use of Kanons. He makes special mention of the Great Kanon of St Andrew of Crete (8th c.),11 as well as the Akathistos.12 St Mark of Ephesus (d. 1444) also attests to two Compline offices, a longer one during the Holy Fast and a shorter one for the rest of the year. Both, however, are characterized as the last service of the day, as we go off to sleep, offering even the rest of our body

10 Archbishop of Thessalonike Symeon, Saint, Treatise on prayer : an explanation of the services conducted in the Orthodox Church (The Archbishop Iakovos library of ecclesiastical and historical sources no. 9; Brookline, Mass: Hellenic College Press, 1984) xi, 104 p at 68-70. 11 Cretensis Archiepiscopus S. Andreas Hierosolymitanus, ‘Magnus Canon’, in J.-P. Migne (ed.), Patrologiae cursus completus (series Graeca) (97; Paris, 1863), 1329-1386. 12 C. A. Trypanis, Fourteen early Byzantine cantica (Wiener byzantinistische Studien; Wien: Böhlau, 1968) at 29-39.


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as prayer to God.13 Byzantine witnesses of Kanon supplication: the Akathistos, supplications to the Mother of God, and the Great Kanon

T

he oldest extant monastic typikon from the year ad 1131, Messina manuscript gr 115,14 also makes a distinction between the Compline in the Great Fast and that for the rest of the year; however, another special kind of Compline described for use on Friday nights can also be detected. This unique office used in place of or in conjunction with the Compline receives a unique name, πρεσβείαν, that is, intercession.15 The other interesting element is the direct rubric stating, “On Friday evening we do not chant apodeipnon in the Church, but the presbeian, and not only in this Great Fast, but on all Fridays throughout the year, unless a feast of the Lord impedes.”16 Quite interesting is the rubric calling for the use of two, unnamed, specific kanons: Αὕτη ἡ τάξις τῆς πρεσβείας γίνεται τὸν ὅλον χρόνον. Εἰδέναι δὲ δεῖ, ὅτι β´ κανόνες εἰσὶν ἀφωρισμένοι, οὓς ψάλλομεν ἐν ταύτῃ· ὁ εἷς εἰς ἦχον δ´, καὶ ὁ ἄλλος εἰς ἦχον πλ. δ´. Καὶ τὸν μὲν ἕνα ψάλλομεν τῇ μιᾷ παρασκευῇ, τὸν δὲ ἕτερον τῇ ἑτέρᾳ, ποιοῦντες αὐτοὺς τροπάρια γ´. Ἀεὶ γὰρ οὕτως ψάλλομεν αὐτοὺς κατὰ ἀκολουθίαν. Ὅταν δὲ τύχῃ ὁ ἦχος τῆς ὀκταήχου ἦχος δ´ ἢ πλ. δ´, τότε οὐ τηροῦμεν τάξιν, ἀλλὰ τὸν κανόνα ψάλλομεν τοῦ ἐνεστῶτος ἤχου κὰν προεψάλθῃ τῇ παρελθούσῃ παρασκευῇ. Καὶ γίνεται τροπάρια δ´, καὶ ὁ ἐνάρξας χορὸς τὴν ᾠδὴν λέγει Δόξα καὶ νῦν. Εἰς δὲ τὴν θ γίνονται πέντε, ἄνευ τοῦ εἱρμοῦ, καὶ τὰ ἄνω δὲ τῶν εἱρμῶν. Καὶ λέγει ὁ ἐνάρξας χορὸς τῆς θ´· Δόξα, καὶ ὁ ἄλλος· Καὶ νῦν.17

13 Ephesius Metropolita Marcus Eugenicus, ‘Ἐξήγησις τῆς ἐκκλησιαστικῆς ἀκολουθίας [Expositio Officii Ecclesiastici]’, in J.-P. Migne (ed.), Patrologiae cursus completus (series Graeca) (160; Paris, 1863), 1164-1194 at 1185-88. 14 Miguel Arranz, Le Typicon du Monastère du Saint-Saveur à Messine: Codex Messinensis Gr 115, AD 1131. Introduction, texte critique et notes (Orientalia Christiana Analecta, 185; Roma: Pontificium Institutum Orientalium Studiorum, 1969) li + 449. 15 Ibid., at 210.24-211.27. 16 Ibid., at 210.24-27. 17 Ibid., at 211.18-27.


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The indication for the use of two specifically dedicated kanons alternating between mode four and its plagal immediately conjures the thought that may have reference to the anonymous kanon of the Small Paraklesis in mode IV plagal, Πολλοῖς συνεχόμενος πειρασμοῖς,18 and the kanon for the feast of the Annunciation (25 March) in mode IV, the main feast of the Virgin Mary, used today also for the Office of the Akathistos and attributed to Joseph the Hymnographer, Ἀνοίξω τὸ στόμα μου.19 A further similarity includes the Psalm 142 – Θεὸς Κύριος — apolytikia — supplicatory kanon unit,20 which is also imitated in the contemporary Paraklesis office structure. While these speculations are most certainly anachronistic, the only truly scientific line of inquiry would have to depend on research in the manuscript tradition of both typika and hymnographic manuscript sources of Constantinopolitan providence, which would be a worthy line of investigation. Nevertheless, the similarity with the alternating Great and Small supplicatory kanons of the 15-day August fast period of the Orthodox Church is a tempting analogy and points to the possibility of at least an early precedent.21 Another uniting faction is the term παράκλησις (which means supplication) used for a special service on Friday of the first week of the Fast in the typikon of the Evergetis monastery founded in the eleventh century in Constantinople.22 Although research is lacking in this area and no “salutations to the Mother of God” in the Compline are 18 Orthodox Eastern Church, Ὡρολόγιον τὸ Μέγα, ed. Bartholomaios Koutloumousianos Of Imbros (Venice: Hellenikou typographeiou tou Hagiou Georgiou, 1856) at 408-415. 19 Josephus Hymnographus, ‘Εἰς τὸν ὕμνον ἀκάθιστον τῆς ὑπεραγίας Θεοτόκου Κανὼν Ϛ´’, in J.-P. Migne (ed.), Patrologiae cursus completus (series Greaca) (105; Paris, 1863), 1020-1028. 20 Arranz, Le Typicon du Monastère du Saint-Saveur à Messine: Codex Messinensis Gr 115, AD 1131. Introduction, texte critique et notes at 211.5-15. 21 The fact that the 9th Ode of the Small Paraklesis kanon contains 5 troparia, as does Joseph’s kanon in all modes is another interesting detail needing further investigation. 22 Aleksei Dmitrievsky, [Opisanie liturgicheskikh" rukopisei, khraniashchikhsia v" bibliotekakh" pravoslavnago Vostoka], 3 vols. (I: Typika, Chast'; Kiev, 1895) at 519.


