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NOVEMBER 2018

Oshkosh Corporation flight dept members pose with their Bombardier Challenger 300 and 604 at OSH (Oshkosh WI). From left to right are (front) Pres & CEO Wilson Jones, Dir of Av Svcs Jeff Smith, Chief Pilot Alan Minks, (back) Sr Capt Mark Hagen, Capt Ava Shubat, Copilot Matthew Kurtz, Sr Capt/Safety Officer Jim Latta and Sr Capt Brad Ellenberger.

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November 2018

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Contributors in this issue BRUCE BETTS, PhD Dir Science & Technology, The Planetary Society DAVID BJELLOS, ATP/Helo. Gulfstream IV, Sikorsky S76, Bell 407. BRENT BUNDY, Phoenix PD Officer/Pilot. AS350, Cessna 210/182/172. DAVID ISON, PhD, Assoc Prof Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. GRANT McLAREN, Editor-at-Large. BOB ROCKWOOD, Managing Partner, Bristol Associates. KARSTEN SHEIN, Comm-Inst. Climatologist, Natl Climatic Data Center. DON VAN DYKE, ATP/Helo/CFII. Canadian Technical Editor. Professional Pilot ISSN 0191-6238 5290 Shawnee Rd, Suite 201, Alexandria VA 22312 Fax: 703-370-7082 Tel: 703-370-0606 E-MAIL: editor@propilotmag.com

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2  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018

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November 2018

Features

8

Vol 52 No 11

8 POSITION & HOLD Automation in the aviation industry is coming by Bob Rockwood 28 FLIGHT DEPT PROFILE Oshkosh Corporation by Brent Bundy Heavy-duty specialty truck builder operates a Bombardier Challenger 604 and a Challenger 300 based at OSH.

28

34 VTOL INNOVATIONS More new ideas expand the vertical lift market by Owen Davies Established helicopter manufacturers, along with new entrants, offer a plethora of creative designs. 42 TRAFFIC IN THE SKY ADS-B improves situational awareness by Marty Rollinger “In” capability displays more threat information with higher quality than TCAS. 46 INTERNATIONAL OPS Middle East by Grant McLaren A trip to this region can be straight-forward, easy and rewarding experience for the well-prepared bizjet operator.

46

50 CONNECTIVITY ALOFT Gogo keeps growing by Shannon Forrest Starting out as Aircell in 1991, this service of airborne communications and entertainment continues to expand. 54 IMPROVING SAFETY Finger Pointing and Calling by David Ison Applying 1920s Japanese railway safety protocols to make flights safer. 58 TURBINE ENGINES FOR BUSINESS AIRCRAFT Modern powerplants meet reliability, economy and support expectations by Don Van Dyke OEM investment in R&D improves product quality and performance.

50

68 WEATHER BRIEF Turbulence by Karsten Shein Erratic air currents produce more than just a bumpy ride. 74 SPACE EXPLORATION Mars lander will peer inside the planet by Bruce Betts Insight will touch down this Nov 26 and will drill holes up to 16 ft deep. 78 OUTER MARKER INBOUND Antoine de Saint-Exupéry: Homage to an aviator, author and visionary by David Bjellos

74

80 POWERPLANT PRODUCT SUPPORT SURVEY Operators evaluate turbine engine OEMs based on aftersale service Pro Pilot staff compilation

4  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018

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November 2018

Vol 52 No 11

Departments BACKED BY

2,150 Experts

10 VIEWPOINT Asset Insight President Anthony Kioussis points out key items to consider when acquiring or selling a business aircraft. 14 TERMINAL CHECKLIST Quiz on procedures when flying into CLE (Cleveland OH). Answers on page 16. 17 GONE WEST Tribute to Bruce Whitman, chairman, president and CEO of FlightSafety International. 18 SQUAWK IDENT Pro Pilot readers comment about their favorite aviation organizations and opine regarding new and upcoming business aircraft. 26 SID & STAR The pilots abort an approach to give way to a military B52 landing with 1 engine out.

Cover Duncan Aviation was founded in 1956 as an aircraft sales organization and is a founding member of NARA. Since 1956, we have conducted more than 3,500 transactions. Backed by 2,150 aviation experts worldwide, each with an average of 12 years with the company. The aircraft sales team partners with these experts to provide technical support before, during and after the aircraft transaction.

Oshkosh Corporation flight dept members pose with their Bombardier Challenger 300 and 604 at OSH (Oshkosh WI). From left to right are (front) Pres & CEO Wilson Jones, Dir of Av Svcs Jeff Smith, Chief Pilot Alan Minks, (back) Sr Capt Mark Hagen, Capt Ava Shubat, Copilot Matthew Kurtz, Sr Capt/Safety Officer Jim Latta and Sr Capt Brad Ellenberger. Photo by Brent Bundy

www.DuncanAviation.aero/aircraftsales Experience. Unlike any other.

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POSITION & HOLD an editorial opinion

Automation in the aviation industry is coming and we need to prepare for it. Robotic copilot built and operated by Aurora Flight Science as part of DARPA’s Aircrew Labor In-Cockpit Automation System (ALIAS) program. The robot’s touchdown was one of a series of flight maneuvers carried out by the system as part of the development of an automated copilot that can be quickly and inexpensively installed in existing aircraft.

By Bob Rockwood Managing Partner, Bristol Associates

I

t is estimated that 75 million jobs will be obsoleted in the next 4 years by developments in artificial intelligence, robotics and related technologies. Fear not though, for these same estimators are saying that these technologies will create 133 million jobs for a net gain of 58 million jobs. However, this is not going to be a 58 million job free lunch. The retraining of the work force to do the jobs being created will be a huge, or as is popular to say these days, a “hugely” undertaking. What are some of the jobs that will be emerging? AI and machine learning specialists, general and operations managers, big data specialists, digital transformation specialists, organizational development specialists... What jobs will be obsoleted? Data entry clerks, administrative and executive secretaries, assembly and factory workers, general and operational managers, postal clerks, pilots, aircraft mechanics... Wait. What? Pilots and aircraft mechanics too? Before anyone panics, the obsoleting of aircraft pilot and mechanic jobs is not within the 4-year window mentioned above. In fact, quite the opposite. As anyone with a pair of reading glasses can attest, we are faced with a short term shortage issue in each category. If you are currently trained in either discipline, the next few years will be sweet. Nevertheless, it is time to recognize that single pilot and ultimately pilotless flight is on the horizon and should be embraced and planned for, not ignored and disputed. Section 744 of the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018 (H.R. 4) calls for the FAA, in consultation with NASA, to “establish a research and development program in support of single-piloted cargo aircraft assisted with remote piloting and computer piloting.” So, Congress and the FAA, 2 entities with the most resistance to change known to man, recognize the truth of the previous paragraph and are planning for it. Yet the alphabet groups that in theory represent pilots have issued a joint letter expressing concern about this provision in the Act. This does not help anyone. Ignoring progress in

the development of automation reduces your group’s ability to adapt to it and will lead to missing out on the opportunities this progress offers. It’s a little like telling coal miners they have a future when they don’t. Because of the hype surrounding driverless cars and trucks, we are all reasonably familiar with the concept of pilotless planes. But few of us have considered how automation will affect the MRO business. To me this is fascinating because the variables that need to be dealt with in this field are infinitely greater than any other I can think of. One example is Rolls-Royce’s development of robots less than ½ inch long designed to crawl through an engine and send back images. Sort of a boroscope on steroids. Taking this a step further, the company envisions these robots eventually removing and replacing defective material. However, these robots are probably 5 or more years out. What we are seeing right now are though autonomous drones that can do an exterior fuselage inspection on a widebody plane in about an hour. And if there is a specific issue, like a bird strike, the drone can be programmed to report on the affected structure. Another area that has existed for a long time and is coming into play in the MRO world is additive manufacturing, or 3D printing. Posited in an MRO facility, these machines make it possible to generate a spare part on the spot as opposed to either inventorying it or waiting to have it delivered by a vendor. The list of developments goes on at length, but I don’t have space today to discuss them. What I do want to point out is that, throughout history, technological developments have always been resisted at least in part with the hue and cry they will reduce the need for workers. The opposite has always been the truth. More jobs are always created, albeit with a different set of job skills. Embrace the changes. Bob Rockwood has been in the aircraft brokerage business since 1978. During his tenure at Omni Intl Jet Trading Floor he began writing The Rockwood Report, which discusses the corporate aircraft market. In 1986 he joined Bristol Associates as a managing partner.

8  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018

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VIEWPOINT an editorial opinion

Table B Model

ETP Ratio

Optimizing value when acquiring an aircraft

40.2%

Citation V Ultra

81.2%

Hawker 400XP

42.5%

Hawker 1000A

89.8%

CL-604

43.3%

Falcon 50

91.4%

Global 5000

44.1%

Piaggio P-180

92.0%

By Anthony Kioussis President, Asset Insight

Premier 1A

45.4%

Global Express

100.7%

King Air 300

45.4%

Citation VI

105.8%

Citation Excel 560XL

45.6%

King Air C90

107.9%

King Air B200 – Pre-2001

48.0%

Learjet 60

115.7%

Learjet 45 w/APU

54.7%

G-100

115.9%

Piaggio P-180 II

49.8%

Citation ISP

119.3%

F900

55.1%

Citation II

126.2%

GV

57.3%

Beech B-1900C

129.0%

Citation Bravo

58.3%

GIV

153.6%

Citation X (MSG3)

59.3%

Hawker Beechjet 400

154.2%

GIV-SP

59.3%

Hawker 800A

159.0%

Citation V 560

59.4%

CL-601-3A

165.8%

Falcon 2000

59.9%

CL-601-3R

173.4%

Premier 1

60.6%

Learjet 31

174.4%

Hawker 800XP

61.2%

CL-601-1A

197.6%

Hawker Beechjet 400A

65.4%

Learjet 55

225.4%

Maintenance costs

G-200

66.5%

Learjet 35A

235.6%

Scheduled mx costs increase over time due to more comprehensive airframe inspections and more expensive engine events. While some view airframe maintenance costs as relatively minor, that thinking can be misleading. A good rule of thumb is to assume that airframe maintenance will run about 90% to 110% of the cost for a double-engine overhaul over the same operating time-period. Accordingly, if a 5-year ownership term is anticipated and the aircraft’s utilization is expected to require engine overhauls every 10 years, it would be wise to expect airframe mx expense to total approximately half the cost of a double-engine overhaul perhaps more for an older aircraft.

Learjet 45

66.8%

Falcon 20-5

326.8%

GIV-SP (MSG3)

76.5%

P

rice and value are terms often used interchangeably to describe an aircraft’s worth. However, they actually have different meanings. Price is the monetary amount an aircraft buyer pays, while its value is the relative worth, utility and/or importance they place on that asset. Emotions can overcome logic during the aircraft acquisition process. All other things being equal, whether an aircraft carrying a “low price” represents “good value” requires detailed analysis focusing, in large part, on its future mx requirements and estimated Residual Value. The first 2 areas a prospective buyer should consider are (1) the length of time they anticipate owning the aircraft and (2) how many hours per year they intend to fly. This will allow for a realistic projection of the aircraft’s scheduled mx costs during the planned ownership term (see Table A). This calculation is neither linear nor simple, and costs that are assumed to be minimal may be much higher than anticipated.

Table A Projected scheduled maintenance 2018

Year

ETP Ratio Model

King Air 350 – Pre-2001

Data from August 30, 2018. Nearly 67% of the “For Sale” turbine fleet had an ETP Ratio above 40%, representing excessive Mx Exposure and resulting in greater Days on Market.

The owner should carefully consider the cost of scheduled engine mx if the aircraft is not enrolled on an Hourly Cost Mx Program (HCMP), as mx expense based on “Time & Materials” will undoubtedly increase over time. Furthermore, the cost to enroll the aircraft on HCMPs needs to be considered, as not enrolling an aircraft at time of purchase would increase the owner’s financial risk during the ownership period, not allowing them to benefit from the program’s value to the owner during their ownership term (see Professional Pilot, Dec 2017), and the aircraft may still require HCMP enrollment at time of resale to make it marketable due to its Mx Exposure to Ask Price Ratio (ETP Ratio).

ETP Ratio

2020

2022

0

500K

1000K 1500K 2000K 2500K 3000K 3500K 4000K

4,...

Total cost Airframe Cabin interior

Engines

APU

Landing gear

Exterior paint Source: assetinsight.com

Projected scheduled mx expense for a typical large business jet that is 6 years old upon acquisition.

The ETP Ratio is a useful indicator of an aircraft’s marketability and it is computed by dividing an aircraft’s Mx Exposure (the financial liability accrued with respect to future scheduled mx events) by the aircraft’s Ask Price. Days on Market analysis has revealed that when the ETP Ratio exceeds 40%, a listed aircraft’s Days on Market increase by more than 30%. For example, aircraft with ETP Ratio exceeding 40% during Q2 2018 were listed “For Sale” an average of 72% longer than aircraft with ratios below 40% (291 vs 169 Days on Market, respectively). It is important to understand that the ETP Ratio has more to do with buyer and seller dynamics than it does with either the asset’s accrued mx or its price. For any aircraft, mx can accrue only so far before work must be completed. But as an

10  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018

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Table C

30 M D Table

eValues – Residual value analysis chart

eValues - Residual value analysis chart

32.5 M Residual trend

27.5 M

Residual trend

30 M 25 M US Dollars ($)

US Dollars ($)

27.5 M 25 M

22.5 M 20 M

22.5 M 17.5 M 20 M 15 M 17.5 M 12.5 M 2019

15 M 2019

2020

2021 Month

2022

2023

Useful Residual Value projections must consider the aircraft’s future maintenance condition. While the Residual Value Trend (blue line) can be “indicative” of the aircraft’s general trend, it is more important to know the Actual Residual Value (black line), as it reflects the impact of anticipated maintenance event completion.

aircraft’s value decreases, there will come a point when the accrued mx figure equates to more than 40% of the aircraft’s Ask Price. When a prospective buyer adjusts their offer to address this accrued mx, the figure is all-too-often considered unacceptable to the seller and a deal is not reached. It is not until an aircraft undergoes some major mx that a seller is sufficiently motivated to accept a lower figure, or a buyer is willing to pay a higher price, that the aircraft transacts.

Residual value Residual Value projection should be undertaken to understand the potential loss in aircraft value over the ownership term. Traditional Residual Value forecasts start with an assumed Current Value that is then degraded based on the aircraft model’s average historical annual depreciation percentage. However, historical values and trends really play no role in an aircraft’s future financial behavior. Therefore, care must be taken to obtain Residual Value figures from an entity that employs an objective methodology allowing each asset’s value to move independently (as it would in the real world) based on its mx condition/requirements and proven forward-looking market indicators. Another problem with many Residual Value projections is that the aircraft’s future mx condition, perhaps the most important value influencer, is not accounted for appropriately, if at all, nor is the aircraft placed into context relative to future comparable assets. While a Residual Value Trend line can be “indicative” of the aircraft’s general value trend, it is more important to understand the Actual Residual Value figure that is likely to occur due to anticipated mx event completions based on the aircraft’s planned utilization. By way of example, Table C makes a Residual Value projection. The blue line represents the aircraft’s “trend,” while the black line represents the asset’s “actual” projected value due to mx events that are completed, and the influence of comparable models in view of their individual mx status. The green shaded area displays the comparable aircraft range, thereby placing the subject aircraft into context.

2020

2021 Month

2022

2023

Establishing and regularly updating a maintenance-leveraged Residual Value estimate (black line) and overlaying the aircraft’s loan amortization information (orange line) can help an owner determine if an aircraft replacement might be warranted sooner than originally planned.

Maintenance expense If the owner plans to finance their aircraft, establishing and regularly updating a mx-leveraged Residual Value estimate and overlaying their loan amortization information will allow them to determine if an aircraft replacement might be warranted sooner than originally planned. Notice that in the sample graph on Table D, the aircraft’s amortization (orange line) is very close to the estimated Residual Value at the end of the loan term. Maintenance changes due to increased (or decreased) flying, and or market value fluctuations, could move the Actual Residual Value line lower, possibly causing an unnecessary reduction in the investment’s originally anticipated economics. Lastly, dividing the aircraft’s forecasted Mx Expense by the estimated Residual Value figure covering the same time-period will allow the owner to determine if their ETP Ratio at time of sale is likely to exceed 40%. If that appears to be the case, the owner may wish to replace the aircraft sooner than originally planned. Alternatively, they will at least know they must seriously consider offers that are lower than desired. A “low price” is easy to determine. “Good value” is derived through the financial optimization of the owner’s investment by: • Acquiring an aircraft, at a reasonable price, able to perform the mission requirements. • Correctly projecting mx costs during the ownership period, in part through HCMP enrollment. • Limiting scheduled mx expense not covered through HCMP based on detailed analytics of the aircraft’s future mx requirement at time of purchase. • Securing science-based, objective Residual Value analyses on an ongoing/regular basis. • Remarketing an HCMP-enrolled aircraft on a predetermined date when its ETP Ratio is below 40%.

Anthony Kioussis is President of Asset Insight, which offers aircraft valuation and aviation consulting services. His 40+ years of experience in aviation includes GE Capital Corporate Aircraft Finance, Jet Aviation, and JSSI.

12  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018

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Terminal Checklist 11/18 Answers on page 16

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  



    

  





















  





 















 

 

















 

  

     

















   



   



  













     

  



   



 



























  

8. Required lighting for this approach is the PAPI and the ALSF II. a True b False 9. Lower minimums than those specified for this approach may be authorized for an SA CAT I approach. a True b False

 

6. Simultaneous approaches are in progress. An aircraft cleared for the approach at 3000 feet should descend to 2000 at SHERK. a True b False 7. Select the true statement(s) regarding performing the initial approach segments. a From PAULB, fly a course of 238° to SHERK. b From LLROY, descend from 5000 ft MSL to 3800 ft MSL to SHERK. c From LLROY, descend from 5000 ft MSL to 3800 ft MSL to BORNY, then to 3000 ft MSL to SHERK. d From BUDROW, fly a course of 280° and descend from 5000 ft MSL to ANJEY, then on a course of 260°, descend to 4000 ft MSL to SHERK.





 



 

 







 











5. Select all the requirements that apply to the approach fixes. a BUDRW: mandatory altitude of 6000 ft MSL. b LLROY and PAULB: maximum airspeed of 210 knots. c BUDRW and WIINR: maximum airspeed of 240 knots. d LLROY and PAULB: mandatory altitude of 5000 ft MSL.











 

 

 







  





Reproduced with permission of Jeppesen Sanderson. Reduced for illustrative purposes.



   

     

4. Select the true statement(s) regarding the equipment required to fly the approach. a The aircraft must have DME. b Equipment requirements for procedure entry are shown on the plan view. c Radar is required for procedure entry if the aircraft is not equipped with DME/DME/IRU or GPS. d The RNAV-1 capability requires that the aircraft maintain a total system error of not more than 1 nm for 95% of the total flight time.





 

3. The requirements box indicates that the aircraft must have RNAV-1 capability to fly the approach procedure. a True b False





 

2. The aircraft must be equipped with a HUD operated in CAT II or CAT III approach mode to fly this approach procedure. a True b False









1. What items are required to fly this approach? a RVR. b HUD to the DH. c OpSpec, MSpec, or LOA approval. d Special aircrew and aircraft certification. e All of the above.

 





Refer to the 11-9B ILS Rwy 24R SA CAT I for KCLE (Cleveland OH) when necessary to answer the following questions:

Not to be used for navigational purposes Select the true statement(s) regarding the final approach segment. 10. a The RA minimum of 150 ft is based on the terrain eleva tion on the final approach course. b The threshold crossing height when following the glideslope is the same as when following the PAPI. c The RA of 150 ft should be used as the altitude at which to perform a missed approach if the runway environment is not in sight. d The DA of 930 ft MSL must be used as the altitude at which to perform a missed approach if the runway environment is not in sight.

14  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018

Terminal checklist-11-18 lyt.indd 14

10/30/18 12:22 PM


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Answers to TC 11/18 questions 1. e SA in the approach title and procedural note 1 in the Briefing Strip specify the requirements of SA (special aircrew and aircraft certification required). According to AC 120-29A, Criteria for Approval of Category I and Category II Weather Minima for Approach, all US Category I operating minimums below ½ statute mile (RVR 2400) are based on RVR. Ballflag note 1 in the landing minimums section indicates that flying to the published minimums requires specific OpSpec, MSpec, or LOA approval and this note, as well as AIM 1-1-9 specifies that SA CAT I approaches require use of a HUD to the DH. 2. a Note 1 in the landing minimums section says “Requires specific OPSPEC, MSPEC, or LOA approval and use of HUD to DH.” FAA Order 8400.13D, Procedures for the Evaluation and Approval of Facilities for Special Authorization Category I Operations and All Category II and III Operations, states that for SA CAT I operations, “the HUD must be operated in the mode used for CAT II or CAT III operations.” 3.

b The equipment requirements/performance-based navigation (PBN) box lists the additional equipment or performance requirement needed for the approach. For PBN, the box lists the most restrictive NavSpec to fly the PBN procedure or the PBN portion (segment) published on a conventional procedure. In this case, RNAV-1-DME/DME/IRU or GPS is required for procedure entry from LLROY and BUDRW.

4. c, d Historically, equipment required for procedure entry was noted on the plan view and equipment requirements for specific segments of the approach were listed in the procedural notes. The new requirements boxes in the Briefing Strip allow pilots to quickly determine the navigation equipment required for the procedure. According to AIM 1-1-17, GPS can be used in lieu of DME and ADF on IFR terminal procedures. The PBN equipment box indicates that RNAV 1 capability is required when flying from LLROY and BUDRW. According to AC 90-100A, U.S. Terminal and En Route Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations, RNAV 1 NavSpecs require that the aircraft maintain a total system error of not more than 1 nm for 95 % of the total flight time.

Terminal checklist-11-18 lyt.indd 16

5.

a, b According to ballflag 1 on the plan view, a maximum airspeed of 210 knots applies to LLROY, PAULB, and WIINR. Ballflag 2 indicates a maximum speed of 240 knots at BUDRW. A mandatory altitude of 5000 ft MSL (ballflag 3) applies to LLROY. A minimum altitude of 5000 ft MSL applies to the segment from BUDRW to WIINR. However, a mandatory altitude of 6000 ft MSL applies to BUDRW (ballflag 4).

6. b Procedural note 3 in the Briefing Strip states “maintain last assigned altitude until established on glideslope” during simultaneous operations. 7.

a, c The plan view shows 2 course and 2 altitude changes from LLROY and BUDRW to the SHREK IF. Mandatory altitudes of 5000 ft MSL and 6000 ft MSL apply at LLROY and BUDRW respectively. From PAULB, the course of 238° applies to GRHMM and then to SHREK.

8.

b The landing minimums section does not provide optional minimums if the approach lighting system is out. According to FAA Order 8400.13D, required lighting for an SA CAT I is a SSALR, MALSR, or ALSF-1/ALSF-2, and HIRL. A VGSI (in this case, a PAPI) is not required.

9. b According to the AIM 1-1-9, the lowest authorized minimums with all required ground and airborne systems/components operative for a SA category I approach are a DH of 150 ft and an RVR of 1400 feet. 10. a, c The RA height is based on the distance from the landing thresh old point (LTP) to the point that the decision altitude (DA) occurs. At this distance, the terrain elevation on the final approach course is subtracted from the DA to calculate the RA. The radar altimeter (RA) minimum should be used to determine the altitude at which to perform the missed approach because the accuracy of the barometric altimeter is much less than that of the radar altimeter. Using a barometric DA that can be off by as much as 75 feet based on the only preflight check required reduces safety margins. The threshold crossing height (TCH) shown on the plan view when following the glideslope is 55 ft. However, procedural note 4 in the briefing strip indicates that the TCH when following the VGSI (in this case a PAPI) is 49 ft.

10/30/18 12:22 PM


GONE WEST

Photos courtesy FlightSafety

Tribute Tribute to to Bruce Bruce Whitman Whitman

Bruce Whitman was hand-picked by FSI Founder Al Ueltschi to be his successor in his world-famous simulator-based recurrent flight training company.

