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India’s First Corporate ezine Issue No 43 – Sep 2009 Published by Prime Point Foundation

Theme of this Issue Preparing for IPO

Guest Editor Madan Bahal

In this Issue: P3

Guest Editorial


Tips for IPO


Prof. Bala


Prithvi Haldea

P11 PRince Toon P12 PReTTY


PR-e-FACE: From the desk of Editor-in-Chief Many factors need to be strengthened before IPO In the post liberalisation era, many companies started springing up in different verticals. Though they had excellent domain expertise, many could not succeed in mobilising enough financial resources, leading to the closure of such companies. Investors will always look not only for the company’s competency of their domain, but also a good management, vision, sustainability, products, track record, etc. The Government has also come out with lot of regulations to protect the investors.

mobilise financial resources. We have also dealt with as to how transparent communication plays a greater role in such occasions. We also bring out some important points for retail investors to be kept in mind before investing their money in such public issues. We are fortunate to get the views of Mr Madan Bahal, Prof. Bala and Mr Prithvi Haldea, veterans in their own respective fields on this issue. We are confident that you will enjoy reading the ezine and preserve this as a reference guide.

In this edition, we are giving a bird’s eye view of the requirements, if a company wants to go for IPO or public issue to


Guest Editor Madan Bahal is the Founder of Adfactors Group, one of the largest independent communication groups in India. During his 28 years in this business, he has advised over 600 Corporates and led the marketing strategies for over 300 IPOs - which include most of the big-ticket IPOs in Indian capital market history. He can be reached at

PR-e-FACE: From the desk of Guest Editor Role of communication in raising capital through IPO Introduction Growth is a raison-de-etre of all business enterprises, whether it is a micro enterprise or a global corporation. The pursuit of growth remains a fundamental preoccupation of top management and strategists. To support sustained growth, businesses need access to capital. Beyond a certain point, relying on private sources of finance becomes inadequate. The corporate world turns to the public for raising capital – and in the process it shares the risks and rewards with a large body of co-owners. There are other strategic benefits of going public. The principal benefit is higher credibility and acceptance of all stakeholders including consumers, employees, financial institutions, business partners, government and regulatory bodies.

There are several key factors that determine the success of an IPO. These are as follows: 1. The reputation of the company 2. The knowledge and awareness about the company amongst the investing community and opinion influencers 3. The right partners for the IPO, such as investment bankers, broker syndicate, legal advisors, registrars and communications consultants 4. The Success of events en route the IPO, such as M&A, restructuring, PE investment, etc 5. Strong investment proposition and optimal valuation 6. A management team that inspires confidence and stands up to public scrutiny successfully.

Unique Challenges In IPO Communications • Companies often underestimate the value of corporate reputation in successfully concluding an IPO, and managing the events en route the IPO. • Most companies Whenever a approach the company taps the Success of an IPO is in turn capital market capital market for critical for the sustainability under-prepared the first time by in terms of and growth of the business issuing shares to adequate public the general public, profile and little knowledge it is called an Initial among the investors and even opinion Public Offering (IPO). Subsequent influencers. offerings are called Follow-on offers • This results in lower-than-deserved (FPOs). public response to the IPO. • Other challenges include severe Critical Factors For The Success Of An regulatory constraints governing IPO IPO communications combined with the tight timelines in creating nationwide Initial public offering (IPO) is a critical awareness and interest in the IPO. milestone in realising the company’s • Management’s ability to face intense vision and business strategy. The success public scrutiny and articulate the vision and the business strategy of the of an IPO is in turn critical for the company. sustainability and growth of a business.

• •

Crisis situations precipitated by hostile stakeholders. Last but not the least, there is no room for trial and error.

1. Corporate advertising, to rapidly build the identity of the company. 2. Issue advertising, to raise awareness about the offer. 3. A public relations exercise addressing all opinion influencers so that there is a favourable consensus in the market. The opinion influencers have tremendous bearing on the investment behaviour of all categories of investors.

The target markets and target groups for the IPO Communications • The universe of investors is about 15 million investors, a very small audience considering the large population of India. • Top ten markets account for nearly 90 per cent response to the IPOs. The a. The issue marketing exercise usually Mumbai, involves Gujarat, briefings to Rajasthan and Start building your public QIBs, media, Delhi corridor analysts and profile atleast 9 to 12 months, alone accounts brokers. Road for nearly 80 before the planned IPO shows are held per cent response to in target IPOs. markets for this purpose. • The main target groups include b. The QIB briefings take place in India Ø Investors as well as in other financial capitals of o Retail individual investors the world including New York, London, o High Networth Investors Hong Kong, Singapore, etc. (HNI definition also includes corporates, trusts, etc) Qualified Institutional Investors (QIBs) Ø Opinion influencers including o Brokers o Analysts o Media Ø Company’s eco-system o Employees o Business partners o Existing shareholders of group companies o Customers o

