At ABE (Allentown PA) is the Falcon 900 operated ns by MMB Management Advisory Services and chartered through New World Aviation. Flight tio a er dept members (L-R) Cabin Service Rep Kathleen Innella, Falcon Capt Jerry Innella, CSR Op l na Betty Innella, Chief Pilot and Falcon Capt Jerry Innella, and CSR Alex Innella. tio er Int
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Vol 52 No 3
8 POSITION & HOLD What’s on the drawing board for the future? by Bob Rockwood Mindboggling ideas of today will become commonplace tomorrow. 26 DELIVERY CELEBRATION PlaneSense receives 1st operational Pilatus PC-24 by Mike Potts Portsmouth-based operator will fly 6 of the new Swiss-built twin-jets powered by Williams FJ44-4s and equipped with Honeywell ACE avionics. 30 EVENT COVERAGE Schedulers & Dispatchers 2018 by Brent Bundy Long Beach hosts record-breaking NBAA S&D show Feb 6–9.
36 FLIGHT DEPT PROFILE MMB Management Advisory Services by Mike Potts Dr Hajjar operates Dassault Falcon 900 to bring health and hope worldwide. 42 LONG RANGE BIZJETS Continent to Continent capability by Don Van Dyke Buyers of big executive jets want to always go further. 50 INTERNATIONAL OPS Southern China by Grant McLaren Rules are rigorously enforced but operating conditions are improving to accommodate business executives flying into China aboard their private jets.
54 ETOPS Extended over water operations by Harold Katinszky An explanatory view of ETOPS hazards, airports and why we need them. 58 FRA TO EZE Towards the Southern Cross by Peter Berendsen Flying the South Atlantic route from Frankfurt to Buenos Aires. 62 CONNECTIVITY ALOFT Astronics AeroSat by Shannon Forrest Bizav inflight internet connection with Ku-band transmitter and Fresnel lens-horn design receptor. 66 BIZJET PAINTING Designs that dazzle by Pro Pilot Staff Good looking paint jobs from Duncan, Elliott, Jet Aviation, West Star.
74 FINDING MISSING AIRCRAFT ICAO’s next step in flight tracking by Bill Gunn Revised plan for Global Aeronautical Distress and Safety System becomes available worldwide with Iridium NEXT satellites. 78 WEATHER BRIEF Icing by Karsten Shein Even small amounts of ice accretion can cause major problems. 82 HELO TECH Helicopter Usage Monitoring System (HUMS) by Glenn Connor Major rotary-wing manufacturers offer HUMS for safer flying. 86 OUTER MARKER INBOUND Alaska, its dependency on aviation by David Bjellos Early Alaskan air heroes and the Japanese WWII Aleutian Invasion.
4 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / March 2018
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Vol 52 No 3
12 VIEWPOINT Editorial opinion from Universal Weather and Aviation CEO Ralph Vasami. 14 TERMINAL CHECKLIST Quiz on procedures when flying into IAH (Houston Intl, TX). Answers on page 16. 18 SQUAWK IDENT Pro Pilot readers comment about the aircraft they have enjoyed flying the most. 70 AL LOOKS BACK After Learjet: fun projects for Piaggio, then the start of a 20-year relationship with Cessna. 72 SID & STAR The worldâ€™s oldest line boy fixes Oscarâ€™s lunch reservation and saves his business appointment. 88 GONE WEST Archie Trammell Jr, world renowned aviation safety advocate.
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At ABE (Allentown PA) is the Falcon 900 operated by MMB Management Advisory Services and chartered through New World Aviation. Flight dept members (L-R) Cabin Service Rep Kathleen Innella, Falcon Capt Jerry Innella, CSR Betty Innella, Chief Pilot and Falcon Capt Jerry Innella, and CSR Alex Innella. Photo by Mike Potts.
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POSITION & HOLD editorial opinion
I love what’s on the drawing boards for the future. Mindboggling ideas today will become commonplace tomorrow. By Bob Rockwood
Managing Partner, Bristol Associates
GE is investing heavily in additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing. In fact, they have bought 2 3D printing companies worth $1.4 billion. Some of their early efforts will are concentrated into their Advanced Turboprop engine to power the new Cessna Denali (below).
echnology plans coming along that will affect aviation are mind-altering and game-changing. Some are here, some will be along in an indefinite future, and some will never see the light of day. However, all are worth knowing about.
3D printing: GE’s TP engine and other developments My 1st subject is the GE Advanced Turboprop program. The company has just finished their 1st engine run, and it’s scheduled to fly on the new Cessna Denali single engine TP in 2018. It’s designed to produce in the 1000– 1600 shp range with 20% lower fuel burn and 10% more power than competing engines. Out of the box, GE says the engine will have a 4000-hour TBO. All pretty cool data. But what makes my heart go pitty pat is that 35% of the parts for this engine will be made by 3D printing, or what is known as additive manufacturing. This equates to 855 parts being replaced by only 12, lowering production costs. The engine will also be 5% lighter, improving aircraft performance. And fuel burns will be 1% lower, all attributable to 3D printing. Saving fuel is a good thing. Is it possible that soon entire aircraft will be 3D printed? Forget about all the benefits above. When this becomes a reality, an airline–or any operator–could theoretically go to their vendor, custom design a plane, have it drawn up in a computer aided design (CAD) program, and watch it be “printed” while reading a magazine in the waiting room. Oops. There won’t be any magazines by then – Pro Pilot being the exception. Well, you get my point. And yes, the certifiers and regulators will slow down the ad-
vent of this technology, but they will ultimately catch up. After all, the way to make America great again isn’t to drag it back to the 1950s but to push it forward to the 2050s. And lest you think my aging and hardening arteries are causing me to hallucinate, please note they have 3D printed a 5-story building already. Speaking of 3D printing a plane with shapes not seen today, one must also get pretty darned excited about shape changing technology as it applies to aircraft. Yes, we may ultimately be talking about Transformers-like propagation of cars into planes, or submarines… A foam/ metal hybrid has already been developed that can change shape at 144º F then be returned to a rigid state. Imagine the benefits of wings that can lengthen and shorten depending on the flight regime.
8 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / March 2018
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flying overhead. And in its own way, the Uber Elevate concept fits the shared economy concept, which becomes more acceptable, and even desirable, every day.
Drone technology and usage will increase exponentially. But it is the expansion of this technology into passenger movement – Uber Elevate and similar models – that will shake things up. The savings in time and reduction in congestion will be monumental.
But in the shorter term we will see seamless wings that change lift characteristics by bending surfaces, not moving them. The implications for improved laminar flow, and hence performance, efficiency, and even a plane’s radar signature, are tremendous. When you think about it, this is how the Wright brothers first did it–they bent the wing instead of appending movable surfaces. It’s hardly far fetched to think that the concept, coupled to today’s existing and pending technologies, can’t be brought into reality. Note that NASA has an active “morphing” wing project flying on a Gulfstream III test bed.
Drones Drones, pilotless flight, electric motors, and the “Uberization” of air travel all can be considered individually. To me, the buzz comes from looking at them collectively. One would have to be even more of a Luddite than me to not admit the bright future for drone usage. Even with today’s line of sight operational restrictions, they can be used to more effectively inspect everything from windmills to large aircraft. It goes without saying that their efficacy in a battleground environment, pilotless except for ground guidance, has become legendary. Now just imagine the applications, efficiency, and cost savings they can bring to bear in a commercial setting once flying autonomously. “Drone 6, go fly the eastern quadrant and report any hot spots for pending forest fires.” Drone 6 does so without once complaining–even once–of a headache. What really got me going, though, was reading the white paper by Uber Elevate. There is no way I can adequately describe its content in a couple of paragraphs. What I can say is that this is no “pie in the sky airmobile in every garage” approach to making air commuting achievable. Their operational structure makes sense, their arguments mitigating noise and obtrusiveness issues make sense; and their economics might make sense. The time for such is right. The technology is coming on line. More importantly, the social setting is lining up. Young people today are more willing to turn themselves over to automation. Society is searching for ways to reduce congestion. Drones are getting us used to things
Mega data is quite the catch-phrase/ buzz-word/pick up line today. Connotations are both positive and negative. If it’s used to intrude into our lives, bad! If it is used to make our lives easier, safer, or more efficient, good! But this isn’t the space to engage in a philosophical discussion. I’ll simply point out that it’s nearly impossible to get the good without enduring a bit of the bad. And if you want to get really, really rich, figure out how we can have both, and share this information only with me.
Benefits for MROs But I want to go a bit beyond just the collection, organization, and application of tons of information, and highlight what’s being done at the beginning of the design process to make this font of information ever more valuable. When engineers are designing something (for example, a jet engine) they are creating a digital doppelganger of it. We now have the jet engine in a physical manifestation, and also a virtual one. In the MRO world, these 2 versions are known as digital twins, and the application extends to every aspect of an aircraft. What’s the benefit? MRO and designers can see what is happening in real time. Predictive maintenance becomes possible. Extending TBOs becomes possible. Failures can be anticipated and dealt with before they are failures. The plane can be virtually flown through various environments and the results applied to the real world. The plane’s MRO costs and downtime are reduced and its safe operation enhanced. Apply artificial intelligence to this mix, and forecasts are that costs can be reduced 30% and more. Given that MRO costs, as a line item, now exceed crew and/or fuel line item costs, you get a sense of the value of this technology.
Other far-out forthcoming things There’s so much more to think about: space travel and colonization, ultra high bypass and multi-pass adaptive engines, external fan engines, hyperloops, hypersonic propulsion, chemical propulsion, lighter more powerful batteries and adjacent technologies to further electric motor flight... the list just goes on and on. I plan to be a part of it, if only as an observer and recorder. Thanks for reading.
Bob Rockwood has been in the aircraft brokerage business since 1978. During his tenure at Omni Intl Jet Trading Floor he began writing The Rockwood Report, which discusses the corporate aircraft market. In 1986 he joined Bristol Associates as a managing partner.
10 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / March 2018
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ULTIMATE ENGINE COVERAGE
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VIEWPOINT an editorial opinion
By Ralph Vasami
CEO, Universal Weather and Aviation
Universal Weather and Aviation leverages the relationships of its 1700+ global employees at more than 50 international locations to work with authorities on easing access and restrictions on business aviation.
ver the past 15 years, the business aviation industry has seen an explosion in the number of regulations, restrictions and operating limitations imposed around the world. The bad news is the list is continuing to grow. The good news is there’s something we, as an industry, can do about it. In my discussions with chief pilots, schedulers, dispatchers, and flight department managers around the world, trying to stay current with the ever-changing regulatory landscape is always near the top of their list of things that add stress and risk to their mission. That’s because as an individual operator or even a large flight operation, keeping abreast of every change is nearly impossible. Slot programs, parking restrictions, new passenger duty fees, noise regulations, air travel taxes, changing visa requirements for crewmembers, emissions trading schemes... the list goes on. The penalties for non-compliance can be severe and are often the difference between mission success or failure. Business aviation must also compete with a growing global airline and cargo industry, which continues to achieve higher profitability. With the continually rising costs of labor, airlines look to defray these costs and increase their access in key markets at the expense of business aviation. The situation of limited slots and parking in Hong Kong is a prime example. The airline industry maintains strong advocacy with airports and civil aviation authorities throughout the world. To cope with this, it is essential that we in the business aviation community work diligently with aviation authorities and governments to maintain adequate access, infrastructure, and fair pricing for our operations.
Further, some civil aviation authorities in many areas are now sending invoices for past navigation and air use fees that they have previously neglected to invoice. These charges can be years old, and there is little recourse other than to sort out each situation or face rejection of future clearances. These issues are now a factor that all flight departments must consider and plan for when organizing a new trip, especially charter operators. So what, as an industry, can we do? First, we must be united and proactive in our advocacy efforts, as this approach has garnered proven results! In recent years, I’m proud to say that through the combined efforts of many business aviation companies, associations and Universal’s own Government and Industry Affairs team, we’ve had some significant wins, including: • Shortening lead time for clearances in India. • Improved cooperation and processing of access and operations in China. • Updating of past restrictions of the Mexican Directorate General of Civil Aeronautics to FAR Part 91K ops. And we don’t always have to look far from home. Industry advocacy and cooperation from corporations and associations like the National Business Aviation Association, National Air Transportation Association, General Aviation Manufacturers Association and the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association have been instrumental in defeating damaging legislation on domestic issues as well. One recent example is the so far successful and ongoing battle to prevent privatization of the United States Air Traffic Control system, which would significantly limit business and general aviation access and increase operating costs. And thanks to outreach from industry advocates, the controversial and potentially harmful Large Aircraft Security Program was dropped by TSA. Moving forward, it’s imperative that as an industry, we continue to work together to advocate for business aviation by staying agile and diligent. We must showcase our value to local and global economies. This requires a longterm approach to problem-solving involving a sustained effort, and is essential if we are to maintain the access and operating flexibility business aviation requires. Our united voices and efforts have power and we must work together for the greater good of business aviation.
Photo by Universal Weather & Aviation
We need to be united and proactive in opposing planned or current unfair burdens imposed on business aviation.
Ralph Vasami has served as CEO of Universal Weather since 2007. He has been with the company since 1982, starting as a meteorologist in the company’s White Plains location. He is also the chair of WISE Services, which serves as a bridge for seniors from high school to college, work and lifelong learning.
12 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / March 2018
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Terminal Checklist 3/18 Answers on page 16
7. Select the true statement(s) regarding the final approach segment. a MATON is 5.6 DME from the runway threshold. b The TCH for an SA CAT I approach must not exceed 60 ft. c The glideslope angle of 3.0° is required for SA CAT I approaches. d The PAPI and the ILS glidepath angles differ by at least 0.3º and/or the TCHs associated with these angles differ by at least 5 ft.
5. Select all that apply. When flying the approach from TTORO____ a Descend from 8000 ft MSL to maintain 7000 ft MSL to DPLOY. b Fly a course of 142° to LASSY. c Fly a course of 159° to BGBUK. d Maintain 7000 ft MSL to JELLI. 6. The aircraft must be equipped with a HUD operated in CAT II or CAT III approach mode to fly this approach procedure. a True b False
4. Select the true statement(s) regarding the initial approach fixes. a A maximum airspeed of 210 KIAS applies to all IAFs. b A minimum altitude of 7000 ft MSL applies to WDLNS. c A mandatory altitude of 8000 ft MSL applies to TTORO. d A mandatory altitude of 7000 ft MSL applies to LASSY and WDLNS.
3. Approval to fly this approach to the SA CAT I minimums is stated in OpSpecs or MSpecs, or by a letter of approval. a True b False
2. What items are required to fly this approach? a SA. b ADF. c RVR. d DME. e GPS or radar.
8. Required lighting for this approach is the PAPI, MALSR, and HIRL. a True b False 9. Select the true statement(s) regarding the landing minimums. a Use of the minimums shown requires the use of a HUD to the DH. b The RA minimum of 152 ft is based on the terrain elevation on the final approach course. c The RA of 152 ft should be used as the altitude at which to perform a missed approach if the runway environment is not in sight.
Reproduced with permission of Jeppesen Sanderson. Reduced for illustrative purposes.
1. The note “TERPS AMEND 25B 21 JUL 2016,” on the lower left border of the chart indicates that a change to chart information, such as new radio frequency, has been made during the last chart revision. a True b False
Refer to the 71-2A ILS Rwy 8R SA CAT I for KIAH/IAH (Houston TX) when necessary to answer the following questions:
Not to be used for navigational purposes d The DA of 246 MSL must be used as the altitude at which to perform a missed approach if the runway environment is not in sight. Select the true statement(s) about the missed approach 10. procedure. a The 079° radial from IAH can be used to identify MKAYE intersection. b A climb to 3000 ft MSL is required before turning to intercept the bearing of 085° to BVP NDB. c The holding fix is an intersection based on the 038° radial from HUB and the 085° bearing from BVP. d The alternate missed approach is a mandatory part of the approach procedure when implemented by NOTAM.
14 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / March 2018
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FLIGHTSAFETY INSTRUCTOR TRUST AD - PROPILOT - MARCH 2018 ISSUE - Trim: 8.375” w x 10.875” d Terminal Checklist 3-18lyt MQS/RH/CS.indd 15
Bleed: 8.625” w x 11.125” d 2/26/18 12:08 PM
Answers to TC 3/18 questions 1.
b The amendment note alerts pilots that an update to the chart procedure has been made. The chart dates in the heading section indicate a change to any information. If a procedural update has been made, a procedural amendment reference date is located on the lower left border of approach charts, which includes the amendment number and procedure amendment reference date. The “CHANGES” note at the bottom left corner of the chart indicates what changes were made. In this case, the TDZE and minimums.
a, b, c, e SA in the approach title and procedural note 1 in the Briefing Strip specify the requirements of SA (special aircrew and aircraft certification required). Procedural note 2 indicates that ADF is required (the missed approach course is based on an NDB). Note 3 states “GPS or Radar Required.” According to AC 120-29A, Criteria for Approval of Category I and Category II Weather Minima for Approach, all US Category I operating minimums below 1/2 statute mile (RVR2400) are based on RVR.
3. a Note 1 in the landing minimums section indicates that the SA CAT I minimums require “specific OPSPEC, MSPEC, or LOA approval.” 4. a, c Ballflag note 1 on the plan view indicates that a mandatory altitude of 8000 applies to TTORO. Ballflag note 2 indicates a maximum airspeed of 210 KIAS at TTORO, LASSY, and WDLNS. A mandatory altitude of 7000 ft MSL applies only to WDLNS according to ballflag note 3. 5.
a, c According to the plan view, a mandatory altitude of 8000 ft MSL applies at TTORO. Then a minimum altitude of 7000 ft MSL applies to the course of 159° to BGBUK, 123° to LASSY, and 087° to DPLOY. The profile view shows a descent from 7000 ft MSL to 5000 ft MSL from DPLOY to JELLI.
a Note 1 in the landing minimums section says “Requires specific OPSPEC, MSPEC, or LOA approval and use of HUD to DH.” FAA Order 8400.13D, Procedures for the Evaluation and Approval of Facilities for Special Authorization Category I Operations and All Category II and III Operations, states that for SA CAT I operations, “the HUD must be operated in the mode used for CAT II or CAT III operations.”
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7. b, c MATON is located at D5.6 IIAH and 5.8 nm from the runway threshold as shown in the profile view. According to FAA Order 8400.13D, the commis sioned glidepath angle must be 3.0º or require the approval of FAA Flight Standards Service and the TCH, RDH, or ARDH must not exceed 60 ft. Procedural note 2 in the Briefing Strip indicates that the VGSI and ILS glidepath are not coincident. According to FAA Order 8260.19E, coincidental glidepath angles/vertical descent angles are within 0.2º with TCH values within 3 ft. 8.
b The landing minimums section does not provide optional minimums if the approach lighting system is out. According to FAA Order 8400.13D, required lighting for an SA CAT I is a SSALR, MALSR, or ALSF-1/ALSF-2, and HIRL. A VGSI (in this case, a PAPI) is not required.
9. a, b, c Note 1 in the landing minimums section indicates that the use of a HUD to the DH is required. The RA height is based on the distance from the landing threshold point (LTP) to the point that the decision altitude (DA) occurs. At this distance, the terrain elevation on the final approach course is subtracted from the DA to calculate the RA. The radar altimeter (RA) minimum should be used to determine the altitude at which to perform the missed approach because the accuracy of the barometric altimeter is much less than that of the radar altimeter. Using a barometric DA that can be off by as much as 75 ft based on the only preflight check required reduces safety margins. 10.
a, c, d A plan view inset shows the missed approach holding fix, MKAYE as the intersection of the 038° radial from HUB and the 085° bearing from BVP and the 079° radial from IAH. The missed approach instructions in the Briefing Strip and the missed approach icons indicate a climb to 3000 ft MSL while on the 085° bearing to and from BVP NDB. According to the AIM 5-4-21, the alternate missed approach procedure becomes mandatory if it is implemented by NOTAM. ATC may also issue the alternate missed approach when necessary, such as when a primary missed approach navaid fails during the approach.