We admire his outstanding leadership of FSI, where he was especially appreciated by his teammates for his friendship, guidance and vision. In addition to his many business accomplishments, which resulted in FSI becoming the world’s premier aviation training organization, he created a culture within the company of customer service, quality, trust, caring, reBruce Whitman served as spect and family. FSI’s tribute to Bruce reads, a ranking pilot, navigator “All join in expressing our ap- and bombadiér for the US preciation for our friend, men- Strategic Air Command. tor and remarkable leader. We are grateful for his boundless energy, commitment to excellence, and fervent dedication to enhance aviation safety around the world.” And Pro Pilot wishes to join the entire aviation community in expressing our sincere sympathy and condolences to his family.

B

Photo by José L Vásquez

ruce Whitman, chairman, president & CEO of FlightSafety International, passed away peacefully at home this morning with his family by his side at the age of 85 on October 10, 2018. He will be remembered with great admiration and affection by his many friends and colleagues in the aviation industry and beyond. Bruce was highly-respected and held in the utmost regard by all who knew him. While his loss will be mourned by us all, we also celebrate Bruce’s remarkable life and accomplishments. We are deeply indebted to Bruce for his many contributions to the aviation industry, his service in the United States Air Force, support of our veterans and those who currently serve, his contributions to Orbis International, and dedication to educate and foster patriotism among young people.

Pro Pilot Publisher Murray Smith and Bruce Whitman were good friends. Here they’re pictured attending an NBAA BACE in Orlando 2016.

(L–R) Bruce Whitman, Al Ueltschi, founder of FlightSafety, and Arnold Palmer stand in front of an FSI flight simulator at LGA in 1960.

PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018  17

Terminal checklist-11-18 lyt.indd 17

11/2/18 12:56 PM


New large corporate aircraft are coming on the market. These include the Bombardier 5500 & 6500, the Dassault 6X & 8X, Embraer Legacy 450 & 500, Gulfstream 500 & 600, Textron Cessna Latitude & Longitude. What looks good to you? How do you see market acceptance of these aircraft?

I

think the Textron Cessna Longitude and the Gulfstream G500 are reasonable, fast and efficient aircraft in terms of operating costs and capability for most corporations and owners. Aircraft larger than those are perhaps a touch extravagant considering the average pax load and stage length for the typical flight department in the US. I also like the fact that companies are building their aircraft mostly in their countries. We need to maintain our market share and encourage STEM skills, work ethics and knowledge in our young citizens. These aircraft are products we can all be proud of. Dean Brock ATP/CFII/A&P/FE. Challenger 604 Captain Executive Flight Services Jacksonville FL

T

he 2 aircraft that stand out to me and I believe will lead the market share will be the Dassault 6X and Gulfstream G500. After touring the G500 at the Paris Air Show last year, I came away totally enamored with this plane. It seems everything

was done right in developing this aircraft. Touchscreens galore in the cockpit will make managing the flightdeck a breeze and the cabin was designed by getting customers input. Now, being a Falcon driver for 20 yrs I’m excited about the 6X as well. With the tallest and widest cabin it has to be ideal for customer comfort and of course you can’t beat the way a Falcon flys. The FalconEye HUD will be a dramatic improvement for situational awareness as well. Hope to fly at least 1 of these in the future. Kevin Hughes ATP/CFII. Falcon 900LX/2000LXS Senior Captain Home Depot Atlanta GA

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he Airbus H160 is an outstanding new state-of-the-art technology that will outperform any other helicopter out there. Built with pilots and mechanics in mind. Very affordable with low direct operating costs. Airbus H160 is just an all around incredible helicopter. Joe Drummelsmith ATP/Helo/CFI. Airbus AS365N3 Citation CJ4 & Learjet 75 Chief Pilot USB Corp Maineville OH

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ou can’t go wrong with a Gulfstream and in my opinion the G600 will be a winner. Also the Cessna Latitude is becoming a tough contender as a long range “wide body” corporate aircraft with the Textron support network to back it up. Thomas Rivera ATP. King Air C90 President, CEO & Owner ATR Realty San Juan PR

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s far as Dassault Falcon goes, with introduction of the 8X where does that leave the 7X? Not significantly larger and only 500 nm additional range, I’d assume 7X production will cease. Anthony Complo ATP/CFII. Falcon 7X Captain Flying Lion Hollywood FL

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rom the list provided I believe the G500 and G600 will be the most successful. I’ve been able to look through one when it was on a demo tour and was very impressed. The new Bombardier Globals are as yet unproven to service and I haven’t been able to read many articles on them. The Dassault 6X will be coming to the market very late in the game and I think by then the market will be saturated. The Latitude seems to be selling well and I’ve heard good things but I don’t know of many orders for the Cessna follow-on Longitude. Ryan Duchene ATP. Gulfstream IVSP & Hawker 850XP Captain Onex Flight Innisfil ON, Canada

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eally like the lines of the Gulfstream G500 and G600. That’s what a corporate jet should look like. Those who can afford jets like these will like them since they are doubtless the newest and the best. Don Walker ATP/CFII. Gulfstream V Captain Talon Air Waleska GA

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aybe because of my prior experience with the Dassault Falcon 20, I’m a little biased but from what I’ve read on the Dassault 6X and 8X, I think these should do well. They appear to have smart designs, great cockpit layouts, and good performance features. Also, I believe that the Gulfstream 500 and 600 have real potential. Obviously Gulfstream has really achieved significant advances in improving the maximum range and maximum cruise speed of these airframes. In addition, their flight decks are impressive. Good layout, state of the art technology. So I think both Dassault and Gulfstream have great chances for profitability with these new products as long as the world economy keeps growing. Michael O’Brien ATP/Helo/CFII. Leonardo AW139 Captain PHI Cantonment FL

18  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018

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arket is very encouraging with these jets. The pricing will be the main issue when it comes to deciding which one to purchase. Nithin Siddula ATP. Embraer Legacy 650 Executive Pilot Mytri Aviation Private Hyderabad, Telangana, India

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ulfstream G500 is the one. It is on the right track with all the smart technology, safety and performance. Robert Oehl ATP/CFII. Gulfstream G100 Owner Express Air Starke FL

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ithout doing some research on these aircraft I can’t offer a strong opinion. However, I’ve seen the Latitude and Longitude up close and I really like their looks. Glen Koopmans ATP/CFII. Gulfstream G200 Pilot Corporex Batavia OH

believe these new aircraft show a healthy market indication. However I fear with so many options and availabilities the OEMs are overproducing. Will they be able to sustain the plethora of models? It’s good to see that Textron is closing some model productions as they bring on their new ones. Gary Nickell ATP/CFII. Sabreliner 65 Chief Pilot Fitness Management Grand Rapids MI

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ll the Dassault aircraft look sharp. Gulfstreams are the traditional top choice. Cessna is putting a lot of time, money and research to get more into the market. Travis Price Comm-Multi-Inst. King Air C90GTx Chief Pilot 450 Services Bowie TX

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es, all of them are great aircraft. I believe buyers tend to stay with the manufacturers that they started with. I personally think Bombardier Global 5500 and Global 6500 are just beautiful and so are Falcon 6X and 8X aircraft. Javed Sheikh ATP. Dornier 328JET President & Captain Crew Resource Mgmt Chicago IL

ome aircraft are just better than others. All of them look good. What is the mission, how big is the budget? Walter Bradshaw ATP. Citation CJ3 Owner ATR Inc Punta Gorda FL hese aircraft are very expensive to buy, maintain and to fly of course. And in reality they carry very few executive pax (1-4) on long trips for business. The only benefit is to depart when the passengers want to go and to avoid overcrowded terminals and long airline TSA safety checks. Jean-Luc Pilotto ATP. Falcon 200 & King Air 200T Captain & Ground Instructor IGN-CRNS-ENAC Bethisy Saint Martin, France

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hus sales of these ultra longrange business jets will be dependent on the political environment and will be mainly limited to long trips such as to Asia. David Luddy ATP. Learjet 25 General Partner Heaton Avion Group Laguna Hills CA

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ll the new corporate aircraft look and fly great. And I know that the key concern is comfort for the executive passengers. But as a pilot I want a comfortable cockpit with well-built seats for captain and copilot. And I want systems throughout the aircraft with backups so that safety is maintained. Chris Mihok ATP/CFII. Gulfstream G650 Lead Captain Jet Aviation Charter Durham NH

As pilots we all join organizations – associations, clubs, groups – but some suit our needs better than others. What organizations do you value most for providing you with support and information?

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appreciate the work carried out by the European Business Aviation Association (EBAA). Europe is a very dynamic region in terms of rule making. Unfortunately business aviation needs and concerns are not taken into account most of the time and this scenario is where EBAA is playing a very significant role. They stand up for the rights of this segment of aviation and for those stakeholders and other participants. Jorge Barroso ATP. Gulfstream G650 Captain & Flight Safety Supervisor SEAF SA Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain

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e are members of EAA, AOPA and NBAA. EAA for our small aircraft plus more on enjoyable membership serving GA. We sometimes use: AOPA for legal advice but more often training classes and scenarios. NBAA for our multiengine turbine ops and support for those platforms. From a C210 to a PC-12, King Air B200 and Citation II every association has it benefits. Duane Tedesco ATP/CFII. Citation II, Cessna C210, Pilatus PC-12 & King Air 200 Director of F/W Operations The NEAC Peru NY

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BAA is one of the most helpful organizations. I think they provide a lot of support and information to pilots. They have helped me out many times when I have called them wih different questions. Kevin Lee ATP. Citation V Chief Pilot Hausmann Construction Lincoln NE

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he North Texas Business Aviation Association has been of tremendous value to me. Matt Simmonds ATP. Learjet 45 & Falcon 50 Contract Pilot Royse City TX

20  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018

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ome of the associations that I value are NBAA, GBAA and NATA. NATA has offered a program called Known Crewmember Program (KCM) and we like it. Don Walker ATP. Gulfstream V Captain Talon Air Waleska GA

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or me the great associations with a lot of value are National Association of Flight Instructors (NAFI), AOPA, EAA, and NBAA. Kenneth Hoffman ATP/CFI. Learjet 24F & Baron 50E Consultant/Pilot Kensair Punta Gorda FL

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n association that has been helping me is the NetJets Association of Shared Aircraft Pilots (NJASAP). They represent pilots flying for NetJets and keep informing us of all the opportunities and other benefits we are entitled to. Douglas Purdue ATP/CFII. Citation Latitude First Officer NetJets Grand Rapids MI

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depend on NBAA to find a lot of the industry information that I need. I especially like the airmail forums where members can ask questions and share info. The association’s e-mail updates and publications are also very helpful. Kevin Williams ATP. Challenger 604 Chief Pilot Smith, Vicars & Co Charlottesville VA

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y favorite association is AOPA. Their Pilot Protection Services program gives pilots the opportunity to speak with an aviation lawyer without the very high fees associated with a private consultation. Scott Adams ATP. Challenger 601 Captain The Pyle Group Madison WI

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belong to NBAA, AOPA and ALPA ETA RHO (International Aviation Fraternity). They all provide timely and valuable information to me. Robert Frangione ATP/CFII. Citation I Operations Mgr Professional Aviation Mgmt Roseland FL

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avorite associations that have helped me during my years in aviation are NBAA for the corporate domestic and intl operations. AOPA is useful for owners & operators for needs with smaller aircraft. And EAA for tech operations with small home-built and very light aircraft. Daniel McClendon ATP. Gulfstream G280 Captain Cooper Beech Capital Flower Mound TX

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believe each organization caters to its “own” group. ALPA serves airline pilots, AOPA to personal aircraft. NBAA supports the business/ corporate industry. The Professional Pilot magazine, although not an organization, caters very well to the corporate aviation sector with plenty of great information. Edward Baro ATP. Hawker 800XP President Compass Aviation Int Corp Hobe Sound FL

ere are some of the associations that I affiliate with. AOPA due to its political efforts and shear size. EAA because of its technical and regulatory efforts. And AEA to keep up to date on avionics technical info and regulations. Pete Burgher Comm-Multi-Inst. Piaggio Avanti II Charmain Electro Air Port Saint Joe FL

he more informative organizations that I use during my career are Pro Pilot, NBAA, AOPA, EAA, AIN and FAA. Dana Longino ATP. Citation Sovereign Chief Pilot Lee Lewis Construction Lubbock TX y GA involvement spans many years with all types of flying from hot air balloons to corporate jets. For business jets the proper organization is NBAA. And for the small personally flown aircraft the key organization is AOPA. Patrick Cannon ATP/CFI. Mitsubishi MU300/MU2 President Mission Air Service Lewisville TX

like AOPA with its Pilot Protection Services which is a great option that’s especially helpful for professional pilots. I have been an AOPA member for 38 years. NBAA is the best representing business aviation. My flight department has been a member of NBAA for the past 20 years. Eddie Yell ATP/CFII. Citation CJ3 Aviation Mgr Boyd Brothers Transportation Springville AL

he Helicopter Association International (HAI) and their subcomm of Utilities Patrol and Utilities Patrol & Construction Committee (UPAC) has been helpful to me. Roger Johnson ATP/A&P. Bell 407GX Chief Pilot, Utility Aviation Duke Energy Charlotte NC y favorite organization is AOPA because of the way they promote aviation and the support they provide to pilots in general aviation. I also like to be part of pilot facebook groups. These help me to be aware of what’s going on in the field. Tyler Cronquist Comm-Multi-Inst. Pilatus PC-12 Pilot Tropacaval Media Victoria TX

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anadian Business Aviation Association (CBAA) is the organization of my choice. I find them to be an excellent entity dedicated to working for pilot advancement here in Canada. Chris McMillan ATP. Citation Sovereign & King Air 200 Chief Pilot Redhead Equipment Regina SK, Canada

22  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018

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ere in France we have national organizations for different activities. We have the Fédération Française Aéronautique (FFA), Fédération Française de Parachustime (FFP) for gliders and Fédération Française de D’Ulm (FFPLUM) for ultralights. National representatives of users who fly in clubs rely on federal federations. We pay a fee annually for our membership and we have the benefits of the federation that is close to the French Civil Aviation Administration which relies on European Aviation Safety Agency rules (EASA). Jean-Luc Pilotto ATP. Falcon 200 & King Air 200T Captain & Ground Instructor IGN-CRNS-ENAC Bethisy Saint Martin, France

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’ve been a member of the British Airline Pilots Association (BALPA) since I passed my commercial check ride 12 years ago. They’ve given me invaluable support to solve an unexpected problem—a contract dispute between me and a previous employer. Also through collective bargaining they’ve maintained fair pay and good lifestyle when management might have looked to cut the bottom line while helping themselves to a nice pay raise. While unions are sometimes seen as a dirty word in the US, I can say that BALPA is doing excellent work for its members! Matthew Bell ATP. Learjet 35 & Airbus A320 Captain Air Alliance Medflight Morton In Marsh, UK

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OPA, Professional Pilot magazine and NBAA are my preferred sources of information. I learn a great deal from all 3 of them since they’re constantly providing a useful information and benefits for pilots. I also enjoy a Facebook group called Professional Jet Pilots where you can learn new things and exchange valuable information. Timothy Gilbride ATP. Citation X Pilot XOJET Milton FL

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s a pilot for a large corporation I appreciate my pilot union the most. Our NetJets pilot union constantly provides me with great support and valuable information for my career in aviation. Joseph Akins ATP. Boeing 737, Gulfstream G200 & Challenger 350 Captain NetJets San Ramon CA

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eechTalk is wonderful! It’s a Beechcraft Owners & Pitots Group Web where we talk about issues related to all Beech aircraft. I have yet to find an aviation subject someone has not commented on. And sometimes Tom Clements, key writer for King Air magazine, is also a group participant. Pat Newton Pvt-Inst. King Air 90 & Beech Bonanza 36 Chief Pilot Newton Bros Stratford CA

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oth AOPA and the Canadian Owners and Pilots Association (COPA) are the organizations of my preference. These activities are fighting to keep general aviation alive. I know that none of us want to see GA slip into decline. William Barrett ATP. Cessna 206 Chief Pilot Orr Air Abbotsford BC, Canada

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nly organization I’ve tried is AOPA. I think AOPA has been great at providing a lot of good information and support for pilots. However I’m no longer in it. I’ve been operating in Part 91 and recently started in Part 135. Now I’m using 2 Facebook groups. One of them is Professional Jet Pilots and the 2nd is Corporate Aviation Job Listings. And from them I receive lots of information that I find to be extremely valuable. Arnoldo Rojas Comm-Multi-Inst. Legacy 500/ Phenom 300 Pilot Elite Jets Naples FL

24  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018

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FLIGHT DEPT PROFILE

Oshkosh Corporation Heavy-duty specialty truck builder currently operates a Bombardier Challenger 604 and a Challenger 300 based at OSH.

Photos by Brent Bundy

Pres & CEO Wilson Jones has guided the Oshkosh Corp for 14 years, a period of worldwide expansion for the company.

By Brent Bundy

Phoenix Police Officer-Pilot AS350, AW119, Cessna 210/182/172

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ver 100 years ago, when the automotive industry was in its infancy, 2 inventors developed a better way to move vehicles down the treacherous, unforgiving roads of the early 20th century. When their ideas were rejected by the established manufacturers, they opened their own company. What was formed would become the foremost builder of the world’s toughest specialty trucks in use across the planet. Along the way, their corporate flight department has allowed the company to expand into the worldwide conglomerate now known as Oshkosh Corporation.

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From their home base at OSH, the Oshkosh Corporation flight dept transports executives and management teams around the globe in support of the many companies under their corporate umbrella. Shown here are their 2 Bombardier Challengers alongside an Oshkosh Striker twin-engine 8x8 Airport Rescue and Firefighting (ARFF) vehicle.

History In 1914, William Besserdich and Bernhard Mosling took their patented ideas to nearly every truck builder of the time, including Ford, Case, Packard and Studebaker. While the pair hadn’t invented 4-wheel drive, their pioneering systems of automatic locking differentials and a front driving axle with improved steering and capacity had the potential to revolutionize vehicles of the early 1900s.

Rejection by 53 separate manufacturers only strengthened their resolve and on May 1st, 1917, they opened the doors to the Wisconsin Duplex Auto Company in Clintonville WI. Their first line of trucks, the Model A, was an instant success. To cope with production demands and to be closer to investors, they relocated 50 miles south of Clintonville to Oshkosh and took on the name of their new hometown to become the Oshkosh Motor Truck Manufacturing Company.

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Dir of Av Svcs Jeff Smith has been with the Oshkosh flight department for 12 years, the last 3 in his current role.

Sales suffered as World War I came to an end, but quickly rebounded in 1925 with the introduction of their successful Model H, which became the standard for snow removal and road construction. Like most companies, they were also hit hard by the Great Depression in the early 1930s, forcing a reorganization and a new name: Oshkosh Motor Truck Company. Unlike others, they survived the grim economic times to flourish over the next several years. Their reputation in snow removal trucks helped earn a contract from the US military during World War II, and this connection to the military would continue through every major conflict since, with Oshkosh providing tow vehicles, firefighting apparatus, and heavy equipment transporters. As their reputation expanded globally, so did their acquisitions. In 1985 Oshkosh went public and soon employed over 1700 workers in their hometown alone. Following another economic dip in the late 1980s, management decided to prevent future financial downturns by diversifying their portfolio. For 10 years, beginning in 1996, they acquired 14 companies including Pierce Manufacturing, McNeilus, Jerr-Dan, London Machinery, JLG Industries, and other heavy equipment and specialty truck builders. This resulted in the Oshkosh Corporation of today. President and CEO Wilson Jones explains, “Oshkosh is the parent company with 4 distinct groups: defense, fire and emergency, access (lifts, telehandlers, etc), and commercial (refuse collection, cement mixers, etc).” Jones has been with Oshkosh since 2004, the past 3 years in his current

position. Shortly after his arrival, he assisted in the absorption of JLG, effectively doubling the size of the company. This was the most recent acquisition and it further expanded the Oshkosh footprint worldwide. With this global presence, there was a need to move the right people to where they needed to be in a timely manner. “It’s one thing to conduct business over the phone but we want to have that human interaction which is only possible in person. Many of the places we go take a day of commercial travel to get there and that is not the most efficient way,” Jones states.

Flight department To maximize efficiency, Oshkosh turned to business aviation. In 2002, they opened their corporate flight department with a Cessna Citation X and 3 pilots. The value of the aircraft to the executive teams was quickly realized and in 2007 the decision was made to add another aircraft and additional pilots. After a few different models were evaluated, another Citation X was acquired. The company continued with the 2 Citations until 2012 when the move to Bombardier was made with a Challenger 300 and a Challenger 604, both of which are 2004 models. Jones states, “We are a ‘People First’ company. We want to help our people succeed and part of that is to have visual leadership. Actually being there inspires people. We have 4 facilities in Europe and without these aircraft, it would take me 10 days to visit all of them. Now I can do it in 5. We would not be nearly as nimble without this flight department. It keeps me in the game.”

Personnel Based at OSH (Wittman Regional, Oshkosh WI), home to the famous EAA AirVenture Oshkosh annual aviation gathering, the 2 Bombardier Challengers are housed in an immaculate hangar. They may be a young flight department, but they are well-stocked with experience, both in the cockpit and on the wrenches. Leading the team is Director of Aviation Jeff Smith. The Detroit MI native says he was intrigued by aviation at a very early age. This interest led to flying lessons at age 15. Smith recalls, “I had to ride my bike to the

Chief Pilot Alan Minks (L) and Sr Capt Brad Ellenberger brought years of corporate and airline experience with them when they joined the Oshkosh team.

airport because I wasn’t old enough to drive.” He later earned his bachelor’s degree in aviation technology from Western Michigan University then built hours flying freight out of Willow Run Airport on the outskirts of Detroit. Smith then moved on to the airlines where he spent the next 10 years. In 2006, he made his way to Oshkosh where he started as a captain on the company’s Citations. “Moving to corporate aviation was the best choice I ever made,” he says. Smith was eventually promoted to chief pilot and took over as director in 2015. While he still flies as much as he can, his primary job is to serve and support his team. Smith echoes CEO Jones when he states, “We are a People First culture at Oshkosh. If you take care of your people, they will take care of the customer. One of the biggest challenges in corporate aviation is work–life balance and my goal is to provide that balance to my team.” This work–life balance challenge is exacerbated by the amount of flying his group does. “We accumulate over 600 hours each year on each aircraft. 100% of our flying is for business, no pleasure flights. Although 95% of that is North American flights of 1.5–2 hour legs, that is still a lot. It can be difficult, but I’ve got a great group of people here who are up to the challenge.” PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018  29

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The Oshkosh Corp has a solid relationship with Bombardier, currently flying a Challenger 300 and Challenger 604, both 2004 models. The 2 aircraft accumulate over 1200 hours per year.

The flight dept consists of 13 personnel, including himself, 6 pilots, 3 maintenance technicians, 1 cleaner, 1 scheduler, and 1 administrative assistant. Again, reflective of the Oshkosh approach, they utilize no cabin attendants. “It’s not unusual to have our CEO serving coffee on the plane,” Smith relates. For domestic and international trip planning they use Rockwell Collins ARINC services. The flight department received IS-BAO certification in 2011 and achieved Stage 3 in 2015 with re-certification occurring earlier this year. Smith sums up his group’s role when he explains, “Oshkosh management sees the value of this flight department. They recognize it as a tool to accomplish a goal and they allow us to make the decisions necessary to get that job done.” Helping Smith with this task is Chief Pilot Alan Minks. He began his career nearly 30 years ago and in that time has flown everything from charter to freight to commuter operations. Following the advice of a friend, he made the jump to corporate aviation in 2000. He began with NetJets, then started flying part-time for Oshkosh in 2003, later coming aboard full-time. In 2012, he did a short stint with another Fortune 500 company flight department but eventually circled back to Oshkosh in 2015. 2016 saw him take over the role of chief pilot. When asked

why he came back, his response was familiar. “It was the people, the culture. A lot of people may say that but it’s truly alive here. It has to start at the top and Jeff (Smith) models that better than anyone I can think of. He’s always thinking of ‘the other guy’ and that’s what I try to do with my pilots,” Minks says. That approach is apparent even in their hiring process. “We have high-time pilots here. Captains are brought in with 6000 hours and copilots with 3000 hours. We will get them type-rated once they are here. But when we look at a potential candidate, it’s more about the individual than the number of hours logged. They need to fit with the Oshkosh culture.” Even with the amount of flying they are doing, they are consistent at keeping to the goal of 13 duty-days per month. Pop-up flights are rare, only 2 or 3 a year, which contributes to their focus on quality of life for the pilots. Keeping them at the top of their game is achieved by regular flying and twice-yearly training at FlightSafety Intl. Minks adds, “We have a great crew here. It’s a lot of fun to come to work.” Senior Captain Brad Ellenberger is one of those crew members. Another long-time, high-hour pilot, Ellenberger flew 10 years for airlines prior to making the jump over to corporate work. After 3 years with a fractional operator, he then spent 3 years

with TAG Aviation operating a managed Bombardier Challenger 604. In 2007, he was assigned a demo flight in that Challenger to show it to the Oshkosh flight department. They eventually took on that aircraft and he later joined the team, as well. With the variety of positions he has held over the years, Ellenberger says working for Oshkosh is the best he’s found. “The way they utilize the planes here, it’s all business. They recognize these aircraft as business tools, nothing else. And the people I work with enjoy coming to work and like what they do.” Ellenberger held the position of safety officer for several, helping set up the Safety Management System and assisting with IS-BAO certification. He has since passed those roles on to others but stays active with the application of the processes he put in place. “This department is evolving and people’s ideas are incorporated into the operations. It doesn’t matter if you’re the new hire or the senior guy,” Ellenberger proclaims.

