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October 2020

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TERMINAL CHECKLIST Quiz on procedures when fl ying into BNA (Nashville TN). Answers on page 10.


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C&M Premier owns an Embraer Legacy 500, which is operated by its flight activity, CNM, based in Reno NV. Chief Pilot Brian Hurley (on stairs) and Captain Steve Delius are always at the ready from RNO (Reno-Tahoe Intl, NV). Photo by Brent Bundy

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Terminal Checklist 10/20 Answers on page 10

Refer to the 12-23 RNAV (RNP) Z Rwy 20L for KBNA/BNA (Nashville TN) when necessary to answer the following questions:


 


 



 

  







 

  







  

 

 












 



 


 





 





 



 



  









 





 

 

 


  



 


 

  

 

 


 













  

 





 







  

   


  

 

 


Reproduced with permission of Jeppesen Sanderson. Reduced for illustrative purposes.




 

  

 


 

 

 

  



     




 


  


   

       

6. Select all that correctly apply to the IFs. a Minimum altitude of 3000 ft MSL – WAYLN. b Mandatory altitude of 6000 ft MSL – MUUDD. c RF required – MUUDD, SIPPO, JOGLO, CULAR. d Mandatory altitude of 5000 ft MSL – SIPPO, JOGLO, CULAR. e Maximum speed of 210 KIAS – MUUDD, SIPPO, JOGLO, CULAR.


 

5. Select the true statement(s) regarding simultaneous operations. a GPS is required. b ATC or ATIS will inform pilots that simultaneous ap proaches are in use. c A specific runway may be used for only 1 type of simulta neous operation. d Use of a flight director or autopilot providing RNAV track guidance is required.



4. Select the true statement(s) regarding requirements/restric tions for flying the approach from CULAR. a The flight director must be capable of commanding a bank angle up to 30°. b The flightcrew must ensure that the local altimeter setting is set prior to CULAR. c Vertical navigation may be provided by uncompensated baro-VNAV equipment. d The navigation system must have a “Direct-To” function that can be used to any procedure fix.


  





 



3. The aircraft’s MEL should include the RNP AR equipment requirements. a True b False


  

2. Authorization to fly this procedure must be specified in an LOA. a True b False


  



1. What items are required to fly the approach procedure to a DA of 810 ft MSL? a RF. b GPS. c TAWS. d RNP 0.20. e RNP 0.30. f Flight director or autopilot.

 

 



Not to be used for navigational purposes

7. Select the correct procedure(s) for flying the approach. a From WAYLN, a course of 201° at 2500 ft MSL should be flown to YUBOG. 9. The GPS equipment must display RNP 0.20 during the final b From CULAR, descend from 4000 ft MSL to 2300 ft MSL on approach segment to a DA of 810 ft MSL. a course of 137° to HERIR. a True b False c The aircraft must slow from 250 KIAS at MUUDD to an airspeed no greater than 210 KIAS at MESOE. 10. Select all that apply. The waypoint RW20L is_____. d Descents to 2900 ft MSL, 2600 ft MSL, 2300 ft MSL, and a a fly-by waypoint. 1700 ft MSL occur from IDADE to YUBUG. b a fly-over waypoint. c located at the runway threshold. 8. After reaching the DA, a visual descent at an angle of 3.0° d the position upon which the 30-nm MSA radius is based. ensures obstacle clearance to the runway. e the point at which a climb to 1300 ft MSL is initiated during a True b False the missed approach.

8  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  October 2020

Terminal Checklist 10-20 lyt.indd 8

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Answers to TC 10/20 questions 1.

b, c, d, f The procedure may be flown from WAYLN without performing a radiusto-fix (RF) leg. Procedural note 2 in the Briefing Strip indicates that GPS is required. According to AC 90-101A, Approval Guidance for RNP Procedures with AR, a Class A terrain and warning system (TAWS) is required for all RNP AR procedures. Procedures with RNP values less than 0.30 or with RF legs require the use of an autopilot or flight director (FD) driven by the RNAV system. An RNP value of 0.20 is required to fly to a DA of 810 ft MSL.

2. b According to AC 90-101A, in addition to meeting the equipment requirements, operators must obtain approval through OpSpecs, MSpecs, or letters of authorization (LOAs). 3.

a According to AC 90-101A, an operator’s minimum equipment list (MEL) for the aircraft should address the equipment requirements for RNP AR instrument approaches. Guidance related to these equipment requirements is available from the aircraft manufacturer and from AC 90-101A.


c, d Procedural note 3 in the Briefing Strip states that uncompensated baro-VNAV systems may be used as long as temperatures are within 11° C to 54° C. According to AC 90-101A, equipment requirements for flying an RNP approach procedure include a navigation system with a “Direct-To” function that the flightcrew can activate at any time to any fix. For RF legs, the flight management computer (FMC), the FD, and the autopilot must be capable of commanding a bank angle up to 25° above 400 ft AGL and up to 8° below 400 ft AGL. Due to the reduced obstruction clearance inherent in RNP AR instrument procedures, the flightcrew must verify that the current local altimeter at the airport of intended landing is set not later than the final approach point/fix (in this case YUBUG).


a, b, d Procedural notes 4 and 5 in the Briefing Strip indicate that a simultaneous approach is authorized with Rwy 20R and that the use of a flight director or autopilot providing RNAV track guidance is required. AIM section 5-4-13 provides information regarding simultaneous approaches to parallel runways. These approaches are grouped into 3 classes – simultaneous dependent approaches; simultaneous independent approaches; and simultaneous close parallel PRM approaches. RNAV approach procedures that are approved for simultaneous operations require GPS as the sensor for position updating. Pilots are informed by ATC or through the ATIS that simultaneous approaches are in use. Depending on weather conditions, traffic volume, and the specific combination of runways, a runway may be used for different types of simultaneous operations, including

Terminal Checklist 10-20 lyt.indd 10

closely-spaced dependent or independent approaches. Pilots should ensure that they understand the type of operation that is being conducted, and ask ATC for clarification if necessary.


a, b, c According to the plan view, a minimum altitude of 3000 ft MSL applies to WAYLN, a mandatory altitude of 4000 ft MSL applies to CULAR, and mandatory altitudes of 5000 ft MSL apply to both JOGLO and SIPPO. Ballflag note 6 indicates a mandatory altitude of 6000 ft MSL applies to MUUDD. Ballflag 1 indicates that RF legs are required when flying the approach from all waypoints except WAYLN. A maximum speed of 210 KIAS is noted below CULAR, JOGLO, and SIPPO. MUUDD must be crossed at 250 KIAS as indicated by ballflag note 6.


c, d According to ballflag note 3, when flying from WALYN, a descent from a minimum altitude of 2500 ft MSL to 1700 ft MSL occurs at HILOS prior to YUBOG. A note along the course from CULAR indicates that the course of 137° is flown to CUNSU, not HERIR. Ballflag note 5 states to cross MUUDD at 250 KIAS and a note at MESOE indicates a maximum speed of 210 KIAS. Notations along the RF legs from IDADE, as well as ballflag note 2 show minimum altitudes of 2900 ft MSL to WUNOG, 2600 ft MSL to HERIR, 2300 ft MSL to CUNSU, and 1700 ft MSL to YUBOG.

8. b The note “34:1 is not clear” in the profile view section indicates that the 34:1 OCS (obstacle clearance surface) is not free of obstructions. The 34:1 slope is a 3.0° visual descent angle (VDA). The absence of this note indicates that a normal descent at a 3.0° angle from the DA can be made clear of obstacles. 9. b According to AC 20-138D, Airworthiness Approval of Positioning and Navigation, it is not necessary for navigation displays, particularly primary flight displays, to include an actual navigation performance (ANP) or RNP accuracy value. The displays only need to provide an alert if the RNP value for the specific operation cannot be met. 10.

b, c The runway threshold waypoint is coded as the letters RW and the runway number. It is a fly-over waypoint, as shown by the circle enclosing the waypoint symbol. For a nonprecision RNAV (GPS) approach, this waypoint is typically the point at which the missed approach is initiated. However, for an approach with vertical guidance, the missed approach point is reaching the DA (in this case, 810 ft MSL or 1008 ft MSL). The MSA of 3100 ft MSL, which provides 1000 ft of obstruction clearance for emergency use, is based on a radius of 25 nm from RW20L. When performing a missed approach, a climb to 1300 ft MSL should be initiated upon reaching the DA.

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POSITION & HOLD an editorial opinion

Playing its part in this industry-wide commitment, Textron Aviation offers customers aircraft filled up with sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) on delivery of new Cessna turboprops, Citation jets, and Beechcraft TPs.

Ed Bolen President & CEO, NBAA


mong the many effects of the Covid-19 pandemic has been a noticeable reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions around the globe, as demand across all modes of air, land, and sea transport dwindled in the onset of the crisis. This has not gone unnoticed, and, as travel demand inevitably rebounds, this places even greater emphasis on the need for environmental responsibility and sustainability in the worldwide aviation sector – including the business aviation community. Although global business aviation operations represent but a tiny fraction of overall CO2 emissions, our industry has been committed to exploring ways to further improve on this figure for decades. That includes advances in aircraft design and aerodynamics, and new technologies driving more efficient propulsion methods. One of the most promising and accessible means of lowering carbon emissions still further is sustainable aviation fuel (SAF). This cleaner-burning alternative to straight petroleum-based Jet-A can be derived from any number of renewable feedstocks, and offers the potential for reducing net lifecycle carbon emissions by at least 50%, while still meeting the standards defined in ASTM D1655 (Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels). SAF is not new to our industry. In fact, it was recognized back in 2009 as a pathway toward our industry’s shared Business Aviation Commitment on Climate Change – an ambitious program led by the International Business Aviation Council (IBAC) and endorsed by business aviation stakeholders worldwide. Although we’ve made inroads to promote use of SAF in the decade since, it’s clear more work needs to be done, particularly in the post-Covid environment. This extends not only to increasing availability and access to SAF, but also to educating operators and other industry stakeholders about the fuel’s many benefits and its use as a true drop-in replacement for conventional Jet-A.