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ruly love flying the Pilatus PC12. I can fly into major airports with the big boys, and ATC usually asks me to slow down because I’m catching up to preceding jet traffic. Then I can take off and go into very small, tight, uncontrolled airports. It really is the “Swiss Army Knife” of aviation. Lloyd Sharp ATP. Pilatus PC12NG Steely Eyed Aviator One Sky Eagle Point OR
Now, or in years past, what aircraft have you especially enjoyed piloting? Why?
ove the Gulfstream V. It’s such a capable airplane with great attributes. I can fly it for 12 hours, it can carry about 14 pax, has low final approach speeds and redundant systems to keep you safe. James Welsh ATP. Gulfstream G550/V/IV Pilot FL Aviation Morristown NJ
awker 800 for space, payload, and single engine climb. It’s a very fun and enjoyable aircraft to fly and the passengers love it. William Morse ATP/CFII. Beechjet 400 Owner & Pilot Out West Flyers Colorado Springs CO
aher Socata TBM 850 is my alltime favorite. Fastest, most economical single engine turboprop in its class. Blaine McCaleb Comm-Inst. Daher TBM850 Managing Dir Real Estate CTMI Alpharetta GA
njoyed the Bell 412. Lots of power, payload, airspeed, and 2 wonderful PWC PT6 engines for safety. Steve Bovie Comm-Multi-Inst/Helo. Bell 206 LongRanger Pilot Northern Indiana Public Svc Townsend GA
ing Air 300 I’m currently flying is reliable and has great performance. Been flying these for over 30 years, and they make me look good–no easy feat. In the late 70s and early 80s I also flew a Citation I, which is another favorite. Very straight forward, great performance and simple systems. Dan Upstrom ATP. King Air 300 Captain Flexsteel Industries East Dubuque IL
o question, I have enjoyed the Dassault Falcon 50 the most. Nicest handling aircraft I’ve ever flown, hands down. Thomas Conard ATP/CFI. Beechjet 400A First Officer Travel Management Co Dover PA
oth the Lear 35 and Lear 25 get my vote as the most enjoyable. Great looks, handling and performance. Craig Seither Comm-Multi-Inst/A&P. Learjet 25 Mechanic Inspector Miami Valley Aviation Fairfield OH
eally loved the Sikorsky S61N and Bell 212. Airbus EC130 was fun for tours and to be honest the R22 used correctly was fun too. If I could be gifted an aircraft at no cost, I’d happily accept the Bell 212. Marina Saettone ATP/Helo. Bell 206 L3/L4 Pilot Air-Evac Life Team/Saemarke Av Mesa AZ
y 2 favorites are the Challenger 601-3R and the B727-200. Both are solid aircraft that take a licking and keep on ticking. Landings were a dream (usually) and although a bit heavy (fore and aft), controls were accurate, effective and fun. And they were both fast for their era. I really enjoyed both of them. Others of note were the UH1 Huey which has a special place in my heart. Also had a great time on the Douglas C117D Skytrain. Zandy Depriest ATP. Challenger 601-3R Captain Contract Pilot Woodstock VA
lew the Canadair CRJ regional jet for 15 years as captain and loved every minute of it. We were the US launch customer and the airplane was top of the line technology at the time. It handled well, was easy to fly, FlightSafety Intl had excellent simulators, and my crew was always great to fly with. Now flying several aircraft as a contract pilot and am really enjoying the Cessna CJ series. Great airplane with decent speed, range and payload. Kevin Weilein ATP/CFII. Citation CJ1 & IAI Westwind 1124 Owner Corporate Aviation Services Angola IN
irbus 365NS is an outstanding helicopter in my opinion. It’s built to do anything you need it to do. And good luck trying to find another aircraft that is faster. It’ll be very hard for anyone to find better or faster support than Airbus. They do an all-around outstanding job. Joe Drummelsmith ATP/Helo/CFI. Airbus AS365N3 Chief Helicopter Pilot Drummelsmith Acquisitions Maineville OH
itation CE650 gets my vote. Swept wing, 0.85 Mach, 51,000 ft, and most everyone passing below you. Joshua Florian ATP/CFII. Citation CE650 Captain Crown Financial Houston TX
18 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / March 2018
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ow enjoy flying the Leonardo AW139. Great automation, avionics, and handling characteristics. In the past, I really enjoyed flying Falcon 20s in the USCG; they’re fun to fly and fast. From my days as a military instructor pilot, I enjoyed the Beechcraft T6B Texan. It has excellent power and rate of climb, a glass cockpit, a great air conditioning system, and is fantastic at aerobatics and teaching students instrument flying. I’ve really been blessed–I’ve enjoyed most of the aircraft I’ve flown. Michael O’Brien ATP/Helo/CFII. Leonardo AW139 Captain PHI Cantonment FL
ruly enjoy flying both types that I operate now, the King Air 350 and Challenger 601. The King Air is such a stable platform to work with. It makes an easy task of whatever you ask from it. And the Challenger has even more range, speed and elbow room. It’s nice to put the seat all the way back and stretch my legs out or just stand up in the Challenger. Neither aircraft is perfect, but both are quite enjoyable. Ryan Johnson ATP. Challenger 601 & King Air 350 Captain DC Air Denair CA
njoyed flying both the Gulfstream V and Beech 36 Bonanza. Truly outstanding engineering went into these wonderful aircraft. Gay Williams ATP/CFI. Gulfstream G550 Captain Gay Zena Williams Bethlehem PA
as to be the American Champion Citabria for me. It was a great tail dragger to learn on and all out fun to fly. King Air B200 is proven, dependable and versatile. Both are all around great aircraft. Rick Lewis Comm-Multi-Inst. King Air B200 Chief Pilot Air Services Spokane WA
essna Citation Encore is my favorite. Lots of excess power for takeoff and quick climb to FL390. Great ground speed too. And thrust reversers for those shorter or contaminated runways. Excellent machine. Too bad Cessna stopped production. Would have really been great with the newer avionics packages of today. Loren Carson ATP/CFII. Citation II/Encore/ CE208 Contract Pilot Phoenix AZ
friend of mine made a good observation when he said, “Your favorite airplane is normally the one you’re flying.” True enough for me, and certainly true for my current ride, a Citation CJ3+. It does everything well and the Garmin G3000 is the absolute best system for general aviation aircraft today. Our CJ3+ is amazing–flies at FL450 and gets there without step climbs, every time. Range of 1800 nm no problem and easy to fly single pilot. Marc Dulude ATP. Citation CJ3+ Chief Pilot Mild Air Bluffton SC
pent the past 15 flying the gentleman’s jet, the Hawker 800A. Cables and pulleys combined with the bull horn yoke make it a joy to hand fly. While many manufacturers have focused on creating aircraft that fly by pressing buttons and occasionally having a pilot use a joystick, it’s good to fly an aircraft that was designed to be flown. David Kobus ATP. Hawker 800A Chief Pilot CP Air Kensington CT
irst jet I ever flew was an old 1965 Hawker 1A and that’s still my favorite jet. But the King Air B200 that I currently fly is the plane I enjoy the most. It’s a real sweet ride with the Garmin G1000 avionics suite and Blackhawk XP52 engines. Keven Christopherson ATP/CFI. King Air B200 Chief Pilot PacifiCorp South Jordan UT
uring more than 30 years in the corporate aviation field, I was very fortunate to work for a large multinational company operating a large fleet of highly utilized aircraft. This afforded me the opportunity to fly aircraft like the King Air C90, Falcon 20, Fairchild F27/227, Gulfstream II, Falcon 900/EX, and Citation 560/650/750. Each was a fine aircraft when used in the manner for which they were designed. They all provided me great fun and satisfaction. And at times they all provided challenges, excitement and frustration. Looking back I believe the most rewarding for me personally was the Gulfstream II. Of course, today it pales next to the modern versions of that aircraft and all the other new arrivals. But at the time I flew the GII I just felt more confident and comfortable in its capabilities than in any other aircraft before or since. It did demand attention, but also offered power in reserve, performance aplenty, stable platform handling, easy crosswind landings, and trailing link gear which always makes you look good. It was just plain fun to fly. Dick Del Frate ATP/CFII. Falcon 900EX & Citation X Former Av Mgr/Chief Pilot CNH America Crossville TN
eally enjoyed flying the Bell 206BIII for its versatility, Nodamatic suspension, maneuverability, and auto-rotative capability. Also the Boeing CH47C Chinook for load carrying capability. And it was fun to fly with the stability augmentation system off. Was smooth in cruise, excellent gun platform, great cross-country ship. Love the PC12/45 too with its short field performance. Excellent IFR and cross-country platform for medical and cargo missions. The venerable Cessna 172 is a perfect training airplane for student and instructor. Finally, the Gulfstream II and III were great cross-country and IMC platforms with fantastic performance. John Keller ATP/CFI/Helo. Citation CJ1 Owner & Dir of Operations Keller Aviation Services Intl Cave Creek AZ
20 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / March 2018
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4.25” W x 10.875” H (plus .125 bleed on top, bottom, left) Ad_Pro Pilot_TBP (MSB)_Mar18_PRINT.pdf
o this point in my career the aircraft I have enjoyed the most is the Falcon 2000LXS. EASy avionics package is a pleasure to work with. This aircraft offers excellent flexibility with its 4000 nm range and its ability to operate in and out of relatively short runways. The cabin is very spacious and comfortable for our passengers. The ability to use an app to operate cabin controls and entertainment for our passengers is also a nice feature. In addition, it has good fuel efficiency and lower cost of operation compared to others in its class. John McKeever ATP. Falcon 50 & King Air 350 Captain Aviation Charters Deptford NJ
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ay back in 1971 I was flying a Bell 206 for a company in the DC area, but after 2 engine issues it was time to find something else. I discovered Vought Helicopters was formed to get into the rotary wing business, so I took a demo in an Allouette III and we bought it. Even after 3300 hours it never let us down. I flew many other aircraft in may career, but still like the Allouette III the best. Gary Effers ATP/Helo/CFII. King Air 200 Line Captain Airtec Zebulon NC
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ur Gulfstream G650ER is really nice to fly. It goes fast and far. But my favorites are my Cessna 195 and Bucker Jungmann. They are classic, fun and unique, and always seem to get attention on the ramp. Beechcraft Staggerwing G model was one of my favorites. It had the style and feel you have to fly to fully understand how it handled. With only 20 ever made it’s at the top of my list. Best handling qualities hands down goes to the Bucker-Jungmann. A Stradivarius of biplanes and best flying plane of all time. Michael Meloche ATP. Gulfstream G650ER/V Dir of Flight Ops Air Lease Corp Alpine CA
o some contract flying on a Baron and Citation II, but of all the corporate aircraft I’ve flown, I like the King Air 300/350 the best. The fact that you can fill the tanks and the seats and go make it the most versatile airplane I know. Randy Mayfield ATP/CFII. Citation II & Baron Captain Contract Pilot Taylors SC
essna Conquest I and the Piper Meridian are my favorites. Both offer ease of flying, greath handling and good climb performance. Steve Thorson ATP/CFII/A&P. Conquest I Owner Thorson Aviation Mina SD
22 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / March 2018
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lying the Viking CL215 and 415 right now. They’re the best. Canadair made great airplanes. Got 2000 hrs of Caravan time and 800 hrs in the PC12. Both are amazing, but the PC12 is truly exceptional. I can fit 7 on board and fly in and out of a 1600 ft dirt strip at CZTB (Thunder Bay, Ontario). Wish I had gotten to fly the de Havilland DHC5 or DHC6, since they were great airplanes. Eric Tremblay ATP. Viking CL215/415 Captain Service Aerien Gouvernemental Montmagny QC Canada
njoy the Learjet 35. Simple, straightforward, great performance, versatile, and the feeling of a real sports car. Rich Miller Comm-Multi-Inst. Learjet 35 President AARO Ambulance Jet Service Miami FL
essna O1 Birddog and de Havilland DHC-2 Beaver were enjoyable to fly. Versatile and reliable with exceptional short field, rough terrain capability. And the Douglas DC9 is a solid workhorse–a real pilot’s airplane. I also think the CJ3 is about the perfect corporate aircraft for a small to medium company. It’s perfectly balanced for short field use, with good payload, range and cruise speed. John Howard ATP. Citation CJ3 Pilot Eagle Companies Sun City AZ
ots of favorites for me. Bell AH1G Cobra, King Air 200, Dassault Falcon 50, Agusta AW109C. Each of those was reliable, maneuverable, and all were intuitive to fly. Falcon 50 took me around the world at the equator and 76 times across the North Atlantic. Flew the King Air (Army and civilian) for thousands of hours on 5 continents. And the AW109C was just a beautiful and great flying helicopter. Craig Randall ATP/Helo/CFII. Bell 206 JetRanger Chairman The Rexford Penn Group Lyons OR
umber 1 favorite of all time is the Citation VII. Fast, big, easy to fly, and goes high. In years past, I’ve also enjoyed the Beechcraft Debonair, Bonanza and Baron. Fast, comfortable and easy to fly. Paul Maxwell Comm-Multi-Inst. Citation VII Owner & Pilot Barmax Memphis TN
or me it’s a tie between the AirCam and the RA390 Beechcraft Premier. One is for traveling and the other for the pure enjoyment of flying. Premier is a single pilot baby Hawker (which is my 2nd favorite). At ISA it’ll climb straight to FL410 and get on the step at .77M. It’s perfect for an Indianapolis to Florida shuttle with 4 pax. It has a huge cargo hold, so no issues with golf clubs or snow skis. AirCam is just a low and slow “flying Harley.” Picture a canoe with a high wing and twin engines in the pusher configuration and you have the AirCam. Jim Jacobi ATP/CFII. Premier I & King Air B100 Director of Ops Jacobi Aviation Services Noblesville IN
ver the years I’ve flown almost the whole Piper line and most of the Beechcraft line. If I had to pick a favorite, it would be the King Air 350. It’s a real joy to fly with good performance and great flying and landing characteristics. And it’s a very forgiving airplane to fly with one of the best safety records of corporate aircraft. Danny Culler Comm-Multi-Inst. King Air 200 Chief Pilot Eagle Carports Winston Salem NC
enjoyed the performance of the North American Sabreliner 60. Also the comfort of the Falcon 20 and the Citation for short runways. Rob Little Comm-Multi-Inst/CFII. King Air B200 Av Dept Mgr DGNB Ridgeland MS
24 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / March 2018
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hen flying gliders I enjoy the sailplanes made by Schemmpp-Hirth. Superior performance, dreamlike handling, fast and light on the controls. When flying airplanes I enjoy the incredible performance of the Pilatus PC6 Porter, and fun aerobatics in the Aerovodochody L39 Albatross jet. But the largest part of my flying heart belongs to helicopters, and then there’s only 1 that’s the best, the Airbus AS350. Whether offloading a barge with a longline in 40 kt winds in the Aleutians, or making 95 landings, half of them at 11,500 ft on a Helsinki day, or sampling at 18,000 ft with volcanologists, the AStar is unbeatable. Light, responsive, and direct on the controls, advanced technology with a super reliable Turbomeca engine, this helicopter is by far my favorite aircraft. Lambert De Gavere ATP/Helo/CFII. Airbus AS350B3+ Check Airman Era Helicopters Anchorage AK
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ilatus PC12 is an incredible and amazingly versatile aircraft. Absolutely love it. Jodi Novak ATP/CFII. King Air B300 Captain GAMA Aviation Fowlerville MI
he Challenger 350S is a very nice flying airplane. Tons of performance, great avionics. It’s a very comfortable and roomy jet to fly across the country for hours at a time. Grant Johnson ATP. Challenger 350S Captain NetJets Blaine MN
earjet for the performance. Flying a Learjet 55 now for work, and having a ball. Glen Derscheid ATP. Learjet 55 Pilot Grancor Aviation Scottsdale AZ
ave to say that I enjoy flying Citations in the jet category for their reliability, safety record, simplicity and handling characteristics. In the turboprop world my top choices would be the King Air 250 and 350 for the same basic reasons that I like Citations. Jim Thorne ATP/CFII. Citation CJ1 Chief Pilot Marck Industries Boise D’Arc MO
ince I started flying in 1983, I always admired the Learjet. Now, with 12,000 hrs in the Lear, I guess I’m partial to it. Probably too late to change now, but honestly I wouldn’t change anything in the past 28 years of flying the 25s, 35s, 55s and a 31. I couldn’t have had a more enjoyable career. Joey Jet ATP/CFII. Learjet 55/35 Director of Ops Joey Jet Inc Deerfield Beach FL
2/27/18 4:01 PM
PlaneSense receives 1st operational Pilatus PC-24 Portsmouth-based fractional operator will fly 6 of the new Swiss-built twin-jets that are powered by Williams FJ44-4A-QPM and have Honeywell ACE avionics. Standing by the PC-24 are L–R are Pilatus Business Aircraft President & CEO Thomas Bosshard, PlaneSense CEO & President George Antoniadis and Pilatus Aircraft Ltd CEO Markus Bucher.
The world’s first PC-24, MSN 101, ready for delivery at Pilatus Business Aircraft’s facility at BJC (Broomfield CO).
By Mike Potts Senior Contributing Writer
Photos courtesy Pilatus
hursday February 8 was a day of great excitement at PSM (Portsmouth NH). The 1st production Pilatus PC-24 twin-engine business jet made its public debut in the hangars of PlaneSense, the fractional operator that is the lead customer for the all-new Pilatus jet program. A crowd of more than 100 customers, employees and executives of Pilatus, PlaneSense, engine builder Williams, and avionics supplier Honeywell were on hand for the day-long festivities at PlaneSense headquarters at PSM. Pilatus CEO Martin Bucher noted that the new PC-24 is the culmination of a 12-year development program costing approximately $500 million, financed entirely by Pilatus. “We are immensely proud to have our long-time partner PlaneSense
take delivery of our first production aircraft,” Bucher said. “The PC-24 raises the bar in private jet travel and perfectly embodies our principles of comfort and service,” said PlaneSense President and CEO George Antoniadis. “We are very excited to be taking delivery of the first PC-24 in the world.” On January 30 the new PC-24 had flown from Pilatus headquarters in Stans, Switzerland, where it was built, to Pilatus North America headquarters at BJC (Broomfield CO). There the aircraft was officially handed over to PlaneSense on Feb 7 in a private ceremony attended by the Pilatus dealers in the Americas. Later that day the aircraft flew to PSM. The PC-24 was flown by PlaneSense pilots who had already completed training at FlightSafety International’s facility in Dallas, where the training company has a newly-certificated Level D PC-24 simu-
lator. PlaneSense maintenance personnel have also completed training at FSI. “Everything is in place for a seamless introduction,” Antoniadis noted. PlaneSense has already begun selling shares in the PC-24, with a base share equaling 1/16th of the aircraft. The 1st revenue flight for the PC-24 is expected in March. In discussing development of the program, Bucher said the PC-24 traces its roots back to design studies for a follow-on aircraft to the PC-12 but with more range and speed. Those studies began in the 2005–2006 timeframe. The cargo door requirement, for example, was a carry-over from the PC-12. By 2010 the concept had evolved into a twin-engine jet and the design program for the PC-24 was launched. Actual design and development of the jet took approximately 7 years, culminating with FAA and EASA certification on Dec 7, 2017. There were 3 flying proto-
26 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / March 2018
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Photos by Mike Potts
Employees of Pilatus Business Aircraft hand over the first of 6 PC-24s to long-time Pilatus customer PlaneSense.