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referenced in any sabaïtic typika,23 it seems that these witnesses may possibly serve as Byzantine precedents for the present Greek usage on Fridays in the Great Fast of combining segments of the Akathistos with the Small Compline. In the cathedral typikon, also known as the asmatic office, the place of the Compline Service is taken by another service referred to as pannychis,24 and whose especially appropriate prayers have been preserved in the important 8th-century Barberini gr. 336 euchology.25 St Symeon also refers to its use during the first week of the Great Fast in his description of the asmatic office directly quoted above. The oldest extant complete typikon of the Great Church and its asmatic office, the 10th-century Holy Cross manuscript No. 40,26 already makes mention of the use of a kanon, the Great Kanon of St Andrew according to Mateos, in its rubric for Monday in the first week of the Great Fast,27 while also emphasizing the custom for the solemn celebration of the Pannychis at the outset of the great Fast, “unto the cleansing and remission of our sins, and that the Lord our God save from the coming judgment”:

Ruins of the Byzantine Palace of Porphyrogenitus at Blachernae (photo, public domain)

Δεῖ δὲ εἰδέναι ὅτι δι’ ὅλης τῆς ἑβδομάδος αἱ συνήθεις πάννυχοι στάσεις ἐπιτελοῦνται ἐν τῇ ἁγιωτάτῃ Μεγάλῃ Ἐκκλησίᾳ ὑπὲρ

23 Manoles Theodorakes, ‘Ἀρχέτυπες Διατάξεις’, Συμβολὴ (ἐπιθεώρησις Τυπικοῦ) [Symbole (inspecio Solemnitatis)], 10/July-September (2005), 10-16 at 15-16. 24 Phountoules, Παννυχὶς. 25 Orthodox Eastern Church, Stefano Parenti, and Elena Velkovska, L’Eucologio Barberini gr. 336 : ff. 1-263 (Bibliotheca “Ephemerides liturgicae” Subsidia; Roma: C.L.V.-Edizioni Liturgiche, 1995) xliv, 382 p. at 140-142. 26 J. Mateos, Le typicon de la Grande Église: Ms. Saìnte-Croix, no. 40, Xe siècle. Introduction, texte critique, traduction et notes, 2 vols. (Orientalia Christiana Analecta 165-6; Rome, 1962-63). 27 Ibid., at II 10.14-18.


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λύτρου καὶ ἀφέσεως τῶν ἡμετέρων πλημμελημάτων, ὅπως Κύριος ὁ Θεὸς ἡμῶν λυτρώσηται ἡμᾶς τῆς μελλούσης κρίσεως.28

While the 10th-century typikon of the Great Church makes no mention of a special Friday evening supplication to the Mother of God, the diataxis for Saturday after mid-week gives us a glimpse as to how the veneration of the Virgin Mary looked in Constantinople. In the 10th century that which we now recognize as the Vigil of the Akathistos was celebrated by the patriarch at Blachernae, not Hagia Sophia. This is because the veneration of the Theotokos in Constantinople was especially stational in character.29 While reminiscences of the famous Jerusalem processions as described by Egeria30 in the fourth century may be operative J.F. Baldovin warns it would be a mistake to attempt too direct a line of origin for the Constantinopolitan practice.31 In order to fully appreciate this devotion to the Mother of God as it has come down to us through the Church’s liturgical life a historical parenthesis can be helpful at this point. In his “Constantinople as Theotokoupolis,”32 C. Mango traces the development of the City from Christoupolis, as characterized by the 4th-century Church historian Sozomen,33 to Theotokoupolis by Theodore Synkellos34 in the seventh century. In the

28 Ibid., at II.14. 29 For a discussion of the routes taken through the City see Albrecht Berger, ‘Imperial and Ecclesiastical Processions in Constantinople’, in Nevra Necipoglu (ed.), Byzantine Constantinople: Monuments, Topography, and Everyday Life. Papers from the International Workshop held at Bogaziçi University, Istanbul, 7-10 April 1999 (Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2001) at 73-86. 30 Egeria and John Wilkinson, Egeria’s travels (3rd edn.; Warminster: Aris and Phillips, 1999). 31 John F. Baldovin, The urban character of Christian worship : the origins, development, and meaning of stational liturgy (Orientalia Christiana analecta; Roma: Pontificium Institutum Studiorum Orientalium, 1987) 319 p. at 210. 32 Cyril Mango, ‘Constantinople as Theotokoupolis’, in Maria Vasilaki (ed.), Mother of God: Representations of the Virgin in Byzantine Art (Athens and Milan: Benaki Museum, 2000), 17-26. 33 Salminius Hermias Sozomenus, ‘Ecclesiastica Historia’, in J.-P. Migne (ed.), Patrologiae cursus completus (series Graeca) (67; Paris, 1863), 940A-B. 34 Graeco-Latini Patres and François Combefis, Græcolat. patrum bibliothecæ novum auctarium (operâ F. Combefis). Tomus duplex (Paris, 1648), John Wortley, ‘The Oration of Theodore Syncellus (BHG 1059) and the siege of


year AD 425 the Notitia urbis Constiantinopolitanae35 lists twelve churches in Constantinople, none of which are dedicated to the Mother of God. While the process seems to begin with appearances and miracles by the Theotokos, such as at the Anastasia Church where St Gregory the Theologian preached, the first church recorded as dedicated to the Mother of God well may be the Theotokos Kyrou, built by the late fifth century; according to his Synaxarion this is the very church where St Romanos Melodos received his gift of poetry from the Virgin herself!36 The tipping point bringing the veneration of the Theotokos into the mainstream of worship life in Constantinople—especially following and in conjunction with the Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon—was the commissioning and building of three very important churches, according to tradition, by the Empress Pulcheria (d. 453) and completed by Leo I (emperor from 457 to 474) and Verina, Medieval Map of Constantinople by Cristoforo Buondelmonti, published in Liber insularum archipelagi (1422) specifically the churches of Blachernae,37 Chalkoprateia and, the Hodegoi.38 Each of these three churches are also uniquely related with particular ‘relics’ of the Virgin Mary:39 the Blachernae with the KANONS IN THE GREAT COMPLINE

