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NATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE NATIONAL NETWORK OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES1* Ministry of Culture of Colombia Mariana Garcés Córdoba Minister María Claudia López Sorzano Deputy Minister Enzo Rafael Ariza General Secretary National Library of Colombia Consuelo Gaitán Gaitán Director Silvia Mora Sierra National Reading and Writing Plan Manager Sandra Suescún Barrera Group of Public Libraries Coordinator Project Use and Appropriation of ICT in the National Network of Public Libraries Andrea López Naranjo Director Lina María Cruz Silva Impact Evaluation Specialist Diego Merizalde Arboleda Planning and Monitoring Specialist Jorge Andrés Cortés Castellanos Administrative Coordinator Henry García Gaviria Advocacy Specialist NATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE NATIONAL NETWORK OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES Ministry of Culture, Republic of Colombia, National Library of Colombia, Bogotá, December 2014 It is absolutely prohibited to completely or partially reproduce this content in any printed or digital means without explicit and formal authorization from the National Library of Colombia Project Use and appropriation of ICT in the National Network of Public Libraries Assessment Coordination Agricultural Assessments International Corporation (AAIC) Assessment development Regional Center for the Promotion of the Book in Latin America and the Caribbean Assessment Analysis Andrea Descans Castro Design and layout Diego Merizalde Arboleda, Milton Ramírez, Henry García Gaviria, Wilson Andrés Ríos Álvarez, DLB Group, Rafael Manosalva, Felipe Rocha Photography Publicaciones VID Prepress and Printing Printed in Colombia © 2014

*

The National Network of Public Libraries of Colombia (NNPL) is composed by the state public libraries, which are grouped in departments, districts, and municipalities networks. Public libraries are departmental, of districts, municipal, rural, community councils and indigenous reserves.

The content of this publication (in text and image) is reserved, as provided in the Constitution and the Law. Photographs within this publication illustrate and document the themes addressed in the text; therefore they are not used for commercial or similar purposes, but in order to disseminate the results of a national study.

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Main reading room Municipal Public Library Ram贸n Correa Mej铆a Pereira (Risaralda)

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Child user Municipal Public Library Toca, Boyacรก 6

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Contents

Overview 8 Introduction 14 General Aspects 16 Coverage 18 Physical Area 20 Users 22 Borrowing Items 23 Collections 24 Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) 25 Personnel of the library 30 36 An International Comparative View Actual and Potential Users Information needs Main information needs and interests Perceptions of actual and potential users

40 42 44 48

Use of information and communication technologies in public libraries for development

50

Project Use and appropriation of ICT in public libraries 60 Context 60 62 Pilot Description Participating libraries 66 Pilot outcomes 68 7

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Overview

Between September 2011 and May 2014, the Ministry of Culture of Colombia developed the first phase of the Project “Use and Appropriation of ICT in the National Network of Public Libraries”, hereafter NNPL, within the framework of the National Plan of Reading and Writing “Reading is My Story”, in order to contribute to the generation of greater and better living opportunities for the people, through the access to the Information and Communications Technologies from Public Libraries. With a grant of USD 4.2 M, out of which USD 3.2 M were contributed by the initiative of Global Libraries of Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the result of the first phase of the Project was the designing of a proposal for its implementation at the national level 1, which included the knowledge acquired in pilot program in 25 public libraries at the national level and from the national assessment of the NNPL. This document presents, for the knowledge of the cultural and librarian sector of the country, the data obtained from such assessment, in a summary prepared by the Regional Centre for the Promotion of the Book in Latin America and the Caribbean. 1  The National Network of Public Libraries of Colombia (NNPL) is composed by the state public libraries, which are grouped in departments, districts, and municipalities networks. Public libraries are departmental, of districts, municipal, rural, community councils and indigenous reserves.

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Children users Municipal Public Library Nimaima, Cundinamarca

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Executive Summary This document contains the main findings of the national assessment of NNPL,

As a supplement to the summary, data of libraries participating in the pilot were

under the Project “Use and appropriation of Information and Communications

only included in the analyses of national coverage, physical area, technological

Technology (ICT)”.

resources and amount of people working in a library. The National Library was

The assessment aimed to have a baseline of the physical and technological conditions of public libraries for the definition of plans of technological provision and physical infrastructure adequacy of public libraries; to know aspects related with librarians and services provided by libraries, and identify possible services to be implemented in public libraries of the country, starting from the acknowledgment of the information needs of users and non users’ communities, and to generate action to contribute to improve the image of public libraries, based on the perception thereof.

not included in this overview due to its specific conditions of access and to the collections it houses. Some findings are summarized below:

• The public state libraries’ assessment carried out in 2013, surveyed 1302 libraries, throughout the national territory, of the 1404 libraries registered in the NNPL as of June, 2013 3. The assessment records an average of 40 libraries per departmental territorial entity. More than half of the libraries are concentrated in six departments (Antioquia, Boyacá,

The study, which field work was performed by Agricultural Assessments

Cundinamarca, Valle, Santander and Bogotá); these departments

International Corporation (AAIC), between July and September of 2013,

lodge 52% of the national population.

covered 98% of the public libraries ascribed to NNPL, and applied three information collection instruments addressed to public libraries, potential users and current users thereof. The analysis and summary of the final data was commissioned to the Regional Center for Book Promotion in Latin America and the Caribbean (Cerlalc-Unesco). The document consists of three parts. In the first part, a characterization of public libraries is done from the library structure, location, attributes, staffing, library services and library staff, with a comparative description of some indicators in Colombia with respect to the international context; the second part makes the analysis of the information needs of actual and potential 2 users of public libraries, and at the end, is studied the use of ICT in libraries for the development. 2  Actual users correspond to people that assure having used the library in the last year. Potential users are equivalent to the people who manifested they had not used the library in the last year.

• In 2013, there was a public library per each 35.509 inhabitants in Colombia. This indicator is similar to that of other countries.

• The total built area in the state public libraries infrastructure is 354.930 square meters, which corresponds to an average size of 267 square meters per library. 61% of surveyed libraries share their physical space with other entities. Regarding access to main public services, public libraries in Colombia have a connection to electric energy in 99%; aqueduct in 86%; sewerage in 82%, and cleanliness in 99%. The connection to telephone services is notoriously lower, 29%. 3  Out of 1404 libraries registered in NNPL as of June, 2013, 77 libraries were not surveyed because 60 of them were found closed, 14 did not exist, and 3 were not visited due to public order. Furthermore, 25 public libraries of the pilot carried out in the framework of the planning of the project of Use and Appropriation of ICT were excluded. The above for a total of 1302 public libraries surveyed.

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Youth users Municipal Public Library Su Señoría Felipe Santiago Cuervo Ciénega, Boyacá

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• The total number of items borrowed in the last year, is estimated in

• Regarding the staff responsible for the provision of library services, the

2 million volumes. Only 7% of state public libraries have a digital

survey shows a total of 2,868 people linked to the library personnel

catalogue of their collections.

(68% female and 32% male). 72.5% of libraries are served by a

• The study identifies 14.345 computers (PCs and laptops) available in

person who is part of the library staff. In line with the concentration

public libraries (an average of 11 devices per library). Of this total,

of the population at the nation level, 54% of the total personnel linked

90% is working. Among computers that work, 62% have Internet

concentrates in Antioquia, Bogotá, Valle, Cundinamarca and Boyacá.

access, and 55% are computers for public and shared use; in other

In accordance with the concentration of the population at the national

words, intended for users, and for activities related to the administration

level, 54% of the entire personnel concentrate in Antioquia, Bogotá,

of the library.

Valle, Cundinamarca, Boyacá and Santander.

• Internet service is found in 60.5% of public libraries in the Network.

• In relation with the time in the position of people responsible for the library,

The speed of the Internet connection is relatively low. Only 22% of

the assessment shows low seniority and therefore low permanence and

connected libraries have a speed above 4 megabytes. However it is

continuity: 51% has less than two years in the library. It is worth to state

noteworthy that 16% of respondents (128 libraries) declared to ignore

that 51% of staff responsible of libraries works under service provision

the bandwidth of the network access.

orders or agreements. Only 44% of librarians have been appointed in

• The annual average of users using the service of external borrowing in each department is 41.392. The monthly average number of visitors to the total public libraries in the Network is 1.803.060.

• The results of the survey made between actual and potential users of public libraries show that actual users are, to a greater extent, young people between 12 and 17 years old (49,8%) and between 18 and 25 years (19%), concentrated – in almost 95% – in the socio economic levels 1, 2 and 3. Regarding the potential population, age distribution changes, since 64.5% of respondents are over 26 years.