PC-24 carries up to 11 pax + 1 pilot. Pax seats can be quickly added or removed, and the aft partition is movable so you can easily enlarge the passenger cabin or increase the baggage compartment volume.
types built and used for the flight test program along with 2 static test articles.
Standard equipment in the Pilatus ACE cockpit by Honeywell includes SVS, autothrottle, graphical flight planning, Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS II) and Localizer Performance with Vertical (LPV) guidance.
The flightdeck is equipped with the Advanced Cockpit Environment (ACE) avionics system developed by Honeywell that is unique to the PC24. It features 4, 12-inch screens and includes a synthetic vision system, auto-throttles, graphical flight planning, TCAS II, LPV guidance capability and ADS-B in and out.
The PC-24’s cruise speed is 440 knots (Mach .74) and it’s certified to FL450. Maximum range is 2112 nm at long range power and 1941 nm at maximum cruise power. Maximum takeoff weight is 17,968 lbs. The aircraft features a balanced field length of 2810 ft from a sea-level dry paved runway, although it is configured to operate from gravel or grass runways as well. The PC-24 is 55 ft 2 inches long and has a wingspan of 55 ft 9 inches. It stands 17 ft 4 inches tall at the top of its T-tail. Internally the cabin is 5 ft 7 inches wide and 5 ft 2 inches tall with a flat floor. The first 8 PC-24s are slated to be completed in Stans, after which aircraft intended for the western hemisphere market will be flown to the BJC facility for completion. The PlaneSense PC-24 aircraft will be completed in Stans like its PC-12s.
Single pilot ops
PlaneSense will get 6 PC-24s
The new PC-24 is certified for single-pilot operation although PlaneSense will fly it with 2 pilots. It features a 4.3x4.1 ft cargo door, unique to jets in this class.
The PC-24 just delivered is the 1st of 6 that PlaneSense is scheduled to receive by the end of 2019. Initially it will augment a fleet of 4 Nextant XTi jets that PlaneSense currently
Williams FJ44-4A-QPM engines The PC-24 is powered by 2 Williams FJ44-4 engines developing 3420 pounds of thrust, with 3600 available in reserve. The starboard side engine features a unique Quiet Power Mode (QPM) developed by Williams, which allows it to act as an onboard auxiliary power unit.
Honeywell ACE avionics
operates, along with its fleet of more than 35 Pilatus PC-12NGs. PlaneSense acquired its first PC-12 more than 23 years ago and recently took delivery of its 62nd new PC-12. Pilatus first showed a mockup of the PC-24 at EBACE in 2014 and signed contracts for the first 84 aircraft during the show, including the 6 PlaneSense orders. No further orders have been accepted since, but Pilatus says it expects to resume taking orders in 2019.
PlaneSense continues to grow PlaneSense was founded as a fractional operator in 1996. Last year the company’s planes landed in 47 of the 48 contiguous United States as well as in Canada, Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, the Bahamas and in Bermuda. “Have airplane, will travel,” Antoniadis observed.
Mike Potts is senior editorial contributor for Professional Pilot. He was in corporate communications for Beech and Raytheon Aircraft between 1979 and 1997.
28 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / March 2018
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YES, IT LOOKS GOOD. MAKES CHIEF PILOTS LOOK EVEN BETTER. The PC-12 NG is part versatile role player, part secret weapon. Its short-field dominance lets you say yes to more trips. Its operating costs come in much, much lower than twins and jets. The large cabin is a joy for passengers. And its renowned reliability is backed by the industry’s best support. This is cost-effective high performance, any way you look at it. Pilatus Business Aircraft Ltd • +1 303 465 9099 • www.pilatus-aircraft.com
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4/13/2017 8:58:23 AM 2/27/18 10:24 AM
Schedulers & Dispatchers 2018 Long Beach hosts record-breaking NBAA S&D show Feb 6–9. By Brent Bundy
Photos by Brent Bundy
Phoenix Police Officer-Pilot AS350, AW119, Cessna 210/182/172
he Long Beach CA Convention Center was this year’s choice for the 2018 NBAA Schedulers & Dispatchers annual gathering. Breaking records once again, over 2900 attendees, 150 of them first-timers, perused the more than 550 exhibitor booths on the soldout convention hall floor during the 4-day event running Feb 6-9. Schedulers & Dispatchers Chairwoman Robyn Carpenter welcomed everyone at the opening day general session, highlighting the conference theme of “Pursue Your Passion.” NBAA Pres & CEO Ed Bolen provided business aviation world upS&D Chairwoman Robyn Carpenter (L) and NBAA Pres & CEO Ed Bolen present L Brands Dir of Shuttle Ops & Flt Admin Lisa Swartzwelder with the Outstanding Achievement & Leadership Award.
From Mexico’s Manny Aviation Services were (L–R) Manuel Romero Vargas, María José Lardizábal Arellano, and Stacy Stewart.
The Signature Flight Support team was on hand to welcome show-goers and present the global services they offer.
dates, particularly on the reignited topic of attempts to privatize the US air traffic control system. Bolen also presented the 10th annual S&D Outstanding Achievement & Leadership Award to Lisa Swartzwelder, L Brands director of shuttle operations and flight administration. After S&D Monetary & Training Award Scholarships were announced, 4-time Winter Olympian Ruben Gonzalez gave an exciting presentation on chasing your dreams and never quitting. The 2nd day general session featured key-note speaker Captain Shaesta Waiz, the first female civilian pilot from Afghanistan. She recently became the youngest woman to complete an around-the-world solo flight in a single-engine plane, a Beechcraft Bonanza. She spoke about the complexities of planning the trip and the challenges she faced along the way. In addition to the host of networking opportunities available on the show floor, there were also over 30 educational sessions offered covering a variety of areas including weather planning, mission scheduling, international operations, and many more. Once again, this year
The global Jet Aviation group was well represented by team members from several of their locations. Meeting clients at their exhibit were (L-R) Mktg & Comm San Juan Frances Ryan, Mgr PR & Events Patricia McNamee, SVP & Gen Mgr Don Haloburdo, Mktg Mgr-FBO & Staffing Sonia Perrone, Rgnl Sales Dir Michael Sylvester, Rgnl Dir FBO Svcs SE Region Nuno Da Silva, Sales Dir Nazee Sajedi, and Cust Svc Mgr San Juan Noemi Corporan.
the S&D Committee demonstrated their commitment to those in need through their Pay It Forward clothing donation drive. Show-goers offered up several racks and boxes full of business attire that will be distributed to local charities with the hope of helping to kick start the careers of future business aviation professionals. With another highly-successful event in the books, the 30th anniversary of the S&D Conference will be held next Jan 29–Feb 1 in San Antonio TX.
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From Pentastar Aviation were (L–R) Sales Supt Rep Kimberly Massa, Acft Charter Sales Whitney Gates, Flt Ops Mgr Patrick Tschudi, Trip Coord Vanessa North, Cust Svc Rep Ann Roy, Mgr Charter Sales Jim Davis and Flight Follower Dan Renders.
Greeting customers at the Elliott Av booth were Cust Svc Supvs Angie Johnson and Charlie Stockton.
Now with 4 locations, Wilson Air Ctr provides topnotch service. (L–R) Cust Svc Mgr Chris Bell, Cus Svc Rep Adriana Rodriguez, Rgnl Cust Svc Mgr April Helms and Mktg Spclst Margie Anderson.
At the show for World Fuel Services were (L–R) Data Analyst Vandhana Sridhar, SVP NA Sales Malcom Hawkins, Mgr Trade Shows & Events Kassidy Gala and Sales Exec Ryan James. West Star Aviation’s offerings were explained by (L–R) Cust Svc Rep-Lead Sheli Mitchell and Line Prog Mgr Teresa Garner.
Meridian offers FBO services and more on both coasts with locations at Teterboro NJ and Hayward CA. On hand were (L–R) Dir Mktg Kirk Stephen, VP of Av Sales Michael Moore and Av Sales Exec Robert Platten.
Million Air was represented by (L–R) Dir FBO Safety & Ops Rick Boyce, Dir Sales & Biz Dvlp Janette Licastrino, Cust Svc Mgr Lupe Perez, Dir Mktg Allie Woolsey and VP Intl Ops John Bridi.
EPIC has been providing aviation fuel and other services for over 35 years. In the booth were Rgnl Sales Mgr Donna Sanford and Inside Sales Acct Rep Corbin Collier. With 69 locations there’s almost always an Atlantic FBO close by. (L–R) Dir Cust Svc Standards Traci Fremin, Sr Mgr Sales & Cust Svc Standards Robin Kercher, Rgnl Client Relations Mgr Rhonda Davis and Mktg Comm Spclst Ivy Cueto.
A must-have for pilots these days is ForeFlight. Demoing their product were (L–R) Enterprise Acct Rep Ben Morgan, Mktg Prod Designer Alex Montgomery and Enterprise Acct Exec Trever Lilya.
With Duncan Aviation are (L–R) SW US Rgnl Mgr Alfredo Garcia and FBO Mgr Ben Hammond. Currently in Denver and London with Dubai coming soon, XJet provides top-level FBO services. Present were Flt Supt Concierge Jacqulin Bromiley and Sales Consultant Tom Perkins.
Castle & Cooke provides FBO services from the original location in HI and their stateside bases in CA and WA. Shown are (L–R) Biz Dvlp & Mktg Mgr Candace Schroeder, VP Av Ops & Biz Dvlp Tony Marlow and Gen Mgr & Controller Vikram Dhaliwal.
Gogo Business Aviation offers a variety of inflight connectivity packages. Explaining their product were (L–R) Rgnl Sales Assc Sean Aguirre and Rgnl Sales Mgr Andy Fernandes.
From the legendary Clay Lacy Aviation group were Line Mgr Matt Dill and Dir Biz Dvlp/Sr Charter Coord Nafin Eyoub.
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Representing Phillips 66 at their “FBOasis” were (L–R) Supv Contracts & Cust Svc Scott Hill, “The Company” Brand Mgr Madison Sattler, Unbranded Sales Rep Scott Goekler, Natl Acct Rep Dennis Stafford, Av Acct Rep Seth Thompson, and Dir Biz Dvlp Kimberly Ruth.
Greeting customers for National Jets were (L–R) Gen Mgr & Dir of Safety Reggie Nichols, Charter Sales Rep John Clark, FBO/CFR 145 Sales & Mktg Mgr Christopher Salley, and VP/COO Mark Binko. Banyan Air provides 1st class FBO services at Fort Lauderdale Exec Airport. Here are Dir of Cust Supt Jon Tonko and Cust Supt & Mktg Giselle Nieves.
Signature TECHNICAir offers a wide variety of MRO services at their 18 locations, including 3 in the UK. On hand were (L–R) Sales Assoc Justin Roberts and MRO Sales Dir Randy Deal.
Demonstrating the Satcom Direct communications equipment and services were (L–R) Mgr Av Tax & Financial Reporting Solutions Ryan DeMoor, Prod Mgr Sue Sophabmixay, Dir Software Svcs Isie Wong, Prod Mgr Alexandra Baer, Client Solutions Mgr John Kemnitz and Rgnl Sales Mgr West Region Steve Borger.
ICCS provides services in Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central & South America. (L–R) Cust Svc Mgr Gloria Ramirez, Cust Care Spclst Eduardo Lepe, Flight Planner Alberto Orozco, CEO Nelson Dumas, Dir of Ops Miguel Ballesteros, and from Kalitta Charters, Pt 135 Dispatch Mgr Joel Munson and Flt Following Supv Robert D’Alimonte.
Showing off their “Top Gun” attitude! (L–R) Partner Mike Wright, Mgr FBO Sales & Mktg for Business Jet Center Cat Clay, “Maverick”, and from Business Jet Access: Biz Mgr Kellie Roby, Client Svcs Mgr Jamie Thies and Gen Mgr Chris Wright. Harrods Aviation of London team were appropriately dressed to represent their country. (L–R) Sales Mgr Rob Swan, Dir Sales & Mktg Will Holroyd and Sales Mgr Nathan Farrow.
The Cutter Aviation group brought a WWII theme to the show. From their Phoenix AZ base of operations were (L–R) Rgnl Mgr Richard Campbell, VP & CFO Steven Prieser, Gen Mgr Tara Creel-Cesena, Actor Kyle Zingler and Dir of Mktg & Comm Genaro Sanchez.
Irving Oil is a leading energy company in Eastern Canada and New England. Meeting attendees were (L–R) Jet Fuel Sales Louisa Lamb, Flt Svcs Coord Cathy Lorenzen and Sr Mgr Jet Sales & Ops Susan Duffley. Bohlke International Airways is open for business while rebuilding from recent hurricanes in St Croix, US Virgin Islands. At the exhibit was Mktg Dir Ashley Bouzianis. Representing San Francisco Bay-area based KaiserAir were (L–R) Gen Mgr Bart Amond, Santa Rosa FBO Gen Mgr Bronwyn Lindsay and Sched Supv Tina Ribeiro.
Victor global jet charter recently acquired aviation services company RocketRoute, both of whom maintain relations with Air BP. Members of each group gathered at the show. (L–R) BP Gen Av Bulk Acct Mgr Thiago Simao, BP Gen Av Key Acct Mgr Samantha Webb, RocketRoute VP Steve Woods, BP Sales & Mktg Leanne Keats, Victor Ops Josh Fletcher and Victor Commercial & Ops Mgr Elisa Luu.
Desert Jet Center in Palm Springs CA is an all-encompassing provider of services. (L–R) Charter Coord Kristin Straszek, Gen Mgr Brad Elliott, Charter Sales Kristin Gilliam and Gen Mgr/VP Biz Dvlp Steve Main.
FlightSafety International offers scheduler and dispatcher training along with their numerous flight training options. Answering questions were (L–R) Rgnl Sales Mgr 135 Ops Tina Hosseinzadeh, Center Sales Mgr Luciano Cacciapuoti and Rgnl Sales Mgr Jason Svoboda.
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L O CATI O N S
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FLIGHT DEPT PROFILE
Dr John Hajjar brings health and hope worldwide Jerry Innella is the PIC who flies with his son as co-captain and wife as flight attendant in the doctor’s Falcon 900. By Mike Potts
r John Hajjar is one of the most successful urological surgeons in the northeastern US. He has created a network of surgical centers in the greater New Jersey metro area as well as in Florida. He uses a Dassault Falcon 900 to help support his business, which continues to grow with the benefit of business aviation. The road to business success has been a long one. Dr Hajjar originally came to the US from his native Aleppo, Syria as a teenager. He settled in Paterson NJ, where he volunteered at a local hospital and developed an interest in medicine. After earning his undergraduate degree from St Johns University in Jamaica NY in 1977, he attended medical school at Georgetown University in Washington DC, earning his medical degree in 1981. He then completed surgical and urological training at New York University in Manhattan.
Dr John Hajjar, surgeon, businessman and philanthropist, seen in his ofﬁce with a model of the Dassault Falcon 900 he uses to build his business.
Following his residency, Dr Hajjar began practicing urology in northern New Jersey in 1987 and quickly developed a reputation as both a skilled surgeon in urology and a talented practice manager. Within 5 years he had built the largest urological group practice in the state. In 1992, Dr Hajjar was among the 1st physicians in the nation to recognize that advances in surgical techniques and technology, some of which he pioneered, made it possible to conduct urological surgical procedures in a safe, convenient and cost-efficient outpatient facility. Accordingly, he founded one of the 1st ambulatory
Photos by Mike Potts
Senior Contributing Editor
surgery centers in Northern New Jersey, which recorded excellent patient outcomes and high patient satisfaction scores. Ultimately, that ambulatory surgery center would serve as a prototype for 15 more centers operated by Surgem LLC, a management company Dr Hajjar founded in 2005. Dr Hajjar created MMB Management to satisfy his travel needs to the expanding network of surgery centers. Some of the new surgical centers were located in Florida, and his growing reputation found him in demand as a speaker in both the US and in Europe.
On the ramp at ABE are flightcrew members for the Dassault Falcon 900 operated by MMB Management Advisory Services and chartered through New World Aviation. L–R are Captain Jerry Innella, Cabin Service Representatives Kathleen Innella and Betty Innella, Chief Pilot and Captain Jerry Innella and CSR Alex Innella.
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MMB Management Advisory Services father and son flightcrew aboard the company’s Dassault Falcon 900. At left is Chief Pilot and Capt Jerry Innella and at right his son, Capt Jerry Innella.
Meeting Jerry Innella Dr Hajjar was frustrated with airline service and so became a business aviation charter customer. By 2006 he was chartering fairly regularly, and that’s when he encountered Jerry Innella, who was an aircraft captain for a charter activity. Innella’s 1st flight experience was actually in helicopters. With no aviation background at all, he joined the Army in 1965, hoping to learn to fly. Before long he was a Chinook helicopter pilot in Vietnam. Returning home in 1967 he was assigned to a helicopter training base in Savannah, where, in his spare time, he earned all his civilian flight ratings. In 1969, Innella separated from the Army rather than do another Vietnam tour. “I had a wife and son,” he recalls, “And it was getting bad over there. When I first went over, there were 18 from my training class and we all came home; 5 went back for a 2nd tour and none of them returned home.”
From helicopters to fixed-wing At Fabergé, Innella was initially hired as a helicopter pilot for their 2 Bell 205 JetRangers. Fabergé also had a Saberliner and a Dassault Falcon 20, and Innella’s job also included flying FO on the fixed-wing aircraft. In less than a year he was full time on FW and remained an FW pilot professionally ever since. Innella would fly with Fabergé for the next decade, but then the airline bug bit and he got hired at United in 1979–only to be furloughed in 1980. He soon landed an FW job at Seagram’s based at HPN (White Plains NY) flying their Gulfstream IIs and IIIs,
a Dassault Falcon 50 and a Beechcraft B200 King Air. In 1984, United recalled Innella and he would fly with them as a captain and check airman on Boeing 757/767 aircraft for the next 21 years until reaching mandatory retirement age. Not ready to quit flying, going back to business aviation seemed a logical choice, and he landed a job as a charter pilot on Bombardier Learjet 55s and Learjet 35s with LR Aviation, based in at ABE (Lehigh Valley Intl, Allentown PA). One of his regular clients was Dr Hajjar.
A tie between Dr Hajjar and Jerry Innella By 2006 Dr Hajjar and his wife Sharon were becoming more frequent charter customers, and Innella 1 day suggested that perhaps the doctor should consider aircraft ownership. After some discussion, Dr Hajjar hired Innella in October 2006 with the initial goal of finding an airplane. Innella considered several options but had pleasant memories of the Falcon 20 he had flown at Fabergé and concluded that was the right choice. He located a suitable aircraft and after conducting an extensive pre-buy inspection, acquired it. On February 1, 2007, Innella began flying the Falcon 20 for Dr Hajjar and his family. “We did a lot of Atlantic crossings with that airplane,” Innella recalls. “Dr Hajjar was doing a lot of business in Europe at that time and we would do Gander nonstop to London or Paris all the time.” As operations with the Falcon 20 got underway Innella had a suggestion: A flight attendant would provide a nice upscale touch. Moreover, he suggested that his wife, Betty, would
be a good candidate. Dr Hajjar liked the idea and interviewed Betty, finding her to be an excellent choice. And so Dr Hajjar’s Falcon 20 became a family operation with Jerry Innella in the captain’s seat and wife Betty taking care of passengers in the cabin. Betty and Sharon Hajjar would soon become close friends. A little more than 2 years later, in 2009, Dr Hajjar’s flight operation became even more of a family affair. Back in 1966, while Jerry was in Vietnam, Betty had given birth to a son. Believing her husband might not come home, she named the boy Jerry Innella in honor of his dad. Like his dad, young Jerry grew up to be a pilot, although the son went a Naval ROTC route and then flew Northrop Grumman E-2Cs from the USN aircraft carriers America (CV66) and later the George Washington (CVN-73). Later the younger Jerry would fly C-9s (military DC-9s) toward the end of a 20-year career in the Navy. Also like his dad, young Jerry joined United Airlines, and at 1 point the 2 actually flew together, with Jerry senior serving as check airman as young Jerry got qualified in 757/767s. Also like his dad, young Jerry got furloughed from United and was looking for a job just about the same time in 2009 that senior Jerry was looking for a new copilot. Deciding that life as a corporate pilot might prove more stable than airline flying, young Jerry went to FlightSafety for a Falcon 20 type rating. He soon joined his dad in the cockpit, making Dr Hajjar’s operation even more of a family endeavor.