Earlier this year, the Business Aviation Coalition for Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF Coalition) released its updated and enhanced SAF guide for the industry. Titled Fueling the Future and available at, the resource details the practicalities of SAF development, industry adoption, and pending expansion of supply and use. The guide builds upon other recent efforts by NBAA and other members of the SAF Coalition to build enthusiasm and support for sustainable fuels. That included a first-ever SAF-focused event in January 2019 at VNY (Van Nuys CA), followed 4 months later by a similar event at FAB (Farnborough, UK) ahead of the 2019 European Business Aviation Convention & Exhibition (EBACE). At the 2019 NBAA Business Aviation Convention & Exhibition (NBAA-BACE) in Las Vegas, every refueling turbine aircraft on display departed from HSH (Henderson, Las Vegas NV) powered by SAF. The fuel was also made available earlier this year at ZRH (Zürich, Switzerland) for those traveling to the World Economic Forum in Davos, further emphasizing how sustainability is increasingly intertwined with the global economic community.

Photo courtesy Textron Aviation

Sustainability – an important part of business aviation’s past, present, and post Covid-19 future

A virtual event, a vital dialogue Plans were also under way for a new Business Aviation Sustainability Summit to be held in March 2020 in Washington DC before Covid-19 forced the event’s postponement. Even as so much in our world has changed, however, the importance of SAF as a key path toward ever greater sustainability across business aviation has not changed – and that’s a message that needs to be shared now more than ever. During Sep 14–15, business aviation stakeholders around the world convened online for a first-of-its-kind Virtual Business Aviation Sustainability Summit that brought together business aviation OEMs, suppliers, industry leaders, and a host of other noted experts to discuss pathways to accelerate the market for SAF. They were joined by key government officials, including US Representative Rick Larsen (D–WA), chair of the House Subcommittee on Aviation, and Kevin Welsh, FAA’s executive director for the Office of Environment & Energy. We were also honored to have with us for the summit representatives with flight operations that are part of household-name brands, including Coca-Cola. Topics addressed during the 2-day event included the importance of SAF to business aviation and its performance in aircraft; insights on long-term solutions to encourage SAF adoption, including through tax credits and “book-andclaim” arrangements; and ways to expedite access to this innovative fuel once operators say, “I want my SAF!” The summit showcased business aviation’s ongoing commitment to reducing GHG emissions, and the industry’s leadership in the overall global sustainability conversation. The Virtual Business Aviation Global Sustainability Summit marked an important moment for our industry, and its work toward a more sustainable future. Thanks go to the hundreds of participants, including Professional Pilot readers with world-leading companies, for participating.

12  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  October 2020

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VIEWPOINTS editorial opinions

Bushnell: digital reality vs physical travel; Flatley: financial planning for pilots. Dennis Bushnell Chief Scientist NASA Langley Research Center Digital reality vs air travel


igital reality (DR) began with the telegraph, then it progressed to the telephone, and has been enhanced with audiovisual capabilities built into computers and smartphones. Nearer-term developments of DR include augmented reality and advanced virtual reality (VR), and it’s headed toward 5-senses VR and holographic projection. Going forward, with the availability of ever greater bandwidth and direct machine-to-brain communications, DR is projected to be as good as physical reality – if not better. Even current DR technology provides the critical body language aspects of human communication. Compared to physical travel, DR yields large cost reductions, time savings, and improved use of time (eg, many locations can be visited in a single day, thus increasing productivity). This will also reduce adverse impacts on climate and ecosystems, as well as optimizing appointment schedules with widely-situated teams, resulting in lower stress levels. On a personal level, benefits of DR include the ability to reach any location that’s connected to the Internet without being absent from family; affordable travel/entertainment experiences for all, on their personal schedule, including the infirm and the young. And on a societal level, DR enables the expansion of the huge ongoing social shift started some 25 years ago with the World Wide Web into the virtual age with tele-everything, including telecommuting, shopping, education, medicine, socialization, commerce, etc. Also, DR is healthier as regards diet and sleep, and it provides the required social distancing for reducing the spread of pandemics. DR has been a global economy saver during the Covid-19 pandemic, and the airborne nature of the virus transmission makes it even more essential. The response to this crisis needed a massive shift from physical to virtual travel/interactions, and DR has accelerated this process. Organizations such as the US DOD, whose previous stance was not favorable to tele-operations, have been forced to shift to DR, and have concluded that the move has gone surprisingly well. The shift to DR has had a negative effect on air travel. The extent to which DR technology will affect passenger demand for air travel going forward is unknown, but there are indications that aircraft production and physical travel will take years to recover to pre-pandemic levels. The apparent reaction of the air carriers to the Covid-19 downturn has been to re-examine their fleet composition, perhaps cull less efficient machines, and plan purchases of newer aircraft. One approach to projecting post-pan-

Digital reality interactions are becoming very effective. With immersive presence, physical travel may be deemed unnecessary.

demic air traffic demand is to consider to what extent air travel can match or counter the benefits of DR, and the unique aspects of physical travel that DR cannot provide. Air passengers travel for business and/or leisure. Although business travelers are a smaller percentage, they generally pay higher fares, so they represent more income for air carriers. As for the leisure pax segment, even before Covid-19 there was a virtual travel industry which has expanded during the pandemic. This industry provides virtual traveling adventures which are not physically possible, including travel to historical places that have been inaccessible so far. This virtual tourism industry has shown good growth/success, especially during the Covid-19 pandemic. Similar success has been observed with virtual business conferences, with many more attendees, and no venue scheduling or cost issues. DR has long been used for families to keep in touch, and, thus far, there are no apparent major downsides associated with this technology for specific purposes such as business or tourism travel. So, what are the downsides of DR travel that would help sustain physical air travel? The usual issue cited revolves around socialization, meeting new people, experiencing them in their environment, and pressing the flesh. In fact, at conferences, it is a truism that more is learned outside the conference hall than within it. Connected with these aspects is the ongoing shift to virtual/tele-everything, wherein newer generations growing up with DR are learning how to use it to improve socialization. University professors typically conduct research with peers and coworkers worldwide without much physical contact thanks to DR, and virtual conferences enable networking that appears to be satisfactory. All that said, most still say that they need to do the trip for the handshake. To what extent that would counter the

14  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  October 2020

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benefits of DR travel is yet to be determined, especially as DR shifts to immersive presence with VR and holography. These technologies will eventually occur via direct brain-to-machine communications. Even current VR devices are extremely realistic. I have given virtual lectures in Asian countries successfully, saving the time and expenses required to complete such a trip. Considering what the airline industry can do to counter the DR benefits discussed herein, the extent to which they can do so is not major. To try and counter the time savings, they could use faster aircraft, but DR technology operates instantly, so even if supersonic transports could be made emissionless and inexpensively, they wouldn’t match DR connectivity speeds. There is a set of technologies that could, in time, reduce costs and emissions greatly, including aircraft autonomy (saving on crew costs), better lift-todrag ratios, improved materials via nanoprinting for superb microstructure, and more efficient electric propulsion and energy sources. However, even these aircraft technologies would not reduce costs enough to compete with DR, although they would become almost emissionless. Even with very advanced technologies, physical air travel cannot compete with the major benefits of DR. The major adverse econometric changes caused by Covid-19 will accentuate the importance of the huge cost/time savings of DR. We started out traveling across the country on horseback, then trains, and then aircraft – each form with a major speed advantage over its predecessor. And now we are switching to digital immersive presence.

Joshua Flatley, CFP, MBA Managing Member X Vector Prosperity through crisis


y the time you read this, many pilots will have been downgraded, displaced, furloughed, or even fired because of the pandemic. While unfortunate, this is temporary, as things will return to normal eventually. However, many now face a challenge of financial insecurity. If you are in this situation, you know that it is uncomfortable and creates a sense of vulnerability. There are some in the financial services industry who, while well-intentioned, will try to convince you to pay for their services to assist in bridging this crisis. Don’t do it! You are a professionally trained pilot, capable of dealing with the unexpected. Proceed the same way the US Air Force teaches pilots to survive emergencies – maintain aircraft control, analyze the situation, take the appropriate action. Maintain aircraft control. In financial planning terms, this means taking care of the basics – food, shelter, clothing, utilities, and transportation. You may need to lean the mixture a bit by cutting frivolous expenditures or delaying purchase of big-ticket items. Get on oxygen; take care of your health. This may be a great opportunity to try recipes in that new cookbook, take the dogs on the long walks they’ve been begging for, and try out a lifestyle that might be prohibitive due to your schedule as a professional pilot. And yes, moderate alcohol consumption. Analyze the situation. Begin with the immediate action items above, then get started setting your finances on the

Even if forced to walk away from the flight deck temporarily, don’t walk away from your financial future.

best glidepath. Scrutinize your income and spending by utilizing a zero-budget system. Give every dollar a job. There are no- or low-cost apps available that actually make it fun... and a little bit addictive. Next, assess what options are available to extend that glidepath. If you had a large emergency fund before the Covid-19 crisis, great! If not, don’t fret – just review all available resources. Your employer may have offered a severance or aid package and may allow access to retirement savings. The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act has reduced or eliminated some of the penalties associated with premature withdrawals. You may be able to access equity in real estate through use of a Home Equity Line of Credit (HELOC) loan. Depending on your unique circumstance, you may also be eligible for unemployment insurance or pandemic unemployment assistance. Take the appropriate action. Fight. You are likely aware of the fly, fight, or freeze defense response mechanism of our brains to threats or challenges. You cannot run away from this reality. You’ve surveyed your circumstance, but do not succumb to analysis paralysis. The only thing you can do is to fight through this temporary setback. Adopt a siege mindset. No one knows how long this downturn will last, but it’s better to anticipate an extended period and be pleasantly surprised if wrong. That said, optimism is crucial to include lots of emotional support from family and friends. Use your wingmen. Plug into support systems available through faith-based organizations, positive social media groups, and any number of pilot networks. Remember, the wingman concept provides for mutual support, so give back as you are able when someone asks for help. Attempt a restart. It’s time to dust off the résumé, and perhaps refresh some rusty interview skills through roleplay and rehearsals. This may require a career pivot. You have unique competences that are readily transferable into many fields. Don’t limit your search to the same job from which you were recently displaced, as this may be an opportunity. Perhaps you can convert that side-hustle hobby into a profitable venture. If you’ve maintained your CFI, perhaps you’ll go back to instructing. Don’t let pride get in the way of your fight through this. The world is in a bad way right now. You have 2 choices – accept it, or take this crisis to a logical conclusion. When flying with an engine shut down, it is difficult to see past just getting the bird on the ground safely. You may need to do some of that pilot stuff to get to the other side, but you’ve been trained for this. Blue skies are ahead!