• According to the perception of librarians, users groups mostly attending more to the library are those in school age, which demands from libraries a redefinition of collections, types of services, schedules, needs of support staff and technological equipment, according to the needs of another type of population, to stimulate their attendance.

the staff. The remaining 4% is hired under a different system.

• Regarding the interests of real users and the identification and valuation of some information subjects, 52,6% stated as very important the “studies” (accomplish tasks), and 54.9% pointed out “entertainment” as important. Other well rated topics that would help to assess the library collections are health, education, welfare and culture. These results encourage to think that is school population or population under academic training process, what promotes the design strategies, implementation and strengthening of communication skills of students and literacy skills taught in educational institutions.

• Courses, trainings, workshops, free Internet and computers availability are activities and conditions that would encourage potential users to attend to a public library. For real users, on their turn, learning, knowledge, research and reading are the main reasons to attend to public libraries.

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• The public library is a privileged place for the contact of the population with Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). 44% of real users connect to Internet in the library, which makes it the main connection place, above home and the access centers. In the group of real users, only 9% does not have access to Internet. This contrasts with the group of potential users: 37% said not to have access to Internet.

• Availability of computers to have access to Internet constitutes an important added value within the public library. 75% of the users go to the public libraries having access to Internet and Computers for public use. Besides, the service rating is directly correlated both with availability in amount of devices as with the network access quality.

• Twelve of every 100 real users declared that their first contact with Internet was at a public library. Availability of ICT in most libraries of the NNPL has motivated its use in activities that are complementary to academic performance. More than have of the responses assure that the most frequent activities carried out in the library, using ICT, are referred to reading newspapers and magazines (61%); interacting with parents and friends, through email and social networks (61%), and create contents to share (51%). To a lesser extent, but equally important, real users perform commercial transactions, look for work, and participate in governmental processes or services (request appointments, download or fill out forms, request certificates, etc.).

• The expectations of use of ICT in the public library by potential users are concentrated, to a high degree, in similar activities to those performed by actual users. It is noteworthy that more than 80% of potential users would use ICT for recreation and communication purposes. P. L. Ramiro Moreno (Baranoa, Atlántico)

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Introduction

In the last years, Colombia has strengthened public policies addressed to the

resources has been allocated to strengthen the libraries’ collections, terms of

development of the library system. They have turned into an integral part of

connectivity and training of library staff in the libraries of the country.

the government agenda, with the purpose of increasing reading and writing levels in the country and helping the generation of opportunities that enable people to improve their living conditions. In the recent past, the issue of the General Law of Culture (397 of 1997); Conpes Document 3162, 2002, “Guidelines for the Sustainability of National Plan of Reading and Libraries” 2001-2010”; Document Conpes 3222 in 2003, “Guidelines of the National

Within this Framework is located the Project “Use and Appropriation of ICT in the NNPL” which looks to contribute the increase of the reading index in the country, through access to technology from the public libraries, and to demonstrate that libraries are current, necessary and fundamental places for the achievement of a reading, educated and prosperous society.

Plan for Reading and Libraries”, and Law 1379 of 2010: “Public Libraries Act”

The assessment was performed in 98% of libraries ascribed to the NNPL, and it

and its consequent implementation have laid the foundations for sustainability

also furthered a sampling for actual and potential users of public libraries where

and growth strategy of public libraries in Colombia.

the needs, interests and uses of offered services by the NNPL were collected.

Since 2010, upon the implementation of the National Plan of Reading and

As the overview complement, data of libraries participating in the pilot, were

Writing “Reading is my story” (PNLE as per wording in Spanish), the promotion

only included in the analyses of national coverage, physical area, technological

of reading and public libraries has been the focus of action of the Ministry

supplies and amount of people working at a library.

of Culture of Colombia. Resulting from this emphasis, a significant amount of 14

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Child user Cultural Center and Public Library Le贸n de Greiff Marsella, Risaralda

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General Aspects

The purpose of this section is to provide an overview of the current situation of the NNPL in Colombia, from its structure, departmental location, attributes, manning, equipment, library services and library staff. It also includes a comparative description of some indicators of Colombia in the international context. 16

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Child participating in the project “Fostering reading” Cultural Center and Public Library León de Greiff Marsella, Risaralda

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Coverage Main indicators of Public Libraries in some departments 4 Table 1/ Colombia / 2013

Departments Antioquia

Number of libraries in the NNPL

NNPL coverage Index 4

Number of libraries in Compensation Funds Network

154

98%

16

Bogotá, D.C.

19

100%

9

Bolívar

67

100%

Boyacá

124

Caldas

Number of libraries in the Banco de La República Network

Total public libraries

Number of inhabitants per library

Number of libraries per each 100.000 inhabitants

170

37.059

2,7

1

29

264.633

0,4

1

1

69

29.697

3,4

98%

2

1

127

10.022

10,0

40

100%

2

1

43

22.886

4,4

Cauca

55

100%

1

1

57

23.767

4,2

Córdoba

34

97%

1

35

47.373

2,1

143

99%

1

1

145

17.919

5,6

Huila

38

100%

2

1

41

27.471

3,6

Nariño

77

100%

2

79

21.542

4,6

Norte de Santander

50

98%

2

52

25.623

3,9

Risaralda

23

100%

3

27

34.862

2,9

Santander

93

98%

3

96

21.260

4,7

Tolima

68

98%

4

2

74

18.921

5,3

Valle del Cauca

118

100%

17

1

136

33.239

3,0

Remaining

301

99%

12

8

321

31.671

3,2

1.404

99%

76

21

1.501

31.393

3,2

Cundinamarca

Total

1

Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc

4  The coverage index represents the amount of municipalities with NNPL libraries per department. The number of inhabitants per library and the number of libraries per 100.000 inhabitants includes libraries of the Family Compensation Fund and the Banco de la República Network.

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Coverage index in some departments Table 2/ Colombia / 2002-2013 Coveragerate per municipality 2002

Coveragerate per municipality 2013

Amazonas

50%

50%

Boyacá

62%

98%

Casanare

26%

100%

Chocó

32%

97%

Cundinamarca

57%

99%

Guajira

67%

100%

Magdalena

63%

100%

Nariño

44%

100%

San Andrés

50%

100%

Santander

55%

98%

Sucre

36%

96%

Vaupés

33%

100%

Vichada

25%

100%

Departaments

P. L. Abraham Ayala (Istmina, Chocó)

Overall, growth in coverage in the public library system in Colombia 5 is evident.

Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc

The coverage ratio (percentage of municipalities with public library) increased

Comparing the results of the assessment of 2013 with the results of 2002, and

from 73% in 2002 to 99% in 2013. Outstanding cases of growth in coverage

including, in addition to libraries of the NNPL, the Network of Compensation

between 2002 and 2013 are in departments that in 2002 recorded average

Funds and Libraries of the Network of Banco de la República, in 2013 the

coverage per municipality below the national average, as it was the case

number of public libraries increased to 1.501 institutions, located in 1.093

of Casanare, Nariño, Vaupés and Vichada, among others. This reflects the

municipalities, which implies an increase of 20% in libraries and an increase

objectives of the government’s actions in terms of giving priority to investment in

of 26% in coverage. In 2002, 1.194 public libraries were identified in 798

areas with major deficiencies in the library infrastructure.

municipalities, which represented a national coverage per municipalities of 73% (Ministry of Culture, Ministry of National Education, Planning National

5  With the aim of showing the progress of the library system as a whole for the national and departmental coverage indicator, data of libraries of the National Bank Network and the Family compensation fund network esa included.

Department, 2003). 19

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Physical Area The surface of national libraries is 701.367 square meters, which gives an average size of 728 square meters per library. Regarding the built area 6, the study identifies a total of 355 thousand square meters which represents an average rate of 267 square meters per public library. The six departments concentrating the highest number of public libraries (Antioquia, Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Valle, Santander and Bogotá) are also the greater part of the built area (63%). Bogotá, Meta and Antioquia record in average greater areas in relation with the remaining departments.

Main indicators of the physical area of the National Network of Public Libraries in some departments Table 3 / Colombia /2013 Total area in m2 of libraries by department

Built area in m2 of libraries by department*

Total area in m2 per library by department*

Built area in m2 per library by department*

Total area in m2 per 10.000 inhabitants by department

Built area in m2 per 10.000 inhabitants by department*

Antioquia

93.034

55.910

660

397

148

89

Bogotá, D.C.