From Falcon 20 to Falcon 900 Toward the end of 2012, the Falcon 20 was fully depreciated and Dr Hajjar had decided he would like to fly in a bigger airplane. The 20 was soon sold off to another doctor and on February 3, 2013 Jerry and Jerry Innella began flying Dr Hajjar in a newly-acquired Dassault Falcon 900. The new aircraft was equipped with Honeywell avionics including FMZ2000 FMS and a 5-tube EFIS system very similar to what was aboard United’s Boeing 757/767 aircraft. The Innellas were immediately at home with the new system. Today Dr Hajjar’s flight department operates under the banner of MMB Management Advisory Services, a real estate company that owns surgery centers, oncology centers, and radiation centers, as well as supporting businesses including warehousing and
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The cabin is still staffed by Betty Innella, now augmented by her daughter-in-law Kathleen her granddaughter, Alex. The 3 take turns, with 1 cabin service representative staffing every flight. Pilot training and aircraft mx
MMB Management Advisory Services cabin crew members include Cabin Service Representatives Betty Innella, Alex Innella and Kathleen Innella. One of the 3 CSRs is aboard every flight.
transportation services. The aircraft itself is owned by MMB Aircraft Leasing. MMB represents the initials of the first names of Dr Hajjar’s 3 sons, Marc, Michael and Brian.
Sovereign Health Systems Dr Hajjar retired from his medical practice in 2014 and became a fulltime business executive. To celebrate the retirement, Jerry, Jerry and Betty Innella took the doctor and his wife on a round-the-world trip in the 900. Today Dr Hajjar devotes all of his professional energies to the growth of Sovereign Health Systems, his fully integrated health care operation providing clinical services including urgent care, outpatient surgical care, cancer treatment, primary care, and specialty care in a variety of areas. “Business aviation has played a critical role in the growth and overall success of my business,” Dr Hajjar says. “I rely on my airplane and the professionals that staff it, both in the cockpit and in the cabin. They are like an extended part of my family.” As a measure of how successful Dr Hajjar has been as a businessman, Ernst and Young named him Entrepreneur of Year in the Health Systems category in 2014. In addition to his professional pursuits, Dr Hajjar and his wife Sharon are active philanthropists who support numerous healthcare, educational, and other charities, institutions, and initiatives. The aircraft plays a key role in supporting these activities as well. Typical trips for Dr Hajjar begin at the Meridian FBO at TEB (Teterboro NJ), with BCT (Boca Raton FL) being the most frequent destination as it is
close to his Florida surgery centers. Destinations throughout the US and Europe are not uncommon. Additionally, about 2 years ago, MMB began chartering the Falcon 900. For charter operations, trips departing from TEB typically begin at the Signature FBO. Other typical charter starting points are PHI (Philadelphia PA), HPN or ABE. For many years Innella kept the Falcon 20 based at TEB close to Dr Hajjar’s offices, but a few years back he relocated the aircraft to ABE near the New Jersey border. “It’s so much cheaper to hangar it there,” explains Innella. “I can make 4 or 5 trips between ABE and TEB for what I save in hangar rent.” The Falcon 900 is based at New World Aviation at ABE. New World has a fueling contract with Signature, prompting MMB to use their FBOs and acquire fuel there when possible. When there is no Signature FBO on the field, fuel is purchased through Avfuel, Universal, or other locations where MMB has contracts. New World also administers the department’s Safety Management System.
Innellas in the cockpit The Innellas serve as co-captains, with 1 taking the left seat for a full day, then swapping places on the following day. Innella Sr manages the airplane and flight operation and handles administrative tasks, while the younger Innella writes manuals and checklists requiring FAA approval, as well as keeping up to date with Wyvern and ARGUS, both of which list MMB as a top-rated operation. Innella Jr also keeps the department’s iPads current.
Flight training is handled through FlightSafety International, usually at the Wilmington DE facility, which has a Falcon 900 simulator. The department uses Computer Training Systems (CTS) On Line training to augment the FSI program, with each pilot taking an online course every quarter. “We each average 40 to 50 hours annually,” notes Innella Sr. Training is also augmented through Inflight Training Solutions, which provides flight attendant training and dunker training at a local hotel for all flight personnel. Primary maintenance is handled by New World Aviation, which recently installed wifi and a new phone system in the 900. Heavier maintenance is usually handled by Dassault’s facility in Wilmington, where an extensive pre-buy inspection was done on the airplane before MMB closed the sale. The company also uses Phoenix Rising, a small Falcon-only maintenance shop in Bartlesville OK. The Falcon 900 is on Honeywell’s MSP program for its Garrett TFE-731 engines. The aircraft is also protected by Honeywell’s HAPP program for the avionics, which Innella says the manufacturer is still supporting very well. MMB’s Falcon 900 flew approximately 300 hours last year, a little more than the 250 it had averaged in prior years. Among its flight activity last year were 5 trips to Puerto Rico to support recovery activity in the wake of Hurricane Maria. MMB Aviation is an excellent example of a small flight department serving the needs of its owner along with charter customers who benefit from its availability. Jerry Innella Sr’s experience in creating a new flight department around the needs of a former charter customer presents an excellent example of how energy and creativity can combine to make a second career for aviators looking for a new opportunity. Mike Potts is senior editorial contributor for Professional Pilot. He was in corporate communications for Beech and Raytheon Aircraft between 1979 and 1997.
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Buyers of big bizjets want to fly non-stop continent-to-continent Demand for ever-greater range seeks to avoid fuel stops and to open areas previously thought too distant. By Don Van Dyke ATP/Helo/CFII. F28, Bell 222 Pro Pilot Canadian Technical Editor
f you’re a top executive of a multinational corporation, you want to save time. And if your travel plans take you to different continents and unusual destinations, an executive jet with over 5000 miles of range and a comfortable cabin is what you want. And that 5000 nm range is now up to 7500 with some exec jet builders. This article gives a rundown of top-selling long-range business jets. We list their performance specs and other vital attributes. We also look ahead to some of the next generation long-range executive jets. It is a snapshot in time during 2018 and a short look to the future. Probably even longer range,
higher-flying business jets are in the works. This is not a speculation article but a rundown of what’s now available or will be soon. Longer flight times intensifies demand by the buyers that these aircraft have a high degree of comfort with well-built seats, luggage access, crew & pax rest space, and fine catering availability to meet the long-range mission demands. Environmental concerns of the customers set the bar high for pleasant cabin pressurization, low interior noise and reliable connectivity for worldwide communications while aloft. At the top of the list in 2018 is the Gulfstream G650ER with a range of over 7500 nm. It can fly non-stop from Dubai to Atlanta. The forthcoming Gulfstream G600 will have a 7100 nm range.
Bombardier will soon have its Global 7000 entering service. It will have a range over 7000 nm and be able to fly non-stop from New York to Mumbai or Sydney to San Francisco. Dassault is grooming their Falcons for longer range while still retaining their impressive short-field and high-altitude performance. Embraer is working to increase the range of their Lineage line to over 5000 nm. And Cessna Citation is now building the clean-sheet Hemisphere, a new corporate jet that will also reach for a 5000 nm range. The Boeing Business Jet (BBJ) series comprises reconfigured airline models eager to serve the corporate executive jet market. And Airbus is following a similar strategy with tailored Airbus Corporate Jet (ACJ) models to secure a slice of the global bizjet demand.
Gulfstream Gulfstream G650ER G650ER Exec config 8 seats/max 19, M.90, 7500 nm, FL510, $69.4 million Technical Specifications
* G650, 7000 nm, 67.4 million
CABIN Seats (standard/max).................................8/19 Volume .................................................2138 ft³ Noise............................................................NA WEIGHTS BOW..................................................54,000 lbs MTOW.............................................103,600 lbs MLW..................................................83,500 lbs Payload w/max fuel..............................1800 lbs Fuel w/max payload...........................43,500 lbs Max fuel weight.................................48,200 lbs PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC).............M.85/488 ktas High speed cruise.......................M.90/516 ktas Mmo........................................................M.925 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........7500 nm
POWERPLANT(S) Manufacturer.................................Rolls-Royce Model ..............................2 x BR700-725A1-12 MTOT..............................16,900 lbs (ISA+15°C)
AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW)..............................6476 ft Field length (MLW).................................2236 ft
AVIONICS Manufacturer.......................................Gulfstream Standard suite...................................PlaneView II
Cabin Length: 46.8 ft 25.7 ft
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Airbus Airbus ACJ319 ACJ319 Elite Elite Exec config 8 seats/max 124, M.82, 6750 nm, FL410, $87 million Technical Specifications CABIN Seats (standard/max).............................13/124 Volume .................................................5300 ft3 Noise............................................................NA WEIGHTS BOW..................................................96,450 lbs MTOW.............................................168,650 lbs MLW................................................137,790 lbs Payload w/max fuel................................520 lbs Fuel w/max payload...........................40,560 lbs Max fuel weight.................................72,560 lbs PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC)...........M0.78/447 ktas High speed cruise.....................M0.82/485 ktas Mmo......................................................M0.820 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........5994 nm
POWERPLANT(S) Manufacturer..........................................CFMI Model ....................................2 x CFM56-5B7/3 MTOT..............................27,000 lbs (ISA+29°C)
AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW)..............................6170 ft Field length (MLW).................................2220 ft
AVIONICS Manufacturer............................................Various Standard suite.................................................NA 7.3 ft Cabin Length: 78.8 ft 38.6 ft
Boeing Boeing BBJ BBJ Max Max 8 8 Exec config 8 seats/max 149, M.82, 6640 nm, FL410, $95.3 million Technical Specifications CABIN Seats (standard/max)..............................19/NA Volume ....................................................... NA Noise............................................................NA WEIGHTS BOW................................................110,000 lbs MTOW.............................................181,200 lbs MLW................................................152,800 lbs Payload w/max fuel..............................1886 lbs Fuel w/max payload...........................36,300 lbs Max fuel weight.................................69,814 lbs PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC).......................455 ktas High speed cruise.................................471 ktas Mmo......................................................M0.820 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........6640 nm
POWERPLANT(S) Manufacturer.....................................CFMI Model ............................................2 x LEAP-1B MTOT..............................28,000 lbs (ISA+15°C)
AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW)..............................6630 ft Field length (MLW).................................2440 ft
AVIONICS Manufacturer...................................................NA Standard suite.................................................NA
7.1 ft 40.3 ft
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Bombardier Bombardier Global Global 6000 6000 Exec config 13 seats/max 17, M.89, 6000 nm, FL510, $62.3 million Technical Specifications CABIN Seats (standard/max)...............................13/17 Volume .................................................2140 ft³ Noise...............................................51.0 dB SIL WEIGHTS BOW..................................................52,230 lbs MTOW...............................................99,500 lbs MLW..................................................78,600 lbs Payload w/max fuel..............................2804 lbs Fuel w/max payload...........................41,750 lbs Max fuel weight.................................45,050 lbs PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC)...........M0.85/470 ktas High speed cruise.....................M0.88/505 ktas Mmo......................................................M0.890 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........6000 nm
POWERPLANT(S) Manufacturer.................................Rolls-Royce Model ..............................2 x BR700-710A2-20 MTOT..............................14,750 lbs (ISA+20°C)
AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW)..............................6476 ft Field length (MLW).................................2236 ft
AVIONICS Manufacturer......................................Bombardier Standard suite............................................Vision 6.3 ft Cabin Length: 43.3 ft 25.5 ft
Bombardier Bombardier Global Global 7000 7000 Exec config 13 seats/max 17, M.90, 7400 nm, FL510, $72.8 million Technical Specifications CABIN Seats (standard/max)...............................17/19 Volume .................................................2637 ft³ Noise...............................................51.6 dB SIL WEIGHTS BOW..................................................56,800 lbs MTOW.............................................106,250 lbs MLW..................................................85,800 lbs Payload w/max fuel..............................2250 lbs Fuel w/max payload......................................NA Max fuel weight.................................47,450 lbs PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC)...........M0.85/487 ktas High speed cruise.....................M0.90/516 ktas Mmo...................................................M0.925 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........7400 nm
POWERPLANT(S) Manufacturer.............................General Electric Model .......................................2 x Passport 20 MTOT..............................16,500 lbs (ISA+20°C)
AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW)..............................5950 ft Field length (MLW).................................2810 ft
AVIONICS Manufacturer......................................Bombardier Standard suite............................................Vision 6.3 ft 27.0 ft
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Dassault Dassault Falcon Falcon 7X 7X Exec config 12 seats/max 19, M.90, 5950 nm, FL510, $53.8 million Technical Specifications CABIN Seats (standard/max)...............................12/19 Volume .................................................1552 ft³ Noise..................................................52 dB SIL WEIGHTS BOW..................................................36,600 lbs MTOW...............................................70,000 lbs MLW..................................................62,400 lbs Payload w/max fuel..............................1660 lbs Fuel w/max payload...........................29,200 lbs Max fuel weight.................................31,940 lbs PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC)...........M0.800/459 ktas High speed cruise...................M0.866/497 ktas Mmo......................................................M0.900 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........5950 nm
POWERPLANT(S) Manufacturer...............Pratt & Whitney Canada Model ............................................3 x PW307A MTOT.................................6402 lbs (ISA+17°C)
AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW)..............................5710 ft Field length (MLW).................................2070 ft
AVIONICS Manufacturer........................................Honeywell Standard suite...........................................EASy II 6.2 ft Cabin Length: 39.1 ft 25.7 ft
Dassault Dassault Falcon Falcon 8X 8X Exec config 12 seats/max16, M.87, 6450 nm, FL510, $58.4 million Technical Specifications CABIN Seats (standard/max)...............................12/16 Volume .................................................1695 ft³ Noise..................................................52 dB SIL WEIGHTS BOW..................................................36,800 lbs MTOW...............................................73,000 lbs MLW..................................................62,400 lbs Payload w/max fuel..............................1259 lbs Fuel w/max payload...........................32,200 lbs Max fuel weight.................................35,141 lbs PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC).............M.800/459 ktas High speed cruise.........................................NA Mmo......................................................M0.900 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........6450 nm
POWERPLANT(S) Manufacturer................Pratt & Whitney Canada Model ............................................3 x PW307D MTOT.................................6722 lbs (ISA+17°C)
AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW)..............................5880 ft Field length (MLW).................................2240 ft
AVIONICS Manufacturer........................................Honeywell Standard suite.....................................Primus Epic
Cabin Length: 42.7 ft 26.1 ft
46 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / March 2018
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Gulfstream Gulfstream G550 G550 Exec config 8 seats/max 19, M.85, 6750 nm, FL510, $61.5 million Technical Specifications CABIN Seats (standard/max).................................8/19 Volume .................................................1669 ft³ Noise............................................................NA WEIGHTS BOW..................................................48,300 lbs MTOW...............................................91,000 lbs MLW..................................................75,300 lbs Payload w/max fuel..............................1800 lbs Fuel w/max payload...........................36,900 lbs Max fuel weight.................................41,300 lbs PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC).............M.80/459 ktas High speed cruise.......................M.85/575 ktas Mmo........................................................M.885 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........6750 nm
POWERPLANT(S) Manufacturer.................................Rolls-Royce Model ...............................2 x BR700-710C4-11 MTOT..............................15,385 lbs (ISA+15°C)
AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW)..............................5910 ft Field length (MLW).................................2770 ft
AVIONICS Manufacturer.......................................Gulfstream Standard suite......................................PlaneView 6.2 ft
Cabin Length: 43.9 ft 25.8 ft
Embraer Embraer Lineage Lineage 1000E 1000E Exec config 13 seats/max 19, M.87, 4600 nm, FL410, $53.8 million Technical Specifications CABIN Seats (standard/max)...............................13/19 Volume .................................................4085 ft³ Noise............................................................NA WEIGHTS BOW..................................................70,548 lbs MTOW.............................................120,152 lbs MLW................................................100,972 lbs Payload w/max fuel..............................1828 lbs Fuel w/max payload...........................40,124 lbs Max fuel weight.................................48,217 lbs PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC)..........M0.78/454 ktas High speed cruise.................................472 ktas Mmo........................................................M0.82 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........4600 nm
POWERPLANT(S) Manufacturer..........................................GE Model .....................................2 x CF34-10E7-B MTOT..............................18,500 lbs (ISA+15°C)
AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW)..............................5950 ft Field length (MLW).................................2810 ft
AVIONICS Manufacturer........................................Honeywell Standard suite...................................Primus Epic
6.6 ft Cabin Length: 84.0 ft 34.7 ft
48 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / March 2018
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Southern China Rules are rigorously enforced but operating conditions are improving with recognition of the need to accommodate business executives flying into China aboard their private jets.
Shenzhen is located just outside Hong Kong and is a key element in China’s Greater Bay development region. SZX is a 24 hour airport of entry occasionally used as a parking alternate to HKG (Hong Kong).
Southern China offers many good options for GA destination stops with full-service 24 hour support. China is bracing its infrastructure for continuing increase in both commercial and business aviation. Over coming years, new airports, runways and parking aprons will be built in the southern China region and additional FBOs will come on line.
By Grant McLaren Editor-at-Large
ost general aviation (GA) traffic to China heads for Beijing and Shanghai. However, the southern region of the country – the mainland as well as HKG (Hong Kong) and MFM (Macau) – also attracts continued and growing bizav movements. As southern China has assorted operating challenges, including permits, slots and parking issues, it’s always important to know before you go. “China, overall, has become an easier GA operating environment over recent years,” says Avfuel Account Exec David Kang. “Sponsor letters are no longer required, permit approvals are coming through faster, visa options for crew have broadened and it’s extremely rare to need to arrange a local navigator when flying to smaller domestic airports these days. Even the slot situation at HKG has actually become a little easier as local authorities are now stricter in enforc-
ing slot rules and we’re seeing less slot hoarding these days.” Still, it’s important to keep in mind that China has rigorously enforced rules that must be followed. But international support providers (ISPs) say that although the rule set facing GA operators is often viewed as complicated and sometimes unreasonable, it’s also very logical. If you’re aware of applicable rules, and follow them, you’ll not likely run into problems as there aren’t a lot of gray areas. Universal Aviation Ops Specialist Ricky Fang points out the primary 6 airports used by GA in southern China are CAN (Guangzhou), XMN (Xiamen), FOC (Fuzhou), SZX (Shenzhen), HAK (Haikou), and SYX (Sanya). These are all airports of entry, although FOC does not offer 24 hour clearance. ZUH (Zhuhai), about 50 miles from SZX, is occasionally used as a parking alternate for HKG, but this is not an airport of entry. Full service GA ground handling support is available at the above locations with customs/immigration usually cleared
within the main terminal. Note that there’s a general aviation terminal (GAT) available at SYX and a new GAT under construction at CAN.