860’, Byzantine Studies/Études byzantines, 4 (1977), 111-126. 35 Otto Seeck, Notitia dignitatum : accedunt notitia urbis Constantinopolitanae et Laterculi provinciarum (Berolini: Weidmann, 1876) at 229-43. 36 Orthodox Eastern Church et al., Synaxarium ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae e codice Sirmondiano nunc Berolinensi: Synaxarium mensis Octobris (62; Bruxellis: Apud Socios Bollandianos, 1902) at 3.5-13. 37 Cyril Mango, ‘The Origins of the Blachernae Shrine at Constantinople’, Actes du XIIIe Congrès international d’Archéologie chrétienne, II (1998), 61-76. 38 Christine Angelidi, ‘Un texte patriographique et édifiant: Le «Discours narratif» sur les Hodègoi’, Revue des études byzantines, 52 (1994), 113-149. 39 John Wortley, ‘The Marian Relics at Constantinople’, Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, 45 (2005), 171-187.


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maphorion,40 the Chalkoprateia with the zone41 and the Hodegoi with the icon attributed to the Evangelist Luke and later known as the Hodegetria. All three Marian relics continue to occupy special places in the Orthodox liturgical calendar today. July 2nd is the commemoration of the Deposition of the Maphorion in the Blachernae. July 31st is the commemoration the Deposition of the Zone in the Church of Chalkoprateia at the end of the month of August, which Andronikos II Palaiologos officially dedicated to the veneration and supplication of the Theometor.42 In the August liturgical supplications observed today in the Orthodox Church with the office of the Paraklesis leading up to the feast of the Dormition (15 August) the icon of the Hodegetria is commemorated daily in the following beloved megalynarion hymn (mode IV plagal):

40 Norman Hepburn Baynes, ‘The Finding of the Virgin’s Robe’, Byzantine Studies and Other Essays (London: University of London, Athlone Press, 1955), 240-7, Maurice Geerard et al., Clavis Patrum Graecorum : qua optimae quaeque scriptorum patrum Graecorum recensiones a primaevis saeculis usque ad octavum commode recluduntur, 6 vols. (Corpus Christianorum; Turnhout: Brepols, 1974) at 1048, 1058, 1058a, and 1068e, Joannes Damascenus, ‘Homilia II in Dormitionem B.V. Mariae’, in J.-P. Migne (ed.), Patrologiae cursus completus (series Graeca) (96; Paris, 1863), 721-753 at 748-753. 41 Basilii Porphyrogeniti, ‘Menologium Graecorum Basilii Imp. Jussu Editum’, in J.-P. Migne (ed.), ibid.(117) at 613. 42 Christine Angelidi and Titos Papamastorakis, ‘Picturing the spiritual protector: from Blachernitissa to Hodegetria’, in Maria Vassilaki (ed.), Images of the Mother of God: Perceptions of the Theotokos in Byzantium (Aldershot and Burlington: Ashgate, 2005), 209-224 at 383-5, Maria Vasilaki and Benaki Mouseio, Images of the Mother of God: perceptions of the Theotokos in Byzantium (Aldershot, Hants, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate Pub., 2005) xxxii, 383 p., 24 p. of plates at 216.


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Ἄλαλα τὰ χείλη τῶν ἀσεβῶν, τῶν μὴ προσκυνούντων, τὴν Εἰκόνα σου τὴν σεπτήν, τὴν ἱστορηθεῖσαν, ὑπὸ τοῦ Ἀποστόλου, Λουκᾶ ἱερωτάτου, τὴν Ὁδηγήτριαν. Speechless be the lips of the impious, who refuse to reverence thy revered icon, which is known by the name Directress and which hath been depicted for us by the Apostle Luke the Evangelist.

Of these three oldest and major Constantinopolitan Churches dedicated to the Mother of God the Blachernae was regarded as “the head, the metropolis, the Virgin’s most divine dwelling.”43 Built on the site of an older holy bath (louma), the presence of the Mother of God at Blachernae would come to be intricately Whilst hymning thine Offspring, we all praise thee, associated with the protection of the City during O Theotokos (23rd Oikos of the Akathistos); detail of 17th-century wall painting in Church of Hagia Kyriake, the ad 625-626 Avar siege. The anonymous Paliachora, Aegina Island (Photo is © K. Terzopoulos) Chronicon paschale will associate the area of the Blachernae with the appearance of the Virgin Mary seen by Avar Chagan44 and bring substance to the recognition of the Mother of God as systrategos to the Emperor τεῖχος ἀκαταμάχητον,45 ἀπόρθητον τεῖχος46 and σκέπη κραταιά.47 In addition to the maphorion

43 Theodore Synkellos, ‘In Depositionem Pretiose Vestis’, in F. Combefis (ed.), Historia hæresis Monothelitarum, Sanctæque in eam sextæ synodi actorum vindiciæ. : Diuersorum item antiqua, ac medii æui, tum historiæ sacræ, tum dogmatica, Græca opuscula. Accedit Manuelis Palæologi in laudem defuncti Theodori fratris dicta Oratio, quâ pleraque Occidentis Græcorum Imperij tractantur, ac consurgentisque Osmanici : ut et duplici adiunctâ deliberatiua Demetrij Cydonij (Paris: Sumptibus Antonij Bertier, viâ Iacobæâ, 1648) at 774. 44 L. Dindorf, Chronicon paschale (Corpus scriptorum historiae Byzantinae, 1; Bonn: Weber, 1832) at 725.10-11. 45 Arranz, Le Typicon du Monastère du Saint-Saveur à Messine: Codex Messinensis Gr 115, AD 1131. Introduction, texte critique et notes at 211.11. 46 Trypanis, Fourteen early Byzantine cantica at Oikos 23, verse 13 of the Akathistos. 47 Romanus, Paul Maas, and C. A. Trypanis, Sancti Romani melodi cantica:


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brought from Palestine, as described in the Galbius and Candidus Legend, eleventh-century evidence tells of two important panel icons in the sanctuary of the Blachernae church. Joannes Skylitzes48 writes of a panel icon of the Virgin of the Nikopoios type, while the panel icon captured by John Tzimiskes in his 971 Bulgarian campaign is depicted in sources as an icon of the Virgin Eleousa type, dubbed Blachernitissa.49 By the middle Byzantine period the list of shrines and monasteries dedicated the Mother of God give a vivid picture of the truly omnipresent and integral place the Virgin Mary had in Byzantium, names like Eleousa, Gorgoypikoos, Kyriotissa, Kyrou, Psychosostria, Cecharitomene, Therapeuotissa, Pantanassa, Pege, Peribleptos, and so many more. This devotion to the Mother of God in Constantinople would not be relegated to the confines of the Church buildings, but would often spill out into the streets in the form of a procession, or litania. We learn from the 12th-century Typikon of Emperor John II Komnenos for the Monastery of Christ Pantokrator in Constantinople that he provided for the Hodegetria icon to be present at the royal memorials each year.50 We know of at least three regularly occurring weekly processions with wonder-working icons of the Theotokos: the Tuesday procession from the Monastery of the Hodegoi, the Monday procession from Chalkoprateia with the zone, and the Friday procession from Blachernae. A 15th-century narrative discourse or Logos cantica genuina (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963) at Oikos 23, verse 6 of the Nativity Kontakion. 48 Joannes Scylitzes, Ioannis Scylitzae synopsis historiarum, ed. Corpus Fontium Historiae Byzantinae (Series Berolinensis; Berlin: De Gruyter, 1973), Joannes Scylitzes and John Wortley (Trans.), John Scylitzes, a synopsis of histories (811-1057 A.D.): a provisional translation (Manitoba: Centre for Hellenic Civilization, 2000). 49 Angelidi and Papamastorakis, ‘Picturing the spiritual protector: from Blachernitissa to Hodegetria’. 50 John Philip Thomas, Angela Constantinides Hero, and Giles Constable, Byzantine monastic foundation documents: a complete translation of the surviving founders’ typika and testaments, 5 vols. (Dumbarton Oaks studies; Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2000) at Vol. 2, p. 756.


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diegematikos recently located at the Athos, Vatopedi monastery by Criton Chryssochoides and published by Christine Angelidi51 is an important source for understanding the Hodegon monastery, the Hodegetria icon tradition and the weekly Tuesday litania.52 The name of the monastery, Hodegon, is initially connected with the miraculous ‘guiding’ of the blind to a holy spring where many regained their sight. Eventually the term would be transferred to the icon, which took the name from the monastery where it was housed. A number of sources preserve for us some details as to how these litaniai looked. One important source is the Life of St Thomaïs53 which relates how miracles occurred along the routes the processions took and how the icon would process from early morning before reaching a different Church each time where Liturgy was celebrated before returning again to the monastery. An 11th-century British travel account relates how “an exceeding multitude of men and women walking in from of and behind it, singing praises to the Theotokos and carrying burning candles in their hands… women dressed in silk clothes, singing religious chants behind the icon of the Theotokos, like maids after their mistress. And next to the voice of the Psalmist, youths and virgins, old and young men, give praise to the name of God who became incarnated in the Virgin for our sake.”54 Accounts left by Russian travelers to Constantinople

51 Angelidi, ‘Un texte patriographique et édifiant: Le «Discours narratif» sur les Hodègoi’, (Revue des études byzantines 52; 1994) at 113-149. 52 Michele Bacci, ‘The legacy of the Hedegetria: holy icons and legends between east and west’, in Maria Vassilaki (ed.), Images of the Mother of God: Perceptions of the Theotokos in Byzantium (Aldershot and Burlington: Ashgate, 2005), 321-336, Berger, ‘Imperial and Ecclesiastical Processions in Constantinople’, Bissera V. Pentcheva, ‘The ‘activated’ icon: the Hodegetria procession and Mary’s Eisodos’, in Maria Vassilaki (ed.), Images of the Mother of God: Perceptions of the Theotokos in Byzantium (Aldershot and Burlington: Ashgate, 2005), 195-208, Bissera V. Pentcheva, Icons and Power: The Mother of God in Byzantium (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2006). 53 Paul Halsall, ‘Life of St. Thomaïs of Lesbos’, in Alice-Mary Talbot (ed.), Holy Women of Byzantium: Ten Saints’ in English Translation (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1996), 291-322 at 311312. 54 Ciggaar, ‘Une description de Constantinople traduite par un pèlerin anglais’, Revue des études byzantines, 34 (1995), 211-267.


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in the 14th and 15th centuries55 reveal a situation where the veneration of the Mother of God and all-holy Virgin was spread out throughout the week all over the City and all year long. Take, for instance, the following vivid example from the “Wanderer” of Stephen of Novgorod, probably describing a trip made in the year 1348 or 1349 that describes a weekly procession at the Hodegetria monastery. Not far from there [the Panachrantos monastery] is the Pantanasse Monastery where the Lord’s Passion relics are; they are sealed just as the Lord’s Passion relics at St. George are. They are divided in two. Since it was Tuesday we went from there to the procession of the icon of the holy Mother of God. Luke the Evangelist painted this icon while looking at [Our] Lady the Virgin Mother of God herself while she was still alive. They bring this icon out every Tuesday. It is quite wonderful to see. All the people from the city congregate. The icon is very large and highly ornamented, and they sing a very beautiful chant in front of it, while all the people cry out with tears, “Kyrie eleison.” They place [the icon] on the shoulders of one man, who is standing upright, and he stretches out his arms as if [being] crucified, and then they bind up his eyes. It is terrible to see how it pushes him about, for he does not understand where the icon is taking him. Then another takes over the same way, and then a third and a fourth take over that way, and they sing a long chant with the canonarchs while the people cry with tears, “Lord, have mercy.” Two deacons carry the ripidia [liturgical fans] in front of the icon, and others the canopy. A marvelous sight: [it takes] seven or eight people to lay [something] on the shoulders of one man, and by God’s will he walks as if unburdened.56

After the Hodegetria icon, possibly one of the most well known Byzantine icons of the Virgin Mary is the one that was enshrined at Blachernae the Blachernitissa. This is where the holy soros, relics of the Virgin’s robe and girdle were housed since the fifth century (liturgically commemorated on 2

55 George P. Majeska, Russian Travelers to Constantinople in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries (Dumbarton Oaks Studies; Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1984). 56 Ibid., at 36.