Scheduling There is a consensus among the internal customers and the pilots about the seamless handling of flight scheduling, no matter how convoluted things may get. That task of juggling the pilots, planes and passengers falls to Senior Aircraft Scheduler Tony Mauthe and Aviation Assistant Cindy Boettcher, who have been with Oshkosh for 12 and 4 years, respectively. In that time, they’ve worked together to develop a streamlined system for trip approval and planning. Utilizing the CAMP Flight Scheduling program, Mauthe is the primary contact for arranging flights for their customers. Boettcher handles many of the other aspects of the trips including rental cars, hotels, fueling, and filling in for Mauthe in his absence. Even though the Oshkosh flight team provides transport for all of the

Oshkosh builds the top specialty vehicles in a variety of fields including firefighting and military. Pictured above are (L–R) Pierce Ascendant 100 Aerial Tower, Oshkosh Joint Light Tactical Vehicle, and Striker 8x8 Airport Rescue and Firefighting.

30  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018

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Av Assistant Cindy Boettcher and Sr Aircraft Scheduler Tony Mauthe handle the busy itineraries and paperwork demands of the Oshkosh flight department’s always-full calendar.

separate company divisions, leading to the very busy schedule they fly, every request for a flight is routed through Mauthe and Boettcher, then on to CEO Jones for approval. Mauthe states, “We require executive approval for every single flight, no matter who it’s for under the Oshkosh umbrella. Wilson (Jones) approves every single flight.” Assuring further accountability, if there is an external customer being flown, the request is reviewed by their ethics and compliance department. It then comes back to Mauthe and Boettcher and they prepare the flight details. Once the trip commences, each leg is tracked until the aircraft is back at the home base. It can often be challenging but as Mauthe explains, “I like solving the puzzle. It’s satisfying when it all comes together.”

Maintenance With over 1200 hours flown each year, another challenge for the Oshkosh flight department is keeping the aircraft flight-worthy. That is the responsibility of Aviation Maintenance Managers Fred Wilkins and Ben Brake. Wilkins has been with the company for 3 years, Brake for 4 years, but they bring with them many more years of experience from the MRO, corporate and airline fields. With vast knowledge on the individual airframes, Wilkins and Brake have each taken over one aircraft as their primary focus. Brake explains, “We split the role of manager with me handling the 604 and Fred taking care of the 300 and we help each other out, along with Aircraft Technician Shelby Jordan.” Wilkins adds,

Av Maintenance Managers Ben Brake (L) and Fred Wilkins assure that the 2 Challengers are always ready to go. With each plane flying over 600 hours per year, they are kept quite busy.

“We work much like a military crew chief by being assigned to an individual aircraft. It works well because it allows you to learn the specific quirks of that airplane.” Both aircraft are on Bombardier factory mx programs with the majority of work completed in the OSH home hangar. When jobs necessitate outside assistance, they go to Constant Aviation and West Star Aviation. With industry-wide shortages already being felt in aircraft maintenance, both Brake and Wilkins have no plans of moving elsewhere. Brake states, “It’s the people and the support we get from management. I’ve never worked in an aviation job where I can get so much training. If there is anything that involves or advances my job around here, they push for us to get the training, unlike other places where you beg to get additional education.” Wilkins continues, “We have required annual training but, as an example, it was a 1-sentence conversation with Jeff (Smith) about FlightSafety’s Master Technician program and he said, ‘Sounds like we should do it!’ and we were both sent. Oshkosh values the investment into training to keep us relevant on our aircraft.” Further evidence of this is the purchase of the Snap-on Level 5 Automated Tool Control system. This system eliminates personally-owned tools by providing a single, computer-controlled tool chest with keyless access and electronic tracking of every tool used and the job it was used on. Wilkins and Brake point out that even though this system was a significant cost, it was the best, safest approach to tooling for their aircraft.

Conclusion In 1917, 2 entrepreneurs joined forces to form the foundation of what would become the preeminent builder of specialty trucks and access equipment. In the century since, the company they formed has provided the toughest vehicles available for our military, fire and rescue teams, municipal services and more. The Oshkosh Corporation success story continues while working under the guiding principle of People First as their numbers now exceed 15,000 worldwide. During recent global expansion, Oshkosh Corp recognized business aviation as a tool for more effective and efficient transportation. Throughout the past 16 years, the company’s flight department has done just that, by providing their people the means to do their jobs, by way of experienced aviation leadership, top-notch equipment, and empowering management. A company as tough as their products, the Oshkosh Corporation lives up to their motto of supporting those who build, serve, defend, and protect. Brent Bundy has been a police officer with the Phoenix Police Dept for 27 years. He has served in the PHX Air Support Unit for 17 years and is a helicopter rescue pilot with nearly 4000 hours of flight time. Bundy currently flies Airbus AS350B3s for the helicopter side of Phoenix PD’s air unit and Cessna 172, 182s and 210s for the fixed-wing side.

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VTOL KEEPS GROWING

More new ideas expand the vertical lift market Established helicopter manufacturers along with new entrants offer a plethora of creative designs. By Owen Davies

Forecasting International & TechCast Global

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hen we last surveyed runway-optional aviation (Pro Pilot, Jul 2016, page 74), both oil prices and the Brazilian economy were in decline. As a result, worldwide sling-wing deliveries fell from 1277 in 2013 to only 861 in 2016. Nonetheless, helicopter makers were prepping new and improved whirlies for market. Fast forwarding 30 months, oil prices, the Brazilian economy, and helicopter sales all are up. The General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA) reports that 926 rotorcraft shipped in 2017, and mid-year data for 2018 show 494 delivered, up 6.7% from the first half of 2017. And, of course, new models and improved technologies are in the pipeline. These are the VTOL aircraft that corporate pilots could fly in the years ahead.

Airbus H160

Airbus Helicopters The H160 medium utility helicopter is set to receive certification before New Year’s. Launch customer Babcock Aviation should receive 4 H160s in 2019. This 12-pax craft carries promising innovations such as a composite airframe that cuts empty weight by roughly 1000 lbs, “Blue Edge” rotor

Airbus H175

that minimizes noise and vibration for greater comfort, twin Safran Turbomeca Arrano engines that deliver 10% more power than previous models on 15% less fuel. In addition, the H160 features a shrouded fenestron tail rotor tilted 12 degrees and paired with a biplane stabilizer to improve handling. With the Blue Edge rotor, it boosts cargo capacity by nearly 400 lbs. Airbus expects the H160 to find an eager market as the oil-and-gas industry moves into higher gear again. The company’s 16-passenger H175 was still getting its footing in 2016. By Heli Expo 2018 last February, more than 100 were on order.

Bell It’s not Bell Helicopter any more, but just Bell, to signal the firm’s commitment to VTOL flight beyond conventional helicopters. The company has more substantial developments in progress. The 505 Jet Ranger X, with 4 seats and a useful load of 1500 lbs, is the company’s smallest helicopter, replacing the veteran JetRanger. With a 505-hp Safran Turbomeca Arrius 2R, the new model is faster and more comfortable than its predecessor, carries more, and is cheaper to operate and maintain. Receiving certification in 2017, by mid-2018 it had already racked up 100 deliveries.

Bell 505 Jet Ranger X

Bell 525 Relentless

The 525 Relentless, Bell’s heaviest model, is a fly-by-wire twin with room for 19 passengers. Powered by 2 GE CT7-4F1 engines, it is intended to cruise at up to 150 kts with a maximum range of 560 nm. Bell expects the 525 to receive certification next year.

Bell 407GXI

Latest in the venerable 407 line, the 407GXI adds fly-by-wire controls and Garmin avionics. A new Rolls-Royce turbine is said to improve range and fuel consumption by 4%. Bell is pitching the 407GXI to the US Navy to replace its own TH-57 training helicopters. The FC-X concept is a medium twin carrying 8 to 12 passengers. Science-fiction sleek, it features innovations including a hybrid engine system, variable-tip rotor blades to optimize performance, and an augmented-reality system instead of steam gauges and flat panels for the single pilot.

Bell FC-X

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RELY ON.

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MD 6XX

Leonardo AW109 Trekker

Leonardo

MD Helicopters

The former AgustaWestland has several new and developmental aircraft, including a tiltrotor we will look at later. Here are the company’s more conventional offerings: The AW109 Trekker is a light twin with room for 2 pilots and 6 passengers. Top cruise speed is 160 kts, with a max range of 450 nm. A modular interior can be reconfigured quickly for different roles. The Trekker received EASA certification in December 2017. Deliveries outside the US began early this year.

The big news at this military and parapublic specialist is the single-turbine MD 6XX Concept helicopter, introduced in 2017 and quickly being adapted to new markets. The aircraft debuted in a single-patient EMS configuration and since has appeared in a light scout attack/special ops version and another one for law enforcement. Utility and VIP configurations also are available, plus one adapted for electronic news gathering. With a max gross of 4500 lbs including external cargo, it can carry 2000 lbs at 134 kts max cruise. Range is 380 nm. Like some other MD helos, it omits the tail rotor in favor of the NOTAR air-jet anti-torque system. Also new is a glass cockpit package combining Garmin EFIS and navcom/ GPS with a Howell Instruments electronic engine instruments and crew alert system. It was certified for the MD 503F in mid-2018. It also is available for the MD 600N, MD 530, MD 500 and the Cayuse Warrior.

Leonardo SW-4 Solo

The SW-4 Solo is a pilot-optional version of the SW-4 light single that can be controlled from the ground. Maximum permissible speed is 134 kts with a remote operator, only 110 kts with the pilot on board. The craft is EASA-certified for both piloted and unmanned operation. The TH-119, a military training variant of the AW119 light single, will be the first single-engine helicopter capable of IFR operation. Planned cruise is 138 kts with a range up to 525 nm. It will face the Bell 407GXI and the Airbus H135 in the Navy’s competition to replace the TH-57 Sea Ranger for pilot training.

Leonardo TH-119

With such successful aircraft already available, Robinson has concentrated lately on incremental improvements and its legendary post-sale customer service. Robinson has won best-support awards from readers of both Pro Pilot and Vertical. Recent additions to the product line include Garmin touchscreen displays for the R44 and R66, and wire strike protection, optional cargo hook and heated seats for the R66.

Sikorsky The world’s first helicopter company is out of the light-chopper business. The S-300 and S-333, acquired when it bought out Schweizer Aircraft, have been spun off again to Schweizer RSG, in Fort Worth. Sikorsky retains 3 commercial products: the S-76 and S-92 medium twin aircraft, and the Firehawk water bomber and rescue helicopter. The company produces 2 military models of special interest. In 2015, Sikorsky and Boeing teamed up to design and build a helicopter for the Army’s Future Vertical Lift (FLV) program. FLV seeks to replace both the UH-60 Black Hawk transport helo and the AH-64 Apache gunship.

Sikorsky S-97 Raider

Robinson R66

Robinson Helicopter They may not quite have a lock on the lightest weight class, but Robinson does offer very inexpensive models in both piston-engine and turbine categories. Helicopter operators seem to have noticed. The company produced 305 aircraft in 2017, a 30% increase over the previous year. That included 34 of the little R22s, 194 of the 4-seat piston-powered R44s, and 77 of the R66 turbine model. A Newscopter version of the R66 received FAA certification in mid-2017.

At Sikorsky, the first result is the S-97 Raider, a light tactical helicopter that can carry a crew of 2 plus 6 passengers. The Raider is a compound design with 2 rigid coaxial rotors and a pusher prop. With a top speed exceeding 220 kts, it is nearly twice as fast as a conventional helicopter. FLV performance targets include 308 nm range, the ability to hover at 6000 ft on a 95-degree day, and 3G maneuverability at speed. To meet such demanding requirements, the S-97 mounts rotors that can tilt in different directions, active elevons, and a variable-pitch propeller at the back. An articulating tail will eventually be added. Somewhere along the line, the aircraft will become pilot-optional.

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People Make The Difference

Leonardo is committed to continuous improvement, offering customers the best service and support. A global network of over 90 Service Centers, 10 Logistic Support Centers, 5 Training Centers and a team of over 1,800 support and training professionals are dedicated to ensuring customer satisfaction; 24/7, 365. Leonardo is investing in performance and infrastructure to expand its portfolio of solutions; providing the highest quality of service and the latest-generation technology for the operation and maintenance of customer aircraft, ensuring mission success. Inspired by the vision, curiosity and creativity of the great master inventor Leonardo is designing the technology of tomorrow.

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Sikorsky SB>1 Defiant

Leonardo AW609

The 2nd product is the SB>1 Defiant, a high-speed, medium-lift compound helicopter billed as an assault vehicle. With rigid coaxial rotors and a pusher prop, the SB>1 Defiant can transport a dozen troops at up to 230 kts. Range extends to 457 nm. A pilot eventually will be optional. First flight is due this December.

Tiltrotors The V-280 Valor, Bell’s entrant for the FLV competition, is the size of a UH-60 Black Hawk but will cruise at 280 kts with a range of 2100 nm. Plans also call for low-speed maneuverability much like an agile helicopter. Composite construction makes the V-280 lighter and cheaper than a scaled V-22 Osprey, within range of conventional helicopters. According to CEO John Garrison, the price of a civilian V-280 should be attractive enough that corporate pilots may someday fly a Bell tiltrotor.

Bell V-280 Valor

Some are guaranteed to fly the Leonardo AW609. Following certification in 2019, Era Group is scheduled to receive 2 AW609s in 2020. Cost is around $24 million. Leonardo’s product resembles the V-22 more closely than the new-model Bell, carrying its engines in rotating nacelles at the wingtips. Cruise speed will be 260 kts, with a range of 750 nm – 1100 nm with external tanks. The AW609 will carry a crew of 2 plus a 5500-lb payload or 6 to 9 passengers.

Leonardo already is working on a faster, larger 2nd generation tiltrotor for the EU’s Clean Sky 2 program. First flight should come in mid2019, with the certification program not starting until 2033.

Ducted fans In 2016, the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) was driving this technology’s development. The Advanced Reconfigurable Embedded System (ARES), a joint venture from Piasecki and Lockheed, and the LightningStrike, from Aurora Flight Sciences, were developed for the agency. DARPA now has left the ducted-fan business, but these projects are carrying on. ARES is an odd craft, with 2 ducted fans mounted upright inside a flying wing. The wing rotates to aim the fans down for takeoff and landing, and horizontally in flight. Its usual payload is a swappable container that can hold up to 3000 lbs of anything from munitions to a trauma clinic. ARES is expected to cruise at 200 to 300 kts at gross, loitering for 8 to 12 hours after a trip of 350 nm. A flight test is set for late 2018. The project is now funded by the US Army and Marine Corps. The Marines recently called for development of a new drone with requirements that match ARES. If they adopt the vehicle, ARES could be deployed by 2025.

Lockheed Martin-Piasecki ARES

LightningStrike

LightningStrike flies courtesy of 24 electric motors spinning ducted fans mounted along the wing and canard. They are powered by a 7000 shp Rolls-Royce turbine driving a generator. A 20%-scale aircraft proved efficient and, according to Program Manager Carl Schaefer, “as maneuverable and agile as a helicopter.” Per DARPA specs, LightningStrike will fly at 300 to 400 kts and gross 10,000 to 12,000 lbs, including at least 40% cargo.

Cormorant

The AirMule drone, now renamed the Cormorant, was designed by Tactical Robotics (TR) for use by the Israeli military where helicopters could not go. It has 2 ducted fans in the fuselage pointing downward to provide lift, and 2 external fans deliver forward thrust. A Safran Turbomeca Ariel 2 delivering 940 shp can drive the Cormorant at 97 kts with 5 hours endurance. Carrying 1100 lbs of cargo, 10 or 12 vehicles could deliver enough supplies daily for 3000 combat troops. A prettier version known as the X-Hawk will have room for a pilot and 10 passengers. Potential civilian roles include executive transport, air ambulance service, and even rescuing people from a burning building by hovering next to a window. Either variant could be in use by 2020. Cost is estimated at $3.2 million each. Here in the US, the most promising civilian ducted-fan aircraft may be the XTI TriFan 600, a conventional-looking airplane with fans in the fuselage and wings. The fuselage fan is used only during takeoff and

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XTI TriFan 600

Bell Air Taxi

landing. In flight, the wing fans rotate upright to provide thrust, while the wings make the lift. With hybrid electric power, the plane is designed to carry a pilot and 5 passengers up to 1200 nm at 300 kts cruise. A 60% demonstrator will make the first test flight before the end of this year. By late 2017, XTI had pre-sale commitments for more than 60 aircraft, with deliveries to begin in 2023. There’s 1 reason for these pre-order numbers: Projected operating costs of $350 per hour should save owners $1 million per 1000 flight hours over the cost of a jet or turboprop.

Audi Pop.Up Next

Bell’s proposed Urban Air Taxi is a tiltrotor with 2 ducted fans on a slender wing and 1 upright between vertical tails. One variant would carry a pilot and passenger. Another has room for 6 passengers. Planned top speed is 150 kts, but range, flight altitude, and possible delivery dates remain unknown.

Urban transport It seems almost everyone is designing VTOL craft for taxi service. Airbus, Bell, Boeing, and even Uber and Toyota are aiming at this future market. Boeing’s VTOL commitment is the LightningStrike; it bought Aurora Flight Sciences in 2017. As for the rest, most air-taxi designs share a core concept: An electric multicopter carries 1 to 5 passengers for short distances, then stops to recharge.

CityAirbus

The CityAirbus will carry 4 passengers. Its 4 pairs of rotors will spin inside shallow ducts, one at each corner. Cruising around 65 kts and with 15 minutes endurance gives it a range of 19 miles. Plans call for certification and service in 2023.

Ehang 184

China’s Ehang 184 probably was first to fly. A single-passenger pod is surrounded by 8 electric fans in 4 pairs mounted on stalks. In testing, the craft has climbed to 300 meters, carried over 500 lbs, flown 9.3 miles, and achieved a high cruise speed of 70 kts. According to plan, it could carry a passenger up to 10 miles in 23 minutes.

Airbus Vahana

The Vahana, from A3, an Airbus subsidiary, carries 8 pairs of propellers on 2 conventional-looking wings that rotate vertically for takeoff and landing and horizontally for level flight. Specs call for a range of 30 miles at 110 kts. A 2-pax version would go 60 miles at 125 kts.

Audi has partnered with Airbus in air taxi development, and its Pop.Up Next looks much like the CityAirbus, with one added feature: Its modular rotor package could fly off on its own, leaving the passenger compartment to continue its trip on 4 wheels. To create air taxis for its future Uber Elevate network, Uber has teamed with flight-savvy partners including Embraer, Aurora Flight Sciences, Pipestrel and Karem Aircraft. To keep everyone on the same page, it has sketched 3 “reference model” aircraft. Two resemble conventional airplanes, slender and T-tailed, with rotors added to the wings and fuselage. The third model looks more like an outrigger canoe with wings. Despite ambitious performance requirements, Uber aims for a test flight in 2020, with service to begin only 3 years later. Toyota’s patented idea carries 4 rotors built into the vehicle’s wheels. In flight, they operate horizontally as ducted fans. On landing, they fold downward for use on the road. Enough. Electric VTOL News counts over 70 air taxis under development. Some could reach the market. At first glance, they won’t fit into corporate flight departments. And yet… Consider a quick visit to an office or factory across a busy city or a few miles into the suburbs. Driving takes too long. A helicopter is overkill. High-level execs who want a human up front could recruit pro pilots as air taxi “drivers” between longer flights. We should know in 10 years or less. Owen Davies is a veteran freelance writer and was senior editor at OMNI. He now works as a futurist at Forecasting International and TechCast Global.

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TRAFFIC AWARENESS

ADS-B improves situational awareness By Marty Rollinger ATP. Challenger 600 & 604, Falcon 2000 EASy and McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 PP Contributing Writer

“In” capability gives you more threat information with higher quality than TCAS.

Dassault Falcon EASy moving map with TCAS (L) and the Garmin Pilot app (R) show the same target. TCAS tells that there is a target at 2 o’clock and 15 miles. ADS-B tells more: the target is 551MM, it travels on the opposite direction, and the closest point of approach will be greater than 12 miles. Image in the center is from a Garmin GDL 39 receiver displaying weather info.

A

t the Fall 2016 Av Safety InfoShare in Kansas City, a commuter pilot described an upset event that occurred on vectors to final behind a “heavy” aircraft that was above and upwind. If that crew had the benefit of Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast In (ADS-B In) traffic awareness, they could have certainly predicted and probably prevented the wake turbulence encounter altogether. ADS-B describes a system of electronic speaking and listening, transmitting and receiving. Automatic means the equipment transmits information with no pilot input required. Dependent means the position and velocity vectors transmitted are dependent on GPS. Surveillance means the system provides 3D position and identification of aircraft and vehicles. Broadcast means it transmits to anyone with the appropriate receiving equipment. Consider a simple traffic display example with your aircraft in the

center of the heading up display with labeled range rings. A generic Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) presents a single target at a given position and distance, co-altitude. Is that target coming at you, going away or crossing your flight path? TCAS cannot determine that without the pilot continuously watching or repeatedly scanning this display. On the other hand, ADS-B In displays resolve these threat/no threat ambiguities instantly because target presentation is far more descriptive of the situation than TCAS. ADS-B traffic awareness enables users to anticipate future events and radio calls, increasing the crew’s ability to prioritize and act proactively. With properly trained crew, ADS-B traffic awareness reduces workload and confusion. The cockpit display of traffic information often answers the “I wonder why they gave us that?” question. ADS-B traffic displays promote efficient and optimized communication with ATC.

Ultimately, the benefits boil down to greatly increased crew situational awareness (SA), resulting in advantages to the pilot and his operation.

ADS-B Out These transmissions contain a large amount of information that, when properly displayed, is extraordinarily useful to the recipients equipped with the appropriate devices. The information being transmitted includes precise position, velocity, altitude, flight ID, wake turbulence category, squawk code, system health data and, in some cases, selected altitude. The most remarkable data transmitted is velocity, not just speed, but TRACK and ground speed.

ADS-B In The “In” part of ADS-B entails being equipped with a receiver that can listen to all “Out” transmissions and a method to display the traffic infor-

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mation to the flightcrew. FAA Advisory Circular 90-114A, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Operations with Change 1, refers to this capability as Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI). The ADS-B receiver also collects traffic and weather information supplied by FAA towers. This vast amount of information enables listeners (ADS-B In users) to have a complete picture of what’s surrounding their aircraft. Inexpensive portable ADS-B In systems are available today. The Garmin Data Link (GDL) 50 ADS-B Receiver lists for $799 at Sporty’s. This does not include the price of the Garmin Pilot app and an iPad to run the app. Ideally, this vital ADS-B In information will soon be well integrated with panel-mounted TCAS and moving map displays.

“Anybody listening, this is my ID, position, velocity, altitude,etc.”

“Anybody listening, this is my ID, position, velocity, altitude,etc.”

UAT ADS-B

1090ES ADS-B Ground station translator

ADS-B Participant

ADS-B Participant

“I don’t do ADS-B. If interrogated I’ll shout my squawk code & altitude.”