Permits and curfews Permits are required for all GA overflights and landings. Operations of GA aircraft up to 30 passenger seats are treated the same, irrespective of private or charter status. A lead time of 2 business days is usually sufficient for permit application but plan on 7 days notice if you’re operating 30-seat or greater capacity equipment, cautions Universal Aviation China Managing Dir Cynthia Zhang. “Keep in mind that permit approvals may not come through until very close to operation time and you’ll need to provide additional lead time when operating to domestic airfields,” adds Zhang. “It may take as long as 10 business days to obtain a permit for a domestic-only location. And, be aware that permits for many domestic locations cannot be guaranteed, as some locations are controlled by the military rather than Civil Air Administration of China (CAAC).” Fang points out that approved landing permit are normally restricted to no more than 2 revisions. Also, a permit gives you approval to oper-
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ate no more than 6 flight legs within country. “Although the 2 revision cap is not a hard and fast rule, there’s a significant risk that any revision request beyond 2 may be denied,” says Fang. “It’s best to be as accurate as possible with all permit and slot requests and to try to limit changes.” Be mindful, also, of restricted airways within China and southern China. All permit approvals require routings as well as entry/exit points, and certain airways are reserved for scheduled commercial ops. Note also that there are no published airways between southern China and India. Be prepared for altitude hold downs when operating over China; you’ll be rarely getting approval for FL400 or above. These altitude holds seem to be most common in the Shanghai area, although it is not unusual to be held down to the midFL300s anywhere in the country. “Routings and altitudes are strictly controlled by CAAC and ATC so there’s not much we or operators can do about these hold downs,” explains Zhang. “Top management at CAAC are aware of these issues and we expect the hold down situation may improve over time.” Several airports in China have imposed blanket curfews on GA ops from 0700 to 0900 local, including both CAN and SZX. Fortunately, says Fang, GA parking availability is generally good throughout this part of the country. “Overnight and longer parking is usually not an issue in southern China, other than for the 2 airports on Hainan Island. HAK does not allow overnight parking as the ramp area is restricted. And while SYX can also be restrictive, GA overnight parking is not prohibited.” In addition, CAN restricts you to just 1 GA movement, either a takeoff
Xiamen is an increasingly popular destination for international and local business aviation. XMN offers full GA support services and plenty of parking availability.
HKG is a congested location that frequently presents slot and parking challenges to GA operators. A 3rd runway is in the planning, which may boost GA infrastructure and parking opportunities.
or landing, between 0900 and 2200 local daily. This effectively frustrates quick turn fuel uplifts at this location and limits flexibility in terms of GA trip planning.
Passport and visa considerations When operating to China, all crew and passengers need to have at least 6 months of remaining validity on passports. And all required visas must be obtained prior to arrival as visas on arrival are not possible. Fang points out that crew must have “C” type visas when operating to SZX and FOC. For other airports in southern China, standard business visas will suffice for crew. Note that while crew do have options in terms of 72-hour transit visas at Beijing and Shanghai airports, if transiting onward to a 3rd country, this is not an option in southern China. In the case of a single international tech stop within China, no visas are needed for passengers or crew. “There’s good news here for GA operators from the visa perspective,” says Zhang. “According to immigration law, flight crew must have “C” type crew visas. However, CIQ officials at certain airports of entry now accept business visas for crew. Immigration authorities at PEK (Beijing), PVG (Pudong), CAN, and XMN have announced that crew may hold any type of valid visa for travel to China.”
Hong Kong opportunities Jeppesen Vendor Relations Mgr Ian Humphrey points out that the slot
approval process has been going a little smoother these days at HKG. So don’t give up on that planned trip to Hong Kong due to perceived slot hassles. The process is to 1st confirm a runway slot online and then to use this confirmation to request parking and ground handling services. “Slots become available 14 days prior and should be applied for as soon as schedule is known,” says Humphrey. “But even if your request is 5–7 days out, there are often slot cancellations to grab. We’ve found the slot process to be workable, even for shorter notice trips, it’s just a matter of keeping on top of the situation.” ITPS Dir Ops Ben Fuller adds that most of his operators have been getting slot times at HKG fairly close to what they want. “While available slots at HKG tend to go fast, there’s a generous slot window, 2 hours either side, and you can work with your handler right up until time of departure to adjust and massage your approved slot time,” says Fuller. “However, it’s always a case by case basis and there will be times you’ll have to sweat it out and hope to snag a canceled slot closer to your preferred time.” Best access and parking alternate for HKG on the Chinese mainland is SZX, where there’s plenty of parking along with full GA support, fuel, credit, and catering. It’s an easy 2-hour drive from SZX into central Hong Kong along good highways. ZUH may also become a good parking alternate in the future, as authorities are looking at transitioning it PROFESSIONAL PILOT / March 2018 51
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Guangzhou, the largest city in southern China, is a key business location in the Greater Bay area. CAN has a GA curfew 0700–0900 local daily and restricts GA ops to just 1 movement between 0900–2200 local daily. A new FBO is set to open this year at CAN.
into an airport of entry. A new bridge between Hong Kong and Macau/ Zhuhai, to complete in 2018, should allow a drive from ZUH to central Hong Kong to take just over 1 hour. Still, with increasing air and ground congestion in the HKG area showing no signs of abating, don’t expect slots, parking and schedule flexibility to ever be easy. “We’ll continue to face challenges in terms of Hong Kong, although they may become slightly different challenges in terms of slot or parking saturation,” declares Jeppesen Supervisor Global Vendor Relations Mark O’Carroll. “If, for example, you experience an unexpected schedule delay, this can result in significant issues. We had an operator who missed a departure slot, and it took 5 days to arrange a new slot.” Jeppesen Regulatory and Compliance Specialist Kyle Sleeper recommends MFM as the primary alternate for HKG as it’s a much easier proposition than venturing over into the Chinese mainland. “When MFM does not have available slots or parking, we have operators who use SZX,” adds Sleeper. “In this case, however, you’ll be dealing with additional permit applications, higher costs and crew visa considerations. If one crew member is missing a ‘C’ type crew visa for China, for example, this could frustrate your ability to use a mainland airport as a parking alternate for HKG.”
Additional ops considerations ISPs recommend that fuel releases be carried for all fuel uplifts in southern China. Your release should be
MFM (Intl, Macau) has traditionally been a GA reliever airport. With increased congestion these days, however, MFM often has no GA slot or parking availability.
transmitted to your handler who will coordinate local arrangements. If you show up without a fuel release, or provide less than 3 hours notice for fuel uplift, there could be delays and/or issues. Airport security is very good at all major airports of entry throughout this region and in most cases it’s not permitted to put private security, either armed or unarmed, on your aircraft. Off-airport security is at least as good as in North America or Europe. Note that Stage 2 operations are no longer permitted in China. In terms of cabotage, ISPs say GA operators of aircraft up to 30 passenger seats, whether private of charter, are free to transport local nationals point to point within the country. Operators hoping to orchestrate an operation to China on a budget, however, may be out of luck. “Flying to China can be highly expensive in terms of nav, handling, airport and permit fees,” says Humphrey. “Nav fees from TONGDA are usually in the thousands of dollars and a GA stop in China for 2 days can easily run $8000 to $10,000.”
nomic spin offs associated with business aviation. New airports, FBOs and support infrastructure are in the works. Hong Kong will build a 3rd runway, although this may be years into the future, and connectivity is likely to improve to and between other airports in the region, particularly SZX and ZUH. “While there’s generally more to consider when setting up an operation to southern China, as opposed to operating to Europe or SE Asia, the region has also become more GA friendly,” says Fuller. “We recommend always using a trip support provider to help better manage any permit, slot or parking challenges locally.” Demand for operations to economically vibrant southern China will remain on an upward trend. Sleeper says, “Our customer base has really been expanding operations all across China lately–from major airports of entry to smaller domestic locations. Handling qualities and services have noticeably improved over recent years and access to all regions is now manageable.”
Summary Looking forward, GA activity will only increase to the southern China region, with additional airport congestion, slot and parking issues anticipated over coming years. The good news is the government authorities seem to be well aware of both the positive benefits and eco-
Editor-at-Large Grant McLaren has written for Pro Pilot for over 20 years and specializes in corporate flight department coverage.
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Extended over water operations A backstage view of ETOPS airports, hazards and why we need them.
Harold Katinszky ATP/CFII.
FAA Lead Safety Rep Aviation Consultant
eminisce back to a time when you were a youth at an amusement park about to go on an adventurous wild ride. You probably held your parents hand with tremendous anticipation of the rush of a new experience. As a child, you cared little for the machines and contraptions that made the ride function behind the subliminal doors hiding the wizards that made the thing work. All you wanted to experience was the thrill of the ride. Fast forward to a time when you are jetting across the skies westbound, enroute to the Orient or some other far-flung and exotic continent. While enjoying a view of the sunset from the cabin at FL360, you are sipping away at your grande-mocha-lattehalf-cream-half-soy-nonfat-low-sodium concoction. You couldn’t care less about the extensive operation below you that works 24/7 to support your safe experience, should something go haywire in your pressurized tube flying at Mach .80.
Should the vessel you are traveling in lose an engine or experience a sudden pressurization loss, 1 of the 1st things you’ll experience–after all the unsecured objects fly across the cabin from explosive decompression–is panic. When this dissipates, what is known as a driftdown (loss of altitude) will occur whether you like it or not. This loss of altitude will require the crew to guide the stricken aircraft somewhere quickly, balancing the remaining fuel and oxygen to reach a suitable runway and effect a safe landing. This has to be where repairs can be made and passengers are protected from the elements. If this happens to you, you have just landed at an ETOPS airport. Quipped as Engines Turn Or Passengers Swim, ETOPS officially means Extended-range Twin-engine Operational Performance Standards. These regulations encompass all passenger planes with more than 2 engines. Without this ETOPS airport, associated flight planning, maintenance, preparation, certification, and execution, the crew may not have known of critical, suitable, enroute alternates. Or if they did know, they may not be sure if they could reach
1 at a lower altitude, which doesn’t bode well for the passengers in an emergency situation. Of course, this is even more challenging at night. This is not a short course on ETOPS, rather an overview of what must be done on the ground to keep your ETOPS airports operational. Kudos to our government and our airlines for enacting rules and implementing ETOPS airport standards to keep the flying public safe.
Image courtesy Google
As the name suggests, historical Midway Atoll, located about 140 miles east of the international date line, is almost equidistant from North America and the Orient, which makes it a great ETOPS airport.
A brief ETOPS history ETOPS began in 1936, essentially as an idea to improve public safety. It was promoted by some smart people with a lot of common sense who stated you had to prove that there were suitable landing fields at least every 100 miles along a specified route. This morphed into regulations in 1953 by the Civil Aeronautics Authority (CAA). In 1958 the CAA transferred to the FAA with the signing of the Federal Aviation Act. As aviation-related regulations and agencies morphed and changed, so did ETOPS, 14 CFR 135.364 and CFR Part 121.161. There are numerous ways and
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calculations available to assist operators when and if they will need ETOPS authorization, or if ETOPS regulations apply in their specific operation.
What is ETOPS ETOPS is a procedure of flying over uninhabited areas of the planet, such as water, to assure an aircraft has a place to divert to in the unlikely event an emergency takes place. An aircraft in distress must be able to descend to a safe operating altitude, then be able to divert to an ETOPS field enroute and land. To complete this process, ground operations enroute must be in place and operational. As a flying public, we need ETOPS airports that work in conjunction with the entire ETOPS process. These airports are dotted along oceans and sparse lands to have an escape location during an in-flight emergency. In the Pacific Ocean, names such as Palmyra, Midway Island, Easter Island, Wake Island, Majuro, and Tahiti come to mind. Each ocean has several of these islands dotted along routes that are maintained by a very dedicated crew of people. They rotate in and out much like crews who manage the International Space Station orbiting 250 miles above us. We will focus on 1 of these islands or atolls, the world famous Midway Island, rich in history stemming from the Battle of Midway on 4 to 7 June, 1942.
ETOPS categories With regulatory changes as well as improvements to aircraft reliability, the FAA further placed ETOPS rules into several categories. These are: • 75-minute ETOPS • 90-minute ETOPS • 120-minute ETOPS • 138-minute ETOPS • 180-minute ETOPS • 207-minute ETOPS • 240-minute ETOPS (for a specific geographical area) • 240+minute ETOPS (based on specific city pairs) Each category allows certificated aircraft and crews to fly ever increasing distances depending on several factors, such as how many engines their aircraft has. For example, a 3-4 engine aircraft will most likely have a 240-minute approval or greater,
ETOPS portion of flight
Airports Non-ETOPS flightpath ETOPS flightpath Distance traveled in 60 minutes with one engine inoperative Here is an example when going direct would require ETOPS authorization and training. By curving the flight, ETOPS is not required or needed. The 4 circles get larger or smaller depending on your specific ETOPS authority (60, 180, 240, etc).
while a twin engine private jet may have a 180-min approval with no more than 240-min approval. However, there are notable differences since many smaller corporate jets operating under Part 135 have access to and can use many more smaller airports. This allows them to benefit from the 240-minutes rule since they can land in shorter distances. These rules also require proactive flight planning, crew training and plans in place for facilities at or near each diversion airport. For example, passengers and crew must be protected from the elements. It’s more than just a safe landing; you can’t leave them in freezing snow or sweltering heat. These rules are spelled out in Advisory Circular 120-42B, Extended Operations (ETOPS and Polar Operations). All Part 135 and 121 operators fall under these ETOPS rules. As aircraft reliability improved, new routes opened that required greater approval. For example an aircraft with a 60-minute authority may need to fly closer to land to avoid violating the ETOPS 60-minute rule. As ETOPS coverage approval increases, the purple shaded rings get smaller as in the image example above. As an aircraft gains even greater ETOPS authority, those purple shaded rings above continue to shrink until they nearly disappear because of having a 240-min ETOPS authority. Those
aircraft can pretty much reach land anywhere in 4 hours.
ETOPS airport approval For an airport to be listed as an ETOPS airport, it must meet numerous criteria. These include navigational and communication aids, runway surface/length/width, weight bearing approval, clearways, stopways, lighting and approach procedures, obstacles, elevation, gradient, fire, rescue – to name a few. There are also requirements to enable operators to file an ETOPS airport as an alternate. In this case, dispatch, the pilot or the operator must also meet the alternate’s minimum weather requirements. And if changes are made the responsible person must sign off on that change as well. These rules are spelled out in FARs 121.97, 121.631 and 121.634.
Midway Island Each ETOPS atoll or island offers its own unique diverse beauty and challenges. Midway island, along with Eastern Island (not to be confused with Easter Island) is part of the Hawaiian archipelago and is the only unincorporated island not part of the state of Hawaii. To travel there and back, they treat Midway as a foreign country, even though it is a US territory, so you must carry a valid passport. PROFESSIONAL PILOT / March 2018 55
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Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge
land, you are met by an immense and eager crew of helpers who quickly unload all the needed supplies to keep this ETOPS operation running smoothly. With few people on the island, you quickly learn to get along with most everyone, because the place is almost uninhabited, much like a ghost town. There is a certain beauty to this solitude. There is no tourism here, so don’t expect to show up with your Grumman HU-16 Albatross aircraft and be welcome, especially when you have to fork over around 16 bucks for a gallon of petrol for that thirsty flying puppy of yours.
The fine balance Sand Island
Image courtesy Google Earth
Midway Island United States Miles above Midway, merely a spec over a vast ocean. Flying at night, Midway island would be a welcome sight in the pitch black abyss with a stricken aircraft.
Midway, as the name aptly suggests, is about equidistant between North America and Asia, approximately 1300 nm northwest of Hawaii. Eastern island, next to Midway, has nearly reverted back to its natural self before man inhabited it. Only a shadow of the old runways remain. Every tree and bush that was not originally there has been removed. Today, other than the constant reoccurring pollution and floating debris, it looks like a barren flat island.
FAA and ETOPS The FAA controls, regulates and maintains MDY (Sand Island, Midway Atoll), its related fixtures, approaches and 1 runway. The cross runway is abandoned. Contractors support the infrastructure, flying in supplies and swapping out workers and volunteers. US Fish & Wildlife control the rest. On the way in, the Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) signal strength is tested and you fly an approach to make sure all systems are working. The FAA and its pilot contractors must fly in at night due to the immense amount of birds (3 million
albatross) circling the island during the day. They’re mostly ridge soaring anything that juts up from the ground and creates lift. Landing a large turbine aircraft during the day could be downright hazardous to you and the Albatross. Trust me, you would not want to strike 1 of these huge birds, they could ruin you’re entire day. On approach and landing, you’ll quickly appreciate what it means to be pitch black. Flying in at night is challenging and not for the faint of heart, especially when dodging thunderstorms. Coincidentally, the names of the gallant pilots who I have flown with to resupply the island and work with the FAA are all biblical in nature. Names like John, Luke, Paul and Michael, with mine being the only odd English name in the bunch. Flying in and out of these locations is primarily HF ops and you better have 2 good working HF devices with a back up satellite phone. Resupply efforts can be as many as 2–3 times a month, or more if there is a medical emergency on 1 of the islands. However, once you land–and if the weather is clear–the stars at night are breathtaking! As soon as you
In all of these ETOPS islands there is a fine balance between working with the natural habitat and fitting in or adapting/preparing for modern ETOPS emergencies. ADS-B Out and CPDLC will be a welcome addition to the pilot’s everyday ETOPS workload. ETOPS airports have saved thousands of lives all over the planet. The only thing that could eliminate ETOPS airports is technology. Someday, perhaps when we have supersonic transport aircraft that fly into suborbital space and return on the other side of the planet to land, we may no longer need ETOPS airports. Until then, expect to have them around to facilitate aviation safety over uninhabited land and over open water for the foreseeable future. There is a very fine balance to working with mother nature and modern technology. It is also a fine balance working between our Federal agencies. It is truly an ongoing labor of love to properly maintain these ETOPS airports to FAA safety standards while the albatross enjoy soaring the ridges of Midway– and you enjoy that grande latte in the sky. Harold Katinszky is an ATP-rated professional pilot with 25 type ratings, 20,000 hours of flight time. He has twice filmed the United States for a film library. He performs contract flying services globally for PAK WEST, Sierra West Airlines, Clay Lacy Aviation, Starjet, and manages Gulfstreams with MP Aviation at SoCal MRO.
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FRANKFURT TO BUENOS AIRES
Towards the Southern Cross
No matter how big the plane, an outside check is a must. The author during walkaround of a B747-400.
Flying the South Atlantic routes. By Peter Berendsen
ATP/CFII. Boeing 747, MD11
Flights across the South Atlantic As both South America and Africa have become ever more important for overseas investment, corporate flights to these continents have become much more frequent in recent years. New mining opportunities and oil fields, telecommunications, real estate, finance, and insurance attract ever more executives to do business in the Southern Hemisphere. Many of the air routes to their destinations cross the South Atlantic ocean. The South Atlantic has generally much better weather than the stormy and cold North Atlantic. Air routes for postal delivery to South America from Europe via the Sahara desert, Bathurst (Bangui) in Gambia, and Natal in Brazil had already been developed in the 1920s. Sometimes seaplanes were
Image courtesy Google Earth
ristan da Cunha is probably the most remote inhabited island in the world. Only 274 people live on this British Overseas Territory at latitude 37S and longitude 012W. The island lies on the great circle route between São Paulo or Rio de Janeiro and Capetown, 1800 nm from Brazil and 1400 nm from South Africa. Tristan da Cunha has no runway, not even a helipad. So to get there, you have to take the supply ship from Capetown, a 5-day journey. I mention this not only because I had the privilege to visit this beautiful island (by ship, of course), but also because it illustrates how vast the South Atlantic is, and how far away any runway or help can be if you would ever need it as you cross these waters by plane.