114.569

52.762

5.728

2.638

149

69

Bolívar

14.529

8.548

246

145

71

42

Boyacá

37.217

23.026

313

193

292

181

Cesar

12.118

7.875

466

303

121

78

Cundinamarca

69.916

35.330

530

270

269

136

Huila

9.573

8.756

274

250

85

78

Meta

64.758

12.864

2.159

444

700

139

Nariño

10.374

10.251

140

140

61

60

Santander

39.507

22.791

395

230

194

112

Tolima

28.614

17.013

440

262

204

122

Valle del Cauca

50.603

35. 217

496

345

112

78

Remaining

156.425

64.587

173

72

108

45

701.237

354.930

528

267

149

75

Departamentos

Total

Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc *The indicator does not include libraries in the pilot test 6  Total area corresponds to the area of the building where the library is located and includes external spaces (squares, gardens, terraces among other). The built area corresponds to the area of internal spaces the library has to provide services.

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When analyzing the library surface, Bogota`s case is atypical since the average area of each library is 2.638 square meters. This explains somehow the outstanding differences in relation with the number of square meters of library per each 10.000 inhabitants. Bogotรก has an indicator of 383.718 inhabitants per library, but the average built area is almost ten times higher to the national average, which is 267 square meters.

The distribution of built area shows that 32% goes to consulting rooms; 10%

On a scale of sizes, 43% of the universe of public libraries is concentrated in

reference rooms; 10% are children rooms, and 7% auditoriums or halls for

small institutions (less than 150 square meters per library), 42% in medium-sized

cultural events, among other places.

libraries (between 150 square meters and 600 square meters) and only 14% recorded over 600 square meters sizes.

In smaller libraries (measured per square meters), the general room and the reference room, are the most significant spaces, since they represent 56% of the total built area. In larger libraries, the general ward loses share (25% of

State public libraries by built area

total floor area), and auditoriums gain spaces (10%), as well as spaces for

Chart 1 / Colombia / 2013

exhibitions or art exhibitions (7%). 38.5% of public libraries have site dedicated solely to the library function. Most (61.5%) of public libraries, therefore, share the site with other establishments: houses of culture (28.5%), educational institutions (8.1%), town halls (6.2%), social centres (2.3%), and other institutions of public administration (16.4%).

Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc

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Users An important issue for libraries is perception: the perception of libraries bosses of who are their users, and what services can meet the needs and interests of the visitors. In recent years, challenges in this field have been transformed as a result of developments in communications, information abundance and changes in the ways users access such information.

Main indicators of users of the National Network of Public Libraries in some departments Table 4 / Colombia / 2013

Department

Monthly average of users visiting the library according to departament

Monthly average of users per 10.000 inhabitants according to department

Number of users per M2 built according to department*

Number of users with external borrowing according to department in 2012

Average of materials borrowed by user 2012*

Participation of users from 7 to 12 years identified s typical according to department*

Participation of users from 13 to 17 years identified as typical according to department*

Bogotá, D.C.

409.483

534

8

617.017

1

65%

10%

Antioquia

375.589

596

7

284.064

1

51%

27%

Cundinamarca

125.390

483

4

76.386

1

66%

16%

70.649

555

3

56.105

2

69%

17%

153.132

339

4

42.967

2

71%

24%

Santander

58.488

287

2

42.167

2

56%

25%

Nariño

41.774

245

4

38.828

2

64%

27%

Caldas

42.803

435

6

29.608

2

65%

15%

Casanare

27.399

796

4

28.775

2

76%

14%

Meta

38.700

418

3

16.550

1

52%

38%

Bolívar

49.354

241

6

14.408

4

66%

22%

Córdoba

21.212

128

4

13.929

1

74%

21%

389.087

258

5

63.741

2

52%

22%

383

5

1.324.545

2

63%

23%

Boyacá Valle del Cauca

Remaining

Total

1.803.060

Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc / *The indicator does not contemplate libraries of the pilot test 22

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First, it must be taken into account that heads of libraries of the NNPL have counted a monthly average of 1.803.060 visitor users, at a rate of 1.359 per library. When trying to demographically locate the most typical users of libraries, the assessment invited the librarian to consider the most typical user per age ranges. According to the responses, the typical group of users, in an 86% of surveyed libraries, is the population in school age (between 7 and 17 years old). This consideration could demonstrate the complementation of public libraries with information access needs of the population attending school. In terms of public policy, this perception of users groups, demands from libraries a redefinition of the collections, types of services, schedules, needs supporting staff and technological equipment, depending on the needs of other type of population, encouraging their attendance. The perception of librarians would be ratified as indicated in the publication of Reading habits, attendance to libraries and book consumption in Colombia 2012, where it was found that 22.5% of people aged 5 and older (7.3 million people of the population in consideration) attended libraries that year. Of these, the largest proportion -64% of the population who attended a library in the last yearwas concentrated in younger populations; that is, in the segment of 12 to 25 years.

Borrowing Items An additional indicator in the measurement of effective users is that referred to borrowing, where it was found that around 50% of public libraries made external borrowings in 2012, with a record of 2.002.740 borrowed items. 1.324.545 users were benefitted with this service, with a rate of 1,5 materials borrowed per user. The most borrowed collections are the first childhood collections and children collections followed by newspapers and magazines. Affiliation conditions for borrowing of materials are several. A 5% of libraries

Marsella, Risaralda

charges for the service, 90,6% allows renewals of borrowings, 21,2% demands a carnet to borrow, and 81,1% requests any document different from the carnet. 23

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Collections 52,6% of total volumes is represented by collections of general interest (information/documental), 17,6% by literature collections (youngsters and adult), and 11,5% by children collections.

Main indicators of collections of the National Network of Public Libraries in some departments Table 5 / Colombia / 2013 Departments

Total volumes according to department*

Average volumes per library according to department*

Average volumes per each 10.000 inhabitants per department*

BogotĂĄ, D.C.

1.490.068

74.503

1.942

Antioquia

1.534.657

10.884

2.436

Caldas

262.515

7.500

2.668

Valle del Cauca

698.687

6.850

1.546

6.527

6.527

1.624

Casanare

133.530

6.070

3.881

Meta

165.054

5.502

1.785

Cundinamarca

707.838

5.362

2.724

35.464

5.066

1.382

Amazonas

5.031

5.031

675

Santander

435.482

4.355

2.134

Tolima

277.331

4.267

1.981

1.991.156

3.082

997

5.740.600

4.326

1.218

GuainĂ­a

Arauca

Remaining

Total

Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc / *The indicator does not contemplate libraries of the pilot test

The use of the children collection is high: it is used in 82.8% of public libraries. A similar dynamics occurs with collections for early childhood, used in 75.4% of libraries. However, these collections only represent, respectively, 11.5% and 3.7% of the total volumes of public libraries. Other collections that have a high use by the library community are collections for reference (58.8% of public libraries stated in this sense) and literature for youth and adults (50.7%). 24

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Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) Main indicators of the technological infrastructure in the National Network of Public Libraries in some departments Table 6 / Colombia / 2013 Departments

Internet service at the library

WebPage at the Library (Number)*

Number of libraries per services using ICT*

Web catalogue in the library*

Yes

Under construction

No

NA

Yes

No

Yes

Partially

Antioquia

21

4

62

54

128

13

28

9

104

96

45

Cundinamarca

5

5

64

57

98

34

7

4

120

84

47

Santander

1

3

38

57

71

29

7

2

90

74

25

Boyacá

6

3

62

48

67

52

9

2

108

93

26

Valle del Cauca

2

3

60

37

59

43

5

4

93

76

26

Tolima

0

2

25

38

53

12

2

7

56

29

36

Nariño

3

0

56

14

41

33

5

4

64

55

18

Bolívar

1

3

21

34

28

31

3

11

45

42

17

Atlántico

0

0

21

2

25

2

1

2

20

19

4

Norte de Santander

0

2

14

24

24

20

0

4

36

7

33

Meta

1

2

12

14

23

7

1

1

27

6

23

Caldas

0

1

18

15

21

14

1

0

33

23

11

Bogotá, D.C.

15

0

4

1

20

0

20

0

0

20

0

Remaining

1

11

158

197

149

230

5

23

339

186

181

56

39

615

592

807

520

94

73

1.135

810

492

Total

No

Does not use ICT

Uses ICT

Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc / *The indicator does not contemplate libraries of the pilot test

The adoption of ICT in library institutions contributes to the efficiency of services provision, makes visible the portfolio, improves access to information by the community and enhances the scope of services in relation to traditional libraries (International Federation of Library Associations and Institution, IFLA, 2011).