1090ES and UAT In the US, ADS-B is spoken in 2 different languages, which are really different systems using different frequencies. These 2 languages are called 1090ES (for Extended Squitter) and UAT (for Universal Access Transceiver). Either system, correctly integrated with Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) GPS, will meet the 2020 mandate. However, operators flying above 18,000 feet will require equipment that uses 1090ES. For an ADS-B In user to have a complete picture, targets from both systems need to be received and displayed. Many portable ADS-B In systems have dual band capabilities, meaning they listen on both frequencies. However, receiver aircraft not equipped to receive both languages need a translator. FAA ground stations provide this translation service called ADS-R for Rebroadcast, which listens to all incoming data, auto translates and transmits messages in the other language. Today there are still many aircraft not outfitted with ADS-B Out. And even after the 2020 deadline, some aircraft owners will chose not to equip because the airspace they fly in does not require it. So, how are non-participants handled by ADS-B traffic awareness displays? FAA radar, interrogators and ground stations will provide a service called Traffic Information Service Broadcast (TISB). The TISB service sends non-participant surveillance information to ADS-B In

Ground station traffic info service ADS-B comes in 2 different systems, 1090ES and UAT. Most ADS-B In equipment can operate in both frequencies but aircraft not capable of reading info in both languages need to use FAA ground stations providing ADS-B Rebroadcast services.

participants when the non-participant is within defined airspace around the ADS-B In aircraft. This airspace volume is described as a hockey puck due to its shape, which is plus or minus 3500 feet altitude and 15 nm radius centered on the ADS-B In participant aircraft.

ADS-B In vs TCAS A review of TCAS functions and displays is necessary to conduct a meaningful comparison between TCAS and ADS-B In traffic displays. TCAS locates targets by transmitting interrogation signals and listening for a reply. Transponder-equipped targets reply to interrogations with their altitude. The TCAS computer measures round trip elapsed time to calculate the range to the target and uses a directional antenna to estimate the relative bearing to the target. Multiple interrogation cycles enable the TCAS computer to calculate closure rate with the target. TCAS targets are displayed as non-directional symbols because TCAS does not know the target head-

ing or track. The symbols are hollow diamonds for targets beyond 6 nm or that have an altitude difference greater than 1200 feet. Location accuracy of TCAS target symbols is not precise due to limitations determining relative azimuth to the target. TCAS symbols are labeled with numbers representing target altitude relative to your own altitude, and up or down arrows for targets currently climbing or descending greater than 500 feet per minute. The TCAS target symbols get filled in for targets in close proximity and the color changes to amber when a traffic advisory is declared. When a TCAS target gets even closer, newer version TCAS II systems have the ability to declare a resolution advisory (RA) that commands an aircraft maneuver to avoid collision.

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ADS-B symbols are enhanced compared to TCAS. Similar to TCAS, ADS-B targets are labeled with numbers representing relative altitude and the same up and down arrows. Targets get filled and change colors but ADS-B also recognizes targets on the ground and paints them in brown. In addition, ADS-B targets are directional.

display using precise WAAS GPS location data transmitted by the target itself. This is a significant improvement over TCAS, which knows only precise range to target, closure and target altitude, thus rendering relative bearing to a target not accurate enough to reliably allow clock code callouts or to command turns. ADS-B target symbols are directional arrows that point in the direction of the target track. This is revolutionary as TCAS targets are non-directional symbols. To determine which direction a TCAS target is moving you have to either repeatedly scan or stare at the TCAS display. In other words, ADS-B In is a time-saver as it allows you to instantly comprehend the traffic picture. Similar to TCAS, ADS-B symbols are labeled with numbers representing target relative altitude and the same up or down arrows as applicable. Hollow targets represent aircraft beyond the same thresholds as TCAS. ADS-B target symbols get “filled” and change color using the same logic as TCAS. In addition, ADS-B distinguishes targets that are on the ground with the color brown. The biggest distinction identified so far is that ADS-B symbols are directional. Tangible examples of how directionality is helpful will be the subject of a future article.

ADS-B symbols include the target’s flight ID. Including the target’s flight ID allows better comprehension of the environment around your aircraft when ATC addresses one of the nearby targets. The flight ID is comprised of a maximum of 7 characters and

corresponds to the aircraft identification annotated on the ATC flightplan. For airliners, for example, it’s associated with the company and flight number (for example, DAL1420). For General Aviation (GA) aircraft it’s associated with the aircraft’s registration number (for example, 325WW). In the Garmin Pilot app ADS-B targets are enhanced with green motion vectors. These vectors can either be depicted in absolute terms or relative to your aircraft motion. In my opinion, the relative motion vector is the more useful. They show where the targets will be in 30 seconds, relative to your aircraft, but the lengths of these motion vectors are selectable, so the crew can choose, for instance, to view the trajectory of the target in 15 or 30-second intervals – or 1 minute. The green relative motion vector can poke out the side of target symbol, indicating that in the next 30 seconds the target will only move very slightly left. If traffic is ahead of you and traveling in the same direction but at a slower ground speed, the relative motion vector would point opposite of its direction of flight, indicating that you are overtaking the traffic. ADS-B displays allow crews to “select” a traffic symbol for more detailed information. There is more information available regarding selected targets that is beyond the scope of this ADS-B fundamentals article. The opening image details a comparison example of a Falcon EASy moving map with a TCAS target displayed next to the Garmin Pilot app showing the same target based on ADS-B information. This operator initially purchased the loose equipment Garmin Data Link receiver

(GDL-39) to access the free Flight Information Service Broadcast (FISB) weather information (also shown in the center). After using the Garmin ADS-B In system, the operator discovered the weather information was helpful, but the traffic awareness benefits were significant and irreplaceable compared to the onboard TCAS. The EASy display on the left (sourced from TCAS) only tells that there is a target at 2 o’clock and 15 miles. Without staring at or repeatedly scanning the TCAS display the crew cannot tell whether the target is coming, going, or crossing. By comparison, the ADS-B traffic display on the right instantly makes the crew aware that the target is traveling in the opposite direction with a closest point of approach that will be greater than 12 miles.

Limitations of ADS-B ADS-B In is not without limitations. The Airman’s Information Manual cautions that ADS-B cockpit display of traffic is not intended to be used for collision avoidance and does not relieve the pilot of see and avoid responsibility. ADS-B In cannot replace TCAS resolution advisories. TCAS II is currently unrivaled in its ability to provide resolution advisories, which is its primary function. ADS-B In displays present a greater quantity of information than TCAS and should be used for both SA and aiding the visual acquisition of nearby traffic. What crews really need is an integrated solution which incorporates the accuracy and benefits of ADS-B along with TCAS II resolution advisory functionality. Used effectively, however, ADS-B increases the crew’s ability to prioritize and act proactively. As you equip to comply with the ADS-B Out mandate, consider reaping the benefits associated with ADS-B In traffic. Marty has over 35 years flight experience in 68 different aircraft. A career Marine Corps pilot, he was Liethen-Tittle Award graduate of USAF Test Pilot School. He is Director of Flight Ops for a Midwestern operator and a member of the Falcon Operator Advisory Board.

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INTERNATIONAL OPS

Middle East A trip to this region can be a straight-forward, easy and rewarding experience for the well-prepared operator.

Pictured at left is Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Being the country’s main financial hub, this city is a frequent GA destination. Jet Aviation RUH (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia), at right, offers full service support and a generous parking ramp for both destination and transient tech stops.

By Grant McLaren Editor-at-Large

T

he Middle East is generally an easy and flexible GA operating environment. Today, airspace there is less restrictive than in China or India, flexibility in operations and schedule revisions is often better than in Europe, and costs can be reasonable. Likewise, day to day operations have become more straight-forward, permits can usually be secured with less lead time than just a few years ago, communication with Civil Aviation Authorities (CAAs) has improved, and handling services are often some of the best in the world. On the flip side, this region has become more geopolitically unstable over recent years and this has made trip planning more complex, concur International Support Provider (ISPs). “Planning operations to the Middle East can, in some cases, be a massive exercise in risk management,” says Avfuel Ops Mgr David Kang. “There’s restricted airspace and security considerations to be mindful of, along with assorted regional tensions and cultural considerations to take into account. While some flight departments tend to be more risk tolerant, others are completely risk averse. The Middle East is a region where operators are advised to consider all available alternatives, as well as the goals of their mission,

carefully. It’s not like planning a trip to Rome or Paris. You’re stepping into a different world, in many ways, and need to understand you’ll be facing certain restrictions and may need to do things differently than you’re used to doing them.”

vices, say ISPs. But due to the current geopolitical situation, N-registered operators generally avoid tech stop opportunities in Iran while overflying the country on a consistent basis.

Tech stops

Overflight and landing permits are needed throughout this region, with lead times typically about 48 hours. In the case of the UAE and Iran, permits are routinely issued within 24 hours. Lead time of 3 to 4 business days is recommended for Saudi Arabia and up to 7 business days for 1st time permit requests to Israel. “Permit procedures in the Middle East are not arcane or mysterious, but they often require multiple steps, rigorously correct applications and particular sponsor formats,” notes Kang. “For 1st time operators, any difficulties encountered are often due to mandated sponsor letter requirements, as you must get this process just right.” Be mindful that sponsor letters and/ or sponsor contact info is needed for issuance of Saudi, Israeli, Iran, Kuwait and Qatar landing permits. While passengers require visas for many Middle Eastern countries, depending upon nationality, crew may land at most major airports in the region visa-free for stays of up to 72 hrs. Be aware of weekend (Friday and Saturday) and major holiday periods in

With todays longer range aircraft, many smaller airports – and those in less secure areas – are used much less frequently for tech stops. LUX (Luxor, Egypt), CAI (Cairo, Egypt), BEY (Beirut, Lebanon) and ADE (Aden, Yemen) are now often bypassed. The UAE has become a predominant tech stop venue for corporate operators transiting this region. MCT (Muscat, Oman), DOH (Doha, Qatar) and BAH (Bahrain) also remain popular tech stops. ISPs say Saudi Arabia also works well for efficient fuel uplifts within the region. Saudi permits can be arranged quickly, visas and sponsor letters are not required for tech stops, and efficient airway routings are available. For GA tech stop purposes, however, there are only 3 Saudi locations that are normally used: JED (Jeddah), RUH (Riyadh) and DMM (Dammam). Iran, on the other hand, has over 300 airports available to GA, and presents a plethora of good tech stop and crew rest opportunities with generally efficient ground ser-

Permits

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(L) Dubai is the most in-demand destination in the region for foreign-registered business aircraft movements. Of the 2 available airports, DWC (Al Maktoum, Dubai, UAE) is the preferred and easier destination. (R) Arriving passengers clear immigration at DC Aviation Al-Futtaim DWC.

this part of the world. Although many locations will process permits and permit revisions 24/7, there are some locations where CAA will not deal with permit requests on Fridays and certain holidays. If you’re operating a charter flight to the Middle East, the good news is that lead time and documentation requirements usually mirror those applicable to private flights. Cabotage, meanwhile, is not usually a consideration or operating restriction for either private of charter ops.

Israel restrictions If you have Israeli citizens onboard, your aircraft was built in Israel or if your GA operation is flying out of Israel, you’re generally not welcome in this region – other than ops to either Jordan or Egypt. If your flight originates in Israel, most countries in the region, even as far away as Tunisia, will not allow overflight, say ISPs. This can lead to 45 to 60 minutes additional flight time in transiting around the region or traveling down through Egyptian airways. Note that Israel has mandated additional requirements to its permit approval process, so crews must now provide full employment histories. “A permit for Israel can normally be obtained within 4 business days, but it’s best to allow up to 7 business days,” says Universal Weather Master Trip Owner Larry Williams. “Israel authorities will contact everyone on the permit application, from pilots to support providers and sponsors, and they’ll need a copy of the passport or Israeli ID of your local sponsor.” Additional restrictions will be faced if any crew or passengers, irrespective of nationality, have an Israeli stamp in their passports.

UAE options Dubai and Abu Dhabi are 2 of the most popular GA areas in this region, for both destination and tech stops. Options in Dubai include DXB (Intl, Dubai, UAE) and DWC (World, Dubai, UAE), while Abu Dhabi offers AUH (Intl, Abu Dhabi) and AZI (Bateen, Abu Dhabi). For quick turn tech stop purposes in the UAE, you might also consider SHJ (Sharjah, UAE) or AAN (Al Ain, UAE). “Dubai and Abu Dhabi are common meeting grounds and mutual sites for international business in this region and both tend to be very popular,” says Jeppesen Vendor Relations Mgr Ian Humphrey. “Of the 2 Abu Dhabi airports, AZI is more geared toward GA while DWC is more accessible to GA, offering better airport slot and parking options than DXB.”

Qatar situation improving Regional jealousies over the past couple of years have resulted in Saudi Arabia, UAE, Bahrain the Egypt aviation authorities putting up assorted barriers for GA ops to/from Qatar. This situation, however, is beginning to ease and restrictions have become more manageable as of late. “The situation with Qatar has definitely improved and current restrictions are not causing too much disruption to GA movements,” says UAS Regional Ops Mgr Duke Leduc. “You’ll still need special permission to fly to/from Qatar from/to the UAE, Saudi Arabia and Egypt and not everyone will be able to obtain these clearances. Approvals are usually processed within 8 to 72 hours on a case-by-case basis depending upon who you are, who

you’re visiting, local sponsor details and reason for your flight.” ITPS Ops Mgr Ben Fuller concurs that it can be somewhat challenging lining up all required permits when operating to/from Qatar. “We had a case recently of a flight from DOH to SNN (Shannon, Ireland) where CAAs of Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and Egypt where all waiting to see what the other CAA would do before approving a permit. It can be a Catch 22 situation and we recommend allowing additional lead time for such operations.” However, if you’re not successful in obtaining Saudi or Egyptian overflight permits for ops to/from Qatar, there are alternatives. For direct flights from DOH to Europe, transiting Iranian airspace is one option. You may also fly directly from Qatar to Oman, Kuwait or Iran, with no flight or permit restrictions, and continue on from there.

No fly zones and restricted airspace While overflight of Yemen is still possible, many operators chose to avoid this airspace, along with Saudi Arabian airspace bordering Yemen, due to ongoing military incursions from Saudi Arabia. Syria has basically become a no-fly zone, particularly for N-registered operators, as a result of ongoing military activity. Operators are advised to stay above FL260 when overflying the Sinai region of Egypt, while the eastern side of the Black Sea has become problematic as many airways push you into eastern Ukraine, which is a no-fly zone. Fuller suggests caution when planning routings through the Middle East region. “It seems like PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018  47

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Doha, capital of the country of Qatar, is a top destination for international business. The mounted police here in Doha are friendly, effective and elegant.

50% of the countries in this region have had reports of missiles going through their airspace over recent years,” he says. “Route of flight and overflight permits can be significantly impacted by no-fly zones, restricted airspace and SOPs of the particular flight department.” There are also assorted security risks to consider when operating in this region. In the case of CAI, for example, while the airport is considered safe for tech stops, additional security considerations come into play if you plan to overnight or leave the airport. And while operators are strongly advised not to overfly Syria, and most aviation insurance policies will not allow this, overflight opportunities for Iraq have improved as of late. Previously, special permission had been needed to overfly Iraq but this situation has recently changed. “Iraq airspace opened up earlier this year and N-registered aircraft may now overfly the country with few restrictions,” says Williams. “Above FL260, all airways are available for GA overflight although not all operators are comfortable with doing this.”

Risks and security Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Oman and most of the Gulf region are highly secure and not dangerous places. The same is true for Iran, although this area is often avoided by N-registered aircraft for tech and crew rest purposes due to current hostilities between the US and Iran. BEY is considered by ISPs to be a reasonably safe place to drop and go. However, many operators elect to reposition to

LCA (Larnaca, Cyprus) if they need to stay overnight. Should you wish to fly to Israel, be sure to have contingency plans to get crew and passengers out quickly. Although this region is not under either US or EU operating sanctions, caution is advised. “TLV (Tel-Aviv, Israel) offers professional handling services but don’t just fly to Israel, say goodbye to your passengers and expect everything to be OK,” cautions Kang. “You’re in a war zone and need to be prepared. Have contingency plans to either hunker down or to get out quickly in case things go sideways, and ensure you always have ways to communicate.” Humphrey adds, “Be prepared for the unexpected as the local security situation could easily change within short notice. Be up to speed on the latest news and geopolitical developments and have Plan B contingency options in place, or at least an idea of what you’ll do if things start to go bad quickly.”

Cultural considerations Culturally, some areas of this region may seem rather foreign to visiting flight crews and passengers. Saudi Arabia is the most conservative area, from the Western perspective, followed closely by Iran. At the other extreme, the UAE, Jordan, Oman, Lebanon, Israel and Qatar feel more familiar, relaxed and westernized. “In Saudi Arabia, for example, it’s important to dress and act conservatively, to respect local restrictions on alcohol and pork meat consumption, and avoid encounters with the lo-

cal religious police,” says Williams. “While the country has opened up a little, there’s still a long way to go. Females still need to wear head coverings and be escorted by a male. An all-female flight crew could, for example, run into issues with local transport as there have been cases of local transport vendors turning down such trip requests.” For any stop in Saudi Arabia, including tech stops, it’s important to lock up any alcohol onboard, prior to opening the doors, and to be aware of local cultural norms. “In terms of security, Saudi Arabia and Iran are safe regions, but it’s important to brief all crew and passengers on local cultural considerations”, remarks Humphrey. “This is especially true for passengers who may be used to doing anything they want and who are not accustomed to answering to anybody. In this region, particularly in Saudi Arabia, there are some things you just cannot do.”

Summary For the well-prepared operator, a trip to the Middle East can be a straight-forward, easy and rewarding experience. The overall operating environment is welcoming, capable and bizav friendly, but it does require pre-planning as well as understanding inherent restrictions, sponsor requirements and security intricacies. This is particularly true in the case of 1st time operators. “The Middle East has become both easier and more challenging over recent years,” says Leduc. “In planning a trip to this region, the big discussion is not so much in terms of permits, visas and day-to-day operational aspects. It’s more a matter of understanding your mission goals and being flexible enough to plan your operation around the risks, restrictions and cultural limitations. A well connected ISP can assist in organizing the most efficient trips, stops and routings with the lowest risk profile.” Editor-at-Large Grant McLaren has written for Pro Pilot for over 20 years and specializes in corporate flight department coverage.

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CONNECTIVITY ALOFT

Gogo keeps growing

Photos courtesy Gogo

Starting out as Aircell in 1991, this service of airborne communications and entertainment continues to expand.

By Shannon Forrest

President, Turbine Mentor ATP/CFII. Challenger 604/605, Gulfstream IV, MU2B

P

ilots love a good story, especially when it pertains to how something came to be in the world of aviation. And it’s even better if a somewhat ambitious plan started out as scribbles on a napkin.

Jimmy Ray, founder of Gogo, applied his knowledge of the phone industry to develop a communications system for private aircraft.

Gogo pioneered the concept of air to ground communications using the cellular band frequencies. The ground-based antenna system is capable of 3G and 4G connectivity for voice and data.

One story maintains that in 1966 Rollin King, the owner of a small commuter airline, was having drinks in a bar with his longtime friend and attorney Herb Kelleher when he hatched an idea. King drew a triangle on a cocktail napkin, each point representing the geographic position of Dallas, Houston and San Antonio. The “business plan,” as described to his tablemate, was to start a brandnew airline that would devote itself to high frequency flights between the 3 cities. Kelleher thought the plan had merit and it turned out he was right. The entity that came to be was Southwest Airlines. Another significant but lesser known tale involving aviation and a napkin is one about an aircraft that dangles from the ceiling of the Milestones of Flight Hall at the National Air and Space Museum in

Washington, DC. The odd shaped craft – with an enormous wingspan made entirely of composites – holds the record for nonstop unrefueled flight around the world. In the early 80s, aircraft designer Burt Rutan was sipping coffee at the Mojave Inn with his brother Dick and friend Jeana Yeager. Burt had a radical idea: it was possible for an aircraft to make it all the way around the world on a single tank of fuel without stopping if the right design and crew could be found. He translated a rudimentary mental construct onto the napkin before him. At first glance, his concept appeared more like a flying wing with a crew compartment the size of a phone booth than an airplane. Only 6 years elapsed between the napkin scribbles and the record-setting flight in December of 1986 in an aircraft aptly named Voyager.

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*Includes all digital rights management (DRM)

File sharing Destination weather

News

Flight progress and moving maps

Movies & TV*

Gogo Vision is a suite of entertainment options consisting of popular TV shows and Hollywood movies that can eliminate the high cost of live streaming video. Titles are updated regularly to keep the options current. And a Bloomberg feed delivers a stream of news, sports, and stock reports.

Jimmy Ray devises Aircell Five years after Voyager’s journey, another aviation enthusiast with ties to the telephone business grabbed a napkin in a barbecue restaurant and transcribed an idea that seemed farfetched at the time. His name was Jimmy Ray and his proposition was an air-to-ground telephone system that would supplement the VHF receivers already installed in private aircraft. Eventually airborne telephones would be promoted as tools to fill the “office in the sky” role, but at first the devices were touted as a safety feature to augment the aircraft radios in the event of a failure. Whether the inventors truly believed in the validity of the safety argument or just maintained that belief as a clever marketing ploy to garner FCC approval for this new form of communication will never be known. But because Ray’s newly formed company Aircell (founded in 1991) was banking on using preexisting cellular frequencies operating on the ground, it got the attention of the major players in the telecommunications industry. Throughout the first couple of years Aircell operated under temporary authority from the FCC to demonstrate proof of concept that cellular technology could be applied to aircraft in flight. From the onset, the stalwart phone carriers of the day (AT&T, BellSouth and GTE) tried to halt the fledgling company under the auspices that the airborne system interfered with cellular signals on the

ground. By 1994 the argument had reached a boiling point and competitors petitioned the FCC to stop Aircell from moving forward. Based purely on analog cellphone dynamics in place at the time, there was some truth to the claim of potential interference. Cellphones operate under the same laws as walkie-talkies and CB radios. However, whereas walkie-talkies and CB radios transmit and receive on the same frequency (known as half-duplex), analog (1G) cellphones use 1 frequency for talking and a different one for listening (full-duplex). In practice, when using a half-duplex radio only 1 person can talk at a time, while the full duplex cellphone methodology allows an uninterrupted and continuous conversation.

How cellphone networks work A cellphone network is made up of individual “cells” or similar sized geographic areas adjacent to one another. Each cell is allocated a bank of frequencies. When paired together, the transmission and reception frequency are collectively known as a “channel.” Each cell contains a finite number of channels and, as a result, each region has a quantifiable maximum capacity of simultaneous users. Cellphone providers gain more system capacity by reusing the same channels in 2 or more cells. The caveat is that 2 different phones on the same channel must be far enough away to avoid interfering with each other. This is easily achieved by us-

ing a low-power transmitter embedded within the phone and strategically placing identical channels in non-adjacent cells. As a phone changes location, the signal is handed off from one cell to another along with any necessary channel changes. This all happens seamlessly behind the scenes. Modern digital cellphones (identified as 2G, 3G or 4G) use the same basic premises as analog but convert the signal to a binary series of 1s and 0s. The converted signal can be compressed and manipulated, which allows more channels to fit into a given bandwidth (still finite).

How Aircell worked Unlike a terrestrial cellphone that by design has a limited line of sight and can’t interfere with channels in other cells, an aircraft overhead can theoretically connect to a single channel in multiple cells concurrently. The “bully” effect, in which a single airborne phone gobbles up bandwidth across an entire network, has always been at the forefront of any argument regarding whether offthe-shelf cellphones should be allowed to be used on aircraft. Aircell Founder Jimmy Ray contended that the unimpeded line of sight from an aircraft permitted a lower powered airborne transmitter to begin with, and thus the installation was less susceptible to interference not more as his competitors contended. Aircell eventually received approval from the FCC and by 2000 was on PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018  51

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One of the company’s top priorities is cybersecurity. GoGo specialists monitor network traffic to ensure hacks and malicious activity is stopped before reaching the aircraft. Consultations with in-house experts can identify and plug areas of vulnerability.

the way to becoming the leading provider of air to ground communications for business aviation. In 2006 the FCC auctioned off a block of the radio spectrum and the company won an allotment of 3 MHz. Along with it came the launch of an airborne broadband internet service, construction of its own cellular towers, and a rebranding under the name Gogo.