On long-haul flights the aircraft may be close to its performance limits. FRA–EZE is a great circle distance of 6200 nm, but planned routes vary due to weather and winds. Routes average 6500 nm and over 13 hours flight time at Mach 0.85.
used as they could land on the usually quiet seas close to support ships stationed halfway across the ocean, where the seaplanes would then be refueled and relaunched for the next leg of their journey. Antoine St Exupery’s book Flight to Arras recalls this era poetically. Today, the major traffic flows across the South Atlantic are from the US East coast to Brazil and South Africa, from Europe to the Caribbean, Central America, Brazil and Argentina, and recently also from Dubai and other Middle East hubs to destinations in almost all South and Central American countries. This is significant as it means that we deal with much more crossing traffic than on the North Atlantic, where almost all traffic flows West to East or vice versa.
S Atlantic routes and controls The North Atlantic airspace is structured around the well-known organized track system (NAT OTS), which is controlled by Gander and Shanwick
oceanic control centers. Waypoints and routes change twice daily to make best use of the prevailing jetstreams. On the other hand, the South Atlantic uses a fixed route system or random routes and is controlled by several Air Traffic Control (ATC) units, some of them in Africa. Santa Maria Operations Control Center (OCC), located on the southernmost Azores island of Santa Maria, controls a large part of the central and eastern Atlantic ocean. New York OCC, located in Ronkonkoma, Long Island, controls the western part south of Gander OCC all the way to the Caribbean. Further south it gets a bit more exotic with Dakar OCC, located on the west coast of Senegal, Cayenne OCC in French Guiana on the northern coast of the South American continent and Piarco in Trinidad sharing control of the central and equatorial oceanic airspace. Atlantico, situated in Recife in Brazil, controls most of the Atlantic south of the equator. All these ATC units have adopted CPDLC procedures by now, which
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Berendsen’s B747-400 enroute over the South Atlantic, pictured by a another aircraft.
transmits ADS (aircraft position and flight data) and pilot-controller text communications via satellite link. HF is used as a back-up but it is rarely necessary as the CPDLC system works quite well. If you have problems logging in or are dropping out, a re-logon usually solves the issue, depending on the specific setup in your aircraft.
Frankfurt to Buenos Aires One of the longest flights I operate frequently is FRA (Frankfurt, Germany) to EZE (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Due to the great distance flown nonstop, it is always a challenging and interesting flight as we operate at the performance limits of the Boeing 747-8i, the latest version of great B747. It’s a flight that requires a little more planning and attention than a routine flight. An airport at night always has a special atmosphere. The lights, the activity, the aircraft departing to far away destinations... it all seems to have more magic at night. As we approached our B747-8i on the apron of FRA on a recent wintry evening in our crew bus, I looked at the beautiful big bird, named after the German port city of Hamburg. As usual, the aircraft was surrounded with ground service vehicles, and through the large windows of the terminal building I could see the passengers awaiting their boarding and the aerial journey to Buenos Aires over 6200 nm and 13 hours inflight away. The good part: EZE lies in the Southern hemisphere, and thus we expected summer in December. I had 22 crewmembers, including 3 pilots and 2 pursers. Around 400 passengers would join us that night. Many were actually transferring from flights out of Japan and China, as their business in South America was growing. The holds were full of cargo. We pushed back on time, a good thing as FRA has a very stringent night curfew and deicing the plane would also take some time. With 4 engines running, we taxied to the deicing pad close to Rwy 18. Corporate aircraft are usually deiced at their parking po-
Picture taken before departure. As the pilots taxi out, they review the expected takeoff performance of the heavily loaded aircraft.
sitions at the southern apron in FRA. At 2252 LT, 8 minutes before curfew, I was finally able to push the thrust levers forward, release the brakes, and we lifted off weighing over 440 tons, for a flight that was planned to last 13:20 hours and required 167.2 tons of fuel on board at departure. We turned west, towards Luxembourg, Paris and the Bay of Biscay. After transfer to Madrid ATC we headed to Cape Finisterre on the northwestern tip of Spain. The airport of Santiago de Compostela was just below us, a 3000 m (10000 ft) runway and good spot to keep in mind for a diversion. In the clear night we could also see the lights of the city with the famous cathedral, which marks the endpoint and destination of the Jacob’s way pilgrimage that many people undertake on foot, starting in southern France. The lights of Vigo and Porto on the west coast of Spain and Portugal, respectively, were visible out of my portside window as the moon lit the quiet ocean. A beautiful sight as we left land behind and the long overwater flight began.
particular has fairly high overflight fees and also many ATC slot restrictions due to the high volume of tourism-related traffic to these islands. But this FIR is fairly small and can be easily avoided by either passing over Morocco and Mauretania or by staying west of it. Our route that night took us out further into the ocean, west of the Canary Islands FIR. We logged in CPDLC with Santa Maria Oceanic using the code LPPO to address them. The confirmation came back right away. From the southernmost island of the Azores, Santa Maria, our CPDLC logon was confirmed by datalink. Since HF communication is still used as a back up on CPDLC oceanic routes, we also called them on 3016 kHz to confirm the proper operation of the SELCAL system, the backup frequency was 5598 kHz. It is nice to have 2 HF sets because reception may be poor and you never know which of the 2 frequencies works better under the prevailing atmospheric conditions, so with 2 sets you can monitor both frequencies at the same time.
Across the S Atlantic on UN741
Weather and possible alternates
The shortest route from London, Paris or Frankfurt to Argentina is via the Canary islands and then airway UN741, which takes you over Tenerife and then west of São Vicente island in the Cape Verde islands all the way to Fortaleza on the north coast of Brazil. From there you proceed inland to Uruguay, Rio de la Plata and Argentina. Wind patterns, the intensity of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and ATC overflight fees may make other routes more economic. The Canary Islands Flight Information Region (FIR) in
Even though dispatch had provided weather forecasts for viable enroute diversion airports for us, entry into oceanic airspace is always a good moment to get updated weather reports from the relevant islands. On our route TFS (Tenerife–South, Spain), PXO (Porto Santo, Portugal) close to Madeira, and TER (Lajes, Portugal) on the Azores island of Terceira were of relevance as these have airports with over 3000 m runways. There are more islands with airports in the northern portion of the route, but they may have much shorter
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Buenos Aires is well worth the effort of the long flight. After a good rest, it is time for a “bife de lomo” – a punto, of course – and a good Malbec Reserva. The flight back the next day will be just as demanding.
runways or particularly difficult terrain such as FNC (Madeira, Portugal). As the unbroken oceanic wind hits the islands and their mountains, strong turbulences and windshear may occur at island airports. Further south along our route, SID (Cape Verde), DKR (Dakar, Senegal), Barbados in the Caribbean, and Fortaleza and Natal in Brazil came into play. As you can see, the equatorial and southern Atlantic is a vast body of water with almost no islands or runways. Bermuda and the British territory of Asunción and St Helena are of interest on the route from North America to southern Africa. The Gulf of Guinea, which stretches on the west coast of Africa from Ivory Coast and Ghana to Nigeria, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea, offers a number of airports such as Lagos, Port Harcourt, Douala and Malabo. These may not be your 1st choice diversion airports or pitstops, however, due to the lack of technical support, slow bureaucracy and high levels of crime, even on airports. Luanda in Angola is a destination for corporate aircraft as the oil industry here is booming.
Intertropical Convergence Zone A big factor in routing your equatorial Atlantic flight is the location and intensity of the ITCZ, an area of intense thunderstorm activity created by the conversion of the tradewinds from north and south of the equator. As the air rises to the upper atmosphere, severe CBs may line up for hundreds of miles, requiring extensive reroutings to avoid violent weather and strong turbulence. Tops may reach 60,000 ft, so do not even think about flying over them. Keep this in mind when ordering fuel for the trip,
because an extra 15 or 20 minutes of flight time may easily be necessary. One reason (among others) that Air France’s flight 447 fell out of the sky close to the equator was the crew’s attempt to remain on their planned airway at a higher flight level right through significant convective activity. They didn’t carry enough fuel for a wide enough diversion. As our flight was nonstop, each pilot got a few hours of rest in the bunk. My instructions to the Senior FO before he took the left seat was to stay well clear of all CBs, an instruction he probably didn’t need as he was a very experienced B747 pilot. When I came back to the flightdeck after my rest, as we were entering Atlantico OCC (Recife), I noted that our aircraft was almost 80 nm off track. I was happy because it was the right thing to do in a night when lines of CBs seemed to be everywhere. It is of course very important to keep ATC and traffic in your area informed about your intentions. It’s also wise to plot other aircraft on a similar or opposing route, as well as aircraft that may cross your path. Vertical separation is 1000 ft in the south Atlantic just as it is in the north. Be sure to read up on contingency procedures for engine failures and weather diversions applicable to the area you fly through, as these may involve a change in altitude by 300 ft if you are too far off track.
Under Brazilian radar control As we crossed the coast of Brazil and entered domestic airspace, we once again were under radar control. Brazilian ATC has improved somewhat since the deadly collision in cruise flight between an Embraer Legacy and GOL Airways flight GOL 1907, a B737,
over the Amazon jungle, which was largely attributed to poor ATC coordination. Still, it’s advisable to stay 1 nm right of track and monitor the secondary VHF frequency that is provided as a backup with each frequency change. Reception is often poor as transmitters are located far apart with unreliable power supplies. A lot of communication with local aircraft happens in Portuguese, making it very difficult for English speakers to develop a good picture of the traffic situation. In the East, the early morning light was beginning. The new day started very slowly as the Southern Cross constellation, our companion during the night, slowly faded out in the brightening sky. As the sun rose over the Rio de la Plata, and after a good breakfast and some coffee, we started our descent and landing preparations. The sprawling modern city of Buenos Aires was spread out on the southern shores of the muddy, wide river, with the endless Argentinian Pampa as a backdrop. After this long flight from 50N to 40S, crossing the equator and many different climate zones over 13 hours of flight time, it is a very pleasant reward having a visual approach to EZE over large haciendas with grazing polo horses and herds of cattle.
Check weather and runway conditions at your destination Be aware that even after such a long flight, the weather at your destination or other factors such as a sudden runway closure may force a diversion. Buenos Aires, for example, may get very strong winds from the pampa, or severe lines of thunderstorms, or fog. Montevideo in Uruguay is just a good 100 nm away across the Rio de la Plata, but usually a great alternative. Also, proper fatigue management should not be overlooked. It takes good sleep in a quiet hotel room to recover from a long nonstop flight. And in case you had to divert, you may have to rest at the alternate airport 1st before continuing to your destination. However, the food and wines of South America are worth the long travel, in any case.
Peter Berendsen flies a Boeing 747 as a captain for Lufthansa Airlines. He writes regularly for Pro Pilot on aviation-related subjects.
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Astronics AeroSat Fresnel lens-horn design coupled with Ku-band transmission works well for bizav internet reception.
Photos courtesy Astronics
FliteStream T-Series tail mounted connectivity system for business aviation.
FliteStream connectivity systems enable seamless productivity and entertainment while in flight.
By Shannon Forrest
President, Turbine Mentor ATP/CFII. Challenger 604/605, Gulfstream IV, MU2B
atellite communication (SatCom) technology is a means of delivering voice, data and entertainment to nearly every location on the planet. Nowadays it’s taken for granted that broadband internet and hundreds of television channels are available instantaneously with the aid of a small antenna and processor. However, just a few decades ago these conveniences were sparse, cumbersome and costly. Baby boomers and those born into generation X may recall what home satellite systems looked like in the late 70s and throughout the 80s. The receiving antenna was an enormous parabolic dish at least 10–12 feet wide. The logistical challenge was positioning the dish so that it
maintained a clear line of sight with a geostationary (above the equator) satellite while at the same time not provoking the ire of the homeowners association or neighbors. Size and footprint of old equipment really made the installation an eyesore. But the behemoth antenna was necessary to capture the low power C-band signals being delivered by the television providers of the day.
Historical background of commercial tv-dish signal reception The knowledge underlying the technical requirements for a home dish was made public by Taylor Howard, an electrical engineering professor at Stanford. In 1976, Taylor, a licensed pilot who worked on radio astronomy for several NASA programs from Apollo to Voyager, built his own 16 foot personal satellite dish. He also
published a guide for others to do the same. At 1st, commercial television signals were not encrypted, so anyone with the financial means to install a dish (around $3000 in 1981) could intercept the feed and watch content for free. Howard even sent HBO a check for $100 in an unsolicited attempt to pay for programming he consumed. The check was promptly returned because the company only dealt with large cable companies, not individuals. Years later, HBO became the 1st television provider to scramble the downlink from the satellite in an attempt to end what it considered poaching of proprietary material. Other companies soon followed, necessitating satellite dish enthusiasts to purchase a decoder and subscription to watch. Today, home satellite antennas are approximately the size of a large pizza. The equipment costs are negligible when compared to past iterations, and the technology has advanced exponentially.
Why are the costs high for aircraft reception Given the ease of obtaining broadband internet and television at home and the office, why is it so complex
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Astronics AeroSat FliteStream T-Series system is a tail-mounted internet and live tv connectivity solution ideal for business aircraft. FliteStream T-Series is composed of an antenna (GAU), transceiver (LPT & PAU), and satellite modem & antenna controller (ACMU).
and correspondingly costly to do the same on an aircraft? The enormous cost of certification (for aviation use) is a big driver when it comes to price. And the technological challenges of installing and then keeping airborne antenna aligned with satellites while moving in 3 dimensions and also crossing satellite boundaries are other salient factors. Nearly all communication satellites (which include voice, data and entertainment) are parked in orbit over the equator. By definition, a satellite over the equator that remains over the same geographical location is known as geostationary. Line of sight has to be maintained for signal reception to be continuous. However, unlike a ground receiver that can remain stationary and locked at a specific azimuth, aircraft receivers must have the ability to constantly track the satellite as the aircraft moves. Additionally, physics plays an important role in designing an antenna. The home satellite system previously mentioned consists of a parabolic dish connected to a protrusion that extends outward from the center, or an attachment that wraps up from underneath. In either case, the hardware–known in industry parlance as a feed horn– serves an important purpose. When receiving a signal, the curved parabolic dish reflects radio waves inward to the feed horn, much like the concave mirror behind a flashlight bulb focuses light into a concentrated beam. And when transmitting, the controller 1st sends a
signal to the feed horn which bounces the signal off the dish, transforming it into a narrow outgoing beam. A side effect of a traditional open-ended feed horn is that, by the nature of its placement, it blocks a portion of the incoming satellite signal–much like an umbrella blocks overhead sun. One solution to increase gain and efficiency is to just make the parabolic antenna enormous, which is not a problem if the corporate aircraft happens to be an 800 ft long Zeppelin with a top speed of 75 knots. But for a midsized business jet flying at 80% of the speed of sound, there’s a finite limitation contingent on fuselage space and willingness to accept parasitic drag.
The Astronics AeroSat approach Astronics AeroSat has developed a novel approach to the feed horn issue. AeroSat, which was acquired by Astronics in 2013, was founded in 1997 with the purpose of creating satellite connectivity for aircraft. The company rapidly excelled in the field of antenna performance so it wasn’t long before it developed and patented a lens-horn technology. The gist is that in lieu of a using a traditional feed horn to serve as the radio wave focal point for transmission and reception, the lens covering the antenna performs that function. The lens itself is composed of Rexolite, an extremely lightweight (15% lighter than acrylic) cross-linked polystyrene plastic with superior properties that make it an excellent choice for
satellite dishes and other antennas. The lens material is important, but the key to it functioning like a traditional feed horn is in the way the lens is engineered. If the word Fresnel sounds familiar it’s probably because it brings back memories of 8th grade science class. A Fresnel lens (named after French mathematician and physicist Augustin Fresnel in 1822) is made of concentric rings with each groove cut at a different angle so that it focuses light towards the center. It’s the principle behind a magnifying glass lens which is thick in the middle and thinner towards the outside. This ability of a Fresnel lens to take a weak light source and magnify it was the reason it was used in lighthouses. An example of this exists today. In Florida, the original 9 ft tall Fresnel lens (hand-blown in Paris, France) still sits atop the St Augustine lighthouse. Although the original low-powered light source has since been replaced with a 1000 watt bulb, the Fresnel lens still directs the beam.
Fresnel lens-horn design Astronics AeroSat’s Fresnel lenshorn design enables the antenna to capture RF energy at greater incident angles. This efficiency makes it especially advantageous when flying in latitudes above 75 degrees. Again, think back to that home satellite system. The dish points towards the satellite on the equator. If your house was located on the equator the dish PROFESSIONAL PILOT / March 2018 63
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Astronics AeroSat FliteStream F-Series system is a fuselage-mounted internet connectivity solution ideal for airline and VVIP aircraft. FliteStream F-Series is composed of an antenna (FMU), transceiver (HPT), and satellite modem & antenna controller (ACMU).
would point straight up; in Barrow, Alaska, at 71 degrees north, the same dish would be aligned almost horizontal. The signal gets weaker as the latitude (angular difference) between the satellite and recipient increases. So the Fresnel lens-horn acts like a bigger diameter dish, achieving a higher gain and sensitivity than traditional satellite antennas. The end result is that the Astronics AeroSat product continues to provide internet and television in locations where other antennas tend to drop offline.
FliteStream F & T series When it comes to connectivity, Astronics AeroSat produces 2 product lines. Airline customers (approximately 500 airframes have it installed) benefit from the fuselage-mounted FliteStream F-Series. Business aviation is served by the FliteStream T-Series, a tail mounted system available in 2 options: T-210 or T-220. T-series versions consist of a Gimbal Antenna Unit (GAU) at 23.5 lbs, Power Amplifier (PAU), Antenna Control & Modem Unit (ACMU), Low Power Transceiver (LPT), and a diplexer. Connection speeds are specified in excess of 40 Mbps. The T-220 is considered an upgrade in terms of worldwide coverage of live TV. High speed data and global live TV is provided by Panasonic (which advertises coverage over 99.6% of the world’s flight routes), while customer care and subscription services are delivered by SatCom Direct.
Astronics AeroSat uses Ku-band Astronics AeroSat specializes in the Ku-band frequency range under
an open-architecture philosophy to prevent locking the customer with a specific satellite network or provider. The modem in the ACMU is compatible with a number of broadband providers so that flight departments can choose from a variety of options to meet their specific needs. There’s a lot of hype these days about Ka service. Matt Harrah, president of Astronics AeroSat, explains why. “Ka-band has recently garnered the majority of the airborne connectivity news because it is new and promises faster internet speeds in flight,” declares Harrah. “Unfortunately, this has confused the market, making customers think Ku-band means slow internet and Ka-band means fast internet. However, this is not factual, as the speed from Ka-band is solely a function of how the satellite was designed, using multiple small antennas to cover a region creating spot beams versus the traditional single large antenna creating a single wide beam over an area. New Ku-band satellites being launched today also have the same spot beam architecture providing similar speeds.” Harrah also points out that Kuband satellites are more prevalent as there are relatively few operational Ka-band satellites in orbit. All other things being equal, reflector gain is proportional to frequency squared. A Ka receiver operating in the 26.5– 40GHz range has a mathematically better sensing capability than a Ku receiver at 11.7–14.5GHz. However, the Astronics AeroSat design offers a distinct advantage over standard Ka antennas. Further, path loss (the quality of signal to noise) is also proportional to frequency squared. This translates to a higher noise ratio when it
comes to Ka signal quality. Rain has a tendency to absorb signals over 11 GHz, so Ka is also subject to rain fade–an important consideration for operators that frequently visit tropical regions.