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July), the same relic now housed at the Vatopedi Monastery on Mount Athos, complete with the gold thread added by the empress Pulcheria. At least up to the Latin occupation in 1204 we read of a special procession that occurred each Friday throughout the year and culminating with an evening vigil, where a veil covering the icon lifted miraculously, and was eventually termed the synethes thauma (the ‘usual miracle’). This vivid tradition of Marian devotion is firmly established by the end of the sixth century.57 It is at this Church that Saint Andrew the Fool for Christ would receive his vision of the Virgin. This is also the Church intimately connected with the Akathistos Hymn.58 Even until its last moments the City would be placing its hope in the Mother of God, as is reflected in Michael Critobulus’ description of the desperate procession made by the people of Constantinople just days before the City fell in 1458.59 My purpose here, however, is not to give a full account of the veneration of the Virgin Mary in Byzantium,60 but to underline the fact that there is a venerable continuity with the past that can still be discerned in our present liturgical order. To summarize, the services of the monastic Great and Small Compline, as well as the cathedral Pannychis come down to us as a venerable ancient tradition, complete with their psalmic and hymnographic elements. In need of further investigation is the historical development of the hymnbook known as the Theotokarion.61 This book contains kanons dedicated

57 Pentcheva, Icons and Power: The Mother of God in Byzantium at 146-163. 58 Leena Mari Peltomaa, The image of the virgin Mary in the Akathistos hymn (The Medieval Mediterranean; v. 35; Leiden ;Boston: Brill, 2001). 59 Kritovoulos and Diether Reinsch, Critobuli Imbriotae Historiae (Corpus fontium historiae Byzantinae; Berolini: W. de Gruyter, 1983) 114*, 266 p., 7 p. of plates at Ξυγγ. ἱστ. Α´ 48, p. 58.9-59.5. 60 For recent scholarship on the subject see Vasiliki Limberis and Orthodox Eastern Church., Divine Heiress : the Virgin Mary and the creation of Christian Constantinople (London: Routledge, 1994), Pentcheva, Icons and Power: The Mother of God in Byzantium. 61 Agapius Monachus, Θεοτοκάριον ὡραιτότατον καὶ χαρμόσυνον (Venice: Nikolaos Glykys of Joannina, 1815), Nikodemus Monachus, Στέφανος τῆς


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directly to the Mother of God from hymnographers stretching from as early as the 8th century and the likes of St Andrew of Crete and Theodore the Studite. Organized by mode, it supplies one kanon and a set of stichera for each day of the week in each of the eight Byzantine chant modes. In the monastic tradition these kanons are used in the Vespers or Compline daily, whenever the commemoration of a celebrated Saint does not conflict. The tradition of the creation of similar eight-mode sets of kanons dedicated to the Theotokos, a particular Saint or liturgical feast has continued to today. Further scholarly attention is needed, though, in order to bridge the gap between present practice and the Byzantine witnesses for the use of kanons dedicated to the Mother of God. Nevertheless, we can now return to our topic of the Compline and its structure as reflected in the received tradition.

T

The received tradition: Small and Great Compline62

wo Compline Services that have been handed down to the present day and are in universal practice throughout the Orthodox Church, the Small Compline

ἀειπαρθένου ἤτοι Θεοτοκάριον νέον ποίκιλον καὶ ὡραιότατον ὀκτώηχον, ed. G. Mousaios (Constantinople: Patriarchal Press, 1849). 62 Georgios Biolakes, Τυπικὸν τῆς τοῦ Χριστοῦ Μεγάλης Ἐκκλησίας (Constantinople: Patriarchal Press, 1888) xviii+492, Sacred Monastery Of Dionysiou, Saint, Τυπικὸν τῆς ἐν Ἄθῳ Ἱερᾶς Μονῆς τοῦ Ἁγίου Διονυσίου (Hagion Oros: Sacred Monastery of Saint Dionysios, 2004), Protopsaltes Konstantinos Byzantios, Τυπικὸν Ἐκκλησιαστικόν (1st edn.; Constantinople: Adelphon Ignatiadon, 1838), Protopsaltes Konstantinos Byzantios, Τυπικὸν Ἐκκλησιαστικόν (2nd edn.; Constantinople: The Patriarchal Press, 1851), Orthodox Eastern Church and Antonio Pinelli, [To paron Typikon.] ([Tetypotai. Enetiesin]: [Para Antonio to Pinello, analomasi men, tois autou. Epimeleia de polle, kai epidiorthosei, emou neophytou Hierodiakonou, tou panierotatou Metropolitou Philadelpheias.], 1615) 142, [2] leaves, Stavropegic Monastery of Panagia Tatarnes, Sacred and Archimandrite Dositheos, Τυπικὸν τοῦ ὁσίου καὶ θεοφόρου πατρὸς ἡμῶν Σάββα τοῦ ἡγιασμένου (Granitsa: Sacred Stavropegic Monastery of PanagiaTatarnes Eurytanias, n.d. [2010]), Georgios Regas, Τυπικὸν (Liturgica Vlatadon, 1; Thessalonike: Patriarchal Institute for Patristic Studies, 1994), Hosios Sabbas, Τυπικὸν σὺν Θεῷ ἁγίῳ περιέχον πᾶσαν τὴν διάταξιν τῆς ἐκκλησιαστικῆς ἀκολουθίας τοῦ χρόνου ὅλου (En tais kleinais Benetiais: Typithen para Iôannê Petro tôi Pinellôi analomasi tois autou, para de Theophylaktou Hieromonachou tou Tzanphournarou, epimelos diorthôthen, 1643).