16  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  October 2020

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f I were to build my ideal aircraft, I would choose anything Burt Rutan is building. I believe everything he develops is cutting-edge and integrates the newest and best technology. Rob Staib Comm-Multi-Inst/CFII. Citation XLS+ Pilot Weis Markets Bloomsburg PA

If you could build your ideal aircraft, which OEMs would you choose to provide all the components (frame, engines, avionics, paint, interior)?


or me, the ideal plane would have to be designed and built by Dassault, and it would have Pratt & Whitney engines, which are capable of excellent performance in hot climates, high altitudes, and short runways. It would have 3 avionics system options – Honeywell, Collins, and Garmin, so everybody could choose their preferred avionics. I would task Duncan Aviation with incorporating the most upto-date technology and designing a unique interior with distinctive paint options. Jorge Lara ATP. Falcon 2000LX Flight Operations Director Corbantrade Quito, Ecuador

y opinion is limited in that I’ve only operated Cessna, Bombardier, and Gulfstream business jets. All of these manufacturers build quality airframes. In my opinion, it is the systems that vary in reliability and durability. Also, in my experience with dispatch, Gulfstream has the most dependable systems. Richard Goodhart ATP. Gulfstream G550/G450 Captain & Training Coordinator Ameriprise Financial New Fairfield CT


iven the choice, I would go back in time and have Kelly Johnson from the Lockheed Skunkworks division design and build my plane. I would perhaps have him collaborate with Burt Rutan on the airframe. I would entrust all the other components to Lockheed, although Gulfstream would have all creative license for the interior. Ryan Johnson ATP. Challenger 601 & King Air B350 Captain DC Air Denair CA

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his Frankenstein jet would consist of a Hawker 4000 carbon fiber frame and Pratt & Whitney engines. The avionics I’d install would be Honeywell Primus Epic. I would be open to consider different paint schemes and interiors. Jeff Lindstrom ATP. Boeing 767/757, Falcon 900EX & Hawker 4000/800XP/1000 Captain Liberty Latin America Castle Rock CO

ased on 43 years of experience flying helicopters in the most diverse kinds of operation in South America, I would begin by choosing Textron/Bell to manufacture the aircraft frame. The engines would have to be Pratt & Whitney because they are well built and are the most successful engines. I would outfit it with Garmin avionics because they are more innovative. Finally, I would have Aerosmith Aviation design the interior and paint the aircraft because they’re excellent at what they do. Sergio Lacerda de Almeida ATP/Helo. Bell 429 & Leonardo AW109SP Chief Pilot Banco Bradesco Osasco, São Paulo SP, Brazil


ssembling an aircraft with my top choice of components would require a Dassault Falcon frame and Honeywell engines. It would also be equipped with Garmin avionics. I’d hand over the interior and paint to Gulfstream. Greg Ray ATP. Citation 650 Captain Russelwayne LLC Racine WI


n my opinion, Airbus Helicopters is ahead of its time. Its aircraft are the latest and greatest! I’ve operated Airbus aircraft since 1990, and they have never disappointed. The new Airbus H160 is a deal-maker. Airbus is simply the best. Joe Drummelsmith ATP/Helo/CFI. Airbus AS365N3 & Learjet 75 Chief Helicopter Pilot Drummelsmith Acquisitions Maineville OH

18  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  October 2020

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eveloping my ideal aircraft would start with a Gulfstream airframe and Pratt & Whitney engines. The avionics I would install would be Honeywell. I’d have Gulfstream SAV take care of both interior and paint. Christian Waldmeier ATP. Gulfstream G650 Director of Technical Services Kai Aviation Basel, Switzerland


y ideal aircraft design would be delta-shaped with stub wings – a bit like the Concorde – with electric propulsion. It would be built from multilayered graphene sheets, a transparent, single-atom thickness, each plied with a difference of orientation between 3 and 5 degrees. This would create unusual electrical properties in the structure of the aircraft so as to store large quantities of electric energy, which would not weigh much. Charging points located at airport terminal gates would permit power replenishment while loading/unloading passengers. Despite this design’s light structure, it is tremendously strong and could carry superior payloads since graphene is stronger than steel. To optimize space utilization, the aircraft would be 3 floors deep in the center, 2 levels towards the peak of the delta shape, and single-level at the delta tips. Electric motors would be embedded within the wings of the aircraft, with fans within the tunnel or propellers at the end of the aircraft structure as pushers. The forward end of the delta shape could also contain propellers or ducts, while external propellers on the leading edge of the delta shape would add some extra lift to the structure surface. The transparency of the structure could be used as a benefit, or the aircraft could be painted. It could even be switchable and thus be transparent or opaque at will. Windows would not be needed as they are a design weak point. It’s true to say that this is not possible at present. However, mankind has shown its ability to develop revolutionary ideas in order to manage perceived needs. Climate change, for example, is a great driver. Other factors that could drive such changes include reduction of maintenance costs. Tony Marmont Pvt-Inst/Helo. Airbus AS355N Owner Fuels From Air Loughborough, UK


y perfect aircraft would be aerodynamically designed by McDonnell Douglas. The company’s DC-8 and DC-9 were iconic and efficient aircraft. I’d have Lockheed execute the technical aspects because the L-1011 was ahead of its time. I would have Boeing build it. Who can argue with the strength and longevity of its 747, 727, or 707? Jeffrey Hanson ATP. Airbus A300 Captain FedEx Cape Coral FL

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or me, the ideal aircraft already exists. It would be the Beechcraft King Air B100 with Dash-10 Honeywell engines and a glass cockpit. I prefer the straight tail of the King Airs with the room of the King Air 200. The flight deck would be equipped with Garmin avionics, and the interior would have full leather and high float gear. Due to its extraordinary short-field performance, gross weight capability, and excellent range, this would be the makeup of my perfect aircraft. I’d choose any color but black for the exterior. Glenn Michael ATP/CFII. King Air B100 & Sabreliner 60/65 Aviation Manager Aeropac Merrimack NH

D 2020 Statement of Ownership, Management and Circulation as required by US Postal Service Professional Pilot magazine No 01916238 General info: Filing date September 29, 2020. Professional Pilot is a monthly magazine, 12 issues per year, $50 per year when sold. Mailing address: 5290 Shawnee Road, Suite 201, Alexandria VA 22312. Publisher: Marcia Eleni Smith. Owner: Queensmith Communications Corp at same address. Marcia Eleni Smith is sole stockholder. There are no bondholders, mortgagees or other security holders. Actual Average copies copies per nearest Circulation issue file date Total copies (net press run)

assault would be my airframe selection for an ideal aircraft. It would have to be powered by Pratt & Whitney engines. Collins avionics would be my choice. And for paint and interior, Dassault Aircraft Services (DAS) at LIT (Little Rock AR) would be my preferred facility as they do extraordinary work. Mike Alexander ATP. Falcon 900EX & Citation XLS+ Flight Ops Mgr Futura – Excel São Paulo SP, Brazil

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mbraer would have to build the frame of my ideal aircraft. They have a great engineering team, plus a fast and secure certification process. The engines would have to be manufactured by Rolls-Royce. They’re extremely reliable. Garmin would take care of the avionics systems, including its innovations and cool designs, while I’d have Duncan Aviation furnish the paintwork. Last but not least, Embraer would provide the manuals since they have the best manuals on the market. Fabio Moritz ATP. Gulfstream G550 Captain EJS Aviation Services Campos do Jordão SP, Brazil


ulfstream would be my preferred OEM to build the frame for my ideal aircraft, Rolls-Royce my choice for engines, and I’d like to see Honeywell avionics as part of it. I’d also have a special paint design, like abstract lines. The interior has to be for 14 people, with 5 bed-convertible chairs. I believe in these OEMs since they’re sophisticated, modern, and very precise. They’re always ready for you to provide maintenance service and technological advances. Alex Panchana ATP. Gulfstream G550/G450/V CEO Alaxair Zürich, Switzerland

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22  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  October 2020

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’d pick Gulfstream for the fuselage, wing, main entry door, and flight controls. Everything should be fly-by-wire to save on weight and maintenance. Large windows – we have the engineering to create a far larger viewing capacity. I’d also use Gulfstream for cockpit physics due to considerations of ergonomics, space maximization, and general layout. Seats are reliable and cockpit controls are laid out well. Windshields are sleek and give the nose a good look, as does the pointed radome. Entryway must be wide enough for pax pulling rolling bags to make the turn. Form, fit and function should outweigh design in galley configuration. In the aft cabin, seats should be more stylish. I hope OEMs partner with seat manufacturers. I understand the requirements surrounding 16-G certifications, but seats should move more freely, have better tracking and locking capabilities, and be

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lower and closer to the floor to create the illusion of a large cabin. And cabin management systems and integration need to be brought up to at-home standards. In this regard, Honeywell Ovation is the best system I’ve ever seen. In the lav room, vacuum waste systems are the way to go. Also, tankless water heaters need to be considered due to space and weight considerations. Flooring is ridiculously expensive. Carpet shouldn’t cost $40K to replace. Why not consider more options and bring down costs? Honeywell is strongly recommended for cockpit avionics. We have to stop using 20-year-old technology. There should be a case made for simply having tablet mounts and allow several tablets to do all the cockpit functions for nav, radio, and reporting. Although autolanding is available, certification is challenging. Why not hurdle the cert issue and let computers manage landing en-

tirely? I’d select Rolls-Royce or GE for powerplants because they’re reliable. Engines should be clean and easy to service, with fewer exposed pneumatics and cables. Given today’s connectivity, engine parameters and trend monitoring should be incorporated into aircraft comms. On the subject of aftersale service, maintenance programs have to be reasonable, and there should be an option to allow all task intervals to align so as to make yield management easy. Manufacturers should consider electronics in all flight controls, with no hydraulics required. Tech is so reliable now that this should be doable. Also, we have the technology to make a fluid-free plane short of the waste and water systems. Why don’t we do so? Ed Chitren A&P. Gulfstream G650ER Director of Maintenance Qualcomm Carlsbad CA