Gogo today Gogo describes itself as, “the leading global provider of broadband connectivity products and services for aviation.” As of October 2018, over 5000 aircraft (encompassing both commercial and business) have some form of Gogo product installed. Gogo was founded on the premise of a terrestrial antenna network providing a voice and data link, and that’s still the heart of the system under the moniker “Gogo Biz.” The air to ground (ATG) network coverage floor begins at 10,000 feet AGL and delivers connectivity on the cellular radio spectrum throughout the continental United States and parts of Canada and Alaska. Unlike a satellite-based Ka antenna, Gogo’s ATG equipment takes up very little space on the fuselage and weighs very little, which makes it an ideal choice for turboprops and smaller cabin jets. Several equipment packages are available under the ATG product line with the salient factor being how many onboard devices are typically connected and, more specifically, to

what. The transmission capability of the ATG network is strong enough to allow e-mail, corporate VPN access, voice/text on PEDs using the Gogo app, and internet web browsing. The term “web browsing” is subjective given the myriad of sites on the internet, but in this context it’s meant to consist of any activity except live streaming. The fact that a standard 3G network won’t support uninterrupted (defined as not requiring extensive buffering) live streaming presents a paradox for operators. Data use analysis shows that, rather than business-related teleconferencing, most of the airborne live streaming activity is watching movies or TV, or interacting with social media.

Some forms of entertainment are expensive when billed by the MB. But there’s an alternative for flight departments that have no business need for live streaming but still want to provide up to date airborne entertainment: Gogo Vision. The service provides over 100 popular Hollywood movies as well as 30 current magazines in digital format. Titles are updated regularly and stored within a database, which avoids the potential high cost of streaming a service like Netflix. In addition to movies and popular television shows, Gogo Vision incorporates a Bloomberg news feed and moving map complete with destination weather.

AVANCE platform At the start of this year Gogo unveiled the AVANCE platform, its latest innovation. The product is a combination of hardware and software that brings together connectivity, entertainment and information services (Gogo Vision is fully integrated into AVANCE and requires no additional hardware or software to operate). Gogo AVANCE is available in 2 models: L3 and L5. L3 connectivity is based on the Gogo Biz 3G ATG network, while The L5 operates on the stronger and faster 4G system and as such, has the bandwidth to deliver live streaming and video conferencing (or Periscope feeds if desired).

Bandwidth consumption

Conclusions

It’s undeniable that live video feed consumes an enormous amount of bandwidth. For example, “Periscope” (a smart phone app owned by Twitter and currently trending as the most popular personal video program) allows users to take video and transmit it to the internet in real time. Periscope currently has 10 million registered users that together upload 350,000 hours of video per day. A single hour using the app consumes between 250–400 MB of data. It’s not hard to imagine that when traveling with teens or passengers in their 20s (75% of Periscope users are between the ages of 16–34) that someone might have a smart phone pressed to the window and is live streaming the experience online.

Generic data plans are often not suited to the specific needs of different operators. One challenge when dealing with airborne connectivity options is having to compromise because products are often sold as one size fits all. Gogo has avoided this problem by engineering a system that can fit on almost any airframe and a multitude of on demand and subscription options to fit any budget. Shannon Forrest is a current line pilot, CRM facilitator and aviation safety consultant. He has over 10,000 hours and holds a degree in behavioral psychology.

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CONNECTING BRAIN, EYES, HAND

Finger Pointing and Calling: Applying 1920s Japanese railway safety protocols to aviation Abbreviated as FPC for finger pointing and calling, this practice will make your flights safer.

Adopted by Japanese railways almost 100 years ago, Finger Pointing and Calling (FPC) helps communicate and confirm situational awareness visually and aurally. At left is a Japanese train operator pointing to identify a signal ahead.

By David Ison, PhD

Professor, Graduate School Northcentral University

I

ndustries that rely on a high level of safety commonly scan the human factors research environment for potential means of reducing errors. This cross-pollination occurs in many different ways. Take for example how crew resource management has been adopted by the healthcare industry, in particular, among surgical teams, to improve operating room safety. It should come as no surprise that aviation also borrows methods to boost safety, especially when it comes to reducing human error, which is still responsible for the overwhelming majority of accidents. One error-reducing protocol that is ripe for aviation’s picking is known as Finger Pointing and Calling (FPC) or shisa-kanko in Japanese. It ensures that Japan has one of the safest railway networks in the world and has been adopted by other forms of Japanese industry. And the world has taken notice. In 1996, a top New York subway

official was on a trip to Japan. He noticed that Japanese rail personnel did a lot of pointing. Investigating further, he discovered what the gestures were all about. Recognizing the potential of such a protocol, it was adopted as mandatory for New York subway operators later that year. When stopped at a station, operators must peer out their window at the ceiling and point to a zebra-striped sign to ensure that the train is properly positioned in the station and has come to a full stop. Station position errors immediately fell by an impressive 57%.

Studies on FPC

While the safety statistics of Japanese railways and the New York example are remarkable, industries – specifically aviation – cannot simply jump on every potential improvement to safety without some ammunition from science. In short: Does it really work? How does it work? Will it work in aviation operations? There have been a number of studies on FPC, but the most recent and

applicable was published in 2013 by Kazumitsu Shinohara, Hiroshi Naito, Yuko Matsui and Masaru Hikono. They noted that FPC was particularly applicable in safety-sensitive industries such as “aviation, nuclear power plants, chemical plants, medical services, [and] mining.” They described almost precisely the perfect fit for the adoption of FPC: “in modern working situations, most working processes are computerized and automated… [and] involve monitoring the status of the process and sometimes executing simple physical responses.” Moreover, in such workplaces “operators still have to manage an enormous amount of information compiled by the information systems… but the human operator is still usually responsible for making and carrying out critical decisions and controls.” Speaking specifically about aviation, the authors noted how helpful this protocol could be for maintenance personnel. As successful as it has been in the dynamic nature of rail transportation, it also seems logical to consider it for flight operations.

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Connection between brain, eyes and hands The reason why FPC is so effective has to do with the connection between the brain, eyes, and motor movement of the hand. Typically, FPC begins with the visual acquisition of something, such as a signal or speed limit sign. The individual then points their index finger at the object and verbalizes the status or description of such object. The applicable response is then conducted whether it be an action (eg, engage the brake) or to confirm veracity (eg, the signal is green). A number of studies, including the aforementioned, have noted that FPC does in fact significantly reduce errors. In particular, FPC is manifestly helpful in reducing blunders when something acquired visually disagrees with what is anticipated or correct. Interestingly, FPC is principally assistive in “habitual behaviors,” ie, regularly occurring tasks. Yet FPC is not universally helpful. Available research indicates that “FPC is useful when emphasizing accuracy over speed… [but] is not useful when emphasizing speed over accuracy.” Thus in a time-sensitive, urgent situation, FPC may not be the best technique. It should be noted that even though emergencies in aviation often require a timely response, being in a hurry is often not necessary.

What can aviation gain from FPC? So, what can aviation gain from adopting a 1920s method first adopted by Japanese railways? Well, it turns out quite a bit. Aviation Week author James Albright highlighted how shisa-kanko might be used in modern cockpits. But what was outlined just scratched the surface of its potential for aviation as a whole. To some extent, a form of FPC is often used in cockpits when good CRM is in place. At one airline I used to work for, key changes to things such as altitude pre-select, heading, and certain Flight Management System (FMS) entries required one to touch and announce what was being done. This was inculcated while in training but it was not an official procedure; it was more of a culture thing.

Pointing and calling requires co-action and co-reaction among the operator’s brain, eyes, hands, mouth and ears.

Of course, at most airlines, a basic type of FPC is used in critical emergencies such as engine failures to ensure that the failed engine is the one actually being shut down. Yet it seems that FPC might be useful for items not already covered by checklists and other procedural items.

Examples of situations in which FPC might be helpful Starting on the ground, taxiing provides many opportunities for error which can result in anything from minor embarrassment to a runway incursion. Diligence is needed even when operating at an airport with which both pilots are intimately familiar. I recall on many an occasion as both FO and captain that both individuals were familiar with the required or cleared taxi route. Make no assumptions. FPC can be used to brief the taxi route on the airport diagram (you always have one out, right?). The recipient of the clearance goes over the route by finger tracing and annunciating the route. The steering pilot repeats the process. As the aircraft approaches any intersection, the pair can go through an FPC exercise of pointing to the intersection sign and voicing the next step. For example, “on Bravo, approaching intersection with Charlie, turning

left onto Charlie” with the other pilot repeating the process. Another critical FPC opportunity is when approaching any red sign. Pointing to the sign, “Runway 18 hold short sign, holding short” and repeat. Having to point and look prevents the “yea yea whatever” attitude that may crop up in monotonous aviation operations, it also requires the pilot to look at the sign. What if the sign said 10, not 18? In Albright’s article, he notes another opportunity to use FPC with runways. Once lined up, pilots should confirm runway number (printed on the pavement) as well as the correct heading by pointing and calling out what is on their heading indicator. Going a step further, the same can be applied for landing. It may sound stupid, but too many pilots have landed on the wrong runway. Even worse is that pilots have landed on (or taken off from) taxiways. At night, perhaps we should add “white lights, runway 13 right.” The basic altitude and heading changes for the autopilot, flight director, or bugs are no-brainers regarding FPC: “Cleared to 10,000, 10,000 is set” and repeat. How about altitude alerts? What about step downs? What about crossing restrictions in the FMS? Extra care is needed when flying in unfamiliar PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018  55

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By utilizing FPC, pilots can ensure that their counterpart is kept in the loop about items such as aircraft status, air traffic control clearances, and automation. FPC can also be helpful in single-pilot operations by demanding more intention within each action.

them, why not also for you? As one can imagine FPC could have utility for air traffic control, maintenance, ground crew, and even flight attendants.

Use FPC to make your next flight safer

Pilot points to the LNAV button to verify the autopilot mode aligns with the flightcrew’s expectations and desired settings.

places or foreign countries. In these cases, one may want to confirm the spelling of a navaid or intersection with the map or procedure. Also, a logic check with direction and distance would be in order. This could have prevented the accident in which an American Airlines Boeing 757 hit a mountain in South America bwcause the pilots selected the wrong navaid with the same first 2 letters of the identifier to which they were actually cleared.

Other uses for FPC Where else could FPC be used? Anytime you are making system changes or adjustments. I cannot

count the times that I have looked at the overhead panel to find something has been changed, turned on, or turned off to my surprise. FPC can help maintain situational awareness by keeping everyone on the same page. Example: “Crossfeed valve – pumps verified on” repeat, “Crossfeed valve open” repeat, “Crossfeed valve reminder set” repeat. It can also be used by single pilots. Just because there is not anyone there with you does not mean you will not benefit from pointing and calling. Just the act of doing these steps, as the research has noted, can help reduce the likelihood of errors. Many of the Japanese rail engineers are in the cab alone. If it works for

While the Shinohara et al. study found numerous benefits to FPC, there is one downside to it all. They noted increased “frustration” when conducting FPC. What does this mean? More does not equate with better. In some cases, there will be overkill. The take-away is there is a balance of adding FPC to improve safety and giving folks carpal tunnel syndrome from so much pointing. There is still a significant amount of research that is needed as to the best ways to adopt it in aviation. However, the evidence is clear that FPC provides a tremendous opportunity for reducing errors, thus improving safety in all facets of the aerospace industry. How will you best use it to make your next flight safer?

David Ison, PhD, has 32 years of experience flying aircraft ranging from light singles to widebody jets. Currently he is a graduate school professor at Northcentral University.

56  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018

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TURBINE ENGINES FOR BIZAV

Powerplants for business aircraft must meet operator demands for reliability, ease of control, economy and superb OEM support The 2nd largest capital investment in aircraft, besides the airframe, is in engine technology. Investment by gas turbine engine manufacturers in research and development continues to improve product quality, reliability and performance. Turbofan (est. 2018)

Turboprop (2016)

41.0%

CFMI

21.1%

Pratt & Whitney

16.6%

Rolls-Royce

14.9%

GE Aviation

6.4%

Other

20%

By Don Van Dyke ATP/Helo/CFII, F28, Bell 222. Pro Pilot Canadian Technical Editor

T

he gas turbine market for aviation comprises 4 primary segments: turbofan (jet), turboprop (propeller), turboshaft (rotorcraft) and auxiliary power units (APUs). The turbojet exists as a 5th category but this generally refers to air-breathing engines for medium-range cruise missiles and UAVs. The first 3 market segments merit special attention since they represent the motive force for air transport. Gas turbine engine production in 2018 alone is estimated to be 10,972 units worth $74.88 billion – not including parts and services. In this area, turbofans dominate both manufacture (62%) and value (95%). CFMI

80%

P&W Canada

Other

Global market The worldwide business aircraft fleet numbers 22,000, of which roughly 13,400 are North American. New materials, advanced design technologies and improved aerodynamics result in attractive reductions in fuel burn and noise emissions, ever moving the state of the art forward. At EBACE 2018, JETNET iQ noted that 2017 was the trough in the latest economic cycle. It forecasted deliveries of 7885 business jets, worth $236 billion by 2027. World production of aviation gas turbines over the 2018–2032 period may exceed 230,000 units with a combined value of $1.4 trillion in FY18 dollars. Current key influencers across the gas turbine market include CFMI, GE Aviation, Honeywell, Pratt & Whitney,

Turboshaft (2016) 26.7%

Safran

22.5%

P&W Canada

16.5%

GE Aviation

9.4%

Rolls-Royce

24.9%

Other

Pratt & Whitney Canada, Rolls-Royce, Safran and Williams. Their shares of market value are given in the table above. CFMI. CFM International (CFMI) is a 50/50 joint venture company including General Electric Co (GE USA) and Safran Aircraft Engines (France) which produces CFM56 and LEAP engines for the larger Airbus and Boeing business jets. CFMI is the nominal market leader with nearly 41% of the value of production. GE Aviation. GE Aviation will accrue 14.9% of the turbofan market value, with relatively high-thrust power for a variety of civil transports from several manufacturers. Therefore, when considering this production combined with its portion of the CFM market, it is clear that GE will be a major beneficiary of the booming turbofan market.

Turbofan

Family

Application

CFM56

Airbus ACJ, Boeing BBJ

19,500–33,000 shp

LEAP

BBJ MAX 8, BBJ MAX 9, COMAC C919

23,000–30,000 shp

Pratt & Whitney/ P&WC

Output

Turbofan

Family

Application

Output

JT15D

Beechjet 400A, Cessna Citation I, S550, Citation V, Citation Ultra, Hawker 400

2500–3000 lbf

PW300

Cessna Citation Latitude, Citation Sovereign+, Dassault Falcon 2000DX, EX, LXS, Falcon 7X, 8X, Gulfstream G200, Hawker 1000, 4000, Learjet 60, Yak-48

4600–7000 lbf

PW500

Cessna Citation Bravo, Citation Excel, Citation XLS+ CE-560XL; Embraer Phenom 300

2887–4119 lbf

PW600

Cessna Citation Mustang, Eclipse Aerospace EA400, EA500, EA550, Embraer Phenom 100

900–1730 lbf

PW800

Dassault Falcon 6X, Gulfstream G500, G600

13,460–15,680 lbf

58  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018

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Pratt & Whitney/ P&WC

Turboprop

Family

Application

PT6A 20 srs

Evektor Outback EV-55; Pilatus PC-6 B-2 Turbo-Porter; TurbineAir Bonanza

500–550 shp

PT6A 30 srs

Quest Kodiak 100; Viking Air DHC-6-400

620–750 shp

PT6A 40 srs

Piper PA-42 Cheyenne III, PA-46-500TP M500 Malibu Meridian, PA-46-600TP M600; Short 330

500–1198 shp

PT6A 50 srs

Textron Beechcraft King Air 250 B200GT

PT6A 60 srs

Beech King Air 300, 350, 350iER; Daher TBM 910/TBM930/TBM 700 N; Epic Aircraft E1000 Epic; Piaggio Avanti P.180; Pilatus PC-12 NG, PC-12/47E, PC-21; Piper PA-42-720 Cheyenne IIIA; SOCATA TBM 700A; PZL Mielec M28 Skytruck; Raytheon Beech 1900; Short 360

PT6A 114 srs

Cessna CE208 Caravan I

PT6A 135 srs

Textron Beechcraft King Air C90GTx C90GTi, F90

PT6A 140 srs

Cessna CE208B Grand Caravan EX

Pratt & Whitney/ P&WC

Output

850 shp 700–1600 shp 675 shp 550–750 shp 867 shp

Turboshaft

Family

Application

PT6B

Leonardo AW119Kx Koala

PT6C

Leonardo AW609, Leonardo AW139; H175 (Eurocopter EC175)

1531–1940 shp

PT6T

Bell 212, 412EP

1250–1800 shp

PW206

Eurocopter EC135 P2+/T2+; Leonardo AW109; MD Turboshaft MD Explorer

550–621 shp

PW207

Leonardo A109S; Bell 427, Bell 429

625–735 shp

PW210

Leonardo AW169; Sikorsky S-76D

1000–1070 shp

Honeywell Aerospace. Honeywell Aerospace is a major manufacturer of APUs and the former line of Garrett AiResearch gas turbine engines. Pratt & Whitney/P&WC. P&W captures roughly 21% of the market value. The PW1000 PurePower geared turRolls-Royce

Output 1002 shp

bofan (GTF) has also been selected as alternate power for several single-aisle airliners. The mutually-exclusive basis under which P&W and P&W Canada historically operated has changed with the identification of synergies between the GTF and the PW800.

Rolls-Royce. Rolls-Royce is the 3rd largest maker of aircraft engines after P&W. It includes Allison (acquired in 1995) and undertakes major innovation initiatives as well as ongoing development of robotics and electric flight.

Turbofan

Family

Application

AE 3007

Cessna Citation X+ CE-750; Embraer Legacy 600, Legacy 650E

BR710

Bombardier 5000, Global 6000; Gulfstream G550 GV-SP

BR725

Gulfstream G650 GVI, G650ER GVI

16,900 lbf

Pearl 15

Bombardier 5500, 6500

15,121 lbf

Rolls-Royce

7034–9020 lbf 14,750–15,385 lbf

Turboprop

Family

Application

250-B17

Cessna P210 Silver Eagle; Mahindra Aerospace Airvan 10 GA-10; Tradewinds Bonanza; Vulcanair SpA Viator AP68TP-600

Rolls-Royce

Output

Output 328–450 shp

Turboshaft

Family

Application

250-C20

´ Enstrom 480; Eurocopter AS355F2, Bo 105CB; Kamov Ka-226; MD Turboshaft 500; PZL-Swidnik SW-4/AW009; Sikorsky S-333

Output 235–457 shp

250-C30

Bell 206B-L4, 230

450–700 shp

250-C40

Bell 430

783 shp

60  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018

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Field Service Engineers – In Your Hangar!

Honeywell’s goal is to bring our technical experts to your aircraft to resolve your issue quickly and efficiently. Our Field Services Engineers (FSE) are able and ready to support you when needed. In person. In your hangar. And of course, your Customer Service Manager is always available to provide additional assistance. The MyAerospace portal is accessible 24/7 so you can quickly and efficiently troubleshoot a problem, or easily access specialized technical support experts. So no matter how you prefer your support delivered – in your hangar, on your tablet, phone, internet, or all of these – we’re there for you. To learn more about the FSE program, go to aerospace.honeywell.com/CustomerSupport

For product information, visit aerospace.honeywell.com © 2018 Honeywell International. All rights reserved

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GE Aviation and GE Honda Aero Engines

Turbofan

Family

Application

Output

CF34-3

Bombardier Challenger 601, 604, 605, 650, 850

CF34-10

COMAC ARJ21-700 Xiangfeng, ARJ21-800 Xiangfeng; Embraer Lineage 1000E

17,057–18,500 lbf

GE Passport 20

Bombardier 7000, 7500, 8000

16,500–18,650 lbf

CF700-2

Dassault Falcon 20F

CJ610

IAI 1121 Westwind, 1123 Westwind

2850–3100 lbf

HF120-H1

Honda HA-420 HondaJet; Spectrum Aeronautical S.40 Freedom

2037–2095 lbf

9220–9229 lbf

4500 lbf

GE Aviation and GE Aviation Czech s.r.o

Turboprop

Family

Application

CT7-9

Saab 340B; Sukhoi Su-80GP; CASA CN235; Let L-610G

M601D

Cessna 207 Skywagon; Fletcher FU-24 Utility; Let L-410UVP; PZL-106 BT Turbo Kruk

604–724 shp

M601E

Air Tractor AT-300 to AT-502; Beech King Air 90, A100; Cessna 208 Caravan; DHC-3 Otter; Lancair IV Turbine; Let L-410UVP-E; Piper PA-31 Navajo; Schweizer Ag-Cat; Thrush S2R

604–751 shp

M601F

Vulcanair VF-600W

777 shp

M601Z

Zlin Z-137T

544 shp

H75-100

Nextant Aerospace G90XT, C90

550 shp

GE Aviation

Output 1750 shp

Turboshaft

Family

Application

CT7-2

Leonardo AW149, Leonardo AW189; Bell 214ST, 525 Relentless; Sikorsky S-70

CT7-6

Leonardo AW101

2000 shp

CT7-8

Sikorsky S-92

2520 shp

CT58

Sikorsky S-61N Mk II

1500 shp

T700

NHIndustries NH90; Sikorsky S-70i

Honeywell

Output 1625–2000 shp

1940–2115 shp

Turbofan

Family

Application

TFE731-2

Dassault Falcon 10, Falcon 100; Learjet 31, 35, 36A

3230–3500 lbf

TFE731-3

Lockheed JetStar; Cessna Citation III, Citation VI; Dassault Falcon 50; IAI 1124A; Learjet 55

3650–3700 lbf

TFE731-4

Dassault Falcon 50-4; Cessna Citation VII

4080–4140 lbf

TFE731-5

Dassault Falcon 900; Hawker 750, 800, 800XP, 850XP

4200–4750 lbf

TFE731-40

Dassault Falcon 20, 50EX; Gulfstream G100, G150; Learjet 70, 75

3700–4420 lbf

TFE731-50

Hawker 900XP

4750 lbf

TFE731-60

Dassault Falcon 900EX, LX

5000 lbf

HTF7000

Bombardier Challenger 300

6826 lbf

HTF7250

Gulfstream G280

7624 lbf

HTF7350

Bombardier Challenger 350

HTF7500

Embraer EMB-545 Legacy 450, EMB-550 Legacy 500

HTF7700

Cessna Citation Longitude CE-700

Safran S.A. is a French multinational manufacturer of airplane and helicopter engines and nacelles, currently including lines previously known as Snecma and Turbomeca.

Output

7323 lbf

Safran Helicopter Engines. Safran rotorcraft engine families are grouped as Arriel and Arrius: producing less than 1000 shp; TM333: light and medium turboshaft (joint R-R and Turbomeca);

6540–7036 lbf 7600 lbf

Arrano and Ardiden: producing between 1000–2000 shp (for rotorcraft in the 5 to 8 ton class); Makila and RTM 322: producing more than 2000 shp (for super-medium and heavy rotorcraft).

62  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018

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KPDK is 13 miles NE

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KCCO is 42 miles SW

KLZU is 33 miles NE

KPUJ is 38 miles NW

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Honeywell Turboprop Family

Application

Output

TPE331-1

Swearingen SA225-T Merlin II

705 shp

TPE331-3

Swearingen SA226-AT Merlin IVA

904 shp

TPE331-5

Rockwell 690, 840 (690C)

718–840 shp

TPE331-6

Beech King Air B100; Mitsubishi MU-2; Short SC.7 Skyvan

715–776 shp

TPE331-8

Cessna 441 Conquest II

TPE331-10

Rockwell 1000 (695A/B); British Aerospace Jetstream 31, CASA C-212 Aviocar; Dornier Do 228; Swearingen SA227-TT Merlin 300, SA226-TC Metro and Metro II, SA226-T Merlin IIIC

TPE331-11

Swearingen SA227-AC Metroliner III

1100 shp

TPE331-12

British Aerospace Jetstream 32, 41

1020 shp

TPE331-14

Antonov An-38; Grob G 520; Kestrel K-350; Piper PA-42-1000 Cheyenne 400

TPE331-43

Aero/Rockwell Turbo Commander 680T

Honeywell

636 shp 777–984 shp

750–1650 shp 575 shp

Turboshaft

Family

Application

HTS900

Kopter SH09 (formerly Marenco Swisshelicopter SKYe SH09)

LTS101

Eurocopter AS350 BA AStar; Bell 222, Bell 222B/UT; MBB/Kawasaki BK-117 B-2

T53-09

Bell 204, Bell 205A, UH-1H, Kaman K-Max (K-1200)

Safran S. A.