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and the Great Compline. The order of service is found in the Horologion, or Book of Hours, following the Service for Vespers. Either the Small or Great Compline is said each day, save the week of New Creation, when a special Paschal service is used that replaces the Compline as well as the Midnight Service, the Hours and the Typika Offices. In general, on the days when we chant God is the Lord in the Orthros the Small Compline is used and on days when Alleluia is chanted in the Orthros instead of God is the Lord the Great Compline is used. However, even if the Alleluia is to be chanted in the Saturday Orthros the Small Compline is still used on Friday evenings, as also referenced in the 12th-century Messina typikon cited above.63 The other two exceptions are Holy Thursday and Holy Friday, when the Small Compline is used. It is the tradition in the monasteries to read the Compline in the narthex. Only the Great Compline for Monday through Thursday of the Great Fast is chanted in the Church. Outside of the Great Fast the Great Compline is read chyma and not chanted. This is not the place to enumerate all the variations concerning the diataxis for Compline, but there are still a couple important points that need to be put forth. With regards to the God is the Lord and Alleluia in the Service of Orthros, it must be kept in mind that the Sabaitic typikon appoints Alleluia in the Orthros for Monday, Wednesday and Friday in the weeks during the fasts of the Nativity and the Holy Apostles.64 It should also be mentioned here that the Great Compline is used in the semi-vigils for the feasts of the Nativity of Christ (Dec. 25), Lights (Jan. 6) and the Annunciation (March 25), but only up to the

63 Arranz, Le Typicon du Monastère du Saint-Saveur à Messine: Codex Messinensis Gr 115, AD 1131. Introduction, texte critique et notes at 205-207. 64 Although this is no longer universally practiced, it is not uncommon to still observe the use of the Mid-hours and Great Compline during these fasts, especially in the holy monasteries, even though they may not be observing the other full Lenten elements in the Orthros and Vespers. This is mentioned to avoid confusion if one were to come across the use of the Great Compline outside of the Great Fast.


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doxology. From that point the Lite is chanted and the rest of the Compline is abandoned. Finally, when the Small Compline is used at the beginning of a vigil the 24 oikoi of the Akathistos, as well as the prayers And grant, O Master, the prayer to the guardian Angel and the Theotokos Virgin rejoice, and the censing are all abandoned. That said we may now proceed to a discussion of the use of kanons in the Compline. Kanons in both Compline Services The Kanon

T

he Kanon is a liturgical hymn type may have appeared as early as the 7th century. The names of Saints Andrew of Crete (circa 660 - circa 740) and Germanus (circa 634 - circa 733) Patriarch of Constantinople are most closely associated with the kanon’s origin, while eighth-century Jerusalem is considered home to some of its most prominent poets, especially Saints John of Damascus and Kosmas.65 Their liturgical context is that of the Orthros Service. Both their thematic and practical applications relate to the Biblical Canticles, referred to as Odes in Greek.66 As such, they came to form the second part of the morning Orthros Service, snuggled between the distributed reading of the Psalter and the Praises, slowly pushing out the Kontakion hymn form to the point we find it today—down to the Koukoulion and, normally, only the first Oikos.67

65 Christian Hannick, ‘The Performance of the Kanon in Thessalonike in the 14th Century’, Studies In Eastern Chant, V/New York (1990), 137-52, Andreas Phytrakes, Ἡ ἐκκλησιαστικὴ ἡμῶν ποίησις (Athens, 1957), Nikolaos B. Tomadakes, Ἡ βυζαντινὴ ὑμνογραφία καὶ ποίησις (Thessalonike: P. Pournaras, 1993), Milos Velimirovic, ‘The Byzantine heirmos and heirmologion’, in Leo Schrade, Wulf Arlt, and Higini Anglès (eds.), Gattungen der Musik in Einzeldarstellungen : Gedenkschrift Leo Schrade (Bern ; München: Francke, 1973), 192-244, Egon Wellesz, A history of Byzantine music and hymnography (2nd edn.; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980) xiii, 461 p., 7, [1] p. of plates. 66 For general surveys of the kanon hymn form, see Hannick, ‘The Performance of the Kanon in Thessalonike in the 14th Century’, (, Phytrakes, Ἡ ἐκκλησιαστικὴ ἡμῶν ποίησις at 45-63, Tomadakes, Ἡ βυζαντινὴ ὑμνογραφία καὶ ποίησις at 128-249, Velimirovic, ‘The Byzantine heirmos and heirmologion’, Wellesz, A history of Byzantine music and hymnography at 198-246. 67 J. Mateos, ‘Quelques problèmes de l’orthros byzantin’, Proche-Orient


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The vigorous growth of the saint commemorations in the Hagiologion (Sanctorale) between the eighth and tenth centuries68 was a catalyst for a parallel flourishing of the kanon hymnographical genre. Of course, this multiplication of commemorations was highly local, making older liturgical commemorations more easily displaced by commemorations of new, local Saints. This type of liturgical phenomenon is no stranger to comparative liturgical study. In fact, there exists what is called a heuristic liturgical rule, dubbed by Anton Baumstark the Law of Organic Development.69 This liturgical observation examines how older liturgical elements are not first completely replaced by newer ones, but exist side by side. Then gradually, depending on the importance of the older liturgical element the newer one may eventually completely eclipse the more ancient one; however, when the ancient element is of a higher, more exalted or ‘holier’ season—for instance, Great Week or the feast of Pascha—then the more ancient elements take precedence. To use Prof. Baumstark’s own words, “primitive conditions are maintained with greater tenacity in the more sacred seasons of the Liturgical Year.”70 There are many examples of these heuristic principles that would be familiar to the reader. One is the fact that the Old Testament Canticles are basically ignored throughout the year in the parishes up to the time of the Great Fast when they reappear, albeit normally disconnected from the kanons.71

Chrétien, XI (1961), 212-5, For a discussion of recent liturgical research on the Orthros, see, J. Mateos, ‘The origin of the divine office’, Worship, 41 (1967), 47785, Robert F. Taft, The liturgy of the hours in East and West: the origins of the divine office and its meaning for today (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1986) xvii, 421. 68 Noële M. Denis-Boulet, The Christian calendar (Faith and fact books; London: Burns & Oates, 1960) 125 p. at Chapter VII, Thomas J. Talley, The origins of the liturgical year (2nd, emended edn.; New York: Pueblo Pub. Co, 1991) xii, 255 p. 69 Anton Baumstark, Bernard Botte, and F. L. Cross, Comparative liturgy (Westminster and Maryland: The Newman Press, 1958) at 23-30. 70 Ibid., at 27. 71 It should be noted that in the sacred monasteries the Canticles are still chanted as verses to the Kanons daily and only displaced when called for by the Typikon, i.e. on the Great Feasts.