Business jet applications In regards to business aircraft, As tronics AeroSat’s tail mounted T-se ries have been FAA-approved for the Gulfstream G-IV/G-IVSP family and the Dassault Falcon 7X along with the Gulfstream G-450 and Bombardier Global Express XRS/5000/6000 on its heels. According to Matt Harrah, 2018 is an exciting year for the company. “Multiple sequential aircraft STC programs are being kicked off to maximize business aviation market availability for quick installations for interested customers,” says Harrah. Since its inception in 1997 Aerosat has been highly regarded for its technical expertise and innovative designs. In 2004 Rockwell Collins began using AeroSat antennas for their Tailwind DBS-TV system product line. There’s no doubt that the combination of Astronics–a global powerhouse in the world of aerospace and AeroSat–with its strong history of SatCom engineering will produce some exciting products now and in the future under the Astronics AeroSat brand. Shannon Forrest is a current line pilot, CRM facilitator and aviation safety consultant. He has over 10,000 hours and holds a degree in behavioral psychology.
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Designs that dazzle Some operators of business jets want showcase ramp appeal. They want unusual designs that set their aircraft apart from the crowd. Although many MROs can paint aircraft there are only a few that can originate exquisite original designs and finish them flawlessly. Duncan Aviation
nown worldwide for it’s high quality business jet support capabilities, Duncan Aviation does complete design work and flawless aircraft painting at their 2 main facilities of Duncan LNK (Lincoln NE) and BTL (Battle Creek MI). The company paints on average more than 200 aircraft annually at LNK and BTL. State-of-the-art facilities include downdraft and crossdraft paint and prep booths with automatic heat and humidity controls. All Duncan Aviation paint jobs come with 3-year warranties and Duncan Aviation has its own professional design staff dedicated to developing personal paint schemes and graphics. Duncan Aviation prides itself on being able to originate and produce the best possible designs with show-stopping results.
Photos by Duncan Aviation
Here is a Challenger 300 painted by Duncan Aviation where the designer was Rebecca Meggs. Paint colors selected were Aristo Blue, Tibetan Gold, and Medium Green Metallic. The design creates an eye-catching pattern. The “swoosh” wraps around the fuselage of the Challenger with a circulating pattern and the colors are carried into the tail to focus on the company’s lucky shamrock symbol.
One of the most complex paint jobs ever done by Duncan Aviation was originated by Designer Ken Reita as the artist for the owner of this Citation 750. Reita pleased the aircraft owner with his eye-catching swirls and said he had “… a masculine tribal design that embraced life and matched the aircraft owner’s personality.” The owner was very pleased and said the design was a perfect fit for his high-performance aircraft.
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Photos by Foss Imagery
t their MLI (Moline IL) facility Elliott Aviation does exceptionally creative aircraft painting. Their state-of-the-art downdraft facility allows the well-qualified technicians to provide customers with advanced coating technology. Elliott’s painting facility is one of the most advanced downdraft-type painting facilities in the nation, rivaling the paint shops of
many of the major OEMs. Elliott Aviation offers smooth, even airflow in all areas of the spray booth, exhaust is done at floor level to minimize the potential for outside contaminants. Uniform airflow and complete climate and humidity controls are done by computers. Hard, high-gloss finishes with maximum paint adhesion are specialties at Elliott Aviation.
The Challenger 300 shown here is one of the many complex designs originated and painted by Elliott Aviation at its MLI facility. Elliott supplies its own designs for customers or will work with outside artists. Well-pleased painting customers are a tradition with Elliott.
Here is an eye-catching Challenger 604 painted with custom burgundy blended stripes that fade into red.
et Aviation’s state-of-the-art paint shop can handle most business jets up to Boeing 737s and Airbus A320s. Jet Aviation’s award-winning design team will work closely with you to develop the exact look you want for your aircraft from clean lines to very elaborate designs requiring detailed craftsmanship. Jet Aviation has experienced painters who focus on luster and depth, providing the best quality and finish in the industry. A downdraft and climate-controlled paint booth and efficient processes mean predictable outcomes and complete customer satisfaction. The paint team thrives on challenges from reproducing photo images to applying dot-matrix fades to creating the illusion of carbon fiber in exact detail on the aircraft. They can make your vision a reality.
Photos courtesy Jet Aviation
The Boeing BBJ 737-700 shown here was painted using a grey color on the bottom of the fuselage to make the aircraft appear slimmer and then there was the use of blue accent stripes to swirl over the aircraft.
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West Star Aviation
omplete design and painting is offered by West Star at 2 facilities, GJT (Grand Junction CO) and ALN (Alton IL). The company boasts it can design and produce high-quality paint jobs for all sizes of aircraft from small to very large — or from TBMs and King Airs to Falcon 7Xs and Gulfstream 650s. A specialty at West Star is to coordinate the interior design of the aircraft and match it or coordinate
it — if desired — with the exterior paint design and its colors. West Star also boasts on-staff designers who are augmented by computers to reproduce logos and photos. There are also technical staff members with years of experience in aircraft painting and very modern paint areas. Paint shops at GJT and ALN have computer-controlled temperature and humidity, 4-stage filtration and 3-stage exhaust filter systems.
Photos courtesy West Star Aviation
Here is a Citation 680 designed and painted by West Star Aviation.
This Embraer Legacy 500 was recently designed and painted by West Star.
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At West Star, our aircraft paint experience becomes your asset. And, like any asset, it’s only valuable when accessible. This is why we’ve made it a priority to make it easier than ever to literally “Connect” directly to our paint capabilities, facilities and most importantly - our people. This open communication, no run-around approach allows you to be conﬁdent in your decision at every level. West Star delivers a full scope of exterior paint services with two state-of-the-art facilities that can accommodate most modern aircraft ﬂying today. From minor touch-up to complete strip and repaint, every aircraft paint project from West Star is approached with the same world-class quality and attention to detail. To learn how to connect with West Star Aviation’s paint experience, visit www.weststaraviation.com today.
CONNECT WITH EXPERIENCE
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AL LOOKS BACK
After Learjet: fun projects for Piaggio, then the start of a 20-year relationship with Cessna
Photo courtesy Piaggio
Before immigrating to the US to head Learjet worldwide sales in 1979, B S “Bib” Stillwell was 4-time Australian race car champion and founded a large, successful Ford agency in his native Melbourne. At Learjet he later served as president for 3 years before returning to Australia in 1985.
Sullivan Higdon & Sink had a role in naming the Piaggio Avanti and later developed some its initial global marketing materials.
By Al Higdon
Former Beech and Learjet Communications Executive Cofounder of the Sullivan Higdon & Sink Ad Agency
n the early 80s, Learjet took on US representation of the Piaggio turboprop, made in Italy, as an addition to the Learjet line-up. Bib Stillwell, then president of Learjet, knew the airplane needed a brand name that would resonate in this country so he commissioned Sullivan Higdon & Sink to look into it. Our response was to throw the question open to the industry, as a way of involving a broad cross-section of aviation enthusiasts and build greater awareness of the Piaggio. A national contest throughout general aviation drew thousands of entries for a name. The one selected, “Avanti” (“forward, let’s go”), seemed to fit this sleek-looking turboprop quite well and is still used today. After my departure from the Learjet program, we were asked by Piaggio, in Genoa, to work with them on promotional materials for the airplane. This we gladly did and produced their 1st really attractive marketing literature. That was all well and good, and the folks in Italy were great to work with. But Piaggio did not fill the hole I’d
Cessna Vice President of Marketing Phil Michel (L) and Al Higdon first met as members of the General Aviation Manufacturers Association (GAMA) public affairs committee, Michel representing Cessna, Higdon for Learjet. A few years later Michel spearheaded appointment of Sullivan Higdon & Sink to handle all of Cessna’s advertising.
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First 2 ads created by Sullivan Higdon & Sink in 1987, which earned them the Cessna business in a relationship that spanned the next 20 years. Ad for Caravan on left suggests thinking of the model as an inexpensive, fast and spacious freight hauler. Citation III ad matches it against its nearest competitor, the slower BAe 800.
left by resigning the Learjet business. But then lightning struck. In 1987 I got a call from Phil Michel, head of marketing for Cessna. Phil is a guy I met and worked with on the GAMA public affairs committee. I knew him to be extremely smart and a sound, strategic thinker who was always a voice of reason in those committee meetings. “I’d like to come talk to you about our Caravan business,” Phil told me. Come by he did, and a few days later, on a Saturday morning, Joe Norris, our truly brilliant creative director, and I were in front of not only Phil, but Cessna CEO Russ Meyer and Brian Barents, Cessna’s sales chief. We presented 2 ads for the Caravan, created by Joe and Jeff Filby, 1 of Sullivan Higdon & Sink’s bright, young art directors. Those ads won us the Caravan business. Within a year we were given a shot at expanding our Cessna relationship to embrace the Citation line as well. After presenting 2 ad concepts for the Citation II and III, created again by Joe Norris and this time Sullivan Higdon & Sink Executive Art Director Jim Kandt, we were awarded agency-of-record for Cessna’s jet business. This was a major coup for us, supplanting the former Learjet work many times over.
Between 1971, when we opened the agency, and 1996, when I retired from Sullivan Higdon & Sink at 60, we served 15 clients in aviation. These covered quite a range, including airframe manufacturers, avionics producers, a fixed base network, an aviation finance company, a flight training organization, an aviation credit card provider, an aviation software firm and an aviation fuel additive. In the 21 years I’ve been gone, the agency has established relationships with many other fine aviation and aerospace companies, including Pratt & Whitney Canada. But the standard for me in client–agency relationships, across our spectrum of clients, has always been the 1 Sullivan Higdon & Sink enjoyed for so many years with Cessna. Al Higdon spent 12 years as a public relations executive with Beech and Learjet before co-founding an advertising/pr firm that represented more than a dozen clients in aviation, including Learjet and Cessna, over a 25 year period before his retirement at 60 in 1996.
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Cartoon art by
We invite readers to submit story lines that would work for a 6-panel Sid and Star cartoon. Send your thoughts by e-mail to Pro Pilot Publisher Murray Smith at firstname.lastname@example.org. If we use your idea we’ll credit you by name and pay you $100.
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FINDING DOWNED AIRCRAFT
ICAO’s next step in flight tracking
Aireon Corp is creating a new Iridium near Earth satellite constellation to supplement the existing constellation. Iridium NEXT satellites will be able to track ADS-B Out transmissions giving the first ever worldwide real time aircraft tracking capability.
By Bill Gunn
ATP/CFII. Pro Pilot Regulations and Compliance Specialist
fter the loss of Air France 447 in June 2009 and Air Malaysia 370 in March 2014, ICAO recognized the limitations of the current worldwide air navigation system, which cannot always support timely identification and location of aircraft in distress. ICAO formed a working group to examine and make recommendations to improve aircraft tracking, autonomous distress tracking, and post flight location and recovery in the event of a mishap. The most recent version of the concept of operations for the Global Aeronautical Distress and Safety System (GADSS) is V.6 (Pro Pilot, May 2017, P 36). GADSS is a protocol of systems and procedures intended to initially apply to commercial air transport operations under ICAO Annex 6 Part 1. However it’s stated that GADSS is not restricted to a particular type of
operation. The concept of operations is structured so business and personal aviation may easily come within the system. GADSS is designed to address 3 specific issues: the late notification of Search And Rescue (SAR) services when an aircraft is in distress, missing or inaccurate end of flight aircraft position information such as wreckage location, and lengthy and costly retrieval of flight data for accident investigation. Owner operators, ATC, SAR, and accident investigation are intended to all benefit from the program. GADSS does not prescribe new specific technical solutions but provides a framework of scenarios that can be used to verify that the intent and standards of GADSS are met.
GADSS aircraft tracking GADSS defines aircraft tracking as a process established by the operator that maintains and updates at standard intervals a ground-based record of the 4 dimensional position (latitude, longitude, height, time) of
individual aircraft in flight. ICAO states tracking for GADSS is the responsibility of the operator. However, member state’s air traffic control systems using several possible methods such as radar, ADS-B Out, multilateration, or procedural can fulfill this role for the operator. Tracking includes any other means such as ACARS, FANS, direct company communications, or contract tracking services. Standard intervals for updates in the current version of the plan ask for periods no longer than 15 minutes. If ATC tracking intervals become greater than 15 minutes, the plan suggests the operator provide additional updates to meet the 15 minute mandate. Operators may contract the tracking to a 3rd party. Increased coordination among the various parties such as ATC, operators, regional control centers for SAR and other services is also addressed as part of tracking.
Image courtesy Aireon
The recently revised ICAO plan for Global Aeronautical Distress and Safety System required for commercial traffic and available to all becomes viable worldwide with new Iridium NEXT tracking satellites.
Autonomous Distress Tracking Distress is defined here as a state of aircraft behavior which, left uncorrected, may result in an accident. Autonomous Distress Tracking (ADT) monitors the aircraft at a rate so as to establish, to a reasonable extent, the location of an accident site within a 6 nm radius. ADT uses on-board systems for position (latitude and longitude; altitude is desired but not specifically required) or distinct distress signals to establish position and time. The position update rate is at least once a minute and must not require flight crew action once activated. ADT must be as much as is practically possible capable of transmitting for the duration of the remaining flight time regardless of failure of aircraft electrical, navigation or communication systems or human factors. Operators will be notified when their aircraft is in a distress condition and ADT must have the capability to
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deliver information to SAR agencies. ADT automatic triggering may include specific mode A squawk codes, the ground or on-board analysis of unusual attitudes or speeds, potential terrain collision, or total loss of thrust on all engines. The purpose for automatic triggering is to maximize the probability of detecting an impending catastrophic event. Automatic triggering must provide aircraft position information not later than 5 seconds after detection of the distress condition. Provisions for operators to trigger ADT may be included in systems if there is uncertainty of the aircraft’s status and attempt to communicate with the flight crew have failed. If the aircraft recovers from the catastrophic event, distress signaling and tracking will be deactivated but may only be done so through the activating mechanism.
Post flight localization and recovery Rescue of any survivors is the most important part of the 1st phase after an aircraft accident. Aircraft accident site location accuracy of 1 nm or better should be provided by an Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) and/or homing signals. The minimum information that must be transmitted is latitude, longitude, time, aircraft identification/registration, and the source of the signal, such as ELT distress tracking. Large airplanes operating on long range overwater flights are required to have an attached underwater locating device capable of providing detection for several miles and operating for a minimum of 30 days. Flight recorders are required to additionally have an automatically activated underwater locating device capable of operating for a minimum of 90 days. The term Regional Coordination Center (RCC) is used generically in GADSS to refer to any unit responsible for promoting efficient organization of SAR and communications within a defined SAR region. This could be an aeronautical, marine, or joint RCC. The protocol for notification is given as: • If a distress condition is detected by Air Traffic Services (ATS), then ATS will contact the operator and the RCC. • If the operator detects the dis-
A pictorial overview identifying the main functions. GADSS is not a specific system so much as it is a concept of operations with recommendations for equipping and maintaining by ICAO member states. Flight data recovery
Autonomous distress tracking (ADT)
Aircraft tracking • Provides automatic A/C position at least once every 15 minutes • ATS surveillance may be utilized • Can be isolated by flight crew • Multiple solutions • May have airline defined triggers for abnormal operations with higher reporting rate
• Provides automatic A/C position at least once every minute • Must be active prior to accident event • Operates autonomously of aircraft power • Results in a distress signal to appropriate SAR FIR • May be manually activate • Can not be isolated
tress condition, they will advise ATS who will notify the RCC. • If an ELT or ELT distress tracking signal is activated, the RCC will be notified via the Cospas-Sarsat system. • The RCC may be notified by an outside source. Obviously, accurate and timely communication and coordination among all interested parties is crucial. GADSS defines specific phases of pending or actual emergency situations as: • Uncertainty phase–uncertainty exists as to the safety of an aircraft and the occupants. • Alert phase–apprehension exists as to the safety of an aircraft and its occupants. • Distress phase–reasonable certainty that an aircraft and its occupants are threatened by grave and imminent danger or require immediate assistance. • False Alert–alert received from any source where no distress situation actually exists and the alert should not have resulted.
GADSS implementation Some of the requirements for GADSS are already in use. ICAO has provided a timeline for the initial added elements. For airliners, underwater locating devices were required beginning January 2018, while 15-minute aircraft tracking will be required in November 2018. Autonomous distress tracking and flight data recorder recovery standards come in on January 2021.
• Ensures a minimum dataset of CVR and FDR information • Operation approval required • ADFR • Automatically deployed • Floatable • Contains an ELT to aid location
The next step in aircraft tracking All of the various elements of the GADSS program hinge on the ability to track aircraft accurately in real time in any location. Traditionally, just over 70% of the world has no or very limited tracking capability, making the goal of GADSS difficult at best to implement where it is needed most. Much of the wording in the GADSS document implicates the growing use of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) of which GPS is the US constellation. The European Union constellation, Galileo, has, as of December 2017, 14 operational satellites of the planned 24 total. Like GPS, Galileo is worldwide and available for civil air navigation. As Automatic Dependent Surveillance and Broadcast (ADS-B) gains popularity as the preferred method for individual aircraft to report their position in 4 dimensions, this aspect of aircraft tracking has an answer. The remaining piece of the picture is the ability to receive, process and transmit these position reports to any location. In the USA, the creation of the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) to increase GPS accuracy sufficiently for vertical precision guidance, in addition to the network of ground-based transceiver sites for ADS-B, makes ATC and operator tracking even more accurate and timely than the current radar-based system. Other parts of the world have equivalent ground and space
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Iridium NEXT. Operating in 6 polar orbits at approximately 485 miles above the Earth with 100% worldwide coverage. NEXT will initially supplement and eventually replace the current Iridium constellation.
based augmentation for GNSS while much of the rest of the developed world has radar or other systems for traffic surveillance. Radar and other land-based surveillance systems such as multilateration do not cover the vast expanses of water covering most of the planet. Among possible solutions, satellite-based ADS-B tracking using a worldwide constellation of receivers with the ability to report this information in real time to any point on earth is an answer to this last part of the system.
Iridium, Aireon, and Global Beacon On December 22, 2017 SpaceX launched 10 more Iridium NEXT satellites into orbit. This makes 40 of the planned 66 Iridium NEXT operational or positioning. The Iridium NEXT network will be comprised of 6 polar orbiting planes each containing 11 operational crosslinked satellites. Currently 32 are operational with 8 more still positioning. Iridium Communications Inc plans the 5th Iridium NEXT launch by SpaceX for March 18, 2018. This will add 10 more satellites, bringing the total to 50 in orbit. In addition to the established communications and data transfer of earlier Iridium constellations, NEXT has the capability to receive ADS-B Out signals. The only added requirement for aircraft that are ADS-B Out capable is to have a top-mounted ADS-B antenna. Aireon Corp and Flight Aware have a joint venture in Global Beacon. Aireon is a joint partnership of Iridium Communications and a number of major air navigation service providers. When Aireon’s Iridium NEXTbased ADS-B tracking system be-
comes fully operational, Aireon will offer a public service to the world’s aviation industry for the locating and tracking of ADS-B equipped aircraft in emergency situations. The Aireon Aircraft Locating and Emergency Response Tracking (ALERT) is the aviation industry’s 1st and only free real-time emergency aircraft location service. This will be one means to meet the GADSS ADT mandate required for commercial airliners but will be available to all users. Flight Aware is the largest provider in terms of numbers of customers for flight tracking. Traditionally Flight Aware uses multiple methods to track aircraft including satellite or VHF data-link through the Flight Aware website. This is termed Flight Aware Global and requires data service with a participating data-link provider. It combines this data with existing Flight Aware data feeds in more than 50 countries and Flight Aware’s ADS-B ground based data in over 100 countries. Global Beacon is the next step in flight tracking. A partnership between Aireon and Flight Aware, Global Beacon will be a means for commercial air service to meet the GADSS Aircraft Tracking requirement. Global Beacon leverages ADS-B Out capability installed on more and more of the global aircraft fleet and can meet the November 2018 provisions for GADSS Aircraft Tracking. Global Beacon is a 1st of its kind product. It will detect aircraft positions in real time everywhere in the world. Through Aireon’s network of Iridium NEXT ADS-B receivers, aircraft equipped with ADS-B Out 1090ES transponders will be tracked automatically. Global Beacon is en-
visioned to be the most cost-effective and easy-to-deploy option available for all international flight operations. Combining Flight Aware’s web interface and worldwide aircraft flight tracking information–including origin, destination, flight plan route, position, ETA–with the NEXT ADS-B receiver network, aircraft dispatch can monitor their aircraft through the Flight Aware secure platform. This real time aircraft tracking dashboard features configurable alerts and will provide immediate notification of abnormal events. Should an aircraft deviate from its intended flightpath, experience severe turbulence, or stop transmitting location, then commercial air carriers complying with GADSS will automatically enter distressed status and immediately notify its airline operations center who can take appropriate actions. Global Beacon will provide 100% aircraft tracking capabilities starting in mid-2018, and will begin 1-minute interval tracking by the end of 2018. This will far outperform the GADSS 15 minute tracking interval requirement.