9/30/20 11:35 AM

P R O F E S S I O N A L   P I L O T


Photo courtesy Robinson Helicopter

Robinson Helicopter delivers R66 turbine serial number 1000


obinson delivered its serial number 1000 R66 turbine helicopter to Les Gillespie of Gardner Aviation on July 29th. “Delivering serial number 1000 demonstrates the R66 is the top performer and leader in its class,”

said Robinson Pres Kurt Robinson. The R66 platform was certified by FAA in October 2010, and deliveries started the following month. Powered by a Rolls-Royce RR300 turbine engine, the R66 recently surpassed 1.2 million flight hours without a

single reported inflight engine failure. This exceeds EASA’s stringent requirements for single-engine helos. Today, the R66 is offered with many options, including a cargo hook, lithium-ion battery, fuel flow system, auxiliary fuel tanks, impact resistance windshields, stateof-the-art touchscreen avionics, and a SAS/autopilot. The aircraft is also available in police, news, and float configurations. Only 2 months earlier, FAA approved Shadin Avionics’ fuel flow meter on new R66s equipped with Garmin GTN 6XX or 750 GPS navigators. This system provides real-time data to the GTN unit, which in turn displays the fuel consumption rate along with fuel range rings on a moving map. Fuel used, fuel remaining, fuel to destination, and other real- time information is also available on accessory pages. The installation adds approx 2 lb to the aircraft’s empty weight.

Collaboration agreement for Bell 429 law enforcement demonstrator in Germany

Omni Taxi Aereo, part of OMNI Helicopters Intl group, becomes the first operator to introduce the H175 for cargo load and passenger transport missions in the oil and gas industry in Brazil. OMNI’s current fleet includes Airbus H135, H155, and H225 helicopters, which are largely dedicated to transporting passengers and cargo to offshore platforms and ships, while also serving in EMS missions.

Bell announced a collaboration agreement with Munich-based Elektroniksystem-und Logistik-GmbH (ESG) to install its mission management system in a Bell 429 as a law enforcement demonstrator. This helicopter will be used to showcase the aircraft’s capabilities to the police and military markets worldwide.

Image courtesy Bell Helicopters

Photo courtesy Airbus Helicopters

Airbus H175 enters service in Brazil’s oil and gas industry

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The new generation H160 boasts a range of unparalleled safety features. Maximized pilot visibility, intuitive information display, unrivalled pilot assistance with Helionix,Ž and unmatched flight envelope protection. What’s more, it carries up to 12 passengers with a radius of action of 120 NM, while burning 15% less fuel. With so many impressive features, the H160 is a huge step forward not just for its category, but for the environment, too. Safety. We make it fly.

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HELICOPTER NEWS MD received certification to increase MGTOW on its 530F

Leonardo AW109 Trekker has been selected by emergency medical services (EMS) provider AF Hélicoptères. This marks the first time this light twin-engine helicopter will operate in the EMS sector in France. This example will have a customized EMS interior, and delivery is expected by the end of 2020 following its completion at the manufacturer’s final assembly line in Vergiate, Italy.

MD Helicopters has received FAA certification to increase its MD 530F single-engine helicopter’s internal max gross take-off weight from 3100 to 3350 lbs. This increase allows the MD 530F to support extended range, increased mission versatility, more time on target, and additional mission equipment options. The MGTOW affects only internal weight. MGTOW with external loads remains at 3750 lbs.

Versatile military helicopters respond to help those affected by natural disasters

Photo by Jerry Glaser - CBP

Customs and Border Protection (CBP) air agent (at left) surveys damage caused by Hurricane Sally near Mobile AL on Sep 16. Hurricane Sally battered the region, and is the 4th hurricane to make landfall in the US this year. Pictured below is the damage caused by the hurricane in the area.

Photo by Tech. Sgt. Aaron Perkins, Oregon Military Dept

Photo courtesy MD Helicopters

Photo courtesy Leonardo Helicopters

AW109 Trekker selected by French EMS operator

Army National Guard Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter approaches a giant smoke plume for aerial water drop operations in eastern Oregon on Aug 22. PIC & Chief Warrant Officer 4 Joe Zeiner flies the helo out of Salem OR. The helicopters are activated for a 2 week span, assisting the Oregon Department of Forestry and local agencies with forest fires that take place in the region.

Customs and Border Protection Air and Marine Operations Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk aircrews arrive in Louisiana on Aug 26 ahead of Hurricane Laura making landfall in preparation for possible search and rescue operations.


H 26  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  October 2020

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International business aviation travel

Photo by José Vásquez

Popular airports, FBOs, and caterers in North America’s east coast.

TEB (Teterboro NJ), pictured, tops JETNET’s list as the most active business aviation airport on the US east coast. Meridian is a preferred FBO here, grabbing regularly the top honors in the Pro Pilot PRASE Survey. Popular destinations include YYZ (Pearson, Toronto ON, Canada), YUL (Trudeau, Montréal QC, Canada), NAS (Nassau, Bahamas), BDA (Bermuda), LTN (London Luton, UK), and LBG (le Bourget, Paris, France).

By Melissa Singer Contributing Writer


nderstanding business aviation travel trends is everyone’s business. Aircraft owners, operators, pilots, flight attendants, FBOs, MROs, international trip support partners, inflight caterers, and transportation providers all work closely together to deliver an exceptional service and safety experience for international business aviation travelers. Each segment plays a uniquely important role in both creating and adapting to industry trends. This article will focus on international business trends of the most popular airports on the east coast of the United States and Canada. We will further examine the most popular international city pairs, the airports themselves, the FBOs, and catering companies.

Gathering data JETNET, located in Utica NY, has been a trusted source of aviation market intelligence since 1988. This privately-owned family business with more than 70 employees has more than half of its workforce dedicated to research via daily contact with aircraft owners and operators, tracking more than 110,000 business and commercial aircraft worldwide. Of those 110,000, roughly 60,000 are fixed- and rotary-wing business

aircraft. The company offers a wide range of solutions and services including JETNET iQ, Evolution Marketplace, Evolution Aerodex, Marketplace Manager, Values, JETNET Global, and AvData Reports. Since 2011, JETNET iQ has been reaching out quarterly to aircraft owners and operators to participate in JETNET iQ Global Business Aviation Surveys, which collect up-todate market intelligence. The goal is to identify, analyze, and highlight issues that matter to the business aviation community. hosts market reports for 2017, 2018, and 2019 – the company’s most current surveys. Data, which are presented both textually and graphically, provide details of the economy, the industry, and JETNET iQ’s owner/operator surveys and forecasts.

Q3 2019 summary report Data and insights related to the business aviation community pro¬vided in JETNET’s iQ Snap! report for Q3 2019 include the following: • The world business jet fleet is 22,268 strong. • Approximately 62.4% operate in the US, 15.5% in EMEA, 4.7% in Asia, 4.5% in Mexico, 4.0% in Latin America & the Caribbean, and 2.5% in Canada. • Including jets and turboprops, the breakdown is roughly 58.3% in the US, 17% in EMEA, 6.5% in Lat-

in America & the Caribbean, 5% in Asia, and 3.6% in Canada. • Latin America & the Caribbean show the strongest optimism for increased flight activity over the next 12–24 months, followed by North America. • Around 50% of respondents believe that current conditions for business aviation are past the low point. Optimism seems to have peaked in Q2 2018. • Average number of flight hours per aircraft shows large-cabin utilization leading the way, followed closely by midsize jets, and with small jets not significantly far behind. • Respondents expect to fly 3.8% more hours in the next 12 months, and 4.6% in the next 24 months.

Top business aircraft intl airport city pairs JETNET’s list of the top 25 business aviation airport/city pairs in North America’s east coast confirms that the most popular regions for international travel are the greater New York and New Jersey area, along with southern Florida. Business aviation veterans know that more business aviation flights arrive and depart from TEB (Teterboro NJ) than any other east coast airport. For most, this is where knowledge base certainty on international business aviation travel trends ends, but JETNET offers more information on the subject.

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US: Albany, Alexandria, Austin, Burbank, Dallas, Gulfport/Biloxi, Houston, Indianapolis, Lake Charles, Medford, Moses Lake, Orlando, Richmond, Riverside, Rome, San Antonio, St. Louis, Stennis, Syracuse, Tallahassee, Topeka, Tucson, Victorville, White Plains, Yuma Canada: Toronto, Vancouver, Calgary China: Beijing Colombia: Cartagena Puerto Rico: San Juan

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Photo courtesy Banyan Aviation Services

Top destination for business aviation flights departing FXE (Exec, Fort Lauderdale FL) is NAS. Banyan Air Service, pictured, handles a high volume of flights every year, and is a top performer in the Pro Pilot PRASE survey.

Photo by José Vásquez

Most traveled destinations TEB holds 8 spots in the top 25 airport/city pairs for 2019. Four additional international destinations from TEB are LTN (London Luton, UK), LBG (le Bourget, Paris, France), PLS (Providenciales, Turks and Caicos), and SXM (Princess Juliana, Sint

Maarten). Topping the list of most visited countries from the top 25 airports on the US east coast are Canada, Bahamas, Mexico, Bermuda, UK, France, Turks and Caicos, Sint Maarten, and the US Virgin Islands. Readers may be surprised that European destinations do not appear in the top 10 list. Nor does MIA (Intl, Miami FL), but they appear in the next few listings – TEB to LTN ranks 11th, MIA to NAS is 12th, and MIA to TLC takes the 13th spot. TLC is sometimes described as the TEB of Mexico because it boasts the highest volume of business aviation activity in Mexico. With its extremely high levels of activity, it is well resourced with multiple FBOs/ handlers, including Manny Aviation Services, ICCS, Real Alfa Flight, Aerolíneas Ejecutivas, Signature, Jetex, and Universal Aviation. Pro Pilot readers voted Uvavemex TLC as Best Mexican FBO in the 2020 PRASE Survey. Top honors in the Pro Pilot PRASE Survey usually go to FBOs located

at the 10 busiest airport/city pairs. At TEB, for example, Meridian, Jet Aviation, and Signature rank well every year; at FXE, top honors go to Banyan Air Service; at PBI, Jet Aviation grabbed the top spot this year; at FLL, Sheltair excels; at YYZ, top players are Skyservice, Skycharter, and Signature; YUL has Skyservice; and top services at NAS are provided by Jet Aviation and Odyssey Aviation. Best inflight catering company serving the northeast US locations in the PRASE Survey went to Rudy’s, while Silver Lining clinched the top spot for the south Florida area.