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Kanons in the Compline

T

he use of kanons in the Compline is concisely summarized in the Kanonarion or liturgical diataxis for the daily offices found at the beginning of the Church of Greece’s Diptychs for the year 2011: The Small Compline is read in the narthex every evening of the year as found in the Horologion (except during the days of the Great Fast, when the Great Compline is said, and except for the Week of New Creation, when the special Paschal service is used). Small dismissal. It is also possible to chant or read abandoned kanons from the Menaion or even kanons from the Theotokarion in the Compline, especially in the sacred monasteries.72

The second part of this diataxis reveals how kanons are used throughout the year in the Compline. There are many times when the Services of Saint commemorations found in the Menaion are displaced due to either “higher” or newer feasts or commemorations. Two common examples are Saint commemorations that occur on the leave-taking of a Great Feast and the Service for Saint Cassian the Roman; his commemoration set for February 29th can only be celebrated on that day during leap years. Therefore, his service is either combined with that of February 28th, as directed in the Menaion, or read in the Compline.73 Another reason for the displacement of a Saint’s Akolouthia is what I will call the “traffic jam” that results from the special feasts of the TriodionPentecostarion cycle or the panegyric celebration of some local Saint or commemoration for which a “new” Service has been written. Again, in these instances the abandoned Akolouthia from the Menaion (kanons and stichera) are read in the Compline the day before or “as the president assigns.” This practice is evident throughout the year in the Konstantinos Byzantios and

72 Orthodox Eastern Church, Δίπτυχα τῆς Ἐκκλησίας τῆς Ἑλλάδος 2011, ed. D. Bilales (Athens: Apostolike Diakonia, 2010b) at 35-36. 73 The Konstantinos Byzantios and Georgios Violakes typika specifically relegate Saint Services to the Compline on a number of instances; see 9 and 13 September for just two such examples.


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Georgios Biolakes Typika, which constitute the in-force ecclesiastical order for the Greek Churches today.74 Rubrics in the published Greek Triodia make no mention of the Friday evening “Salutations” to the Virgin Mary, as it is practiced in the Greek parishes worldwide today on Fridays of the Great Fast; possible Byzantine precedents to this practice have already been touched upon above. Instead, we read the Sinaitic order which states, “the Service of the Menaion for Saturday and Sunday are chanted in the Apodeipnon or when the Ekklesiastikos determines” (after the Prophecy for the Sixth Hour; Friday in the First Week of the Fast). Chapter 31 of the Sinai typika75 contain the full rubrics for the Apodeipnon during the entire period of the Great Fast. There one can find the specific rubrics calling for the Service of Saturday’s Saint from the Menaion at the Friday evening Compline and the Service for Sunday’s Saint from the Menaion at the Sunday evening Compline. In addition to this, it also called for another Compline to take place at the Cemetery on Friday evening, where the kanons of the dead from the Mode of the Week are used. During the Paschal period the tri- and tetra-ode kanons of Joseph the Hymnographer have been displaced from their earlier place in the daily orthros to either the Vespers or Compline offices.76 All of the above, however, basically refers to the Small Compline. The Great Compline, which is chanted from Monday to Thursday evening in the Great Fast has an order all its own when it comes to kanons.

74 Biolakes, Τυπικὸν τῆς τοῦ Χριστοῦ Μεγάλης Ἐκκλησίας, Konstantinos Byzantios, Τυπικὸν Ἐκκλησιαστικόν, Konstantinos Byzantios, Τυπικὸν Ἐκκλησιαστικόν, Konstantinos Terzopoulos, The Protheoria of the Biolakes Typikon; translation, introduction, and annotations (Rollinsford NH: Orthodox Research Institute, in press). 75 Dionysiou, Τυπικὸν τῆς ἐν Ἄθῳ Ἱερᾶς Μονῆς τοῦ Ἁγίου Διονυσίου, Orthodox Eastern Church and Pinelli, [To paron Typikon.], Panagia Tatarnes and Archimandrite Dositheos, Τυπικὸν τοῦ ὁσίου καὶ θεοφόρου πατρὸς ἡμῶν Σάββα τοῦ ἡγιασμένου, Sabbas, Τυπικὸν σὺν Θεῷ ἁγίῳ περιέχον πᾶσαν τὴν διάταξιν τῆς ἐκκλησιαστικῆς ἀκολουθίας τοῦ χρόνου ὅλου. 76 Stavropegic Monastery of Panagia Tatarnes, Sacred and Archimandrite Dositheos, Τριῴδια Πεντηκοσταρίου Ἰωσὴφ τοῦ Ὑμνογράφου (Athens: Sacred Stavropegic Monastery of Panagia Tatarnes, 1995) at 13-22.


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Kanons used in the Great Compline during in the Great Fast

E

arlier in this paper it was observed how kanon usage had already appeared in the Great Church by the 10th century in conjunction with the Compline for the weekdays during the Great Fast.77 Today, the common usage for both the sacred monasteries and parish is as follows. During the first week of the Fast the Great Kanon of Saint Andrew of Crete is used, distributed into four parts. Also unique to the first week of the Fast is the use of Psalm 69 at the very beginning of the Great Compline; its normal place is at the outset of the final psalmic section. The ancient typika, as well as many older Horologia call for the chanting of the kanon immediately after this first reading of Psalm 69. Once the kanon is completed the Great Compline continues with Psalm 4 and all the rest. The contemporary parish practice places the kanon after the Doxology at the very end of the psalmic portion of the Service, even though it retains the double reading of Psalm 69 at the beginning and later on.78 While this minor discrepancy may not be widely known, the use of the Great Kanon during the first week universal. The rubrics for the rest of the Great Fast, however, is relegated to a footnote on the First Sunday of the Great Fast at the end of the rubrics for the Katanyktikon Vespers in the authoritative Biolakes Typikon.79 § 23., On the Great Apodeipnon, footnote 17 reads: Ὁ Μέγας Κανὼν ψάλλεται μέχρι Πέμπτης τῆς ἑβδομάδος ταύτης, ἐν δὲ ταῖς ἡμέραις τῶν ἑπομένων ἑβδομάδων μέχρι τῆς Πέμπτης ἑσπέρας τῆς Ϛ´ ἑβδομάδος ψάλλονται Κανόνες ἐκ τοῦ Θεοτοκαρίου.