25

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60,5% of public libraries have Internet. Bogotá and Atlántico present the greater coverage percentage with 100% and 93%, respectively. Below the national level, at the departmental level are Bolívar (47%) and Norte de Santander (55%). Regarding the use of ICT in services provision, 62% of public libraries offers public library services with the support of TIC, represented library room consultation (48.8%), access to Internet (43.7%) and reading promotion (38.3%). Moreover, where there is greater lags in the case of cultural activities (26.0%) and local information service (27.4%). The layout of a webpage gives libraries the opportunity not only to provide information about library services, but to learn about the users’ needs. However, only 4% of public libraries have a website. However, it must be taken into account that some municipal library networks, such as Bogotá P. L. Simón Bolívar (Cúcuta, Norte de Santander)

(Biblored) or Medellin (Library Network), offer basic information hosting service of associated libraries. 3% of the institutions are in the process of building their website, 47% do not have one, and 45% did not know or did not answer. With respect to availability of catalogues of collections of public libraries via Internet, the answer was yes to 7% of libraries. 6% of the respondents asserted that there is a partial catalogue in the web. 87% of public libraries do not have this tool that is crucial to improve the delivery of library services. P. L. Nimaima, Cundinamarca

26

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Main Indicators of the technological infrastructure in the National Netwrok of Public Librariesin some departments Tabla 7 / Colombia / 2013

Departments

Total computers per department *

Total computers working*

Total computers working with access to Internet per department*

Total computers for public and shared use working with interent connection*

Average of computers, per library, per department*

Average of computers working with Internet, per library, per department*

Average of computers working with Internet, for each 10.000 inhabitants*

Antioquia

2.264

2.082

1.786

1.569

16

13

2,8

Cundinamarca

1.482

1.300

993

867

11

8

3,8

396

385

239

216

4

2

1,2

1.716

1.555

854

754

14

7

6,7

Valle del Cauca

482

463

259

219

5

3

0,6

Tolima

746

728

570

545

11

9

4,1

Nariño

306

287

112

102

4

2

0,7

Bolívar

725

618

318

290

12

5

1,6

Atlántico

407

264

244

233

19

11

1,0

Norte de Santander

228

226

103

84

7

3

0,8

Meta

136

127

84

78

5

3

0,9

Caldas

546

490

297

278

16

9

3,0

Bogotá, D.C.

839

834

693

467

42

35

0,9

4.072

3.524

1.487

1.363

11

4

1,2

14.345

12.883

8.039

7.065

11

6

1,7

Santander Boyacá

Remaining

Total

Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc / *The indicator does not contemplate libraries of the pilot test

The libraries have 14,345 computers nationwide, with an average of 11 equipment per public library, and 121 users per computer. 90% work (12,883 computers); of this percentage 62% have access to Internet (8,039), and out of this total, 55% is public and administrative use. In conclusion, 49% of computer users are allocated to the users and have access to Internet, which means that, for every 251 users, 27

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Municipal Public Library Abraham Ayala Istmina, Choc贸 28

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there is one computer running. The departments with the highest rate of coverage in computers are Tolima (73%) and Antioquia (69%). The opposite cases are Nariño (33%) and North Santander (37%). Main indicators of the technological infrastructure in the National N etwork of Public Libraries in some departments Table 8 / Colombia / 2013 Bandwidth agreed for the intenet service below 4 megas according to department*

Bandwidth agreed for Internet service above 4 megabytes according to department*

Without information of bandwidth according to department*

Antioquia

44%

41%

16%

Cundinamarca

42%

37%

21%

Santander

84%

10%

6%

Boyacá

82%

11%

7%

Valle del Cauca

47%

36%

17%

Tolima

66%

6%

28%

Nariño

86%

14%

0%

Bolívar

75%

25%

0%

Atlántico

0%

100%

0%

Norte de Santander

68%

22%

10%

Meta

71%

6%

24%

Caldas

51%

13%

36%

Bogotá, D.C.

32%

59%

9%

Remaining

64%

15%

21%

62%

22%

16%

Departments

Total

Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc / *The indicator does not contemplate libraries of the pilot test

In terms of the bandwidth with which users can carry out their information search or browse the catalogue, the results show that 62% of public libraries have Internet connection speeds lower than 4 megabytes, 22% have more than 4 megabytes and 16% ignores the bandwidth in use. It is noteworthy that libraries from the Atlántico department have in total a bandwidth higher than 4 megabytes, while in Nariño 86% of institutions have a service lower than to this connection speed. 29

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Personnel of the library The assessment inquires for the library staff in two categories. The first one is referred to personnel in general, linked to the plant, which includes the heads of libraries and staff that provides support. The second one is related to the managers or heads of libraries of the NNPL.

Main indicators of human resource in the National Network of Public Libraries in some departments Table 9 / Colombia / 2013 Men linked to the library staff according to department

Women linked to the library staff according to department

Number of people linked to the library staff per department

Average of people linked to the library staff according to department

Average of people linked to the library staff per 10.000 inhabitants

Average of m2 per linked personnel, per department

Antioquia

189

312

501

4

8

112

Bogotá, D.C.

118

223

341

17

4

155

Valle del Cauca

76

156

232

2

5

152

Cundinamarca

52

176

228

2

9

156

Bolívar

58

85

143

2

7

60

Santander

35

102

137

1

7

173

Boyacá

17

114

131

1

10

176

Norte de Santander

37

78

115

3

9

84

Nariño

35

75

110

1

6

95

Atlántico

36

61

97

4

4

27

Tolima

14

78

92

1

7

185

Meta

21

68

89

3

10

146

Cauca

28

45

73

1

5

62

Remaining

190

389

579

2

1

122

Total

906

1.962

2.868

2

6

130

Department

Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc / *The indicator does not contemplate libraries of the pilot test 30

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Reading promoter Municipal Public Library Tibacuy, Cundinamarca

31

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P. L. Luis Antonio Escobar (Villapinzón, Cundinamarca)

The general staff of public libraries amounts 2,868 people, of which 68% are women and 32% men. 72.5% of libraries are served by a person that is part of the staff. In Bogotá, larger libraries, representing 20% of the total have an average of 60 people, while the remaining 80% has in average 6 people, of the 20 public libraries in the local network. People in charge and heads of public libraries devote a weekly average of 42 hours to the library tasks; while the other people linked to the library devote 38 hours, in average, per week. While the survey does not enter into matters related to the time intensity of linked personnel, it would be interesting to deepen

P. L. Monseñor Luis Pérez Hernández (Cúcuta, Norte de Santander)

in the study of this variable given the perception people have about users’ typical groups in school age.

P. L. El Cármen de Tonchalá (Cúcuta, Norte de Santander)

32

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Main indicators of human resources of the National Network of Public Libraries in some departments Table 10 / Colombia / 2013

Department

Average number of years of seniority of the director or in charged of the library *

Type of formation of the person in charged of the librarya*

NA

Professional in Librarianship

Professional in other areas but with training in librarianship

Professional in other areas

Technicians

Technologist

Otro

NA

48

2

23

10

13

39

21

32

3

5

5

0

18

1

0

1

0

0

0

35

19

47

1

1

22

20

23

12

23

1

Cundinamarca

74

25

27

5

5

31

11

40

7

37

0

Bolívar

31

9

19

0

0

9

9

26

5

9

1

Santander

54

16

26

3

1

24

19

9

12

33

1

Boyacá

56

22

35

6

4

25

7

23

25

35

0

Norte de Santander

29

4

6

1

1

8

9

7

1

14

0

Nariño

45

11

17

0

5

11

10

22

6

17

2

Atlántico

7

0

11

5

1

6

0

5

11

0

0

Tolima

29

13

17

6

2

18

9

14

6

15

1

Meta

12

5

12

0

2

10

2

5

2

8

0

Cauca

21

10

10

4

5

9

8

13

5

4

1

Remaining

182

42

119

13

9

65

60

97

28

94

3

Total

659

198

399

46

77

249

177

324

141

321

13

Less than 2 years

Fron 2 to 5 years

More than 5 years

Antioquia

74

17

Bogotá, D.C.

10

Valle del Cauca

Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc

6% of people responsible for (heads of libraries or librarians) of public libraries have studied Library Sciences, while 19% are professionals in different disciplines, trained in each area. 33

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Personnel responsible of public libraries, acording to professional training Chart 2 / Colombia / 2013

Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc

26.8% of those responsible for public libraries have less than a year in office and are more technicians or professionals in other areas. Managers who have been in office from one to less than 2 years represent 23.8% and are mainly technicians or professionals in other areas. The heads of libraries that have been in office for more time (over 5 years) are professionals from other areas trained as Librarians.