Domestic and international inflight catering trends Inflight catering is an integral part of private jet passengers’ overall flight experience, but satisfying the palate and dietary needs of crew members holds equal significance for aircraft operators and inflight caterers alike. Beyond the obvious needs and demands on caterers to prepare, transport, and deliver food seamlessly from the kitchen to the aircraft, keeping up with restaurant

Photo courtesy Million Air

The top 10 airport/city pairs used by business aircraft operators in 2019 rank like this: 1. TEB to YYZ (Pearson, Toronto ON, Canada). 2. TEB to YUL (Trudeau, Montréal QC, Canada). 3. OPF (Opa-Locka FL) to NAS (Nassau, Bahamas). 4. FXE (Exec, Fort Lauderdale FL) to NAS. 5. PBI (West Palm Beach FL) to NAS. 6. TEB to NAS. 7. OPF to TLC (Toluca, Mexico). 8. FLL (Intl, Fort Lauderdale FL) to NAS. 9. TEB to BDA (Bermuda). 10. HPN (White Plains NY) to YYZ.

The ramp at Million Air HPN (White plains NY) leads to a “must see” luxury resort style FBO that boasts 6 fire places, a full service Starbucks and golf simulator for a one-of-a-kind Million Air experience.

30  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  October 2020

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Top 10 catering items requested for flights to the Caribbean and Mexico 1. Ceviche with plantain chips 2. Jerk kabobs with fruit salsa 3. Empanadas with salsa verde 4. Cabana white fish tacos or rock shrimp tacos 5. Churrasco steak dinner 6. Chicken wings (jerk, smoked) 7. Street corn salad 8. Conch fritters with remoulade 9. Coconut battered shrimp 10. Plantain crusted mahi

Sheltair FLL is centrally located between Miami and Palm Beach, near the finest hotels, restaurants, marinas, golf courses, and beaches south Florida has to offer.

rant concept is part of a social movement to serve locally sourced foods that have not been shipped long distances, and it’s part of a continuing trend of more health-conscious eating. Restaurant menus everywhere are adapting quickly to consumer demands for healthy options that are low-carb, gluten-free, vegetarian, vegan, and the increasingly popular plant-based diet trend.

Safety first Aircraft operators are highly concerned about safety, including the quality and reliability of 3rd-party vendors such as inflight caterers. To be selected as a recognized caterer requires a level of expertise that ensures that crew members and passengers will have the best experience. Mike Linder, owner and CEO of Silver Lining, based in Pompano Beach FL, says that concierge services are affected by trends. “Silver Lining is always willing to provide specialty restaurant pickups, periodicals, florals, and spirits to meet customer demands,” he adds. While adapting to trends is a necessity, inflight caterers are often the trend setters. This is the case with Air Culinaire Worldwide (ACW), headquartered in Tampa FL. In late 2018, ACW introduced an innovative menu concept to aviation catering called “the lifestyle menu,” which is available at its 10 inflight catering kitchens in the US. The menu had previously been launched at ACW’s 3 European locations, and

it includes common gluten-free, vegetarian, and vegan dietary styles, but it gets intriguingly innovative in that it’s designed with the client’s unique mood and lifestyles in mind, and then introduces nutraceuticals and superfoods along with additional top trends into inflight signature dishes. ACW Co-founder and Senior VP of Global Sales & Marketing Paul Schweitzer shares another innovation – the company has launched a menu app that provides customers with mobile access to menus, training, and resources, such as how to plate menu items, a blog, and the ability to place orders throughout ACW’s global network. “The popularity of the app is growing continually due to its ease of use and convenience for operators, crew members, and passengers” says Schweitzer.

Photo courtesy Sheltair Aviation

menu, fitness, and general health trends is in high demand. Joe Celentano, owner of Rudy’s Inflight Catering, has been operating this family-owned catering business for over 25 years, and he has seen some interesting trends in the past few years. “The shift in the core demographics of our clients continues to evolve,” notes Celentano. “We’ve started to see more and more millennials flying, and we have noticed a continued interest in organic, non-processed foods. The current trend is for foods that come in their purest and most natural state, and can hold up to the temperature swings and logistics of transportation. Everything from sandwiches made with non-processed meats, natural cheeses, and organic breads, to gluten-free and dairy-free desserts seem to be more of the norm now than ever. Our clients have become significantly more health-conscious and aware of the things that go into their bodies over the past few years.” Popular diets that have garnered media attention, such as the Paleo diet, Keto diet, and Mediterranean diet, continue to be popular among private jet passengers and crew members. The common thread here is natural, non-processed foods with low or no sugar, no processed flour, and low carb. Another popular trend is the request for smaller portions. Globally, people are more aware of portion size than ever, and they prefer 4 oz of well-prepared protein of exceptional quality over 10 oz of a lesser-quality option. The popular farm-to-table restau-

This is the 1st of a 2-part series profiling international business aviation travel preferences in North America. Part 2 will examine bizav trends on the west coast, popular destinations, and shifts in safety protocols brought about by the Covid-19 pandemic.

Melissa Singer is the founder & CEO of Moxie Global Consulting. She served as senior director of brand extension for Signature Flight Support, and has held senior leadership positions with Flight Options/FlexJet and the Walt Disney Co. PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  October 2020  33

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FBO NEWS Images courtesy Signature Flight Support

Signature Flight Support launches program to distribute SAF


ignature Flight Support announced the introduction of Signature Renew, a company-wide global sustainability initiative that reassures its commitment toward net-zero carbon emissions. Signature Renew seeks to accelerate the use of sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) for private aircraft, with Signature initially establishing permanent supplies of low

emission fuel at 2 key gateways – SFO (San Francisco CA) and LTN (London Luton, UK). Renewables producer Neste will supply Signature Renew with SAF. Encompassing an expected 5 million gallons, the volume of SAF that Signature has committed to purchase from Neste is the largest agreement by an FBO to date. NetJets is the launch customer of sustainable fuel supplied by the Signature Renew program at SFO. The operator has commitment to purchase up to 3 million gallons of SAF, representing a large portion of Signature’s total volume at the airport. This non-exclusive agreement will support the continued expansion and availability of SAF throughout the business and general aviation industry. All of NetJets aircraft visiting SFO will be supplied with Neste’s low-carbon fuel, uplifted by Signature.

Clay Lacy to build and operate FBO at SNA


Images courtesy Clay Lacy Aviation

lay Lacy Aviation has been awarded a 35-year leasehold at SNA (Santa Ana CA) by the Orange County Board of Supervisors to design, build, and operate a full-service FBO featuring more than 110,000 sq ft of hangar space, 42,000 sq ft of offices, and a private terminal. The development also includes new facilities for the Orange County Sheriff’s Department Air Support Bureau and Orange Coast College Aviation Science Department.

Sheltair unveils new FBO terminal and hangar complex at BJC


Images courtesy Sheltair Aviation

heltair announced the opening of a new state-of-the-art FBO and hangar complex at BJC (Rocky Mountain Metropolitan Airport, Broomfield CO. The new facility has a 10,400 sq ft FBO terminal, nearly 11 acres of ramp space, and a 31,050 sq ft hangar with attached 4455 sq ft of office space that will serve the local users, business and destination traffic to the Denver area. This new complex is Sheltair’s first FBO west of the Mississippi.



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C&M Premier Operator flies Embraer Legacy 500 out of Reno NV base. By Brent Bundy Phoenix Police Officer-Pilot AS350, AW119, Cessna 210/182/172

Photos by Brent Bundy

Chief Pilot Brian Hurley (L) and Captain Steve Delius fly the Embraer Legacy 500 approximately 150 hrs a year, mostly throughout the continental US, with occasional trips to Hawaii.


successful investor with a long history of operating a private flight department decided to update and modernize a few years ago. He needed 2 things – the correct people and the best aircraft. For the personnel, he found experienced pilots. Then he looked for the safest, most advanced super-midsize jet available, and he bought an Embraer Legacy 500. This combination proved to be a winner for C&M Premier.

New beginnings, new personnel For many years, C&M Premier has conducted its flight operations, CNM, out of RNO (Reno-Tahoe Intl, NV). While never dissatisfied with his

business jet choices over the years, in 2013 the owner began the process of revitalizing the flight department. The first step was to find someone who could help locate the best aircraft for the mission and the right personnel to keep things running smoothly. That was accomplished when CNM found Chief Pilot Brian Hurley. As a young boy, Hurley would spend many a day longingly watching the planes at HAO (Hamilton OH). “My dad told me that, when I was only 6 years old, we were at the airport and I said, ‘That’s what I’m going to do!’” He may not personally recall that conversation with his father, but he never lost the memories of his first exposure to aviation.

Hurley’s job out of college did not satisfy him, so he looked toward aviation. “I went back to HAO and began flight lessons. I earned my private pilot and instrument ratings, and I was hooked,” he recalls. Having quit his dead-end job, he began pumping fuel at LUK (Lunken, Cincinnati OH). Knowing that he wanted to continue down the path of flying for a living, Hurley soon moved to Columbus OH to work for PDQ Air Service as a line technician. His move to Columbus had an end goal, which was to join bank check delivery company US Check as a pilot. “Everybody I knew in aviation was telling me to look to US Check to begin my flying career,” says Hurley. In his free time, when not fueling planes, Hurley acquired his commercial and multi-engine ratings. A week after completion, he had an interview with US Check and was hired under the company’s Second In Command program with only 300 hours in his logbook. While building his way to the required 1200 hours for captain status, Hurley worked 7 days a week, flying during the day and pumping gas at night. After earning his pilot in command, Hurley was sent off to TEB (Teterboro NJ) for his first US Check assignment. “That was quite an eye-opener as a brand-new pilot flying in the busy airspaces around New York City,” he remembers. After just one month in Teterboro, he was transferred to Hartford CT, where he would spend 8 months flying up and down the east coast.