Key Elements Of IPO Campaign The IPO campaign is designed to meet the plan objectives in a short period of time, while completely conforming to regulatory framework laid out by the market’s regulator – Security & Exchange Board of India (SEBI). The plan usually has three components

Measuring IPO Campaign Success The success of IPO campaign is measured using the following metrics: • • • • •

Overall response to the offer in terms of number of times subscription Level of participation by individual investors Favourable consensus in the market as reflected in the level of endorsement Quantum leap in the corporate reputation of the company Continued interest in the company’s equity after the listing of the stock

Last Take Companies aspiring to tap the capital market and optimizing value through the IPO process should keep the following things in mind:

Ø Start early in terms of building a public profile – the ideal time to start should be from 9 to 12 months before the planned IPO Ø Prepare the management team to confidently articulate the vision, business model and growth strategy

Ø Be proactive and consistent in communications Ø Plan all communications in accordance with the regulatory framework.

Preparing your company for IPO (Source: 01. Plan your IPO well ahead, say two or three years in advance. 02. Ensure your product is beyond the prototype phase before you proceed. 03. Network. Get to know other entrepreneurs in your community and your industry who know the lawyers, accountants and investment bankers you should and shouldn't meet. 04. Develop a solid business plan. 05. Clean up your books and your team. If you have financial problems, solve them. If some of the company founders and other execs are no longer working out, buy them out. 06. Form a corporation. 07. Hire a public relations adviser. Start getting the word out about your company so that when the IPO hits, investors know who you are. 08. Start preparing financial statements on par with those you will have to file after the IPO. This will help you start thinking and acting like a public company. 09. Raise private funds. If a respected venture-capital firm invests in your company, the endorsement might help in the subsequent IPO. The VC firm also will help you with management problems and help you stage the IPO. 10. Pick the team that will get you through the IPO: accountant, lawyer and investment banker. 11. Prepare a registration statement. First, you'll have to conduct an audit, hire a printer, and ask the Securities and Exchange Commission to approve the statement.

PReStige: Preparing for IPO – Seven Steps Prof. Bala Balachandran is a distinguished Professor in Kellogg School of Management. He is an Adhoc Advisor to President Obama. He is one of the top Management Gurus in the world. He is also the Founder of Great Lakes Institute of Management at Chennai and International School of Business at Hyderabad. He can be reached at Step 1 – Product / Services

and the company prosper. If the product is good and the people are not good, then it doesn’t make sense.

The company should have a phenomenal Step 3 - Vision product or service that has a sustainable growth and at the same time profitable. The company should have a clear value It is not the question of market share proposition with key success factors that alone, but the company should have are expected to be achieved. What sustainable growth. I say both volume exactly is the product going to do? and value are important; The company Where is the market? How much can the should have a good product and services, company do it? When is the company because, the people have to believe that going for organic this company has growth? How much solid product or Companies need to have a of an organic services which is growth can the very good Board of Directors going to have company go? longer life time or Management team When exactly the rather than shorter company may need life time. to go for some diversification? All these Step 2 - Board of directors: things as clear value proposition with pure and simple vision which is sustainable Companies need to have a very good needs to be done. Board of directors or Management team, Step 4 – Support Team which they are going to announce. Track record and credibility of people is more The Company is going to be involved with important. The reason why I became under-writers or private equity or Chairman of a company, even though I investment bankers who are going to have little investment is that people who infuse money. Who is the auditor for the have put in money want a credible person Company? A reputed auditor is highly with impeccable record known in the field important and some asset managers. A for competency, integrity. transparency strong deal making support team, who and honesty. Good management with understands the belief and also identify good track record is important because these people are going to make product