Output 1021 shp 593–680 shp 1400–1800 shp

Turbofan

Family

Application

Silvercrest 2C

Safran’s Silvercrest had been selected for the new, now cancelled, Dassault Falcon 5X. Cessna Citation Hemisphere (In May 2018, Safran announced it had launched a high-pressure compressor redesign for a go-ahead decision by the middle of 2019, after testing, shelving the Hemisphere program if problems cannot be fixed. The redesigned compressor will be tested in July 2019 to prove the engine operation.)

Safran Helicopter Engines

Output 12,000 lbf

Turboshaft

Family

Application

Output

Aneto

Leonardo AW189K

2544 shp

Ardiden 1

HAL Dhruv

11206 shp

Ardiden 3

AVIC Avicopter AC352; Kamov Ka-62

Arrano

H160

Arriel 1

Eurocopter AS350B Écureuil; BK117 C-1 / C-2; H145 (Eurocopter EC145 C2); Sikorsky S-76A++

723–738 shp

Arriel 2

Eurocopter AS550 C3, AS 365 N3 Dauphin; H125 (Eurocopter AS350 B3) Écureuil, H130 (Eurocopter EC130), H135 (Eurocopter EC135 P2+/T2+), H145 (Eurocopter EC145 T2),H155 (Eurocopter EC155 B1); Sikorsky S-76C++

633–935 shp

Arrius 2

H120 (Eurocopter EC 120) Colibri; Kamov Ka-226T; Bell 505 Jet Ranger X

500–580 shp

Artouste III

Eurocopter SA 315B Lama, SA 316B Alouette III

870 shp

Astazou XIV

Eurocopter SA 319 Alouette III, SA 342 Gazelle

660–870 shp

Makila 1

Eurocopter SA 330 Puma, H215 (Eurocopter AS 332 Super Puma)

Makila 2

H225 (Eurocopter EC 225)

1870 shp

TM 333

HAL Dhruv

1106 shp

Turmo III

Eurocopter SA 321 Super Frelon

1610 shp

Turmo IV

Eurocopter SA 330H Puma

1575 shp

1384–1700 shp 1300 shp

1589–1657 shp

64  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018

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It’s time. What are the most precious things in your life? Your family, your friends, your business? Whatever they are, the most precious resource that links them all together is time. That’s why we’ve taken the time to make CorporateCare® even more comprehensive, with additional line maintenance, expanded support and even nacelle coverage on later engine models. Supported by the industry’s leading global service network and cutting-edge digital tools, we are focused on getting you to your destination on time, every time. It’s time to protect your most precious resource. It’s time to consider CorporateCare Enhanced. For more information, email corporate.care@rolls-royce.com The future. Rolls-Royce.

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CFE Turbofan Family

Application

Output

CFE738

Dassault Falcon 2000

5957 lbf

Ivchenko Progress Turbofan Family

Application

AI-45

Yakovlev Yak-40

Output 3300 shp

Klimov Scientific Industrial Enterprise Turboshaft Family

Application

Output

VK-800

Kamov Ka-226

800 shp

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Turboshaft Family

Application

Output

MG5-110

Mitsubishi MH-2000

876 shp

Williams International

Turbofan

Family

Application

FJ33-4

Adams 700; Diamond D-Jet; Spectrum S.33 Independence

FJ33-5

Cirrus Vision SF50

FJ44-1

Cessna Citation CJ1, Citation M2 CE-525

FJ44-2

Beechcraft Premier I; SyberJet SJ30i SJ30-2

FJ44-3

Cessna Citation CJ2+, Citation CJ3+ CE-525B; Nextant 400XTi; Piper PA-47 PiperJet

2400–3052 lbf

FJ44-4

Cessna Citation CJ4 CE-525C; Pilatus PC-24

3420–3621 lbf

Other OEMs CFE Company. CFE Company is a 50/50 joint venture company between GE Aviation and Honeywell formed to develop the 6000 lbf CFE738 for the corporate jet market. The CFE738 was unable to continue when the P&WC PW307 won the Falcon 2000EX application. Nonetheless, development continues with GE responsible for the engine core and control system while Honeywell manages the front fan, low-pressure turbine and accessory gearbox. Light Helicopter Turbine Engine Company (LHTEC). A joint venture between Rolls-Royce and Honeywell formed to develop the T800 (and its civil CTS800 model) for other applications, namely the Leonardo Super Lynx and Future Lynx.

Conclusion The pace of gas turbine development is quickening with measureable benefits accruing to business and commercial aviation. In terms of technological advances, 3 engines are prominent:

Output 1350–1900 lbf 1800 lbf

the GE Passport, the P&WC PW800 and the Rolls-Royce Pearl 15. A recurring goal in modern turbine design is to develop a common architecture for business, regional and narrow-body airliner applications. The GE approach culminated in a successor to the CFM56, the LEAP turbofan. The Passport for the Bombardier Global 7500/8000 integrates the engine, thrust reverser, and enclosing nacelle as a single unit for bolting to the airframe, simplifying its optimization to address weight, efficiency, noise and vibration. Another example is the common core shared by the P&W1000G GTF for single-aisle airliners and the P&WC PW800 turbofan for large business jets which has yielded significant improvements in fuel economy, noise reduction and emissions damping. At EBACE 2018, Rolls-Royce unveiled its Pearl 15 turbofan, the first engine of a family in the 10,000 to 20,000 lbf range to emerge from the R-R Advance2 technology incubator. The Pearl 15 engine will power both the Bombardier Global 6500 and 5500 large-cabin jets, entering service

1900–1965 lbf 2300 lbf

in late 2019. Improved efficiency will provide up to 9% greater takeoff power (15,125 lbf at ISA+15C), 7% better specific fuel consumption and a reduction in noise to 14 EPNdB below Stage 4 requirements. It can be expected that new generations of increasingly capable commercial and military turbine engines will emerge from investment in future engine strategies such as these.

Don Van Dyke is professor of advanced aerospace topics at Chicoutimi College of Aviation – CQFA Montreal. He is an 18,000 hour TT pilot and instructor with extensive airline, business and charter experience on both airplanes and helicopters. A former IATA ops director, he has served on several ICAO panels. He is a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society and is a flight operations expert on technical projects under UN administration.

66  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018

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WEATHER BRIEF

Turbulence Erratic air currents produce more than just a bumpy ride.

Some of the various ways in which turbulence may be produced. Turbulence can be convective or non-convective and ranges from light chop to extreme, aircraft damaging turbulence.

Flightpath

Downdrafts

Mountain

By Karsten Shein Comm-Inst Climate Scientist

T

urbulence is a regular part of aviation for those who fly frequently. The atmosphere is a dynamic fluid that moves in 3 dimensions and can do so with a great deal of force. This movement can take place at scales from a few millimeters to covering hundreds of square kilometers. Turbulence itself is simply a change in the force of the air striking the aircraft, such as when we fly across a shear boundary or enter an updraft or downdraft. Though turbulence can occur in many settings, we differentiate its causes as either thermal or mechanical. Thermal turbulence is generated by air that is moving vertically due to heating. Mechanical turbulence is the product of air moving around obstacles or against air moving at a different velocity. Most definitions of turbulence therefore further separate mechanical turbulence into shear turbulence, mechanical turbulence, and aerodynamic turbulence to address those distinctions.

Thermal turbulence Technically all turbulence is caused by the uneven heating of the air at some scale, but what we know as thermal turbulence are the bumps we feel as heated air rises. The rising air may be heated by human activity (we see this in the smoke rising from chimneys and smokestacks) or by the sun’s energy. The motion of the troposphere is driven by the heat given off by the earth’s surface. Because the earth cannot retain heat well, as opposed to water, this heat comes from solar energy absorbed during the day. The amount of heat absorbed in any particular spot depends on its reflectance. Lighter surfaces reflect more sunlight than they absorb, and so will remain cooler. Darker surfaces, such as freshly tilled fields or asphalt parking lots, absorb more than they reflect, and so after the

Updrafts

Cooler air Warmer air over land

Unequal heat

Irregular terrain

sun rises on a clear day, these darker surfaces warm up quickly. Air in contact with the surface warms through conduction – the direct transfer of heat energy. As more and more energy is transferred, the surface air becomes buoyant and rises – the process of convection. Pilots flying in this surface layer will often experience light chop to mild turbulence as they pass through the rising currents of air. If there is sufficient moisture in the air, the thermals will produce cumulus clouds a few thousand feet in the air. Normally, these clouds are benign and only a few hundred feet in vertical extent. They simply provide a visual indicator of the presence of the rising air and light thermal turbulence. Above the cloud tops is the free atmosphere, and these smaller cumuli represent the boundary between the heated surface layer and the free atmosphere above. In this situation, pilots can expect the thermals to play themselves out just above the cloud deck and will have a smoother ride above. However, occasionally, there’s enough heat and available moisture to push through the temperature inversion that frequently separates the surface layer from the free atmosphere and restricts vertical movement of air. Like a hole in a balloon, where the cap is broken, the heated air will escape and continue to rise, often intensely. This ascension is usually accompanied by continued vertical cloud development into towering cumuli and may transform into an airmass thunderstorm. These tall clouds may stretch to the top of the troposphere where another, stronger temperature inversion stops them from rising further. They also represent a region of moderate to severe thermal turbulence. The air within the cloud can rise at rates between about

Thunderstorms

15 and 30 mph (~25–50 kph). However, in severe thunderstorms, where heavy hail is being lofted out of the storm by strong air currents, updrafts may easily exceed 100 mph (~160 kph). Entering such an updraft can apply forces on the aircraft sufficient to cause a momentary loss of control. What’s more, the updraft may contain hail stones that can damage your aircraft. And, within a thunderstorm, what goes up must come down. The air, which cools and dehumidifies as it rises, eventually becomes denser than its surroundings and begins to descend as a downdraft. In the absence of horizontal winds aloft that tilt the updraft, the downdraft will fall through the same space as the updraft, disorganizing the convection and killing the storm. This can create a lot of turbulence as the 2 air currents mix. Where winds aloft tilt the updraft, they will offset the downdraft so the 2 currents can exist together within the storm “cell.” Downdrafts are frequently more intense than updrafts because they do not work against the force of gravity.

Shear turbulence A danger of operating around vertical, thermally-driven currents is that as they move through calmer air, the rising or descending air often shears from the edges of the current, producing eddies or rotating air currents that travel at similar speed as the thermal current, but that can strike an aircraft from a variety of angles. In fact, it is the complex behavior of shear eddies within a thunderstorm that is thought to create the forces that have ripped apart many an aircraft that strayed into a strong storm cell. Shear turbulence can also occur anywhere that air of one velocity (speed

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Photo courtesy Aviation Herald

Reporting turbulence

Interior damage to a Bombardier Challenger 604 as a result of wake turbulence from an Airbus A380 over the Arabian Sea. The business jet lost control and plummeted 10,000 ft, injuring passengers and damaging the aircraft beyond repair.

and/or direction) flows adjacent to air of another velocity, either horizontally or vertically. In many instances, this flow is laminar, with little shear as faster air flows parallel to slower air. However, acceleration or deceleration, or a change in direction by either air flow can transform it into turbulent flow and create shear. In shear, vortices are normally shed from the faster moving air into the calmer air. The size and strength of the shear vortex, or eddy, is largely determined by the speed of the faster moving air and/or the degree of change in direction. Fast moving air such as a jet stream may produce eddies that are several km in diameter and maintain speeds exceeding 100 kts.

Mechanical turbulence Mechanical turbulence is caused by the force of air that has been sheared when air flows around a physical discontinuity, such as the corner of a building or over a mountain ridge. Many times, this turbulence is created as air is channeled between buildings or into a mountain pass. The greatest danger from mechanical turbulence is that it almost always occurs close to the ground where a low flying aircraft, such as one taking off or landing, can be upset without having time to recover. Pilots operating in the surface layer near larger obstacles must pay close attention to the direction and speed of the wind. If the obstacle is upwind, extra altitude and caution is warranted. Most mechanical turbulence around airport buildings and low ridges is normally limited horizontally to a distance not more than about 25 times the height of the obstacle, and vertically less than twice the height of the obstacle above the ground.

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Aerodynamic turbulence Also known as wake turbulence, this type of turbulence occurs as an aircraft or other object moves through the air. Vortices of air are shed from the aircraft, usually from the outer edges of the wings and other airfoils. Initially, these vortices are compact. But as the aircraft distances itself, the vortices grow in diameter, spread away from the original flightpath and tend to descend toward the ground as they weaken. The vortices will parallel the flightpath and may take several minutes to dissipate, also migrating with the prevailing winds, occasionally crossing parallel runways and taxiways. Wake vortices are dangerous to aircraft landing or departing behind larger aircraft, with jumbo jets often producing especially strong and long-lasting ones. Aircraft following a larger aircraft should anticipate wake vortices, even if on a downwind adjacent runway, and may want to ask for a delay of 30 seconds to a minute to allow the vortices to dissipate to a strength where an upset would be unlikely. Vortices are longest lasting when winds are calm or are weakly blowing directly down the runway. A weak crosswind at the surface can rapidly reduce any delay by pushing the vortices out of the way. Wake turbulence is a significant danger aloft as well. In January 2017, a Bombardier Challenger 604 lost control near Oman, rolled 5 times and plummeted 10,000 ft after passing 1000 feet below and aft of an Airbus A380-800 flying at FL350. Though the pilots recovered control, restarted the engines and landed the business jet, 5 of its occupants were injured and the aircraft was a total loss. In fact, recent years have seen several cruise-level wake turbulence encounters associated with the super heavy A380 class of aircraft.

The intensity of turbulence is largely subjective. Turbulence experienced by one pilot in 1 type of aircraft may be completely unlike that experienced by a different pilot in a different aircraft, even if the 2 aircraft were flying side by side. For example, the pilot of a Lear 35 might determine that the turbulence they encountered was moderate, while that same turbulence felt by the crew of a Gufstream V might be described as light. The ICAO, therefore, has prescribed a set of criteria for reporting turbulence that is largely in terms of g-force on the aircraft. ICAO turbulence is divided into 3 categories: light (less than 0.5 g acceleration), moderate (0.5–1.0 g), and severe (over 1.0 g). Without an accelerometer aboard, pilots are suggested to infer turbulence intensity as mild shaking or bumps with little or no onboard disruptions (light), small changes in aircraft attitude, altitude, and/or airspeed, difficulty walking in the cabin, slight strain against seat belts and loose objects move about (moderate), and large or abrupt changes in attitude, altitude and/or airspeed, momentary loss of control, heavy strain on seat belts and loose objects are thrown about (severe). The FAA has a bit more complex set of distinctions, adding extreme turbulence to the mix, as well as adding reporting of occasional (less than 1/3rd of the time), intermittent (1/3rd–2/3rds), and continuous (more than 2/3rds of the time). Extreme turbulence is defined as causing the aircraft to be “violently tossed about and practically impossible to control. It may cause structural damage.” Conversely, the FAA also includes the term “light chop” to report the light but rapid and repeated bumpiness often encountered with low level turbulence or flying through a cloud deck.

Forecasting turbulence Traditionally, turbulence has been forecast by meteorologists and conveyed via weather briefings and ATC. A typical briefing might note “Expect occasional turbulence above FL290 between SFO (San Francisco CA) and LAS (Las Vegas NV).” These forecasts are made using pireps and meteorologists’ skill at interpreting the flow of the atmosphere and where shear might occur. In a general sense, pilots can make similar forecasts. Areas where clear skies prevail are ripe for low level

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Handling turbulence

Global Forecast System (GFS) forecast of turbulence. Turbulence indices are built into some numerical forecast models, and can help pilots identify and avoid regions of likely moderate to strong non-convective turbulence.

thermal turbulence. Mechanical turbulence around obstacles or terrain is likely to occur with strong or gusty surface winds. If thunderstorms or towering cumuli are in the forecast, pilots should expect moderate or greater turbulence in and around the region, especially at mid-levels around 10,000– 20,000 ft MSL. Low level wind shear from downbursts is also a danger. The region around a front, especially ahead of a cold front, is frequently one of strong turbulence, so caution should be exercised here as well. Farther aloft, a look at the 300-mb (300-hPa) chart will show the troughs and ridges in the jet stream and surrounding flow. Look for areas where the height lines quickly grow closer or spread farther apart, or where they change direction abruptly. These are all regions of the upper troposphere where moderate to extreme turbulence may occur. One likely place to encounter turbulence is at the entrance or exit area of a deep trough in the jet stream. Here is where jet streaks occur. And where wind that is flowing at over 100 kts quickly changes direction and speed, it is going to shear with substantial force. Also aloft, pilots can use contrails to estimate the possibility of wake turbulence, or even the presence of wind shear. Cirrus also suggest strong turbulence aloft, as do cirrostratus or cirrocumuli that present as a wave pattern. Numerical models of the atmosphere have become fairly good at forecasting non-convective turbulence. The US National Weather Service’s Aviation Weather Center (aviationweather.gov), for example, offers a Graphical Turbulence Guidance (GTG) product. At least for much of North America, GTG allows pilots to visualize the turbu72

lence threat both horizontally as well as vertically. The GTG displays turbulence as energy (or eddy) dissipation rate (EDR). EDR is a measure of energy associated with the eddies produced by wind shear. The lower the number, the lower the energy in the eddy and the faster it dissipates. This can be directly related to turbulence intensity. The Aviation Weather Center also makes a distinction of how different EDRs will “feel” to different sizes of aircraft. For example, moderate turbulence is felt by light aircraft at EDRs between 16 and 35, while medium-large aircraft will experience moderate turbulence between 20 and 43, and heavy jets between 24 and 53. The GTG and the intensity legend are customized by the pilot for the aircraft they are flying and can provide guidance for all turbulence, or display only Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) or mountain wave turbulence. Globally, other numerical weather models have integrated turbulence indices, such as the Ellrod Index that quantifies clear air turbulence produced by windshear in the free atmosphere. Generally, the higher the index value, the stronger the forecast turbulence. Graphics and loops of such turbulence forecasts can be accessed from a variety of websites such as Sutron’s Meteostar WxWeb (wxweb.meteostar.com). Some aircraft have lidars that can identify turbulent air up to about 10 miles ahead, giving pilots time to react and change to a different altitude or course. Lidar works by emitting laser light to detect changes in wind speed – an indicator of shear. The instrument processes this information into a graphical display of areas of possible turbulence.

While it is always wise to keep your safety harness fastened throughout your flight – and you should advise your passengers to do the same – it is critical to do so well before entering a region where turbulence has been reported or is forecast. Though mostly limited to bumps and bruises, turbulence remains a leading cause of airborne injuries. The NTSB notes that each year, between 20 and 100 people are seriously injured in encounters with turbulence. Similarly, loose or unsecured objects should be kept to a minimum, especially in the cockpit, as even a pencil or hot coffee can become a dangerous projectile in severe turbulence. Pilots should ensure they do not exceed turbulent air penetration speed to avoid overstressing the airframe. Also, autopilot should be disengaged if moderate or stronger turbulence is encountered or anticipated because not only do some autopilots tend to overcorrect for the upsets caused by turbulence, but many will also disengage automatically and perhaps unexpectedly if the aircraft encounters a severe jolt. Turning off autopilot also ensures a pilot is paying attention and has hands on the stick if the turbulence should create a loss of control. It is important to remember that the first hint of turbulence may be a severe or even extreme jolt. Often, climbing or descending a few thousand feet will take an aircraft out of the strongest of the turbulence. Also shifting course by 10–20 km (moderate turbulence) or 20–40 km (strong) can reduce the forces on the aircraft. One of the most important tools for forecasting and avoiding turbulence remains the humble pirep. Turbulence pireps are the only way for meteorologists and other pilots to verify the presence or absence of turbulence. This information helps to update turbulence sigmets as well as immediately helping other pilots avoid a rough ride or finding smooth air. Pilots are encouraged to file turbulence pireps not only when they encounter turbulence, but also when they have exited the turbulence and are in smooth air. Karsten Shein is cofounder and science director at ExplorEiS. He formerly was an assistant professor at Shippensburg University and a climatologist with NOAA. Shein holds a commercial license with instrument rating.

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SPACE EXPLORATION

Mars lander will peer inside the planet

An artist’s rendition of the InSight lander operating on the surface of Mars. The seismometer is under the protective dome, and the heat probe is the instrument penetrating into the ground.

By Bruce Betts

Chief Scientist and LightSail Program Manager The Planetary Society

T

he NASA InSight lander will touch down on Mars on November 26, 2018. The groundbreaking (literally) InSight will be the 1st spacecraft focused on studying Mars’ deep interior. This will help us to not only better understand Mars and its formation and evolution, but also the formation and early evolution of all rocky planets. But how does one study the interior of another planet from a surface lander, and for that matter, how do you land a spacecraft on Mars with its thin atmosphere? We’ll discuss those questions, as well as the 2 tiny spacecraft that launched along with InSight.

The Mars squadron Many spacecraft are active at Mars studying a wide range of science. Working in orbit around Mars are NASA’s Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and MAVEN, India’s Mars Orbiter Mission, and the European Space Agency’s Trace Gas Orbiter.

They use a variety of instruments to study the surface, near sub-surface, and the atmosphere at all levels. The NASA rovers Opportunity and Curiosity are exploring the geology and potential past habitability from their respective surface locations – though Opportunity is currently hibernating due to a global dust storm. When InSight lands, it will distinguish itself from past and present Mars spacecraft by carrying instruments focused on studying Mars’ deep interior to learn about the core, mantle and crust. InSight is a fixed lander with 3 legs and no wheels, a description that fits its job: stay in one place and make long term measurements of marsquakes, heat flow and the wobble of the planet.

Preflight and pre-preflight InSight launched on May 5, 2018 on an Atlas V rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, the 1st interplanetary spacecraft launch from the West Coast of the US. But InSight’s story started long before that. On Earth, seismometers have used earthquakes to study the interior of the Earth, teaching us the thickness of layers and that

the outer core of the Earth is liquid. The 2 Viking landers carried seismometers to the Mars surface in 1976. One failed and the other was severely hampered by being attached to the spacecraft deck rather than to the ground. It was far better at detecting wind shaking the spacecraft than detecting quakes on Mars. Starting at least as early as the 1970s, various panels of scientists have recommended geophysics studies be included on Mars landers to enable study of the Martian interior. None have until now. The French Space Agency CNES planned a network of 4 landers in the early 2000s, but the missions were canceled. InSight, led by Principal Investigator Bruce Banerdt of JPL, was competitively selected from 28 proposals submitted to NASA’s Discovery program. The final selection was made in 2012 and launch scheduled for 2016. However, during the multi-year development with contributions from various countries, the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) seismometer instrument, provided by CNES, had a persistent leak in the vacuum container surrounding 1 of its ultra-sensitive seismometers. Unable to fix it in time, the launch had to be postponed. Due to the orbits of Earth and Mars, good launch opportunities only come around once every 26 months, so the launch was delayed until 2018.

Image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

InSight will touch down this Nov 26 and will drill holes up to 16 ft deep.

InSight’s mission InSight is spending 6 ½ months to cruise 484 million kilometers to Mars. Two identical small spacecraft were launched with InSight, separating soon after launch and flying independently to a Mars flyby. Jointly called Mars Cube One (MarCO), they are the 1st interplanetary CubeSats: standardized small spacecraft that are common in Earth orbit. They are technology demonstrations primarily, but are also intended to relay data back to Earth from InSight during the landing phase.

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Cruise stage separation Time: Entry - 7 min Entry turn starts Time: Entry - 6.5 min (Turn completed by entry - 5 min) Altitude: 80 miles (128 km) Velocity: 13,200 mph (5,900 meter/sec)

Image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

Entry

Peak heating 44.2 watts per sq centimeter Peak deceleration 7.4 g (before chute) Profile of InSight’s “7 minutes of terror” during entry, descent and landing.