Jet engine qualifications Hurley was transferred back to LUK in 1998, where he started flying jet time in the right seat of Learjet 25s and 35s. This involved flying a regular night-time scheduled run from Charlotte NC to Columbus OH, Denver CO, and Burbank CA, returning to Charlotte via Columbus. A year later he was awarded a captain position in Columbus, covering runs that needed filling. After 2 months, Hurley realized he missed flying out west. Another wish came true when he received a newly opened spot in Reno NV. This lasted for 5 years until he received competing offers for a corporate position and a chance with JetBlue. Looking for some Part 121 experience to help his

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Chief Pilot Brian Hurley brought airline, corporate, freight, and EMS flight experience to CNM when he helped reorganize the flight department in 2013.

career, he chose JetBlue. This meant commuting to New York until he won a post in Long Beach. Now, with some airline time on his resume, he turned his eye to the corporate world. Hurley was hired as a captain by slot machine maker IGT in Reno. Flying 2 Piaggio P.180s gave him his first exposure to Part 91 operations. “The quality of life was an amazing difference. It was the dream job I had been waiting for,” he recalls. Unfortunately, that dream crashed in the 2008 recession. After being furloughed, Hurley was out of work for nearly a year before dipping his toes into emergency medical service work. This was followed by his first chief pilot post flying another Piaggio out of ODO (Odessa TX). “It was a great experience because I was doing everything except the budgets. I loved it,” he adds. This lasted for 2.5 years until he made his way back to Reno when he was hired as chief pilot at CNM in late 2013.

The team comes together When Hurley came on board, C&M Premier owned a single-pilot Beechcraft Premier IA. Within 3 years, the owner decided to upgrade to a larger, more modern aircraft. For Hurley, that meant the need to add another pilot to the crew, and it didn’t take long to find just the right fit with Captain Steve Delius. Not only did Delius meet the requirements, but the 2 would soon discover just how similar their career paths had been.

For Delius, it all began when he would ride his bike to the nearby airport to watch the planes. A product of southern California, Delius’s adventure in aviation began at FUL (Fullerton CA), where he experienced his first flight at 5 years old. “A family friend took me flying in a small Cessna. To this day, I remember being fascinated,” Delius recollects. This encounter would lead to taking up the sport of flying gliders in the high deserts of California. He earned his private pilot license on his 18th birthday, but he had to push flying to the back burner for a while. Delius would go on to earn a living outside of aviation as he became an automotive master mechanic for Mercedes-Benz, although he did continue the endeavor by attaining his instrument and multi-engine ratings. Delius’s first paid flying job was for his car dealership’s owner. “My boss had a Piper Seneca, but he wasn’t a pilot, so he hired me to fly it,” he states. During this same period, he also became a flight instructor and got involved with the aviation program at Cypress College when he returned for additional schooling. It was then that he had an epiphany, much like Hurley had. “When I finished my college courses, I hit a wall. I was frustrated with my job. I was doing well financially, but I wasn’t happy.” Delius left his secure, well-paying mechanic position to dive into the often-unsure world of aviation. Mirroring Hurley, he soon found himself flying small twin-engine airplanes to deliver bank checks around the southwest US. After building some hours, a friend pointed him to a freight position with Reliant Air at YIP (Willow Run MI), where he would log his first jet time in Dassault Falcon 20s. Delius would stay with Reliant for 5 years, accumulating several thousand hours while moving between Ypsilanti, Memphis, and San Antonio. “I met my wife and got married in San Antonio. While I was on my honeymoon, the company went bankrupt and reorganized!” This unfortunate turn of events would result in his move to Reno, directly across the ramp from Hurley, who was also flying freight. This lasted for a year until the company closed its doors for good. After 6 months without a job, Delius was alerted to a new fractional jet company opening in, of all places, Hurley’s old stomping grounds of Cleveland OH. The company was

Captain Steve Delius has more than 20 years of flying experience under his belt. Like Hurley, he flew in nearly every aspect of aviation before joining CNM.

Flight Options, and Delius soon found himself flying in their Citation III program while still living in Reno. With Flight Options, he gained experience in Beechjets and Hawkers until being furloughed in 2008. He soon found a position with an FBO that needed a Hawker pilot for a private owner. This lasted for 2 years, a portion of which was spent in the chief pilot position. Delius took a brief hiatus from aviation but he returned flying EMS for a short period. A period of 1.5 years piloting a Cessna Citation Bravo and Citation VII for a charter company at CNO (Chino CA) was followed by a return to Flight Options, which was now Flexjet. Things were not meant to be, and he was furloughed again a year later. This time, the release from the company was fortuitous. Delius soon heard through the rumor mill that Hurley was looking for a pilot to join him. His company was purchasing a new aircraft and they needed someone with Delius’ experience. Hurley interviewed him and their connection was immediate. It was 2016 and the pieces of the C&M Premier flight operations puzzle were coming together. Now all they needed was the right aircraft.

Embraer excellence Choices abound in the super-midsize jet market. It is perhaps the most hotly contested niche in the private jet industry, with every major manufacturer offering up a model to meet the exacting needs of operators in this segment. So, when C&M Premier went looking for a new aircraft, they

40  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  October 2020

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C&M Premier chose the Embraer Legacy 500 over its competitors based on its performance, safety, and advanced technology. It is the only business jet in its class with full fly-by-wire controls. The owner enjoys the flat floor and 6-ft-tall cabin, where luxurious touches abound.

evaluated everything that was available – both new and preowned. After an exhaustive search, the choice was the Embraer Legacy 500. C&M Premier’s 2016-model Legacy 500 boasts impressive stats. It’s capable of speeds up to M 0.83, has a range superior to 3100 nm, and a service ceiling of 45,000 ft – all while maintaining a cabin altitude of 6000 ft. Up to 10 passengers can relax in a nearly 7-ft-wide, flat-floor cabin with 6 ft of headroom, and the levels of luxury and technology expected by demanding owners. An often-overlooked feature enjoyed by C&M Premier’s owner is the handrail along the headliner, which is incorporated into the wood trim. It’s the little touches like this that can make the difference.

In the cockpit While the cabin is surely a sanctuary of opulence and automation, some of the more notable features of the Legacy 500 are found when making a left at the top of the stairs. One glance inside the cockpit and even seasoned pilots will be riveted. The most obvious feature is actually one that is missing: a flight yoke. The Legacy 500 is one of the first business jets to utilize a full fly-by-wire system, taking advantage of the enhanced safety and smooth ride it affords. The side stick control is placed alongside each pilot in a naturally comfortable position. The intuitive Collins Pro Line Fusion avionics package is laid out across 4 15.1-inch high-resolution displays. Among other features, it incorporates a synthetic vision system (SVS), MultiScan weather radar, and surface management system, providing the utmost in safety and reduction

of pilot fatigue. “This aircraft blew me away when I first flew it,” says Hurley. “It is unlike any other airplane I’ve ever flown. It is absolutely driven by safety and it is the easiest airplane in the world to fly.” The 2 Honeywell HTF7500E turbofan engines provide over 7000 lbf of thrust – more than enough to allow departures from runways shorter than 4100 ft and permit landing at fields just longer than 2100 ft, thus ensuring that airport selection isn’t a problem. Reliability of C&M Premier’s Legacy 500 has been stellar. Hurley explains, “In the 4 years we’ve been flying this, we’ve only had one single AOG. And even on that occurrence, Embraer was there to help when we called. The service we get from Embraer and our local representative, Bruno Macedo, is amazing.” Account Mgr Bruno Macedo returns the compliment. “It is a pleasure to work with Mr Hurley and C&M Premier. They really embrace the spirit of family and partnership which is fundamentally the way Embraer takes care of its customers.”

Flight operations Hurley and Delius fly approximately 150 hours per year, with 95% of those hours being domestic. Delius explains, “We are on call 24/7, but we almost always know our schedule well in advance. We have very few pop-up flights, which adds to the quality of life we have here.” Hurley adds, “We are never questioned in our decision-making. The hardest thing you ever have to do is tell your owner, ‘No, we can’t go.’ Even when that happens, he is completely supportive of our decision.” The fact that C&M Premier’s owner allowed Hurley to participate in

the acquisition process and entry-into-service experience of their aircraft is another invaluable show of support for his chief pilot. “He truly does trust us with handling the entire scope of the flight department,” Hurley says. With the amount of flying they do, they have yet to need to hire contract pilots for fill-in. Maintenance is handled by West Star Aviation, usually at its GJT (Grand Junction CO) location. West Star was also tapped into when C&M Premier decided to repaint its Legacy 500 in Feb 2020, with George Euler providing the custom look it now sports. While the aircraft is housed in a private hangar, Stellar Aviation RNO provides fueling and other line service needs. “Just like Embraer, West Star and Stellar have been impeccable in everything they do for us,” says Hurley.

Winning combination When C&M Premier made the decision to refresh its CNM flight operations in 2013, there were many choices to be made. They proved that their prosperous business history was no fluke when they assembled a combination of a game-changing aircraft and industry-proven pilots. With Hurley and Delius at the controls of the Embraer Legacy 500, the company is on a well-established path to continued success. Brent Bundy has been a police officer with the Phoenix Police Dept for 29 years. He has served in the PHX Air Support Unit for 19 years and is a helicopter rescue pilot with nearly 4000 hours of flight time. Bundy currently flies Airbus AS350B3s for the helicopter side of Phoenix PD’s air unit and Cessna 172, 182s and 210s for the fixed-wing side.

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Future flight deck technology Technology, artificial intelligence, and automation together promise significant yields in flight safety, utility, and efficiency.

The GE Open Flight Deck project conforms with SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP), addressing touch-interactive electronic display systems for Part 23, 25, 27, and 29 aircraft.