34

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Library services Municipal Public Library Tuta, Boyacรก 35

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In a 51%, the labour relationship of heads of public libraries is via service provision agreement, while other 44% belongs to the permanent staff. The remaining 4% is linked via a different system. 83,6% of the heads of libraries receives a monthly income below two minimum current legal monthly salaries. Only 2,3% of heads of libraries receive more than 4 current minimum monthly salaries.

International Comparative Coverage rate of libraries per municipality Chart 3 / Ibero-american

An International Comparative View An attractive complement for the analysis of the characterization of public libraries in Colombia is the possibility of establishing some international comparative indicators of the system. To this end, comparable information sources have been used to analyze the situation of the NNPL in terms of coverage, density and user. Below are the data of Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Spain.

Coverage In Colombia, 96% of the municipalities have public library. The situation in other countries is as follows:

• In Brazil, 98% of the municipalities of the country have a public library. • In Spain, out of 8.117 municipalities, 63% has a service point of the

Sources: Colombia: AAIC, estimations of Cerlalc / Brazil: National System of Public Libraries (NSPL) / Mexico: CONACULTA; Spain MECD

public library. 3.440 municipalities have fix service points and 1.927 have mobile service points. 215 municipalities have fix and mobile service points.

• In Mexico, coverage of public library system reaches 93% of municipalities.

Library Density Colombia has 2,8 public libraries per each 100.000 inhabitants, which is a very similar result to Brazil and Dominican Republic for example; but it is substantially different with respect to the result in Mexico and Spain, where there are 10,4 and 6,9 libraries per each 100.000 inhabitants, respectively.

36

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International Comparative Number of libraries for each 100.000 inhabitants Chart 4 / Ibero-american

International Comparative Indicators of public libraries Table 11 / Ibero-american

Countries

Sources: Colombia: AAIC / Mexico: II / Honduras: INE / Guatemala: INE / Spain: MECD

Number of libraries

Number of inhabitants per library

Number of libraries for each 100.000 inhabitants

Spain (2012)

4.755

9.552

10,4

Mexico

7.388

15.205

6,9

Brazil (2014)

6.062

33.449

3

Colombia (2013)

1.327

35.509

2,8

Dominican Republic (2011)

275

37.832

2,6

Guatemala (2013)

389

39.764

2,5

Honduras (2007)

189

39.878

2,5

83

40.238

2,5

Panama (2007)

Sources: Panama: DEC / Colombia: AAIC / Mexico: INEGI / Honduras: INE / Guatemala: INE / Spain: MECD 37

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Reading room Public Library Julio Pérez Ferrero Cúcuta, Norte de Santander

38

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Borrowings and users In Colombia, each user who had access to the service of external borrowing, had access in average to 1,5 materials. The rate of borrowings per user in the other countries is between 1 and 3,3 materials. Spain records the maximum borrowings with 3.3 materials by registered user. In Latin America, Chile makes 2.4 home borrowings in average. In Panama, 1.5 borrowings between registered users and in Mexico1,3 borrowings per serviced user. Except for and may be the result of a collection that does not meet the expectations of users

International Comparative Average of materials borrowed by user

or for logistical difficulties in borrowing materials.

Chart 5

Chile, the volume of materials provided by public libraries is still relatively low

Indicators of public libraries according to borrowings and users Table 12 / Ibero-american Average of materials borrowed by user

Total volumes for libraries

Chile (2009)

2,4

s.d.

Spain (2012)

3,3

10.169

Colombia (2013)

1,5

4.326

Panama (2007)

1,5

7.508

Mexico (2007)

1,3

5.066

Country

Sources: Colombia: AAIC / Mexico: INEGI / Spain: MECD / Panama: DEC

Sources: Colombia: AAIC / Spain: MECD / Mexico: INEGI / Panama: DEC 39

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Actual and Potential Users

40

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Child user Municipal Public Library Ram贸n Correa Mej铆a Pereira, Risaralda

41

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Information needs The identification of the needs of actual users of public libraries, as well as the possibility to comply with the expectations of potential users, are issues that ensure the importance and sustainability of public libraries. As stated above, the development of ICT, with its devices, and the new forms through which people have access to the information, demand to libraries the definition and execution of actions ensuring their relevance in the global society of the information. The acknowledgement of the demands of actual and potential users allows a better management of collections, library services and complementary activities.

Marsella, Risaralda

In order to identify services and activities to ensure the relevance of public libraries, the assessment conducted a survey of the population of users and nonusers, in order to identify and characterize actual and potential users.

Actual and potential users in public libraries according to age data Table 13 / Colombia / 2013

The results showed that users are, in a greater proportion, young people Age ranges

between 12 and 17 years (49,8%) and between 18 and 25 years (19%),

Actual users

Potential Users

which altogether represent 69% of the total. Regarding the potential population,

a. From 12 to 17 years

49,8%

12,3%

the distribution by age changes, since 64,5% of surveyed people are older

b. From 18 to 25 years

19,1%

23,2%

than 26 years.

c. From 26 to 40 years

16,9%

30,5%

d. From 41 to 64 years

11,3%

28,5%

e. More than 64 years

2,9%

5,5%

100%

100%

Total Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc

42

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Crossing actual users by age ranges with educational level allows associating, to some extent, the type of people regularly attending public libraries; it shows that 86% are young people between 7 and 17 years with secondary studies, 89% of whom has not being completed. For the population between 18 and 25 years, 50% have secondary education and 23% university education - 44% incomplete secondary, and 73% incomplete university-. According to the above, 58% of actual users responded that the week before the interview devoted the most part of their time to study.

Real users of public libraries according to age ranges by educational level Table 14 / Colombia / 2013

Age Range

Educational level None

Elementary

Secondary

Technician

Technological

University

Postgraduate

Total

a. From 12 to 17 years

,1%

11,2%

85,9%

1,3%

,2%

1,4%

0,0%

100%

b. From 18 to 25 years

0,0%

3,2%

50,5%

14,5%

8,6%

23,0%

,2%

100%

c. From 26 to 40 years

0,0%

3,4%

35,8%

16,8%

8,0%

30,3%

5,7%

100%

d. From 41 to 64 years

0,0%

7,3%

37,5%

13,5%

6,9%

29,0%

5,8%

100%

e. More than 64 years

1,5%

27,7%

35,4%

1,5%

6,2%

27,7%

0,0%

100%

0,3%

10,5%

49,0%

9,5%

6,0%

22,3%

2,3%

100%

Total Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc

Schooling of public libraries and therefore, the pre-eminence of young users in academic stage, should not be deemed contrary to the objectives of the Law of Public Libraries, as it offers an opportunity to promote and improve from an early age the reading, learning, information, education and entertainment levels. However, a strategy must be designed to strengthen and complement the informational services and the offering of activities for people whose needs are not primarily academic. 77,9% of actual users belong to social and economical levels 1 and 2. If level 3 is included, the group of actual users in these groups reaches 94,7%. This situation is consequent with the location of public libraries in urban areas of these levels. Potential users, identified around public libraries, are older than 25 years in a 64,5%, with an educational level in secondary school (55%) and in elementary school (21%), of social and economic levels one and two (80%), working (67%) and performing home offices (19%).

43

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Potential users of public libraries according to toge ranges per educational level Table 15 / Colombia / 2013

Rangos etarios

Nivel educativo

Overall Total

None

Elementary

Secondary

Technician

Technological

University

Postgraduate

a. From 12 to 17 years

0,4%

12,0%

85,8%

0,7%

0,0%

1,1%

0,0%

100%

b. From 18 to 25 years

0,2%

7,7%

63,3%

13,7%

6,0%

8,8%

0,2%

100%

c. From 26 to 40 years

0,6%

16,6%

52,5%

11,8%

5,1%

11,8%

1,6%

100%

d. From 41 to 64 years

2,5%

35,5%

41,9%

5,8%

4,7%

8,7%

0,9%

100%

e. More than 64 years

3,4%

52,6%

34,5%

3,4%

2,6%

2,6%

0,9%

100%

s.d.