Today this rubric is combined with another, older one found in chapter 32 of the Typikon of St Sabas:

77 Mateos, Le typicon de la Grande Église: Ms. Saìnte-Croix, no. 40, Xe siècle. Introduction, texte critique, traduction et notes at II.10. 78 Biolakes, Τυπικὸν τῆς τοῦ Χριστοῦ Μεγάλης Ἐκκλησίας at 347, Konstantinos Byzantios, Τυπικὸν Ἐκκλησιαστικόν at 159, Konstantinos Byzantios, Τυπικὸν Ἐκκλησιαστικόν at 250. 79 Biolakes, Τυπικὸν τῆς τοῦ Χριστοῦ Μεγάλης Ἐκκλησίας.


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No hymn can recount the wealth of thy great compassion (Oikos 20 of the Akathistos); 17-th c wall painting from Hagia Kyriake Church, Paliachora, Aegina Island; © K. Terzopoulos

Ἰστέον ὅτι ἀπὸ τῆς σήμερον ψάλλονται οἱ κανόνες τοῦ μηναίου ἐν τοῖς ἀποδείπνοις ἀπὸ τοῦ Σαββάτου τοῦ Λαζάρου μέχρι τῆς νέας Κυριακῆς τοῦ Θωμᾶ, ὁμοῦ μετὰ τῆς Θεοτόκου. Ἀπὸ γ´ ᾠδή, κάθισμα τοῦ μηναίου. Ἀφ’ ἕκτης τῆς Θεοτόκου. Κατὰ τὴν πλήρωσιν τοῦ μηναίου τὰ προσόμοια αὐτοῦ, Καὶ νῦν θεοτοκίον ὅμοιον.80

While the Biolakes Typikon makes no mention of anything other than the kanons of the Theotokarion, the two Konstantinos Byzantios typika81 mention the use of kanons from the Menaion or Theotokion in the compline beginning on the evening of the First Sunday of the Great Fast. The use of the kanons from the Theotokarion during the Great Fast in the parishes is actually another example of Baumstark’s Law of organic development already mentioned above. In the monasteries the Theotokarion is used throughout the year whenever Great Vespers is not celebrated. To recap, beginning on the evening of the First Sunday of the Great Fast, the kanons used in the Compline are normally two. The first from the hymnbook known as the Theotokarion and the second from the Menaia Akolouthiai of the Saints whose commemorations will fall from the Saturday of Lazarus to the New Sunday of Thomas. The kanons in the Theotokarion are organized by mode and day, usually beginning with Saturday evening of Mode I and ending with Friday evening of Mode IV plagal. After the 3rd Ode of the kanons the kathisma troparion is taken from the Menaion and after the 6th Ode the kathisma troparion is used from the kanon of the Theotokarion. Once the kanons are finished the stichera prosomoia for the Theotokos are added from the kanon in the Theotokarion and from the stichera prosomoia appointed for the Κύριε, ἐκέκραξα for the Saint of the Menaion. In this context of kanon use verses are usually applied, Most-holy

80 Panagia Tatarnes and Archimandrite Dositheos, Τυπικὸν τοῦ ὁσίου καὶ θεοφόρου πατρὸς ἡμῶν Σάββα τοῦ ἡγιασμένου at 347. 81 Konstantinos Byzantios, Τυπικὸν Ἐκκλησιαστικόν at 164, Konstantinos Byzantios, Τυπικὸν Ἐκκλησιαστικόν at 256.


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Theotokos, save us for the kanons of the Theotokos and appropriate verses to the Saint or Saints of the Menaion kanons, i.e. Saint(s) of God intercede on our behalf. The Appendium for this paper contains detailed tables reflecting the rubrics published in 2011 by the Church of Greece82 and the St John of Krondstandt Press83 for comparative purposes. This displacement of the services for the Saints is really no different from that prescribed for those falling on Wednesdays and Fridays of the Christmas fast or the displacement of celebrated Saints to Saturday or Sunday during the Great Fast, as has been long the case for Saints Gregory Palamas, Joannes Climacus and Mary of Egypt. While keeping festal and fasting seasons in perspective, Orthodox liturgical piety as expressed in the Church’s venerable typikon tradition has a wonderful way of keeping the memories of God’s “friends” alive in the saint-loving conscience of the believer!

82 Orthodox Eastern Church, Δίπτυχα τῆς Ἐκκλησίας τῆς Ἑλλάδος 2011. 83 Orthodox Eastern Church, 2011 Orthodox Liturgical Calendar (Liberty TN: Saint John of Krondstadt Press, 2010a).


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Appendium: Tables of Kanons for the Great Compline during the Great Fast for the year 2011 Table One: Kanons in the Great Compline of the Great Fast for 2011—New Style Calendar (As published in the Diptychs of the Church of Greece) On the evening of — Service of 14 March — 16 April 15 March — 17 April 16 March — 18 April 17 March — 19 April 21 March — 20 April 22 March — 21 April 23 March — 22 April 28 March — 24 April 30 March — 26 April 4 April — 27 April 5 April — 28 April 7 April — 29 April 11 April — 30 April 12 April — 1 May

Table Two: Kanons in the Great Compline in the Great Fast 2011—Old Style Calendar (As found in The Liturgical Calendar published by St. John of Kronstadt Press)84 On the evening of — Service of 1 March — 28 February 2 March — 29 February 3 March — 3 April 4 March — 4 April (St. Joseph) 5 March — 4 April (St. George) 8 March — 7 March 9 March — 6 April 10 March — 7 April 11 March — 8 April 12 March — 9 April 15 March — 14 March, 10 April 16 March — 11 April 17 March — 17 March 18 March — 12 April 19 March — 19 March 22 March — 21 March 23 March — – 24 March — 23 March 26 March — 14, 15 April 29 March — 27, 28 March 1 April — 17 April 2 April — 18 April

84 My appreciation goes to Reader Daniel Olson for this citation.


KANONS IN THE GREAT COMPLINE

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Psaltiki Journal, Volume 3  

Psaltiki Journal, Volume 3 (Summer 2011) Containing articles by Everret Ferguson, P.B.Paschos, Edler Porphyrius, and K. Terzopoulos

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