By Don Van Dyke ATP/Helo/CFII, F28, Bell 222 Pro Pilot Canadian Technical Editor


ext-generation flight deck designs comprise a range of new pilot/avionics interfaces supporting greater situational awareness (SA), optimized flight dynamics, and operating insights. Futurists work to ensure that connected airplanes transition seamlessly from current arrangements to future configurations. Recent designs seek to improve efficiency and competitiveness by allowing operations in degraded visual environments (DVEs) and access to airports with less capable ground-based approach aids. Overarching goals include reducing weather-related delays by 20%, cockpits featuring common architectures (technologies and design), and harmonizing presentation and management of features common to fixedand rotary-wing categories. Aviation relies more than ever on computers, computer networks, or virtual reality to improve flight safety, efficiency, capability, and product range. Greater data collection and analysis yields greater traffic and weather awareness with more

The communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) environment is complex. Increasingly, the connected airplane is viewed as a flying data center. Collins Aerospace Pro Line Fusion was designed for the future-proof flight deck of the Airbus C295.

efficient flightpaths and profiles, reduced flight times, lower fuel consumption and emissions, and other wide-ranging benefits. Flightcrews manage the airplane flightpath using a combination of automation and manual handling. As technology and innovation advance, operating benefits evolve in almost unimaginable ways. Historically, avionics systems operated in standalone configurations, physically isolated from other systems and external networks (federated system), and protected by air-gap security, but flight deck architectures are moving from federated to integrated (unified) system designs to reduce form factor, weight, and required power.

Future flight deck Avionics futurists imagine a flight deck with new architectures that integrate related technologies such as displays, data networks, graphics, and general processing to implement the following functions: Safety. Head-up displays (HUDs) and synthetic environments offer safety benefits through increased awareness. They also yield performance improvements through re-

duced workloads. While presenting new features, flight deck technology must address what remains the most significant cause of fatal accidents in commercial aviation – loss of control in-flight (LOC-I). Situational awareness. As the designed balance between machine autonomy and human-assisted operations evolves, the trend is to progressively isolate the pilot from physical aircraft control. Nonetheless, the pilot’s role remains in resource management and providing needed redundancy in the event of equipment outages. Essential to this accountability is maintaining SA (monitoring communications, flight plans, traffic, etc). Aircraft control. The pilot remains the final authority as to the operation of the aircraft, and is the last line of defense in the event of compromised aircraft control. The goal of intuitive and integrated controls is to allow the pilot access to more information without interrupting their concentration on flying the aircraft. In this area, human/machine interfaces (HMIs), like touchscreens, voice control, and connection to technologies like HUD and combined vision are critically important.

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The integrated touchscreen controllers of Honeywell’s Primus Epic integrated flight deck on the Gulfstream G500 and G600 are an aviation industry first, and represent the current state-of-the-art flight deck.

Speech can eliminate many manual steps required to execute a command, thereby decreasing workload and allowing a pilot to focus on flying safely and efficiently. Voice can be especially helpful in the cockpit when calling up infrequently used commands or menus for which the crew might otherwise spend significant time searching. Futurists are also developing advanced natural language processing systems that can discern commands against constant background noises associated with flying. Using such a system, pilots can move a displayed map and navigate to specific points using only words rather than moving and pointing with their fingers on a touchscreen. This will allow pilots to remain fully engaged on flying the aircraft rather than having to divert either their gaze or their hands to manipulate a non-essential control in a critical phase of flight.

Touchscreens of the Gulfstream G500/600 cockpit can be completely upgraded with software and by reprogramming the flight deck’s remote data concentrators.

Gesture control (tracking hand movement in free space) and eye-movement control go beyond swiping a touchpad or screen. Such systems are currently being tested. Other innovations involve controls, such as thrust levers, providing feedback to the pilot. While the practical applications of such features are not yet clear, numerous safety benefits could accrue. Connectivity. The effect of connectivity on aviation is profound, and the avionics industry is at the forefront of connected aerospace. Connected flight management system (FMS) concepts would make vast quantities of real-time SA data available to the flight deck (weather, traffic patterns, etc), which could be used to adjust the aircraft flight plan or flight profile. Connectivity and advanced data analytics can also anticipate maintenance needs on a wide range of aircraft systems, including avionics. This will enable technicians to begin

The Thales Avionics 2020 is a new-generation helicopter flight deck designed to increase operating versatility and efficiency while reducing pilot workload.

to deal with issues before they cause operational disruptions. Aircraft equipped with high-speed connectivity allow crew and passengers to use their personal laptops, tablets, and smartphones in convenient ways. A digital interface will enable passengers to order specific meals, drinks, blankets, and amenities for a catered travel experience that reduces crew workload and improves passenger touchpoints. Removal of embedded inflight entertainment may yield more space and permit different onboard storage options, netting weight/cost savings for operators. Smart restocking will use galley sensors to automatically determine the inventory required for reloading the aircraft and communicate that information to ground personnel.

Trust but verify Compliant avionics will meet requirements for confidentiality, integ-

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46  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  October 2020

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Integrating the SkyLens head-wearable display with UA’s InSight Display System permits all FMS information to be superpositioned on the real-world view, enhancing understanding of navigation data.

rity, and availability in safety-critical real-time operating systems. But ultimately, a path for confirmation (feedback) must be made available, and it must be used by the pilot. Of course, this assumes appropriate technical understanding and currency on the part of the pilot.

The manufacturers In their pursuit of improving product lines, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) constantly review market needs and revise their designs approaches. Collins Aerospace. The Pro Line Fusion flight deck designed for the Airbus C295 tactical airlifter includes key FMS features to help operators during search and rescue (SAR), and other missions. These include SAR patterns, Computed Air Release Points (CARPs), and High Altitude Release Points (HARPs). The Pro Line Fusion for the Embraer Praetor 500 and 600 features pilot-selectable display format on 4 15-in LCDs that allow flightcrews to view a wide range of information such as flight-critical data, synoptic diagrams of aircraft information, and navigational charts and maps on multiple presentations, which enhances SA significantly. Garmin. The Garmin G5000 future-ready flight deck upgrades capabilities and facilitates future technological retrofits for a number of aircraft. GE Aviation. The Open Flight Deck project involves GE Aviation, BAE Systems, and the University of Southampton in developing an open-architecture cockpit de-

The i-FMS supports the potential for augmented reality capabilities. It tackles one of the main challenges pilots face today with FMS operations – the need to propose changes to the FMS during critical phases of flight such as takeoff and landing.

signed to unlock innovation and future-proof aircraft flight decks. New pilot-centered interface technologies improve SA, decision-making, and aircraft utilization in adverse weather. Design goals support 4D flight planning and zero-visibility landing, thereby extending the operational envelope and offering significant fuel savings Gulfstream. The manufacturer uses a data concentration network developed by GE Aviation to perform smart functions and add new capabilities by collecting data from various systems and making that information available to other structures. This also reduces costs through the weight savings of eliminated radio racks. Honeywell. The Primus Epic 2.0 flight deck supports the SmartView synthetic vision system (SVS) and interactive navigation to identify challenging terrain and redirect flightpaths. Thales. The new Thales Avionics 2020 integrates and displays open world information with data from secured sources, making this the world’s first fully-connected helicopter flight deck. Universal Avionics. The UA Fly-bySight Navigation System combines the ClearVision SkyLens head wearable display (HWD) and its recently unveiled software-based Interactive FMS (i-FMS). The i-FMS allows the pilot to project waypoints and information from the FMS onto the real-world view, superimposed on displays with which the pilot interacts by head/eye tracking and a select/deselect button on the aircraft throttle.

Conclusion The open flight deck (OFL) is a logical extension of the avionics common core system, featured on the Boeing 787 and the Gulfstream G500/600. This architecture permits modules to be plugged into the avionics platform as required, preserving both flexibility and future-proofing. Historically, the high cost of certification and updates stood as a barrier to adopting new avionics technologies. The OFL concept defines the standards and interfaces which allow functional applications to develop. These will then be easier and faster to deploy. The net result is improved safety and efficiency, since technological upgrades are no longer delayed. Also, there are significant reductions in the costs of change, and updates are available earlier. For the first time, technology will be able to deliver its benefits to future aircraft OEMs, opera-tors, and pilots in a timely manner. Don Van Dyke is professor of advanced aerospace topics at Chicoutimi College of Aviation – CQFA Montréal. He is an 18,000-hour TT pilot and instructor with extensive airline, business and charter experience on both airplanes and helicopters. A former IATA ops director, he has served on several ICAO panels. He is a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society and is a flight operations expert on technical projects under UN administration.

48  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  October 2020

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Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast Reviewing ADS-B Out/In benefits for GA operators. operators with a higher level of safety and efficiency. ADS-B Out users are being seen by air traffic controllers in areas where radar is blind, enhancing the controller’s awareness of aircraft in the airspace. Radars can take from 5 to 12 seconds to update an aircraft’s position, but ADS-B equipment provides controllers with updated aircraft information every second. This improves efficiency and enables controllers to identify and resolve potentially hazardous situations quickly and effectively. Also, ADS-B Out-equipped aircraft are being seen by other aircraft equipped with ADS-B In traffic awareness displays, thus further reducing the likelihood of midair collisions.

Search and rescue

Garmin Pilot ADS-B display showing traffic while bizjet is on final approach to EYW (Key West FL). The display clearly shows N379PM below and behind the bizjet, N6298A approaching Key West from the north, and multiple overlapping ground targets at the airport.

By Marty Rollinger

ATP. Challenger 600 & 604, Falcon 2000 EASy and McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Contributing Writer


s of January 1, 2020 Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) equipage mandate for US-registered aircraft is in the rear-view mirror, and discussions of ADS-B’s many significant benefits have largely been overshadowed by the global pandemic. In this article we will delve into the safety benefits gained by complying with the ADS-B mandate, and describe the situational awareness (SA) benefits of equipping with the optional ADS-B In traffic display.