0,0%

33,3%

66,7%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

100%

1,2%

21,2%

55,3%

8,7%

4,4%

8,4%

0,8%

100%

Total Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc

Main information needs and interests Actual and potential users stated their needs of information through answers to an open question without limitations. For actual users, “humanities, social sciences, economics and related,” “exact and natural sciences,” and “literature and grammar” prevail. For potential users, “health and welfare” prevail, and “humanities, social sciences, economics and related” and culture stand out. As to interests of actual users, and identification and appreciation of some information topics, previously established and classified in scales of “very important,” “important,” “of little importance” and “not important,” 52.6% considered “study” (doing homework) to be “very important,” and 54.9% considered “entertainment” to be “important.” Other well-appreciated topics, that would help assess the library collection, are health, education, welfare and culture. The topic of “political participation” is the one graded as the least important by respondents (52% of answers regarded it to be of little importance or not important). These results lead to think that these are school users or people in a stage of academic training, which favours strategies of design, implementation and strengthening of communication skills of students, and reading and writing abilities taught in educational institutions. On the other hand, building a linking scenario between public libraries and educational institutions is propitious and compelling form the perspective of the results of the survey of “Reading habits, attendance to libraries and book consumption in Colombia 2012”, where a decrease was evidenced in the practice of reading books, newspapers and magazines among young people and students. 44

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Children participating in the project “Fostering reading” Cultural Center and Public Library León de Greiff Marsella, Risaralda

45

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Public libraries according to thematic interests of real users Table 16 / Colombia / 2013 Thematics

Very Important

Important

Little Importante

No Important

NA

Total

Study (homewoks)

52,6%

42,1%

3,8%

1,3%

,3%

100%

Health (deseases, treatmeant, medical appointment, health system, personal care)

47,9%

43,2%

6,8%

1,9%

,1%

100%

Education (educational offer, formal and informal formation)

43,7%

46,8%

6,5%

2,9%

,1%

100%

Welfare (sports, exercise, etc.)

42,2%

49,5%

6,7%

1,5%

,1%

100%

Culture (artistic and cultural activities: movies, theater, concerts, etc.)

34,9%

54,7%

8,8%

1,4%

,2%

100%

Formation online (formal and non formal education)

33,7%

47,7%

13,3%

4,9%

,4%

100%

Labor performance

33,0%

42,7%

12,5%

11,1%

,7%

100%

Current affairs (news)

31,9%

54,0%

11,5%

2,4%

,1%

100%

Business opportunities or entrepreneurship

29,1%

43,9%

18,1%

8,7%

,2%

100%

Job search/implementation

27,9%

41,7%

19,9%

10,3%

,2%

100%

Entertainment

26,3%

54,9%

16,4%

2,3%

,2%

100%

Government (procedures and services of governmental entities)

17,7%

42,6%

29,8%

9,7%

,2%

100%

Political Participation (political opinions, public debates, candidates)

14,2%

33,9%

34,8%

16,9%

,3%

100%

33,5%

46,0%

14,5%

5,8%

0,2%

100,0%

Total Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc

According to what was answered in relation to information needs by potential users, the highest appreciation as “very important” was given to the topic of health (46.3%) and as “important” to culture (55.3%). These statements provide indications with respect to complementary actions that could be started in public libraries in relation to services and library collection, to satisfy what potential users expect to find in libraries: information about diseases, the health system, personal care, and artistic and cultural activities such as movies, theatre and concerts, among others, for population over the age of 26.

46

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Public libraries according to thematic interests of potential users Table 17 / Colombia / 2013 Very Important

Important

Little Important

Not important

NA

Total

Health (diseases, treatments, medical appointments, health system, personal care)

46,3%

46,8%

5,4%

1,4%

,1%

100%

Welfare (sports, eexercise, etc.)

35,7%

50,1%

12,0%

2,0%

,2%

100%

Current Affairs (news)

34,2%

55,1%

8,7%

1,9%

,0%

100%

Labor performance

33,5%

45,7%

13,2%

7,0%

,7%

100%

Education (educational offer, formal and non formal formation)

32,9%

49,9%

11,5%

5,5%

,2%

100%

Business opportunities or entrepreneurship

32,8%

49,5%

11,9%

5,7%

,0%

100%

Labor search/implementation

31,7%

44,0%

16,4%

7,7%

,2%

100%

Study (homeworks)

31,3%

46,3%

14,6%

7,6%

,2%

100%

Formation online (formal and non formal education)

27,6%

49,2%

15,8%

7,1%

,3%

100%

Culture (artistic and cultural activities: movies, theater, concerts, etc.)

24,6%

55,3%

17,3%

2,8%

,0%

100%

Entertainment

21,2%

51,9%

22,7%

3,9%

,2%

100%

Government (procedures and services of governmental entities)

16,4%

44,8%

29,0%

9,7%

,1%

100%

Political participation (political opinions, public debates, candidates)

12,7%

32,7%

34,9%

19,3%

,4%

100%

29,3%

47,8%

16,4%

6,3%

0,2%

100,0%

Thematic interests

Total Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc

In addition to the information needs and the appreciation of some topics, local information that potential users would like to find in the public library is related to education (23%), touristic information (16%) and cultural and environmental heritage (16%). Besides information related to certain fields, activities and services that would encourage attendance of potential users to public libraries would be courses, training sessions and workshops (68%), free Internet offer (43.4%), and availability of computers (40.5%). For actual users who attend public libraries as a practice and a habit, motivations to attend are learning, knowledge and self-training (92.1% of users), research (90.6%) and reading (89.5%). In addition, and in relation to the question about the activities users performed in the library, 92.3% indicated reading, 77.9% said 47

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consulting or borrowing printed books, and 77.1% expressed studying or doing academic work.

Perceptions of actual and potential users Perception of actual and potential users in relation to the public library and its services helps to assess the scope of services provided, their quality, and satisfaction of expectations. At the same time, it contributes to determine the notions in the social imaginary with respect to the library and its role in personal and professional training. In this respect, the first considerations of actual and potential users when the public library is mentioned are similar. They are related to the notion of the public library as a space to study, for science or knowledge, either as a place of quiet and respect, or as a place to access information, or a place for reading and writing. Given that the first considerations of actual and potential users in relation to the term library are referred to knowledge, the aspects related to it (books or reading and/or writing programs and/or workshops) are considered as highly important. In addition, high appreciation is observed in aspects that would be considered within the scope of expectations, in services related to information and communication technologies (audiovisual material, computers and tablets, Internet access). For 97% of actual users, the public library is a space to be recommended, and borrowing books, access to knowledge or the possibility of being informed are considered and valued as “very important�. In a lower category, but no less important, actual users recommend the library for: meeting people, attend workshops or training sessions, gatherings, exhibitions, reading clubs or movie projections, or to obtain information on a local matter.

P. L. Villeta, Cundinamarca

48

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Reasons to recommend the library Chart 6 / Colombia / 2013

P. L. Julio PĂŠrez Ferrero (CĂşcuta, Norte de Santander)

A minority group of actual users (3%) did not recommend the library, and the main reasons for this were insufficiency and little variety of materials, facilities in not pleasant conditions, lack of kindness and training of library personnel, difficulty in distance to get to the library and, finally, no availability of spare time. Potential users of public libraries identify and appreciate them in a positive manner as centres of cultural development of municipalities (60%), as places Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc

for access to technology (computers, tablets, Internet access), and as spaces for access to audiovisual material. 49

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Use of information and communication technologies in public libraries for development

Information and communication technologies in public libraries allow progressing in the closing of digital gaps through digital and information literacy, particularly in distant regions of the country. The possibilities of using information and communication technologies in public libraries could well exceed the limits of literacy and contribute to the generation of scenarios for creation and consolidation of learning communities to give way to a digital culture. With these elements, development in other dimensions is potentiated and strengthened. This widening of possibilities in the use of information and communication technologies depends both on library personnel as well as on the knowledge and use of technology by the community of users in public libraries for access, creation and transformation of their realities. 50

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Project Use and appropriation of ICT in public Libraries Municipal Public Library Carmen Rodríguez Díaz Suan de la Trinidad, Atlántico

51

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Children user Public Library Ramiro Moreno Baranoa, Atlรกntico 52

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It could be said that there is progress from this perspective considering that 12% of actual users used the Internet for the first time in the library, or that a third part of all actual users received training or orientation in the use of information and communication technologies in the library, or that 32% learned to run easy searches of information, or that 23% learned to use WebPages, or that other 23% learned to use office software, or that 22% learned how to send and receive electronic mails.

Training with the use of ICT in public liblraries Chart 7 / Colombia / 2013

Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc

As to access, 44% of actual users connect to the Internet through the public library. Thus, it exceeds other conventional places of connection, such as Internet access centres, homes, or educational institutions. The main uses usually given by actual users to the Internet in the public library are related to the characteristic population using ICT (children and young people between the ages of 12 to 17), in activities performed with a high weekly frequency, starting with consultation of study materials (47%), reading of books and articles (44%) and checking of electronic mails (42%). On the contrary, activities with a higher than weekly frequency have minor uses, such as processes and services (22%) and participation in virtual training courses (25%).