Altitude: 7.5 miles (12 km)

Parachute deployment Velocity: 928 mph (415 meter/sec) Time: Entry + 223 sec

Altitude: 6.4 miles (10.3 km)

Landing on Mars Mars is not the hardest place to get to in the Solar System, but it is probably the hardest to land on. Mars’ atmosphere is the anti-Goldilocks: there is just the wrong amount of atmosphere for landing. Mars’ surface atmospheric pressure is less than 1% of Earth’s, equivalent to higher than 100,000 feet up in our atmosphere. Planetary landers encounter planetary bodies typically needing to go from tens of thousands of kilometers per hour to zero in a matter of minutes. On planetary bodies that have thick atmospheres like Earth, Venus and Saturn’s moon Titan, one can efficiently use a heat shield to take out most of the velocity, followed by a nice slow parachute descent. On bodies with essentially no atmosphere like the Moon, one can use retrorockets from a high altitude all the way to the surface. On Mars, however, there is enough atmosphere that retrorockets won’t work until you’ve removed most of the velocity, but there isn’t enough atmosphere that one can comfortably use only a heat shield and parachute combination. Oh, and remember: Mars will be tens of millions of kilometers away when landing occurs, causing communications delays just due to round trip light time of many minutes, and the time from the top of the atmosphere to landing is about 7 minutes. So, there’s no landing on Mars controlled by a pilot on Earth; everything must be fully automated.

Limiting lander size NASA has demonstrated you can land on Mars successfully if you limit the lander size, only land in 1 of the lowest places on Mars so you have as much atmosphere as possible, and if you use retrorockets at the end. And you must carefully plan, design, build and test, test, and test as much as you can here on Earth.

Heat shield jettison Velocity: 295 mph (132 meter/sec) Time: Entry + 238 sec

Leg deployment Time: Entry + 248 sec Radar activated

Altitude: 3.4 miles (5.5 km) Time: Entry + 300 sec

Radar first acquisition Lander separation

Illustration showing a simulated view of NASA’s InSight lander about to land on the surface of Mars. This image shows the underside of the spacecraft.

Altitude: 1.4 miles (2.3 km) Time: Touchdown - 61 sec Altitude: 0.7 miles (1.1 km) Velocity: 136 mph (61 meter/sec) Time: Touchdown - 43 sec

Gravity turn start

Altitude: 0.6 miles (0.9 km) Time: Touchdown - 40 sec Altitude: 167 ft (51 meters)

Constant velocity start Velocity: 17 mph (7.8 meter/sec) Time: Touchdown - 16 sec

Touchdown

InSight uses the same lander system as the Mars Phoenix lander, which landed in 2008. The lander enters the atmosphere surrounded by a heat shield on the leading side, and a backshell with rockets for slight adjustments on the trailing site. The heat shield takes out most of the velocity, but the spacecraft is still supersonic when the parachute is deployed. Once more slowing has occurred, the heat shield is dropped and radar is activated to determine the exact distance to the ground. Legs are extended from their inflight stowed positions, then the backshell and parachute are jettisoned. The lander uses its own thrusters to manage the last 43 seconds and 1.1 kilometers of descent. By the way, heavier landers needed another step to achieve safe landings. The Mars Exploration Rovers used airbags surrounding the rovers, and Curiosity used a rocket sky crane to lower the rover.

Where to set InSight down Deciding where to land on Mars is always an elaborate process. Mars’ surface area is about the same as the

land surface area of Earth, so there is a lot of surface to choose from. Landers are always constrained to the lower altitude regions in order to get enough atmosphere to slow the entry before coming in contact with the surface. Solar-powered landers like InSight also have limitations based on sunlight needed for power. InSight needs power to operate its instruments and keep its electronics warm, which requires a location near the equator. One also wants to consider safety, so flat terrain areas with not many big rocks are preferred. Since the heat probe instrument gets pounded into the surface, one also doesn’t want solid bedrock. All these considerations were carefully analyzed, yielding a landing area near the equator in the western portion of the plain, Elysium Planitia. What didn’t matter for InSight, as opposed to most other landers, was how geologically interesting the site is because the focus of the mission is long term study of the subsurface in 1 location. The camera on InSight’s robotic arm will take color images to make a 360 degree panorama, but the expectation is the surroundings will be flat without many big rocks, and, well, boring all PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018  75

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VIKING 2 VIKING 1

PATHFINDER

INSIGHT OPPORTUNITY

CURIOSITY SPIRIT

Location of the InSight landing point relative to other successful Mars landers. InSight will be about 373 miles (600 kilometers) from the Curiosity rover.

around. It’ll still be a new location on Mars, which is exotic. The real scientific interest is below the surface.

On instruments After landing, patience will be the name of the game. Installing the science instruments onto the ground will take about 10 weeks, which includes surveying the reachable area, deciding on placement, and very, very carefully using a robotic arm to place instruments on the surface. After that, boring a heat probe into the surface to its full depth will take another 7 weeks. Then, for its prime mission, for about another 2 Earth years, the instruments collect data. InSight has 3 main experiments. The first is SEIS, a seismometer that measures ground motions at a variety of frequencies with 6 sensors. The robotic arm will place the seismometer in direct contact with the ground. It is connected by a power and data tether to the lander. The robotic arm will place a wind and thermal shield over the seismometer to protect it from wind and rapid thermal changes. SEIS is expected to detect tens of marsquakes during the mission, some caused by things moving within the planet such as magma or cracks forming from pressure. Other marsquakes are expected to be detected from meteoroids and asteroids impacting the surface of Mars. Secondly, the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Probe (HP3), supplied by the German space agency, will provide the 1st precise determination of the amount of heat escaping from the planet’s interior. After SEIS is in place, InSight’s robotic arm will place HP3

on the ground. Then, a self-hammering mechanical mole will dig down to a depth of 3 to 5 meters (10 to 16 feet) – some 15 times deeper than any spacecraft has dug or drilled on Mars. The mole trails a science tether up the hole. The whole set up is equipped with temperature sensors allowing the determination of the heat flowing up from the interior of Mars. The 3rd and final experiment, the Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment (RISE), uses the radio system of the lander and large radio dishes on Earth to precisely track the location of the spacecraft on the surface as the planet rotates throughout the course of a full Mars year.

APSS sensors There are also other sensors on the spacecraft that will be used to aid interpretation of the main experiments which will provide good science on their own. Called the Auxiliary Payload Sensor Subsystem (APSS), they measure the local magnetic field, wind, and atmospheric temperature and pressure. InSight has also 2 color cameras. One is a wide angle camera that observes the area where the instruments will be placed on the surface. And the other is on the robotic arm and will facilitate close up inspection of the ground and instruments, and will also enable a 360 degree panorama of the landing site.

Formation flying The 2 suitcase-sized MarCO spacecraft that launched along with InSight, are the interplanetary CubeSats.

Image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

PHOENIX

CubeSats are small, somewhat standardized spacecraft that have become popular in Earth orbit initially with universities, and now with NASA and other agencies and companies. I was involved with a JPL-led study in 2010 that looked at the possibility of interplanetary CubeSats, so it is particularly exciting to watch these technology demonstrations. In addition to standard CubeSat components, JPL’s MarCO spacecraft include some significant innovations including fold out flat antennae to enable communication with Earth from the vicinity of Mars. The MarCO spacecraft will attempt to relay to Earth communications from InSight during entry, descent and landing. If this works out, we will receive more complete data on EDL and touchdown faster than we would from other sources. No matter what MarCO does, radio telescopes on Earth will also be listening for InSight transmissions, but will only receive basic “aliveness” information. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will receive complete information but won’t be able to transmit back for about an hour as it orbits. MarCO’s real value is as an interplanetary CubeSat technology demonstration, and that has already been quite successful.

Conclusions The landing of InSight, as with all Mars landings, will be an exciting nail-biting experience. Then we will see a new location on Mars. But following that, things will move slowly and carefully, followed by long, methodical data collection. Sounds a bit boring on a day-to-day basis, but the science payoff of this mission will be huge and exciting. It almost literally opens up a new dimension in Mars studies. InSight will help us understand not only the interior structure of Mars and its formation and evolution but, by extension, it will tell us more about the early formation of Earth and the other terrestrial planets.

Bruce Betts, PhD, is a planetary scientist with degrees from Stanford and Caltech. He is Chief Scientist at The Planetary Society and has done research focused on infrared studies of planetary surfaces. He also managed planetary instrument development programs at NASA Headquarters.

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OUTER MARKER INBOUND

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry: Homage to an aviator, author and visionary

Photos courtesy Wikimedia Commons

“The goal may not justify anything but the deed releases you from death.” Saint Exupéry realized the futility of many of these early flights, but the adventure far outweighed the risks. He reveled in being able to make his own rules and allow fate to take its course.

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry in an undated photo in Argentina. He flew mail, cargo and fearless passengers across the Andes in frail biplanes, a happy hostage to his own fortune. Aviation will never again see the freedoms nor perils faced by the early airmen.

By David Bjellos

ATP/Helo. Gulfstream IV, Sikorsky S76, Bell 407 Pro Pilot Senior Contributor

A

century ago, a quiet Frenchman named Antoine de Saint-Exupéry started flying early aircraft and would begin a lifetime of adventure in the initial days of aviation. He became an equally adept writer of novels and novellas, and most of his stories simply recounted his experiences recalled during a time of adventure and danger as men braved the challenges of early flight, evaded Moorish tribes over the Sahara and survived 100 mph winds in Patagonia flying mail and cargo. The man who would write The Little Prince; Wind, Sand and Stars; and Night Flight was shaped forever by the forces of good and evil, flying from Toulouse to Dakar and across the bulk of South America through Argentina and Chile in a single-seat postwar biplane. While many know

his name, fewer know the perils of flying in the 1920s and the caliber of a man who called himself a pilot. Saint-Exupéry had always intended to become an architect, but circumstances led to his attending flying school after WWI. Lovers of aviation literature benefitted greatly due to his change of fortune. He began flying for one Pierre Latécoère, who formed a small “line” to carry the post and any other freight worthy of a few francs. Other hardy airmen like Jean Mermoz, Didier Daurat and Beppo de Massimmo gladly accepted the dangers. They soon learned intimately the Bedouin tribes of the Spanish Sahara after passing south of Rabat or Casablanca, with names like Isarguin, R’Guibat and Ait Oussa. They were deadly and disliked all western influence over their lands, including aircraft unfortunate enough to force-land Commandant Saint-Exupéry disappeared with his Lockheed F-5B-1-LO Lightning photo reconnaissance airplane while on a mission to Grenoble and Annecy, at the base of the French Alps on July 31, 1944. His identity bracelet was found in 1998 by a fisherman, off the southern coastline of France. Wreckage of the F-5B was located on the sea floor in May 2000.

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On 29 December 1935, while flying his red and white Caudron C.630 Simoun, F-ANRY, in a race from Paris to Sài Gòn (Saigon) in French Indo-China, Saint-Exupéry crashed in the Sahara Desert. He and his mechanic, André Prévost, were marooned without food or water. They wandered aimlessly for 4 days and were near death when they were rescued by a Bedouin tribesman. Saint-Exupéry wrote about the experience in Wind, Sand and Stars, and it was the inspiration for his classic novel, The Little Prince.

in their wilderness. Misfortune claimed the lives of 121 French Latécoère pilots over a 10-year period with half lost to the desert justice of the tribesmen alone. The Latécoère line was underfunded, and through ownership dilutions became Aéropostale. The line eventually extended to Argentina, Chile and Patagonia, then the most remote places on the planet. Saint-Exupéry became a station manager in Buenos Aires and learned the ferocious winds and capricious weather of the Andes. The pilot Henri Guillaumet was forced down on a high, snow-covered pass and spent a week walking back down towards Argentina, frostbitten and barely alive. News of his survival cheered Saint-Exupéry greatly, and he dedicated much of his book Night Flight to the flying perils in South America. Such bravery seemed more common then, perhaps due to nostalgia, but one thing is certain: although Frenchmen seem to carry more than their fair share of human frailties, no one can ever fault their individual courage. Guillaumet and the men of Aéropostale bore such traits with indifference, yet were a band of brothers in all things aeronautical. Aéropostale eventually became, after much government intervention, Air France. It was understood then as it always has been for men of the air: “If a pilot is wrong then… just below the sea of clouds begins eternity.” Ernest K. Gann Flying Circus The late 1920s saw aviation in America growing – in spite of the Great Depression – but not nearly as quickly as their European counterparts, especially the French. It was not until after WWII that America took the lead in all things aeronautical, and during the formation of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) it was hotly debated whether the “language of the air” should be French or English. English narrowly won out, given the military and financial accords of US intervention in the latest global conflict. Saint-Exupéry eventually married and lived for a time in New York and Long Island, where in 1942 he completed The Little Prince. Longing to fly more, he returned to Europe and flew with the Free French Forces. At the controls

of a reconnaissance version of the famed P-38 Lightning, Saint-Exupéry never returned and was presumed killed on July 31, 1944. His body was never found, but the remains of his aircraft were recovered some years later. Posthumously, he received significant fame in his writings and The Little Prince has been translated globally with an estimated 80 million sales. Saint-Exupéry possessed the unique combination of nationality, predisposition to marital dalliance and addiction to danger which allowed an uncommonly brave pilot to become one of the world’s most-read authors; his stories are largely narrations of the adventures he and his fellow Aéropostale pilots lived, and they will certainly never be repeated. I hope that people will take the time to appreciate the bravery required during the formative years of aviation. Men crashed and died often, and they learned that engines will quit at the most inopportune times. Precious few have been able to convey that daily threat of death well in literature, and we can all be grateful to this unassuming Frenchman who endured the cold, survived without water and fought the Bedouin. Those experiences, and his almost childlike ability to convey a thought – like the pilot and the little prince contemplating the meaning of life through the metaphor of a single rose – have produced wonderful reading for our children, and those of us who are still young only in heart. David Bjellos is the Aviation Manager for Florida Crystals, flying a GIV-SP, S-76C+ and Bell 407. He also serves on the Board of Directors for the Helicopter Association International (HAI).

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2018 TURBINE POWERPLANT PRODUCT SUPPORT SURVEY

Fixed-wing & helo combined: 1 Williams, 2 GE, 3 P&WC, 4 Rolls-Royce, 5 Safran-Turbomeca, 6 Honeywell Helo only: 1 P&WC, 2 Safran-Turbomeca, 3 Rolls-Royce. spares availability and was 3rd in cost of parts and service satisfaction. Safran Helicopters Engines (formerly Turbomeca) is in 5th place this year, which is a move up 1 spot from 2017. Their overall tally was 8.25 this year as compared to last year’s 7.91, an improvement of 0.34 in 2018, the biggest overall score betterment in this year’s survey. Safran also obtained the best category improvement in tech manuals with a score of 8.39 as compared to last year’s 7.82, an increase of 0.57. Safran ranked 3rd in tech reps. Honeywell takes the 6th spot with an overall score of 7.94 in 2018, a slight dip down from their 7.98 tally in 2017. Honeywell did have an improvement in the tech reps category this year with a score of 8.36 as compared to 8.17 in 2017, an increase of 0.19.

problems, and tech reps. GE was 2nd in cost of parts, speed in AOG service, tech manuals and service satisfaction. Pratt & Whitney Canada moved up a spot to finish 3rd in this year’s survey. Overall score for P&WC increased to 8.31 this year compared to 8.20 in 2017. Best category improvement for this engine OEM for 2018 was in speed in AOG service with 8.43 this year compared to 8.19 last year. P&WC placed 3rd in response to problems, spares availability, speed in AOG service and tech manuals categories. Rolls-Royce slipped down 1 spot to 4th for 2018 with an overall score of 8.29 this year compared to 8.24 in 2017. Best category improvement for R-R was in cost of parts where they received 6.90 this year compared to 6.69 last year. R-R placed 2nd in

Pro Pilot staff report

Data compiled by Conklin & de Decker

T

his survey measures the follow-up after-sale service provided by aircraft turbine engine manufacturers.

All the powerplant OEMs in the survey build reliable engines for fixedwing and rotary-wing aircraft. But this survey tallies scores given by operators in 7 different aspects of product support plus we give room on the survey form for narrative comments. Here we summarize the engine OEMs scores and on later pages we give the narrative comments received. Williams continues to claim the 1st place for the past 3 years in a row. Their overall score was 8.56 this year as compared to 8.78 from 2017. Best category improved score for Williams was in cost of spares with 7.37 this year compared to 7.33 last year. They received 1st place in spares availability, cost of parts, speed in AOG service, tech manuals, and service satisfaction. Also were 2nd in response to problems and tech reps. General Electric retains its 2nd place position for 3 consecutive years. GE was ranked 1st in 2015. They earned an overall score of 8.48 this year, a drop from their 8.72 score in 2017. GE ranked 1st in response to

Powerplant OEM score Manufacturers

Response to problems

Responses

Spares availability

Cost of parts

2018

2017

Dif

2018

2017

Dif

2018

2017

Dif

Williams

68

8.78

9.21

-0.43

8.77

8.85

-0.08

7.37

7.33

0.04

General Electric

49

8.87

9.06

-0.19

8.36

8.76

-0.40

7.32

7.47

-0.15

Pratt & Whitney Canada

356

8.63

8.46

0.17

8.48

8.44

0.04

6.89

6.80

0.09

Rolls-Royce

156

8.62

8.61

0.01

8.51

8.50

0.01

6.90

6.69

0.21

Safran-Turbomeca

49

8.60

8.29

0.31

8.28

7.98

0.30

6.82

6.81

0.01

Honeywell

168

8.23

8.25

-0.02

8.10

8.12

-0.02

6.57

6.61

-0.04

8.31

8.20

8.20

8.15

8.11

8.07

8.03

7.93

1 2

1 2 2 2

2 2

3

5

2 2

2

3

3 3 4 4 4

4

4

8.03

8.16

8.03

8.72

8.48

8.69

8.33

8.26

8.25

8.05

8.31

1 1 1 2

6

7.75

8.09

8.56

8.78

8.75

8.30

8.61

8.41

8.41

8.41

8.38

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

3

3 4

4

4

5

3

5 6

Williams

General Electric

2018

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2018

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2018

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

0

2009

2 1

3

Pro Pilot Survey Rankings

7

7.98

8

8.48

9

8.40

26 years of surveys - Only showing last 11 years 10

2008

Comparison of overall average scores

2018 Pro Pilot Turbine

Pratt & Whitney Canada

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Helicopter division

2018 Pro Pilot Turbine Powerplant Product Support Survey

2018 Pro Pilot Turbine Powerplant Product Support Survey

Manufacturers rated by 45 or more users

Overall ranking

Helicopter engines only

68

Williams

8.56

356 156 49

Safran-Turbomeca

8.71

8.60

8.00

Spares availability

8.47

8.28

8.02

8.31

Cost of parts

7.42

6.82

6.42

Speed in AOG service

8.48

8.33

7.88

8.29

Tech manuals

8.38

8.39

8.18

Tech reps

8.61

8.83

8.18

Service satisfaction

8.56

8.51

8.14

8.25 168

Honeywell 0

45

Response to problems

8.48

Pratt & Whitney Canada Rolls-Royce

56 49

30 responses needed for ranking

49

General Electric

Operator responses

SafranTurbomeca Rolls-Royce

P&WC

8.25 7.83 Overall 8.38 For 2018 Pro Pilot used 172 helo engine support line evaluations for this breakdown. P&WC wins 1st place this year with an overall score of 8.38 compared with 7.89 last year. Safran took 2nd with 8.25 in 2018 compared with 7.91 in 2017. And R-R keeps its 3rd position with 7.83 this year compared to 7.79 in 2017. Honeywell received only 11 line evaluations, GE 9 and others 2, so that they didn’t make the minimum requirement of 30 responses for ranking.

7.94 6

4

2

Responses

10

8

Overall ranking

comparisons 2018 vs 2017 Speed in AOG service

Manufacturers

Tech manuals

Tech reps

Service satisfaction

Overall scores

2018

2017

Dif

2018

2017

Dif

2018

2017

Dif

2018

2017

Dif

2018

2017

Dif

Williams

8.68

8.93

-0.25

8.72

8.90

-0.18

8.84

9.21

-0.37

8.76

9.04

-0.28

8.56

8.78

-0.22

General Electric

8.48

8.82

-0.34

8.64

8.80

-0.16

8.95

9.09

-0.14

8.74

9.06

-0.32

8.48

8.72

-0.24

Pratt & Whitney Canada

8.43

8.19

0.24

8.47

8.44

0.03

8.68

8.60

0.08

8.62

8.49

0.13

8.31

8.20

0.11

Rolls-Royce

8.40

8.36

0.04

8.38

8.24

0.14

8.58

8.72

-0.14

8.63

8.58

0.05

8.29

8.24

0.05

Safran-Turbomeca

8.33

7.78

0.55

8.39

7.82

0.57

8.83

8.57

0.26

8.51

8.10

0.41

8.25

7.91

0.34

Honeywell

8.16

8.22

-0.06

7.95

8.08

-0.13

8.36

8.17

0.19

8.22

8.38

-0.16

7.94

7.98

-0.04

Powerplant Product Support Survey

7.94

7.98

8.07

7.77

7.94

7.95

8.08

7.87

7.99

8.01

7.84

8.25

7.91

7.72

7.82

7.67

7.77

* Includes Rolls-Royce Allison, BMW-RR and Rolls-Royce Canada

5 5

5 5

Safran Helicopter Engines

5

2017

6 2016

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

6

Safran-Turbomeca*** ***

4 6

2018

5

6 6 2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2018

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

Rolls-Royce*

5

4

2015

5

2009

5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

2008

3

4

2

0

7.35

3 3 4

2008

4

2018

5 5

3

3

3 4

2017

3

4

1

7.23

2

2016

6 5

1

2 2

Pro Pilot Survey Rankings

7

7.12

6.80

8.29

8.24

8.18

8.20

8.03

7.88

8.16

8.19

7.90

7.99

8

7.91

9

7.26

Powerplants rated 2008–2018

10

Honeywell** **

Includes AlliedSignal, Garrett and Lycoming

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Jet and turboprop divisions or the 8th year Pro Pilot has separated overall scores for jet and turboprop Fengine manufacturers in addition to the helo division. The minimum number of evaluations required for each of these divisions is 30 for jet, TP and helo.

Some respondents rated 1 engine manufacturer with 2 types of aircraft (eg, P&WC for a Citation Sovereign (jet) and for a King Air 350 (TP). Because of this, there is a small difference between total responses for the

2018 Pro Pilot Turbine Powerplant Product Support Survey

overall rankings and the rankings by type of aircraft. For overall rankings this was counted as 1 response (Pratt & Whitney). For rankings by type of aircraft it was counted as 2 responses (jets and turboprops). 2018 Pro Pilot Turbine Powerplant Product Support Survey

Jet engines only GE Williams Rolls-Royce P&WC Honeywell Operator responses 38 67 109 179 144 30 responses needed for ranking

30 responses needed for ranking

Response to problems

8.94

8.78

8.88 8.60 8.33

Response to problems

Spares availability

8.56

8.77

8.72 8.49 8.22 Spares availability

8.50

Cost of parts

7.48

7.36

7.08 6.94 6.62 Cost of parts

6.56

Speed in AOG service

8.71

8.68

8.64 8.46 8.28 Speed in AOG service

8.37

Tech manuals

8.69

8.73

8.48 8.44 8.09 Tech manuals

8.52

Tech reps

8.97

8.84 8.76 8.71 8.42 Tech reps

8.64

Service satisfaction

8.83

8.76 8.82 8.56 8.27 Service satisfaction

8.73

Overall 8.60 8.56 8.48 8.31 8.03 In the breakdown of the 2018 jet engine support division a total of 552 jet line evaluations were used. The minimum requirement to be scored in this division is 30 responses. OEMs that didn’t receive the 30 responses minimum were CFM with 7 responses, GE Honda with 5 and CFE with 3.