ADS-B review ADS-B is a system for transmitting (ADS-B Out) and receiving (ADS-B In). Transmissions occur without any pilot input. The precise aircraft position and velocity information transmitted are dependent on GPS. Surveillance means the system provides 3-dimen-

sional position and identification of aircraft and ground vehicles. Not addressed to any specific receiver, ADS-B broadcasts openly twice every second. The transmissions contain a considerable amount of information that is exceedingly useful to air traffic controllers and other aircraft. The information transmitted includes precise position, velocity, altitude, flight identification, wake turbulence category, squawk code, system health data, and, in some cases, selected altitude and heading. This info is broadcast both in flight and while the on the ground. In the US, there are 2 variants of ADS-B – 1090ES (Extended Squitter) and UAT (Universal Access Transceiver). All US flights operating above 18,000 ft and all international ADS-B Out mandates require 1090ES ADS-B Out broadcast via a Mode-S transponder. For these reasons, most bizjet operators opted to equip with the 1090ES version.

Benefits of ADS-B Out Installation of the mandated ADS-B Out equipment has provided aircraft

ADS-B Out equipage assists aircraft in distress. At many locations, ADS-B Out broadcasts can be seen at a much lower altitude than radar returns. The highly precise GPS-based surveillance provided by ADS-B improves the ability to perform life-saving search and rescue (SAR) missions. Air traffic controllers tracking aircraft with ADS-B Out have more accurate information about last reported positions, helping to take the “search” part out of SAR. In addition, the smaller footprint and lower cost of ADS-B ground radios permit their placement in areas where a radar site would be unfeasible, such as mountainous terrain.

Aireon US-based company Aireon offers a public service to the world’s aviation industry for the locating and tracking of ADS-B-equipped aircraft in emergency situations. Taking SAR to a whole new level, Aireon launched space-based ADS-B receivers and installed necessary ground infrastructure to process ADS-B Out messages. The space-based receivers are not dedicated satellites – rather, they hitch a ride or piggyback on Iridium NEXT satellites. The receivers on these satellites track 1090ES ADS-B Outequipped aircraft worldwide, even in

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remote and oceanic regions that lack ground-based radar coverage. Aireon’s free Aircraft Locating and Emergency Response Tracking (ALERT) services are operated from the company’s 24/7 communications facility, located within the Irish Aviation Authority’s North Atlantic Communications Centre at Ballygirreen, Ireland. ADS-B Out transmissions monitored by ALERT ensure that SAR personnel have the most accurate aircraft position data available when responding to an incident, regardless of global location. This increases significantly the likelihood of being rescued in a ditching or forced landing situation. Aireon’s space-based ADS-B dataset enhances the FlightAware global flight tracking service used by thousands of aircraft owners and operators around the world. Aireon is developing and testing plans to go well beyond SAR and flight tracking to use ADS-B Out broadcasts for air traffic control, enabling more efficient routing and therefore greener operations.

RVSM ADS-B Out transmissions serve to satisfy periodic reduced vertical separation minimum (RVSM) height-monitoring requirements, so the days of purposely going out of the way to fly over a designated height-monitoring station have ended. Unless an operator overflies Atlantic City or Ottawa, the way to satisfy the 2-year or 1000-hr height-monitoring requirement is to complete and submit an ADS-B Height Monitoring Request to the North American Approvals Registry and Monitoring Organization (NAARMO). Upon request, aircraft equipped with qualified ADS-B systems will be height-monitored in US domestic airspace during normal operations at RVSM altitudes. The operation must include 15+ minutes of level flight at an RVSM flight level (FL290–FL410). Our Dassault Falcon 2000LX operation successfully completed the process in the fall of 2019 with expected results.

Mandate compliance FAA reports that currently 2–3% of general aviation ADS-B Out systems are not compliant with mandated standards. These generally fall into 2 categories. Some operators bought an aircraft advertised as ADS-B-equipped only to discover that the equipment was built to an earlier non-compliant

Iridium satellites equipped with ADS-B receiver 1090 ES ADS-B report

ADS-B report

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ADS-B report ADS-B report

ADS-B report

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ADS-B report

Automation platform

Aireon’s space-based ADS-B monitoring includes remote and oceanic areas not observable with ground-based radar. Satellite antennas receive, process, and share ADS-B location and motion data for flight tracking and air traffic control applications.

standard (referred to as version 0 or version 1). Others who properly installed mandate-compliant ADS-B have experienced equipment failures. Often, there is no cockpit indication of this occurrence, so the pilot has no way to know. Pilots should not expect direct feedback on the status of their ADS-B Out system from ATC. The traffic information displayed to controllers is a blend of radar and ADS-B data, so ATC cannot discern easily the status of ADS-B Out compliance. FAA encourages all ADS-B Out-equipped operators to request Public ADS-B Out Performance Reports (PAPRs) on a frequent basis to ensure that these operators are aware of the status of their system performance so they can take the appropriate corrective action when necessary. PAPRs requests can be made at adsbperformance.faa. gov/PAPRRequest.aspx. FAA reports that there is an issue of Call Sign Mis-Match (CSMM). When the Flight ID broadcast by the aircraft’s ADS-B does not exactly match the Flight ID as filed in the flight plan, a CSMM alert is given to ATC. Reportedly, there are a large number of these daily. Careful attention to detail by pilots when filing flight plans and when entering the Flight ID in the equipment will resolve this issue.

Mandate waivers Through its ADS-B Deviation Authorization Preflight Tool (ADAPT), FAA receives an average of 40 requests per day for access to ADS-B airspace by non-equipped aircraft.

Typically, 80% of these requests are granted, and most denials are simply because the request was made too late. Requests less than 1 hour prior to flight will not be approved. Other reasons for denial include requests into capacity-constrained airports at busy times, or for requests exceeding a certain number per month, which would indicate a routine use.

Privacy ADS-B out transmits the operator’s unique Flight ID, ICAO address, and real-time position in an unencrypted waveform that can be collected by any inexpensive ADS-B receiver. The ICAO address can be cross-referenced to the operator through the public FAA registry, but this level of transparency is undesirable for some operators. To address privacy concerns, FAA implemented a program called Privacy ICAO Address (PIA). The program is described in detail in the recently updated Advisory Circular (AC) 90-114B. The “B” version has been reformatted and now includes active links to referenced documents. The PIA program is only applicable to US-registered aircraft operating with the 1090ES ADS-B system. Upon request, operators will be assigned a temporary alternate ICAO aircraft address that is not cross-referenced to their operation in the FAA registry. The operator may then use the temporary ICAO address for domestic US flights only. For all flights departing US sovereign airspace, the operator must revert to the originally assigned ICAO aircraft address recorded in the registry. PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  October 2020  51

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Garmin’s ADS-B offerings are used in a wide range of aircraft, including business jets, turboprops, and helicopters. This Beech King Air cockpit is equipped with a GTX 345 ADS-B In/Out transponder, which provides access to dual-link ADS-B In traffic and weather on compatible displays.

ADS-B In The optional “In” component of ADS-B means being equipped with a receiver that can listen to all nearby “Out” transmissions, and a method to display the traffic info in the cockpit. With ADS-B In, pilots can see the location and motion of surrounding aircraft on their cockpit displays. This information is similar to what ATC sees, creating an environment of shared SA and crucial see-and-avoid capability. Recognizing this value, American Airlines is outfitting its aircraft with an ADS-B In product from ACSS. Likewise, Gulfstream has announced that its new G700, like the G500 and G600, will include ADS-B In traffic display as a standard feature. Gulfstream has also commenced certification flight testing for a Block 3 upgrade, which will bring ADS-B In capabilities to G650 models. The most remarkable ADS-B In data received is traffic velocity – not just speed, but track and ground speed. This track motion information increases crew SA and decreases cockpit workload significantly. The UAT variant of ADS-B In has the further advantage of receiving free datalinked weather updates from FAA ground stations. On the other hand, the 1090ES ADS-B variant integrates well with the existing Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) because TCAS antennas are already able to receive 1090-MHz signals. Receiving both ADS-B Out data and separate TCAS data from nearby aircraft, an onboard traffic computer correlates the data for accurate depiction on the traffic display, allowing for exceptional SA.

Garmin, long a leader in ADS-B In traffic products, recently added display of wake turbulence category to the list of information presented. Garmin’s certified head-up display (HUD) will present ADS-B In traffic targets – a first for civilian aviation HUDs.

ADS-B In flight experience Our SA has increased since we’ve been flying with the Garmin Pilot ADS-B In receiver. On a recent trip to TEB (Teterboro NJ), prior to takeoff, ADS-B In showed us locations of ground vehicles and aircraft taxiing across the far end of our runway that were otherwise imperceptible to us due to restricted visibility. ADS-B In color coding distinguishes ground targets from air targets. In cruise flight over Ohio we heard a Delta flight number 789 given clearance direct to HOXIE, the same fix to which we were cleared. We looked to the ADS-B traffic display and saw Delta 789 was 10 miles abeam us and 2000 ft below. We received a descent clearance to 2000 ft below Delta. With the ADS-B traffic picture presented, it was obvious that our flightpath was converging with that of the Delta flight, so we did not delay our descent. If our traffic display had been built from TCAS data alone, we would not have been aware of the Flight ID of nearby aircraft. As we were being vectored onto the TEB ILS 19 from the west, another aircraft was ahead and being vectored onto the same approach from the east. We were still going fast per the Wilkes-Barre 4 arrival procedure. ADS-B In enabled us to read direct-

ly that we had enormous closure on the aircraft ahead of us on final, allowing us to request slower speed. As we approached the landing runway, we referenced the ADS-B In traffic picture because it showed us our interval aircraft, aircraft in the pattern, and aircraft on our runway, as well as those taxiing in close proximity to the runway. This is a huge improvement over TCAS traffic displays that do not show aircraft on the airport surface.

Closing ADS-B Out increases ATC efficiency, decreases the likelihood of midair collisions, and is extraordinarily beneficial for aircraft in distress. ADS-B In traffic displays permit quick threat or no-threat analysis, and allow better and anticipated decision-making. ADS-B In systems are not currently mandated, but will become as indispensable as airborne weather radar. Just as airborne weather radar gives operators warning of potentially hazardous weather, ADS-B In traffic displays give operators warning of potentially hazardous traffic.

Marty Rollinger has over 35 years of flight experience in 68 different aircraft. A career US Marine Corps pilot, he was a Liethen-Tittle Award graduate of USAF Test Pilot School. He is director of flight ops for a Midwestern operator and a member of the Falcon Operator Advisory Board.

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