53

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P. L. Meira Delmar (Barranquilla, Atlรกntico)

Place of Internet access to real users of public libraries Table 18 / Colombia / 2013 Place of access to Internet

Percentage

Library

44%

Center of Internet access

40%

Home

39%

Educational Institute

26%

Has access to Internet

9%

Office

8%

Other

3%

Ns/Nr

0%

Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc

Other activities performed by actual users when they connect to the Internet in the public library are referred to information and communications, starting with reading of papers and magazines (61% of respondents), communication through voice and video communication services, electronic mails, chats, among others (61%), and the creation of online contents to be shared, such as blogs, social networks, documents (51%). Other activities in a secondary place, but as much as important for the service they provide to the library community, are commercial transactions (8%), participation in government processes (10%), business communications (video, electronic mail, chats, social networks) (13%), job search (17%), and the use of government services (government online, processes, requests of appointments, requests of certificates) (18%), among others.

54

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Activities performed by real users when connected to Internet of the library Chart 8 / Colombia / 2013

Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc

55

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The uses of some information and communication technology services were possible with the consultation of the catalogue and the computers. 28% of actual users said that they consult the library catalogue through terminals; a low percentage that may be associated to the fact that this service is not available online. Approximately 80% of users who consult the catalogue considered this service as “excellent” and “good” in the parameters of operation, technical conditions and sufficiency of terminals to consult the catalogue. When inquiring with actual users about computers for public use, it was found

Places of Internet access of potential users to public libraries

that approximately 75% visit libraries that have computers for public use, which

Table 19 / Colombia / 2013

somehow reveals the importance of public availability of these elements.

Place

Moreover, in the assessment of the service provided, 40% graded it as deficient or poor due to the low amount and availability of such elements. The use of information and communication technologies by potential users is conditioned by the fact that 37% of them stated that they do not access the Internet, a significant proportion considering the policy of democratization and widespread use of information and communication technologies and Internet access in the last years. Without knowing the reasons for this significant portion of potential users not connecting to Internet, 85% of them consider Internet access as very important, if it is on a free of charge basis.

Percentage

No access to Internet

37%

Home

36%

Centers of Internet access

27%

Place of work

14%

Friends or relatives

14%

Public places

10%

Other

3%

Source: AAIC / Estimations: CERLALC

63% of potential users who stated that they do access to Internet, do so mainly from

Some of the activities performed by potential users when they use Internet could

home, dedicated access centres, the workplace, or through friends or relatives.

be complemented with services offered by the public library, such as news information, health matters, information on occupations and/or businesses, government information. Other activities performed by potential users, which, by the way, match the services increasingly offered in public libraries through information and communication technologies, are checking the electronic mail, videoconferences and social network access. A high portion of potential users reports that Internet is used as recreation or entertainment.

56

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Time to read with the use of technology Rural Public Library El Naranjal Chinchinรก, Caldas 57

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Activities performed in Internet by potential users Chart 9 / Colombia

Source: AAIC / Estimations: CERLALC

The more frequent activities performed by potential users when they use Internet are related to recreation (watch videos and/or listen to music, check electronic mails, and take part in social networks). In secondary places are reading books and/or articles and review study material, and, in the last place, take part in virtual education courses or programs. 58

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Distribution of activities conducted online by potential users Table 20 / Colombia / 2013 Every day

Several times per week

Once a week

Once a month

Once every three months

At least once a year

NA

Total

Consult email

36%

35%

18%

6%

1%

1%

3%

100%

Watch videos/listen to music

28%

34%

18%

8%

2%

3%

6%

100%

Consult and/or participate in social networks

33%

33%

16%

6%

2%

3%

8%

100%

Consul news and/or information on current affairs

16%

31%

23%

11%

3%

6%

10%

100%

Read books and/or articles

8%

27%

22%

14%

6%

11%

13%

100%

Consult material for studies

15%

24%

15%

11%

4%

11%

20%

100%

Consult material for work

15%

24%

15%

11%

4%

11%

20%

100%

Play

14%

22%

15%

9%

5%

14%

21%

100%

Carry out procedures and services

4%

12%

12%

19%

7%

16%

29%

100%

Participate in courses/programs of virtual education

6%

12%

10%

10%

6%

21%

34%

100%

18%

27%

16%

10%

4%

9%

15%

100%

Activity

Overall Total Source: AAIC / Estimations: Cerlalc

59

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Project Use and appropriation of ICT in public libraries

Context The importance of providing information systems and connectivity in public libraries has been recognized by the Ministry of Culture through the Public Libraries Law and the Ministry of ICT. This is a condition without which public libraries cannot fulfill their mission of being centers of information, exchange of ideas and knowledge. Public libraries, due to their open, democratic and free nature, are one of the best platforms to materialize the use and appropriation of new technologies by the communities. For some people, the public library is the only available means to access computers and the web.

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Children users Public Library La Paz Barranquilla, Atlรกntico

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Pilot Description In September 2012, the implementation of the pilot for the use and appropriation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 7 began in the National Network of Public Libraries in Colombia. The pilot sought essentially to test in 25 libraries from different regions of the country the actions of what would be the Project nationwide, whose aim was to advocate for public libraries as places relevant to development, by promoting the innovative implementation of creative library services with ICT. In this context, innovation was understood as the ability of librarians to recognize the environment and generate, collectively, library services that incorporate ICT in response to the needs and expectations of the community. The pilot was implemented in 25 libraries whose initial conditions simulated the ones for the eventual implementation: ceilings, floors and walls in proper condition; computers and public access connectivity in good condition; and commitment from the Mayor and the librarian with the development of the Project. This sought to encourage the improvement of library conditions and the fulfillment of the role by local authorities in providing the necessary resources for libraries to have personnel and adequate physical and technological infrastructure.  7  A library as an information unit requires the articulated operation of various technologies ranging from a system for organizing and consulting resources that integrates the identification of its users and the uses made of ​​ the resources, to the existence of specialized databases that expand the possibilities of access to information by users. Although these technological conditions are fundamental, the Project Use and Appropriation of ICT in Public Libraries focuses on the use of computers and connectivity based on the development of people and not on creating conditions for organizing and updating resources.  This approach to the donation, determined by the Gates Foundation, involves promoting from public libraries, digital literacy of users and the generation of services that allow, through the Internet and computers, to improve opportunities for access to education, health, development and production procedures and governmental services. 

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Rural Public Library Quiebra de Naranjal Chinchinรก, Caldas

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Children participating in the project “Fostering reading” Cultural Center and Public Library León de Greiff Marsella, Risaralda

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The actions implemented in the pilot were:

1. Library Advocacy. The main action was for libraries to demonstrate

P. L. Ramiro Moreno (Baranoa, Atlántico)

their validity and relevance in local contexts through the use and appropriation of ICTs. This involved improving the perception of librarians of their role and the role of the public library, and the creation of alliances such as the Friends of the Library Group (FLG) and the achievement for resources for local authorities to improve the library. 2. Training library staff in public library advocacy in the municipality, by using innovative and creative use and appropriation of ICT in the delivery of services to the community. Innovation and creativity of the process involved the identification by the librarian of the needs and expectations of the community as well as government priorities established in the local development plans, in order to build participatory and concerted work plans and demonstrate the impact and relevance of the library with local stakeholders. Likewise, creative use of ICT implied a leveling process in digital literacy for all librarians and the generation and implementation of a road map for the training of the P. L. Villanueva (Casanare)

library user community. 3. Endowment with complementary technology to encourage the use of computers and the existing connectivity and expand the supply of

P. L. León de Greiff (Marsella, Risaralda)

library services. This technology consisted of an information display, a projector, a group of tablets, a multifunction printer, a sound system and headphones. 4. Monitoring and measurement of changes in user profiles, in terms of uses and users, through the tool “Key of Knowledge” 8. 8  The Key of Knowledge (Llave del Saber in Spanish) is a web application created by the Valle del Cauca department, that allows librarians to identify the uses and users of libraries in order to develop actions to improve the provision of library services. Before the pilot, the Key of Knowledge was implemented only in the libraries of the department of Valle del Cauca and the city of Cali. The pilot experience made possible to define the necessary actions for implementation at the national level, which is carried out, in full, with funds from the Ministry of Culture of Colombia.