important. If the company is not a credible group, people always develop some doubts. If the company faces that Step 5 – Timing of IPO kind of problems, then they have to build credibility. One way is to have a solid This is not the time to go for IPO. The board of directors and solid management company has to find an economically solid team. Integrity and transparency is times which gives synergistic boost. Even important. The company should show that if the company has a good product, I they are solidly in process. I call Bharath would advise them to stay away during as Bhava, Raga and Thala. Bhava means bad economic time. They have to find people; the company should have time when people are willing to have amazingly credible people. Raga which disposable income and want to invest. otherwise is the Process, is very Even if the company has everything and important. Can it be put in auto pilot? If economy is not conducive for growth and something happens to CEO, will the solid time is not there I don’t see how the company survive? Is it a one man show? company can go for IPO. It’s better to This is a world of revolution. Finally wait and look for right time and right whether the company is leveraging price, right place appropriate and right reason. technology, which is Credibility, integrity and equated to Thala? Step 6 – Alliance transparency of the system is The company has to partners be strong in highly important The company technology. If all the should have seven steps are alliance partners who are willing to take followed we can achieve. risk and some investors. For example, If Role of communication: the way the company plans to go does not happen, who is going to back the Communication plays a greater role. company? Therefore, there is a need for Underwriters, investment bankers are some back up strategy or some alliance going to come up with communication. partners. The company has to be in a The communication should ensure that position to involve some customers, some people understand the product, the risk suppliers to be with them. Adding few factors. etc. The communication will be partners is extremely important. more effective, if some independent groups say that they are willing to invest Step 7 – Crediblity, integrity and money because of these reasons, instead transparency of management talking about it. Finally, credibility, integrity and transparency of the system is highly what exactly, is needed before the IPO, is highly essential.

Pl listen to the podcast interview of Prof. Bala Balachandran Click here

PReStige: A Guide to IPOs for Retail Investors

Mr.Prithvi Haldea, a capital markets veteran and the founder of Prime Database, He is one of India’s most authoritative resources on initial public offerings. He is on the several advisory committees of SEBI, BSE, NSE, etc. He is also on the Board of UTI. He can be reached at

What due diligence should a retail investor exercise before investing in an IPO?

What about media advice?



The retail investor should remember that It is a hard reality that there is very little it is the Company’s job to create the that a retail investor can do in terms of necessary hype and environment to be exercising due diligence given his limited able to attract investors. The investors competence and time. Even understanding should look at all advertisements and the offer document, and even the media reports with due caution. Most abridged prospectus, are difficult because analysts who come on TV and write in the these are voluminous and highly technical. print media are also biased or lack Despite this, an sufficient investor should at knowledge and Investors should read the risk least read the risk again the retail factors and more investors should be factors and focus on the importantly, focus careful and not disclosures about the on the disclosures blindly follow such recommendations. promoters about the promoters. What about grey market premium? On a practical level, he can allocate this responsibility to the institutional investors, There is a body of operators who create a and depend upon them for guidance. This grey market prior to an IPO and have can be done by first by looking at VC/PE these premia released in the media, to investments, pre-IPO placements and trap in the small investors. It will be good anchor investors and once the issue has for a small investor to remember that opened, by seeing the QIB response in the these are all promoter-generated open book which is being built. If the QIB mechanisms and he should not be fooled response is healthy, he can presume that into applying for an IPO based upon these enough due diligence has been done by premia figures. these knowledgeable investors about the company and its offer price.

How much should retail depend on IPO grading?


IPO grading is an instrument of creating false sense of security for the small investors. The market too has rejected the gradings. The retail investors have taken any cues from grading; response data shows all such issues oversubscribed handsomely.

IPO not the get

High grades should ideally lead to superior returns. However, our studies show the opposite, both over the short and long term. Grading has also been biased towards large issuers, all of which have given the largest losses.

supposed to be just one more additional factor an investor should consider before investing. It is extremely difficult for a retail investor to assign any weightage to the IPO grade, and hence the utility of IPO grading is totally lost. Is the issue price really discovered by the market? In both fixed priced IPOs as well as bookbuilt IPOs, it is the issuer who sets the price; in the former it a single price, in the latter, it is a price band. The band is discussed informally by the issuer in preIPO road shows with some institutional investors. So “true price discovery by the market through bookbuilding� is a myth.

Any specific kind of companies the We are fortunate investors are not retail should look out for? following gradings. Those who would have History has shown us that PSUs are a rejected low-grade IPOs could complain good investment opportunity. Since only about missed opportunities. Those who profitable PSUs enter the market, these would have invested in high-grade IPOs have a significantly long track record. and lost money could say they were Most of these are misled. Can we also then tell them to monopolies/near continue holding to History has shown us that monopolies. To top a loss because the PSUs are a good investment this, the stock is opportunity since these have government rarely fundamentally strong? goes overboard on a signifantly long track pricing and hence record. Ignoring price in almost all PSU IPOs any case makes of the past few grading a futile years have given exercise. A good company at a wrong excellent returns, both in the short and price is a bad investment. In equity, it is the long term. not the assured returns but the Any specific process advice? attractiveness of a company at a particular price for capital appreciation SEBI has introduced the ASBA process, that should drive the investment decision. under which when you apply for an IPO, the application money does not move out Moreover, unlike debt instruments where of your bank account, but only upon an investment decision is almost entirely allotment, the necessary amount is guided by the ratings, the IPO grades, by debited to your bank account. This the rating agency’s own admission, are

process is highly beneficial to the investors-including saving him from the hassles of refund orders. Retail investors should use only the ASBA process when applying for IPOs. When should the retail investor sell the shares received through an IPO?