Methodology

F

or 26 years Pro Pilot has used questionnaires to ask aircraft operators to rate turbine powerplant manufacturers on their quality of product support. The survey form lists 7 categories—response to problems, spares availability, cost of parts, speed in AOG service, tech manuals, tech reps, and service satisfaction. During July 2018 a target mailing of 8788 survey forms was mailed out to a random selection of turbine operators of the Pro Pilot subscription list. A total of 933 survey forms, representing 11% return, came back to Pro Pilot by the Oct 25, 2018 cutoff date. Only 1 form per respondent was accepted. After review 687 forms were accepted as being properly filled out. These forms provided 863 line evaluations to be used in the survey results. There was a total of 246 disqualified forms due to a lack of information, inconsistencies, significant errors or duplication. Pro Pilot rules require a minimum of 45 line evaluations to rate in the overall ranking. A total of 6 manufacturers met the criteria and therefore were included in the survey—GE, Honeywell, Pratt & Whitney Canada, Rolls-Royce, Safran-Turbomeca and Williams. Other manufacturers that didn’t receive enough evaluations for ranking were CFE (3 evaluations), CFM (7), GE Honda (5) and others (2). AlliedSignal, Garrett and Lycoming were rated under Honeywell. Allison and BMW-RR were scored under Rolls-Royce. For the 8th year Pro Pilot has had separate scores for jet, turboprop and helicopter engine manufacturers. The minimum requirement for these divisions was 30 line evaluations for inclusion. In the Jet division 5 OEMs made the cut—GE, Honeywell, Pratt & Whitney Canada, Rolls-Royce and Williams. CFE (3 evaluations), CFM (7) and GE Honda (5) didn’t receive enough for inclusion. In the TP division P&WC met the minimum requirement to be ranked. GE (2), Honeywell (14) and Rolls-Royce (2) didn’t make the cut. In the helo division P&WC, Rolls-Royce and Safran-Turbomeca obtained enough evaluations to be included in the ranking. GE (9), Honeywell (11) and other (2) didn’t receive the minimum required for inclusion.

Turboprop engines only Operator responses

P&WC 128 8.60

Overall 8.28 A total of 146 TP aircraft engine support line evaluations were received for this breakdown of TP in 2018. For this division the minimum scoring required was 30 line evaluations. Honeywell had 14, GE 2 and R-R 2, not enough to be included in this ranking.

2018 Pro Pilot Turbine Powerplant Product Support Survey

Job titles of survey respondents 52 99 302 234

Aviation Dept Mgr, Chief Pilot, Dir of Aviation, Flight Ops Mgr or VP Ops Captain, Line Captain, First Officer or other pilot Owner, Chief Executive, President, VP, Gen Mgr or other corporate officer Maintenance Chief, Maintenance Mgr, Mechanic, Technician or Engineer

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Williams

T

he Williams FJ44-2As installed on our Premier I are very reliable. We’ve never had any problems. However if we were to have any issues we know that Williams will always provide superb product support. David Caum ATP/CFI. Premier I Chief Pilot Fly Direct La Porte IN

Williams Intl VP Product Support Steve Shettler can be contacted at 248-960-2569 or by e-mail at sshettler@ williams-int.com. The Williams Product Support team can be contacted as follows: Web: www.williams-int.com, e-mail WIproductsupport@williams-int.com or by phone: 1-800-859-3544 (outside USA 1-248-960-2929).

A

fter flying our Citation CJ1 for 18 yrs our company sold the aircraft. However I state that during those years of operations Williams provided outstanding service for the pair of FJ44s powering our aircraft. Will Carroll ATP. Citation CJ1 Former Chief Pilot LDB Corp Kerrville TX

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illiams continues to provide excellent product support. I’m very pleased with their response time to any problems we may have. Thomas Hagy ATP. Citation CJ4 Chief Pilot Shelor Investment Abingdon VA

W

illiams manufactures real nice engines. They’re fuel efficient, dependable and easy to use. However I wish their parts and coverage programs were not so expensive for us. Thomas Schaad ATP. Premier I CEO Diamair Biberist, Switzerland

C

ompletely happy with our FJ44s. They’re such excellent engines and Williams backs them up with wonderful support. David Bassignani ATP/CFII. Citation CJ4 Chief Pilot Golden State Lumber Petaluma CA

U

nbeatable service is what we receive from Williams. I gave Williams top scores across the board on my survey form because Williams is always there for us to solve any issues we may have. David Womacks ATP. Citation CJ1 Former Chief Pilot Hudson Co Scottsboro AL

I

t’s a great pleasure to work with Williams. They’ve always been very responsive to any issues we have encountered. Robert Rogers ATP. Citation CJ2 Aviation Mgr & Chief Pilot BCL Aviation Clearwater FL

E

xceptional reliability is what I find in our pair of Williams FJ44-4As installed in the Citation CJ4 we operate. The few issues we’ve had in 6 yrs of operations have been handled quickly with Textron and Williams working together. Asa Russ ATP. Citation CJ4 Captain Eagle Transportation Battleboro NC

I

n my opinion the Williams FJ442C is a very solid engine. We operate a Citation CJ2 and my experience with the FJ44-2Cs couldn’t be better. Williams is always ready to help and provide the support we need. James Drexler ATP/CFII. Citation CJ2 Chief Pilot Wng2Lvl Aviation Fargo ND

T

otal Assurance Plus (TAP) Blue maintenance program provided by Williams works well for us. We receive no surprises and the consistent engine performance adds value to our Citation CJ3. Essentially our aircraft always has new engines relative to value. Also Williams gives us peace of mind that unscheduled maintenance engine problems are covered by their TAP program. Eddie Yell ATP/CFII Citation CJ3 Aviation Mgr Boyd Bros Transportation Springville AL

Response to problems

Spares availability

General Electric

8.87

Williams

8.78

P&WC

8.63

Rolls-Royce

8.62

Safran-Turbomeca

8.60

Honeywell

8.23 0

2

4

6

8

10

Manufacturers rated by 45 or more users

2018 Pro Pilot Turbine Powerplant Product Support Survey

Manufacturers rated by 45 or more users

2018 Pro Pilot Turbine Powerplant Product Support Survey

Williams

8.77

Rolls-Royce

8.51

P&WC

8.48

General Electric

8.36

Safran-Turbomeca

8.28 8.10

Honeywell 0

2

4

6

8

10

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V

General Electric

ery pleased with our pair of GE CF34s powering the Challenger 601 we operate. They’re bulletproof engines. And we have a great GE team providing superb product support. Lynn Allen ATP/CFII. Challenger 601 Chief Pilot Allen Aviation Waxahachie TX

Gen Mgr Commercial, Service & Support at GE Aviation’s Business and General Aviation unit Jim Stoker can be contacted at 513-5523800 or by e-mail at jim.stoker@ge.com. For 24/7 support, contact the GE Aviation Business Jets Operations Center at 513552-JETS (5387) or toll free at 877-456-JETS (5387) or e-mail bizjetops@ge.com.

W

e operate 2 CRJ700s in a corporate shuttle operation. Both aircraft have over 10,000 hrs and the GE engines keep running like the day they were new. These engines are operated on condition and projected to go over 14,000 hrs. They will easily reach the 14,000 hr milestone before they have to come off the aircraft. I think the CF34 is a terrific and robust engine. With all the hype for new fuel efficient designs there seems to be a cost to pay in reliability right now. And Bombardier is doing the right thing to stay with the CF34 on the CRJ series until the reliability improves with the new generation of powerplants. Alan Bessonet ATP/CFII. CRJ700 Chief Pilot Suttle Ops The Dow Chemical Co Baton Rouge LA

G

eneral Electric OnPoint is a world class maintenance program. It’s backed up by great people who make it all work for the customer. Tech Reps Jeff Hartman and Greg Norwood are 2 of the best representatives any operator could ask for. Jamie Stember ATP. Challenger 605 Av Dept Mgr CP Management Glen Burnie MD

F

lying our Sikorsky S92 powered with GE CT7-8A engines has been an experience of steady reliability. We operate in some of the worst conditions known to man and our engines provide reliable power constantly. Undoubtedly GE makes a great engine with their CT7-8A that we use. Gregory Jones ATP/Helo/CFII. Sikorsky S92 Instructor Pilot Infinity Support Services Ft Pierce FL

O

utstanding service is what we always receive from GE tech reps. They’re very knowledgeable and friendly. Benjamin Brake A&P. Challenger 604/300 Aviation Maintenance Mgr Oshkosh Corp Oshkosh WI

I

n my opinion the CF700 manufactured by General Electric continues to be a very good engine. It isn’t economical with fuel but it’s very dependable. Engine support provided by AVMATS is excellent and keeps us flying our Sabreliner 80SC. Glenn Michael ATP/CFII. Sabreliner 80SC Aviation Mgr Aeropac Merrimack NH

A

s an operator we’re very pleased with the GE CF34s powering our Challenger 605. We’ve hardly required any services from GE. And it’s a good thing. However whenever we’ve needed it the service received has been superb. GE well-trained maintenance techs are quick to respond when we need them. Gib Harris A&P. Challenger 605 Chief of Maintenance Nationwide Insurance Columbus OH

B

oth General Electric and Pratt & Whitney Canada engines power our aircraft. We fly a Challenger 604 and Citation II and the engine service we received is excellent from both OEMs. Because of their quick response we have achieved near perfect dispatch for our aircraft. Douglas Olson ATP/CFI. Challenger 604 & Citation II Captain Tri-State Drilling Buffalo MN

Cost of parts

Speed in AOG service

Williams

7.37

General Electric

7.32

Rolls-Royce

6.90

P&WC

6.89

Safran-Turbomeca

6.82

Honeywell

Manufacturers rated by 45 or more users

2018 Pro Pilot Turbine Powerplant Product Support Survey

Manufacturers rated by 45 or more users

2018 Pro Pilot Turbine Powerplant Product Support Survey

6.57 0

2

4

6

8

10

Williams

8.68

General Electric

8.48

P&WC

8.43

Rolls-Royce

8.40

Safran-Turbomeca

8.33

Honeywell

8.16 0

2

4

6

8

10

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Pratt & Whitney Canada P&WC VP Customer Svc Satheeshkumar Kumarasingam can be contacted at 450-647-7170 or by e-mail at satheeshkumar. kumarasingam@pwc. ca. For 24/7 support, please contact the P&WC Customer First Centre at 1-800-2688000 or by e-mail at cfirst@pwc.ca.

R

esponses from Pratt & Whitney’s has always been first-class. Whenever we’ve had any issues with our AW139’s PT6C-67C engines P&WC has solved them immediately in a professional manner. They make a great product that is very reliable and dependable. Michael O’Brien ATP/Helo/CFII. Leonardo AW139 Captain PHI Cantonment FL

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e had a bird strike incident that bent 3 fan blades and went through the core. P&WC could not have done better. They got us flying in 5 days after the incident. We were very impressed that the repair was completed so quickly and was done in our own hangar. Wayne Cartwright ATP. Gulfstream G200 President Cartwright Flight Resource Salem OR

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ratt & Whitney’s JT15D series of engines are as reliable as it gets. The only issue I’ve encountered has been a #4 bearing failure under warranty. It was fixed as quickly as it was found. Kris Kolba ATP/CFI. Citation ISP/II/V Chief Pilot & Aircraft Mgr 2141 Corporation Decatur GA

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he product support for our P&WC engines has been outstanding, Pratt & Whitney has done a great job in servicing our PW206 and PW207 for our Leonardo AW109E and Leonardo AW109S. The response has been quick whenever we have had problems. Also the mx staff has always been very helpful and professional. Joshua Jones Comm-Multi-Inst/Helo/CFII. Leonardo AW109E/109S Dir of Operation North Memorial Health Crystal MN

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OG response and service from P&WC couldn’t be better. Whenever engine issues on my Citation Sovereign have come up P&WC knowledgeable team has been there for us to immediately solve the problems. William Hall ATP. Citation Sovereign Line Captain NetJets Denver CO

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ong term operation of our Citation Excel powered by a couple of PW545As has been a joy. P&WC has always gone above and beyond whenever we’ve had a problem to meet our needs. Ben Bagnall ATP. Citation Excel Chief Pilot Arizona-Kentucky Ashland KY

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aving our PW530As under the umbrella of the ESP Gold program has been an excellent experience. I’m very satisfied with all the benefits that this P&WC program provides. Bryan Morgan ATP. Citation Bravo Pilot AMR Henry VA

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or the past 12-yr we’ve operated P&WC PT6 engines on 4 different aircraft with no major issues. It’s an extremely good engine backed up by outstanding P&WC product support. Jeff Babin ATP. Pilatus PC-12 Chief Pilot Century Aircraft Owens Cross Roads AL

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ery pleased with P&WC field tech reps and also their MRT services. Best of all are the engines themselves, well designed and very reliable. Hence, we have great engines with wonderful backup support. Drew Oetjen A&P. Falcon 2000S/2000LXS Mgr of Aircraft Maintenance Union Pacific Railroad Omaha NE

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ustomer service on our P&WC engines has been excellent. We have had direct access to field rep and company engineers when troubleshooting was necessary on our powerplants. Dana Longino ATP. Citation Sovereign Chief Pilot Lee Lewis Construction Lubbock TX

P&WC VP Customer Programs Tim Swail can be contacted at 450-647-2901 or by e-mail at tim.swail@pwc.ca. For 24/7 support, please contact the P&WC Customer First Centre at 1-800268-8000 or by e-mail at cfirst@pwc.ca.

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ince 2009 I have been using PW206B2 engines in our Airbus EC135P2+. They produce good power assurance checks up to TBO. The only unscheduled maintenance we have completed was for an exhaust clamp. P&WC always delivers high quality work. Loran Babcock A&P. Airbus EC135P2+ Lead Mechanic Carolinas Healthcare System Charlotte NC

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ue to a problem with our PW308C engines on our Falcon 2000EX we recently had a AOG situation in Greece. Pratt & Whitney performed an outstanding job and had us up and out of there the next day. We were very glad that it was all covered under our Eagle Service Plan (ESP). Jerry Harrington ATP. Falcon 2000EX Chief Pilot PCS Aviation San Diego CA

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ur company operates a PC-12 that is powered by a P&WC PT6. We just went through our first overhaul on the PT6. And P&WC did a great job. Also the customer service we have received has been top of the line. Tim Riley ATP/CFII. Pilatus PC-12 Captain Bay of Dreams Leasing San Diego CA

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ast year we had compressor problems with both of our engines. And these engines only had a total time of 2100 hrs. P&WC tech reps here in Europe were fantastic responding immediately to our issues and looking for solutions under warranty. They provided 2 loaner engines while our engines where overhauled. We were very satisfied with the support provided during those difficult times. Chris De Groote ATP. Falcon 2000EX Lead Captain Atlas Aviation Brussels, Belgium PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018  85

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Rolls-Royce

ery pleased with our Gulfstream VSP powered by R-R BR710 engines. And the product support received from Rolls-Royce has always been impressive. Thomas Frank Pvt-Inst/A&P. Gulfstream VSP Dir of Maintenance DeBartolo Aviation Tampa FL

Rolls-Royce SVP Services, Business Aviation Andy Robinson can be contacted in US at 703-621-2814 or cell 571-294-9232. Operators can also e-mail him at andrew.m.robinson@ rolls-royce.com.

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ave had very minor hiccups with the couple of BR725s installed in our Gulfstream G650. However, whenever issues arise Rolls-Royce addresses them promptly. Morris Silverman ATP. Gulfstream G650 Intl Captain Visa Aviation Oakland CA

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olls-Royce Regional Customer Mgr, Mark Webster here in Australia is exceptional. He’s always quick when responding to problems and he always makes sure issues are resolved in a timely manner. I’m also glad that our Global Express is powered by a pair of R-R BR710-A2-20s since they’re very reliable engines that give us no trouble. Alison Donohue Operator. Global Express/XRS Maintenance Controller Crown Melbourne Melbourne VIC, Australia

lways have received great support from Rolls-Royce for our BR710 powerplants. They’re great engines, very reliable and are backed by outstanding service. James Moore ATP. Global Express Supervisor Citi Aviation Moneta VA

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ur company has owned and operated Rolls-Royce powered aircraft since 1961. This is due in large part to 3 contributing factors. First to the high dispatch reliability of R-R engines. Second to the outstanding R-R response to AOG issues. And 3rd to the superb customer-focused service Rolls-Royce provides from their field tech representatives. Lee Bradshaw A&P. Gulfstream G650/G280 Assistant Maintenance Mgr Cox Enterprises Atlanta GA

Rolls-Royce Helicopters Service Executive Jerry Sheldon. Operators can call him at 317-2303331 or e-mail him at gerald.sheldon@ rolls-royce.com.

ustom clearance is a big problem here in Indonesia. We experienced a bird strike that hit 8 fan blades in our Legacy 600. R-R responded immediately to our inquiry for support. And although we had the tech rep available the part shipment was stuck in the custom warehouse for clearance. Yoyo Soebiyanto ATP. Legacy 600 Lead Pilot Mayapada Corp Bekasi, Indonesia

e operate a Gulfstream VSP powered by 2 R-R BR710 engines. And Rolls-Royce provides excellent service and is a great company to work with. David Rada ATP. Gulfstream VSP Finance Mgr & Pilot EI du Pont de Nemours and Co New Castle DE y opinion is that the R-R 250 model is reliable but is an outdated design. However I would welcome a true dual FADEC on the Bell 407GXPi. This would be a much needed and welcome design upgrade. Craig Neubecker ATP/Helo. Bell 407/TH57 Contract Helicopter Pilot Deland FL think the R-R AE3007C is a very reliable engine. However here in Brazil we continue to experience some issues with spare parts due to custom delays and government taxes that apply. I also have a good relationship with our R-R tech reps who are very helpful and always try their best to keep us flying safely. Flavio Estiphan ATP. Citation X Aviation Mgr Solojet Aviação Jundiaí SP, Brazil

Tech manuals

Tech reps

Williams

8.72

General Electric

8.64

P&WC

8.47

Safran-Turbomeca

8.39

Rolls-Royce

8.38

Honeywell

7.95 0

2

4

6

8

10

Manufacturers rated by 45 or more users

2018 Pro Pilot Turbine Powerplant Product Support Survey

Manufacturers rated by 45 or more users

2018 Pro Pilot Turbine Powerplant Product Support Survey

General Electric

8.95

Williams

8.84

Safran-Turbomeca

8.83

P&WC

8.68

Rolls-Royce

8.58

Honeywell

8.36 0

2

4

6

8

10

86  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018

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Safran Helicopter Engines (Turbomeca) Safran Helicopter Engines Executive VP Support & Services Olivier Le Merrer manages the company’s global support and services organization to ensure proximity service for every current Safran Helicopter Engines operator worldwide. He can be contacted by phone at 3355-912-5000 and e-mail address is olivier.le-merrer@safrangroup.com. Info is also available on the company’s website, www.safran-helicopter-engines.com.

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e receive great support from Safran for the Makila 1A1s and Arriel 2D powering our Airbus AS332 and AS350B3e respectively. Performance of these engines and backup has been outstanding. Edhi Soeharto Operator. Airbus AS332/AS350B3e & Bell 206B/412SP Sr Logistics Mgr PT Derazona Air Service Jakarta Indonesia

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f airframe OEMs would duplicate whatever engine OEMs are doing in supporting their turbines we would have a different world in aviation. We are especially pleased with Safran’s product support. They really know how to take very good care of their customers. Ronald Tubbs A&P. Sikorsky S76C++/B & King air B200 A&P Technician Aero Med Spectrum Health Grand Rapids MI

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roduct support provided by Safran has been excellent. We operate an Airbus EC145 powered by 2 Arriel 1E2 engines. We’re very content with both of the engines and the service we get from Safran. Bobby Wisdom ATP/Helo/CFII. Airbus EC145 Dir of Ops Memorial Hermann Hospital Life Flight Spring TX

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ery satisfied by Safran’s service provided for our Arrius 2F during the last 17 yrs. Our tech rep has always responded quickly to all our inquiries even on minor issues. With Safran’s help we’ve been able to solve them in a few days in all cases. Pascal Brandys Comm-Multi-Inst/Helo. Airbus H120 CEO Calpass Del Mar CA

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afran Arriel series are the best turboshaft engines in the field. And they keep getting better and better. Lambert De Gavere ATP//Helo/CFII. Airbus AS350B3+ Check Airman Era Helicopters Anchorage AK Tri-State Drilling Captain Douglas Olson operates a Challenger 604 and a Citation II for his flight department. He is an ATP pilot with over 13,200 flight hours. His experience enables him to rate both General Electric and Pratt & Whitney Canada in the Pro Pilot 2018 Turbine Powerplant Mfrs Product Support Survey. He compares the aftersale product support service received and shows his satisfaction with both engine OEMs.

PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018  87

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ecause of the age of the aircraft and the Honeywell TPE331-6-252 engines experienced tech reps are hard to find. However we solved this issue with StandardAero AGS (Augusta GA). They do an excellent job of keeping my Honeywell engines operating at peak performance. M Culliton Comm-Multi-Inst/CFII. King Air B100 President Culliton Aviation Centreville AL

Honeywell Honeywell Aerospace B&GA Dir Custom­er and Product Support Paco Perez can be reached by phone at 480-280-8667. He can also be reached by e-mail at jose.perez5@ honeywell.com. Alternatively, contact Aerospace Customer Support 24/7 at 800-601-3099. For Technical Support 24/7 at 855-808-6500/602-365-6500 or AeroTechSupport@honeywell.com. Honeywell Customer Support http://aero­space.honeywell.com/ CustomerSupport.

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oneywell has always given us great support on our engines. Recently we had a problem with an engine air intake and their knowledgeable team addressed the problem immediately and started working on it with no delay and total attention. William Rodriguez ATP. Astra Astra Mgr Constructora Sambil Opa Locka FL

ngine issues such as fan vibration on the TFE731s has been difficult for Honeywell to solve. We’ve also had bad experience with the RE100 APU ECU causing APU failure on our Learjet 45/75. I feel Honeywell technical publications need to improve as well. In several occasions during the year our publications are not accessible due to website functionality or upgrades. I also think billing for subscriptions needs to be better. Scott Swisher A&P. Learjet 75, Gulfstream G280 and Sikorsky S76C+ Lead AMT Southern Company Services Vestavia AL

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ery satisfied with the Honeywell TFE731 engines installed in our Falcon 50. The TFE731 is an outstanding engine. And it comes backed up with great support from Honeywell. Bryan Elhardt ATP/Helo/CFII. Falcon 50 Chief Pilot Heaven Leasing Chico CA

ech manuals access has improved a great deal in use of MyAerospace website. However the subscriptions continue to be too expensive. Shay Ingle Pvt-Inst. Learjet 45XR & Embraer Legacy 450 Director of Maintenance B and C Aviation Columbus GA

Manufacturers rated by 45 or more users

2018 Pro Pilot Turbine Powerplant Product Support Survey

Service satisfaction Williams

8.76

General Electric

8.74

Rolls-Royce

8.63

P&WC

8.62

Safran-Turbomeca

8.51

Honeywell

8.22 0

2

4

6

8

10

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ur Sabreliner 65 is powered by a couple of Honeywell TFE731s. Whenever we’ve experience engine issues Dallas Airmotive has backed us up immediately. Their AOG response is second to none. Thomas Windham ATP. Sabreliner 65 Av Dept Mgr Victory Christian Ministries Locust Grove VA

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’ve experienced a couple of hiccups with the AS907s powering our G280. However I’ve received excellent service from Honeywell. I think it’s about how you take care of the customer and move forward. And these Honeywell guys have been very good. Mark Gardner A&P. Gulfstream G280 Crew Chief EJM/BNSF Railway Fort Worth TX

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e have been operating Honeywell Garrett engines for over 30 yrs now. And my experience with Honeywell support has been superb. Len Alexander ATP. Hawker 700A Manager Betman Mineral VA

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oneywell is not well represented in South Africa. However, their approved MRO Intermountain Turbine at SLC (Salt Lake City UT) is superb and a pleasure to deal with. Honeywell’s dissent in realizing the potential for this legacy engine in the region and continent is disappointing and frustrating. Sales Director Mike Matthews and Tech Rep Jaclyn Hawke deserve special mention for the unrivaled knowledge and support for the LTS101-750 series engines. Andre Coetzee ATP/A&P/Helo/CFII. Bell 206/222/ 230/407 & Leonardo AW119 CEO Henley Air Gauteng, South Africa

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esponse from Honeywell has improved over the past 2 years. However, I feel there is still room for Honeywell to do better on their tech manuals. Roger Lipcamon ATP/CFII. Learjet 75 Dir of Ops Knapheide Manufacturing Quincy IL

88  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  November 2018

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CONFIDENCE IS EARNED That’s why our nearly 5,000-person-strong worldwide customer support network is with you every step of the way. How we serve you is just as important as how your aircraft performs. Discover promise in every journey.

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10/29/18 3:54 PM

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