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P. L. Meira Delmar (Barranquilla, Atlántico)

5. Testing applications and digital resources. Digital content for reading 9, education and entertainment was installed in the tablets 6. Implementation of innovative and creative ICT services 10 that demonstrate the generation of opportunities to contribute with the development of the municipality. After the training, in each library ICT services were developed, promoted within the libraries or implemented within the framework of national projects.  

Participating libraries In this pilot 25 libraries from around the country and the National Library of Colombia participated. The libraries selected nationwide were chosen based P. L. Rafael Milanés García (Cereté, Córdoba)

on the following criteria: departmental coverage, rural coverage, ethnic coverage, geographical coverage and exceptional conditions. The above mentioned, provided that public libraries had computers and had connectivity (basic conditions for the pilot to be implemented).

P. L. Ramón Correa Mejía (Pereira, Risaralda)

Its geographical distribution was: 9  From the Reading is My Story collection, PDF format of the titles from series 1, 2 and 3 were installed, the only ones existing to date. 10  (i) Bilingualism: Project developed in 12 public libraries with support from the US Embassy and the Colombo Americano Center, named EnglishNet, for autonomous English learning (ii) Health: pilot project carried out in two public libraries, with organizational support from the Hesperian Health Guidelines. This project provided physical health books and digital resources, through the creation of an online page for each library (wiki) with information developed by the organization.

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DEPARTMENT

MUNICIPALITY

LIBRARY

Atlántico

Baranoa

Ramiro Moreno Public Library

Atlántico

Barranquilla

Meira Delmar Library

Atlántico

Barranquilla

Barrio La Paz Popular Library

Atlántico

Suán de la Trinidad

Carmen Rodríguez Díaz Municipal Public Library

Caldas

Chinchiná

Quiebra de Naranjal de Chinchiná Rural Public Library

Casanare

Villanueva

Mega Public Library

Cauca

Corinto

Corinto Public Library

Cauca

Piendamó

Vereda La Florida Municipal Public Library

Cauca

Popayán

Rafael Maya Departmental Public Library

Cauca

Timbío

José Rómulo Muñoz Rangel Public Library

Chocó

Istmina

Abraham Ayala Municipal Public Library

Córdoba

Cereté

Cerete Municipal Library Rafael Milanés García

Cundinamarca

Soacha

Joaquín Piñeros Corpas Municipal Public Library

Meta

San Juan de Arama

Concepción de Arama Municipal Public Library

Nariño

Colón

Abraham Ortiz Muñoz Public Library

Norte de Santander

Cúcuta

Julio Pérez Ferrero Departmental Library

Norte de Santander

Herrán

Municipal Public Library of Herrán

Norte de Santander

Los Patios

José Ignacio Rangel Municipal Public Library

Norte de Santander

Ocaña

Luis Eduardo Páez Courvel Municipal Public Library

Risaralda

Belén de Umbría

Belén de Umbría Municipal Public Library

Risaralda

Marsella

León de Greiff Public Library and Cultural Center

Risaralda

Pereira

Ramon Mejía Correa Municipal Public Library

Risaralda

Pueblo Rico

Abraham Ayala Municipal Public Library

Santander

Socorro

"Antonia Santos" Public Library Bicentennial Center

Vaupés

Mitú

Jose Eustasio Rivera Departmental Public Library

Cundinamarca

Bogotá

Digital lab - Biblioteca Nacional de Colombia

In the case of the National Library, the object was to implement a room with technology, in order to learn about the conditions necessary for its operation and sustainability. It was determined that its focus would be the production of digital content. Implementation and results, details are in: http://www.bibliotecanacional. gov.co/content/LABN.

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Pilot outcomes Given the condition of the pilot, its outcomes are measured from the learnings, aiming to define the implementation proposal, which resulted in the reception of grant resources for implementation at national level.

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New building Public Library Rafael Milanés García Cereté, Córdoba

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Child user Municipal Public Library Abraham Ayala Istmina, Choc贸

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Thus, by actions, the main learnings were:

Advocacy • In terms of resources invested by local authorities ($ 352 million COP), the result of the library management was outstanding. 20 of the 25 libraries required adjustments in electricity, safety and adaptation of spaces, in terms of furniture, floors and walls, with a value of COP $ 257 Million; 12 libraries had to adapt their computer equipment and 3 libraries bought new computers with a contribution of COP $ 37.5 million. 14 libraries had to adapt bandwidth connection, which involved an investment of COP $ 58.2 million.   At the end of the pilot, all of the libraries had physical and technological infrastructure appropriate to continue with the activities that were promoted.

• All librarians formed Groups of Friends of the Library, in order to get more and better resources for public libraries.

• As for the effect on the library staff, 4 libraries managed recruiting more staff for the provision of their services. However, there were 4 cases in which librarians were changed. This reflect the challenges of library staff training in Colombia and the opportunities faced to improve public library positioning.

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Bogotá, Colombia

Training for library staff Service plans consistent with the needs and expectations of local development were formulated and implemented, generating a favorable perception of the role of the librarian in library and community development. In this context, 78 innovative technology and creative services were implemented, for the access to information and knowledge of all users in favor of community development. Bogotá, Colombia

These services were focused on digital literacy, reading promotion and promotion of culture.

Biblioteca Nacional de Colombia

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Training for librarians Project Use and appropriation of ICT Bogotรก, 2014

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Children users Municipal Public Library Abraham Ayala Istmina, Choc贸

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Endowment with complementary technology All the delivered technology was used to stimulate the provision of services. The informational display was especially relevant, by being an effective mechanism for the promotion of library services and activities. Although technology was used and achieved the desired goal, the challenge is to ensure that there is a nationwide scheme defined for the maintenance and replacement of the complementary technology as well as computers and connectivity. In the future, technological endowment will be an incentive for these actions to be awarded by the responsible authorities at national and regional level.

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Monitoring and measurement of changes in user profiles The Key of Knowledge allowed the investigation on the change in user profiles and library usage behavior as a result from project implementation. The number of users rose from 17,377 visits in the month of June 2013 to 31,120 in May 2014 and, regarding user profile, youths, adults and older adults made more ​​ use of libraries, as well as users with professional education. The population in disability status increased its presence in the libraries of the pilot, being visual disability the most representative, followed by hearing impairment and physical disability respectively. In the nationwide implementation, the Key of Knowledge will be implemented nationwide previous to the completion of the Project.Â

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Children users Public Library Ramiro Moreno Baranoa, Atlรกntico

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Children users Public Library Concepci贸n de Arama San Juan de Arama, Meta

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P. L. Abraham Ayala (Pueblo Rico, Risaralda)

Testing applications and digital resources The most used applications were the ones oriented to reading, highlighting readings from the “Reading is My Story” collection. For the future it is essential that institutions responsible for the creation of digital content generate a new and diverse content range to keep the interest of people in access to quality content information from the technology installed in the library. P. L. Rafael Milanés García (Cereté, Córdoba)

P. L. Julio Pérez Ferrero (Cúcuta, Norte de Santander)

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Implementation of innovative and creative ICT services As a result of the implementation of bilingual and health programs, libraries were able to provide services regularly associated with educational institutions, expanding the opportunities for personal development. The need to build new alliances based on improving the living conditions of people from the public library is evident.

Marsella, Risaralda

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The expectation is to extend the results of this pilot to 1,200 public libraries nationwide between 2014 and 2018. Undoubtedly, the support and commitment of everyone will allow that through the implementation of this initiative more opportunities will be generated for reading, culture and development of Colombians.

User with disabilities Public Library Meira Delmar Barranquilla, Atlรกntico


• NATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE NATIONAL N ORK OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES • NATIONAL ASSESS OF THE NATIONAL NETWORK OF PUBLIC LIBRA RIES • NATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE NATION NETWORK OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES • NATIONAL A SSMENT OF THE NATIONAL NETWORK OF PUBL BRARIES • NATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE NATI NAL NETWORK OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES • NATION SSESSMENT OF THE NATIONAL NETWORK OF P C LIBRARIES • NATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE N TIONAL NETWORK OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES • NATI ONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE NATIONAL NETWOR OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES • NATIONAL ASSESSMEN OF THE NATIONAL NETWORK OF PUBLIC LIBRAR • NATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE NATIONAL N 82

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National Assessment of the National Network  

This document contains the main findings of the national assessment of NNPL, under the Project “Use and appropriation of Information and Com...

National Assessment of the National Network  

This document contains the main findings of the national assessment of NNPL, under the Project “Use and appropriation of Information and Com...

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