However, if he is investing in a company, then he should make an investment judiciously by understanding the company, the sector and the economy, and remain invested as he would typically do when he buys a stock from the secondary market. Listing date price and subsequent fluctuations in the market price should be of no concern to him.

An investor should first of all take a call whether he is investing in an IPO or in a Finally‌ company. If it is the former, then he Theoretically, IPOs should invest in all are the most risky IPOs, but only Retail investor should ideally instruments, as during the bull these come from periods. Given the enter the capital market companies about market structures, through the mutual fund whom there is very almost all IPOs route little information would list at a available in the premium to the market. Yet, offer price-ranging because of our policies, IPOs have tended from 10 to over 100 per cent; that is a to give good returns. With changing good return over a 21-day horizon, and he market structures, this may not hold in should sell his shares immediately on the the future. The investor should get out of listing date and take the profits home (as the mindset that IPOs mean assured also cut losses in case some listings take returns on the listing date and forever. In place at a price lower than the offer view of this, the retail investors should price). This is purely a trading opportunity. ideally enter the capital market through the mutual funds route.

Important links

PReTTY How to lose your shirt in the stock market? - Humour The following is simply a Just for Laughs article that is intended to bring about a giggle. Enjoy! - Tired of being a successful investor? By following these rules, you can return to your humble roots and make your less wealthy friends tolerate your company again: 1. Believe in the “Experts” Why should you do your own stock research when there are “experts” around to do all the work for you? If Jim Cramer thinks Starbucks is going to be hot, just reach for your wallet! Or, if your wealthy brother-in-law knows of a great high-tech IPO, write down the name on a cocktail napkin and call your stock broker in the morning. After all, if they’re so smart, why aren’t they rich? 2. Hire Your Own Personal “Expert”Speaking of stock broker, we strongly recommend hiring someone to make your investment decisions and transactions for you. After all, if you want to lose your shirt in the stock market, one of the best ways to get the job done is to pay a lot of money in fees and commissions. That way, you take on all the risk yourself, are completely dependent on someone else, and any pesky returns wind up funding your stock broker’s vacation trip to Tahiti, not yours. 3. Rely on Your “Inner Knowledge” You know those investors who research trends and movements in different industries before they select stocks to invest in? Go ahead and scoff at them.You don’t need book knowledge – just a couple of hunches mixed together with a gut feeling and stirred up with a healthy dose of confidence. While you’re at it, toss your stock analysis software out the window. After all, you already know how to lose your shirt at the horse track (just bet on “Hot Chocolate” in the first race, and “Footy Pajamas” in the second race, because they bring up such fond childhood memories). How hard could it be to achieve the same results in the stock market? 4. Be Optimistic In the stock market, it’s best to look on the bright side of life, so get out that sunny disposition! We strongly recommend telling yourself affirmations in the mirror every morning (“I am a masterful stock market investor, and dog-gone-it, people like me”) and maybe giving your portfolio a pep talk every now and then, too. Because if you want to lose your shirt, attitude is everything, right? 5. Buy High and Sell Low It’s no fun to buy when everyone is selling. You feel like, “What kind of fool am I?” On the other hand, when the market is hot, and everyone is in the buy, buy, buy mood, that’s definitely the time to buy. You’ll be sure to lose your shirt when you are forced to sell at a tenth of the price. 6. Turn up your nose at index funds. All of them. Index funds are for wimps. That includes exchange traded funds, too, like the QQQ. After all, index funds are basically a passive way to achieve the same returns as the market over all, with low overhead. And that’s not what you want, is it? 7. Put all your money in the same basket If you love robotics, or biotechnology, be sure to invest only in those stocks. And while we’re talking about the same basket, make sure that you not only invest in the same industry, but that you only invest in stocks. Use these tips and not only will you find out whether your spouse really loves you, you might also land yourself in a lower tax bracket. (Take that, Uncle Sam!) Source

PResenters of PReSENSE

Madan Bahal Guest Editor

K. Srinivasan Editor in Chief

V. Rajendran Strategic Editor

Triambak Sharma Cartoon Editor

Narrendiran Content Editor

K. Bhavani International Editor (South Asia) Singapore

Archana Verma International Editor (USA)

Veena Vinod Podcast Editor & PodJockey

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Sep 09 issue of corporate ezine PR-e-Sense deals with the tips for the companies to go for Public Issue (IPO). This issue also gives tips t...

How to prepare for Public Issue (IPO)?  

Sep 09 issue of corporate ezine PR-e-Sense deals with the tips for the companies to go for Public Issue (IPO). This issue also gives tips t...