Final thoughts GADSS set a required date for commercial air carriers. Regardless, the infrastructure is not limiting and the wording of the GADSS plan leaves room for other than commercial airline operators. Flight Aware is currently encouraging their Global customers to beta test the Aireon space-based ADS-B data as the constellation nears completion and is offering incentives for customers who wish to take advantage of bundling Global Beacon with a global subscription. Keeping up with a fleet always on the move is not only a safety issue but has manifold benefits for maximum use of valuable assets. Flight crews may then concentrate on their #1 job: flying the aircraft. Bill Gunn is former compliance manager for the Texas Dept of Transportation, Av Division. He is an ATP, CFII and FAA Safety Team rep. Bill lectures nationally for a private aviation advocacy group and is an aviation compliance mediator.
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Icing Even small amounts of ice accretion can cause major problems. By Karsten Shein Comm-Inst. Climate Scientist
Ground crew prepare to deice aircraft during a snowstorm. Deicing is needed anytime there is potential for ice buildup, including during snow events.
raining his coffee, the copilot had grabbed his coat and went to do a hurried walk around of the bizjet in the clear, subfreezing early morning air. He kicked the tires and ran his gloved hand across the leading edges. Nothing looked out of place. Removing and stowing the intake and pitot covers, he dropped the stairs and quickly clambered inside. The CEO’s secretary had called them yesterday evening to inform them the boss needed to make a last minute meeting at a new client’s office 2 states over. With that info, they’d called ahead to have the plane fueled, which required moving it out of the hangar. Normally, the FBO would tow the aircraft back inside afterward, but a miscommunication with the line crew about the departure time caused them to leave the aircraft out. The pilots were not too happy about this when they arrived at 5 am, but they figured they’d have some time to warm the cabin before the boss arrived, so they left things as is. The chief pilot finished filing the flight plan, greeted his boss and walked him out to the aircraft where the copilot had already lit the fires and gotten some heat flowing. Settling in, and with no other aircraft moving about at this early hour, they
were quickly making their way to runway 3. This was a much shorter runway than they liked, and there was a row of trees just past the airport boundary, but a maintenance crew was on the longer runway, and the cold dense air would favor a quick rotation and climb out. During the short taxi, the crew focused on setting the FMS and checking the gauges. Everything still seemed fine as they accelerated down the runway. The chief pilot felt they weren’t accelerating fast enough and thought about aborting, but quickly decided that was just an illusion created by using the shorter runway. The mains finally left the ground with around 700 ft of runway remaining. With no time for the crew to respond to the abrupt stall warning, the aircraft, which had only managed to climb about 70 ft, clipped the tree line and twisted out of control to crash into the field opposite the runway. Investigators later concluded that a thin film of ice had coated the wings in an almost imperceptible glaze. A light snow had been falling as the line crew fueled the jet and the combination of a hangar-warmed aircraft skin and full fuel tanks slowly releasing heat kept the wings above freezing long enough for the snow to melt as it landed, only
to refreeze as the aircraft skin temperature dropped below 0° C (32° F) after about 20 minutes. Sadly, in the cold and dark, the copilot had hurried his preflight walk around, never taking off his gloves to physically inspect the wing surfaces. At that time of morning, the ice would have been invisible to the copilot’s eye, but not to his finger. As a result, he never felt the need to deice the aircraft, or even turn on the anti-ice air bleed. Unfortunately, the chief pilot neglected to ask him about the walk around. The investigator’s calculations suggested that the aircraft was carrying at least 170 kg (375 lbs) of ice on the wing and elevator surfaces. Given the higher than normal climb angle used in an attempt to clear the trees, the ice also reduced lift by around 30% and increased the drag by 40%. There was simply no way for the aircraft to escape its fate. Because of its ability to critically impact an aircraft’s capability to stay in the air, aircraft ice accretion is one of the most dangerous meteorological threats to aviation. Aircraft icing can occur any time the aircraft is in air that is below freezing and there is water in liquid form (generally where the air is saturated). While it is well known that the freezing point of water is 0° C (32° F), this is conditional on the purity of the water. That value should be more correctly considered the melting point of ice, since pure water can remain liquid to temperatures of around -50° C (-56° F).
Water in the air To understand icing, we 1st need to understand the behavior of water in the atmosphere–especially as clouds and precipitation. Most of the lower atmosphere contains water vapor. These water molecules are constantly evaporating and condensing as they absorb and release energy to maintain balance with the surrounding environment. In unsaturated air, the rate of evaporation exceeds the rate of condensation, and water molecules tend not to remain in a liquid (or solid) state long enough to grow to cloud droplet sizes (around 0.02 mm diameter). But, if enough water is added to the air, the condensing molecules find it more and more difficult to acquire the energy to re-evaporate. Simultaneously, the more molecules exist in liquid state, the more likely they are to find an aerosol to which they can attach. These so called condensation nuclei are microscopic dusts or salts that attract water. They may dissolve in the
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Clear ice coats the upper wing surface of a Bombardier CRJ-200. Freezing rain will often coat upper aircraft surfaces where onboard deicing systems cannot reach. Only chemical or radiant heat methods will remove such accretion prior to flight.
water, creating a solution, or simply be encapsulated. Suspended water droplets assume a spherical shape, and the high curvature of the droplet’s surface makes it easier for water to condense onto the droplet than evaporating from it. This is what allows the droplet to resist re-evaporation and grow larger. However, to grow to raindrop proportions (around 1–5 mm diameter) air currents help the cloud droplets collide and coalesce. If there is a sufficient source of moisture, and as long as drier air doesn’t flow into the cloud to desaturate the air, the droplets will likely gain enough mass to counter any air currents that are keeping them suspended and they will begin to fall as precipitation. This is a big if, because as we can see in the atmosphere, most clouds never produce a drop of precipitation, and of those that do, some of that precipitation evaporates as it falls through drier air below, never reaching the ground. Of course, while droplets may start to fall at a fairly uniform size, the air resistance flattens them out, and recent high-speed video of falling droplets reveals that this often inflates them like a parachute to the point where they simply disintegrate into smaller droplets. This is why a rain shower might produce a variety of droplet sizes.
Explanation of icing formation If the cloud exists or extends above the freezing level, many of these cloud droplets will begin to freeze into ice crystals. However, unless the air temperature is very cold, a lot of the cloud droplets will remain liquid. In fact, spontaneous crystallization–a droplet of pure water instantaneously transforming into ice–requires temperatures of around -50° C (-56° F). But, with most droplets containing some con-
Rime ice covers the leading edge of a Textron Beech King Air. Opaque and rough rime forms when small supercooled droplets strike the aircraft.
densation nucleus which will also act as an ice nucleus, the crystallization process will begin in earnest around 0° C and become widespread between around -15° C to -40° C (-5° F to -40° F). Below -40° C, nearly all cloud and precipitation droplets have become ice crystals. Although some liquid water will still exist below about -15° C, the danger zone is the cloud levels between 0° C and -15° C OAT. In this region, most of the liquid droplets have yet to freeze, and are instead supercooled. Supercooled droplets hold water that is in a suspended transitional state. As water freezes, it releases some of the heat energy it has stored. The release of this latent heat actually serves to warm the water around the forming crystal, preventing additional growth. Only small disturbances are needed to disrupt that balance and complete the droplet’s freezing process. One of the biggest disturbances that the supercooled droplet can encounter is contact with a surface that has a temperature below freezing – such as striking the subfreezing skin of an aircraft. The reason that aircraft don’t often accrete ice in a cloud that has no larger droplets is that the flow separation ahead of the aircraft is sufficient to deflect the droplets before they make contact. However, some parts of the aircraft, such as the pitot and engine inlets are designed and positioned to minimize the deflection of air, and so they may accrete small amounts of rime ice simply from contact with millions of small, supercooled cloud droplets.
Supercooled Large Droplets The greater inflight icing hazard comes from larger supercooled droplets. Supercooled Large Droplets (SLD) are defined as liquid droplets with a
diameter of 0.05 mm or greater in subfreezing air. The low end of this size range is still within the realm of cloud droplets (drizzle starts at diameters of around 0.1 mm), but 0.05 mm diameter is a size sufficient to avoid deflection by the flow separation ahead of the fuselage and leading edges of the lifting surfaces. Small SLDs that strike the aircraft will generally freeze almost instantly, producing an opaque and bumpy rime ice on leading surfaces. The way in which rime accretes produces a coarse surface full of air pockets. In this way, it can quickly grow very thick, and often forms a wedge shape on the leading edge. As a consequence, rime ice is most likely to disrupt airflow, decrease lift and increase drag. Fortunately, the flash freezing of rime ice normally limits its extent to the areas covered by inflight deicing systems such as boots and bleed air. Rime also tends to be brittle, especially at colder temperatures, making it reasonably easy to shed using deicing systems. At temperatures near freezing, rime may be more plastic, and boots may have more limited effectiveness, stretching the ice around the inflated boots without releasing the ice. Larger SLDs are a different story. Although these larger drops will also quickly freeze on contact, their size and the latent heat they contain gives them a few milliseconds to spread aft from the leading surfaces before they complete their freezing process. The result is a coating of clear ice that may extend well aft of the area covered by deicing systems. The more gradual freezing also reduces air pockets within the ice, making it heavier than rime. Clear (or glaze) ice is also smooth and transparent, so noticing accretion is more of a challenge. It is more difficult to break away from the aircraft and PROFESSIONAL PILOT / March 2018 79
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Freezing rain may coat all upward-facing surfaces with a glaze that may be several centimeters thick. Just 1 cm of ice on a 100 sq m wing surface equals around 2000 lbs.
when the deicing systems do release some, it can break away leaving an ice ridge where it has separated from the remaining ice sheet. Mixed icing is a combination of rime and clear, and is the most dangerous type of inflight icing. This is common within and beneath cumulonimbus clouds where an aircraft may encounter SLD of various sizes. The result is an opaque and heavy layer of ice that combines the worst qualities of both rime and clear ice. Not only will it increase weight and drag, but it will reduce lift and is difficult to remove. Often, the rime that accretes on the surface of the ice can form into a dual horn shape along leading edges that severely disrupts airflow. Although many aircraft are certified for flight into known icing conditions, the presence of ice accretion means you should search for warmer air immediately, even if you are able to shed most of it with deicing systems. Because the lower atmosphere is heated from the surface, warmer air is nearly always found below the icing zone. However, if the icing is happening along a frontal zone, especially a warm front, warmer air may actually be above the altitude at which you are experiencing icing. Any time you think your flight may take you into a region where icing is a possibility, it is worth a look at the temperatures aloft to determine where you might find warmer air.
Icing on the ground For aircraft on or near the ground, icing is frequently produced by supercooled rain falling into subfreezing air below. As with inflight icing, as soon as the droplet strikes the subfreezing aircraft skin, it will freeze, with the droplet size determining the rate. Air-
Frost may deposit on aircraft skin after a clear, subfreezing night. Even though it may be very thin, frost can dramatically reduce lift, and as with all ice, must be removed completely before flight.
craft on the ground are moving slowly or are stationary, which allows more droplets to strike and accrete away from any anti-ice protected areas. Freezing rain tends to occur at temperatures not much below 0º C, which also slows the crystallization process, resulting in often heavy coats of clear ice over all upward-facing surfaces. Icing doesn’t necessarily require supercooled precipitation. If an aircraft has been moved out of a warm hangar into falling snow, that snow will melt as it lands on the aircraft, only to freeze once the aircraft skin temperature has equalized with the air temperature. Conversely, an aircraft that has recently descended or landed from high-altitude cruise may accrete clear ice on its wings due to a phenomenon known as cold soaking, an effect of wing fuel tanks. The fuel in the tanks can remain liquid to temperatures of -40° C to -50° C, and will take some time to warm. So, even though the aircraft may be in above freezing temperatures as high as +15° C, the wing surfaces may still be below freezing, and any rain hitting the wings will quickly freeze just as if the water was supercooled. Pilots descending from cruise into an area of cloud or rain should expect that cold soak icing may occur. Pilots need to take appropriate countermeasures. A last icing danger is that of frost. When air is near or at saturation and the temperature is below freezing, additional cooling can produce deposition, or the transition of water vapor directly to ice. When this happens, usually under clear night skies in relatively humid air, a thin layer of ice will crystalize on the upper surfaces of the aircraft. A relative to frost, freezing dew can also coat an aircraft with ice. But, while frost will normally cre-
ate a rough, whitish coating, freezing dew, which occurs when dew settles while the air is above freezing and then freezes as the air cools below 0° C, will create a clear, slightly bumpy ice layer. Regardless of how ice may form on an aircraft on the ground, pilots must take steps to ensure that all ice is removed before takeoff. In most cases, a visual and tactile inspection of the wings will reveal whether ice (or snow) is present. If it is, deicing is critical. But even if ice is not perceptible, you should deice whenever conditions favor the formation of ice. Your aircraft may appear ice free now; you may even have just towed it from the hangar, but you still need to taxi and takeoff in conditions that may lay down a layer of ice on your wings. Of course, one additional ice hazard of note is that icing doesn’t only coat aircraft. Freezing rain and subfreezing temperatures after a rainfall can leave slick spots on runways, taxiways and tarmacs. Although airports will do their best to melt this black ice, many aircraft flown by unsuspecting pilots have slid off runways or taxiways, and many pilots have fallen on ice just walking to the FBO. If you notice icing either in flight or on the ground, or even icy patches on runways or taxiways, notify controllers and file a pirep. Karsten Shein is a climatologist with NOAA in Asheville NC. He formerly served as an assistant professor at Shippensburg University. Shein holds a commercial license with instrument rating.
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he development of Helicopter Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) is passing a significant technical and business milestone. Helo health is good business, and there’s money to be made by all parties involved. For the owner operator, the value of the investment can be measured, schedules can be maintained and work continued. And for the avionics supplier and OEM, the additional value of helo health and maintenance is a key market discriminator as it sells helicopters and systems. At Textron, HUMS is an item on the purchase menu these days, and you can select the level of service you want to buy. Much like any modern consumer product, car, or helicopter, it is now the expectation by this generation of owner/operators that the equipment can actually be maintained at peak efficiency. HUMS is a bottom line cost control tool, and not a shiny toy for the maintenance department.
History of HUMS HUMS was borne out of a need to anticipate the inevitable failure of critical helicopter components. The increase in payload, power and torque accelerat-
ed the service life of parts thought to be longer in the overhaul or replacement cycle, sometimes with dire consequences. So even elementary monitoring of transmissions has resulted in improved safety and reliability. Today the technology of instrumentation and data reporting for health usage monitoring has even greater value with the increasing complexity of helicopter components. HUMS can reduce or stop unobserved machine wear. Back in the early 1990s, an FAA study made some compelling observations and predictions about the potential future of helicopter maintenance. The study pointed out coming technological advancements that would take components from analog to designs incorporating processors which would become integrated within engine controls, transmissions and auxiliary devices. Today, rather than be an afterthought, HUMS can become part of the core design, providing access to critical functions.
Going digital Going from paper reporting to digital information, albeit limited in nature, was the 1st evolution in the management of HUMS data. Studies and supporting developments around the world dove into the development of products
and means to transmit the data. This led to the next stage of designing computer software that could identify precursors to failures within this data by correlating times and conditions. The next trick was learning how much buffer was permitted at the edge of use or component failure, something that only large amounts of data could provide in terms of real use and wear. But gathering digital data from a whirling machine of gears required development as well. The real value was on the whole picture of the aircraft, requiring sensors in the key areas of the helicopter. The revolution started for real when OEMs began developing instruments for collecting data, providing services for data analysis, and considering HUMS a key part of their offer. In the early stages, the leading-edge Howell Instruments Engine Performances Assurance Monitoring, the Sikorsky HELIX, Plessy’s AIMS, and Bell’s EADS and vibration analysis were among the initial HUMS technology. The FAA’s 1992 study on HUMS also forecast things called integrated diagnostics, artificial intelligence and more. What was unknown at the time of the FAA study was the coming of the new digital economy, where the demand for data would be driven by consumers. And the access to global data services provided another key ingredient for the growth of HUMS.
Aircraft health monitoring Today helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft and even the car we drive have moved the health monitoring service and business to a customer option to be selected. It’s a level of service, communications systems, and network that deliver the data, as well as the capability to analyze your machine’s health. The bottom line value is, of course, that it tells you to fix something, replace something, or “you’re fine, keep right on going.” What is striking about the latest developments at Helicopter Association International (HAI) Expo 2018 in health and performance monitoring
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OEMs and avionics suppliers are expanding the technology and products for HUMs instrumentation and monitoring with high speed data connectivity to provide predictable maintenance.
technology is that it now telescopes into everyone’s personal electronic devices (PEDs). Consider at the consumer level how a standard feature in everyone’s cellphone is how much battery power you have left, and the device prompts when you need to update your software to assure better performance and security. The technology is designed for both technical and business reasons, so it keeps you using the phone, and keeps making money–needed knowledge that all the users readily accept. Now the variety of HUMS PED applications is growing rapidly, moving HUMS to a 24-hour service on mobile phones and tablets, allowing pilots, owners and operators to monitor their fleets. The provision of HUMS service by OEMs, and the ability to choose mobile apps is also changing the buying habits of users and providers, leading to independent services that are moving the end results to include all the departments of a flying organization. The connections of HUMS technology and services not only include maintenance departments, but the front office and CFOs, as well as line pilots.
HUMS can crunch the data Another important new value being offered by some of the new HUMS services is to crunch the data and provide critical assessments. In some cases this option could reduce the need for manpower, allowing more focus on the mission. One of the growing issues with the new HUMS capability, which now includes a new generation of com-
munications systems, is that they also produce a digital avalanche of information. However, industry is providing new services designed at the outset to swim through the mountains of data and provide answers–not add to the overhead expense of people. The burden of how to set up a server or a cloud storage or other necessity when it comes to critical data is actually part of these new services all handled by the providers. So, the associated fields of technology, cloud data management, high speed communications and secure portals, are all in the same bill along with the answers you need to keep flying. The costs of OEM and MRO turnkey services is another expense, but the value of these services are reasonable and priced for the bigger picture–to keep you flying with a supply of parts and services.
Reaping the benefits What’s also intriguing is that HUMS data products and services are reaping the benefits of commercial and con sumer level investment. So helo applications will continue to get better and less expensive, a benefit of the HUMS data provider and you, the operator. An example is the various satcom services that don’t need line of sight for data service, but at some point use the internet to deliver data and reports. The direction of both the technology and the services is an economy of health, which is really all about efficiency. So the cost of safety that helped spur the revolution in HUMS reflect the cold facts that better maintenance improves
bottom line performance, increases capacity and helps maintain capital investment.
Variety of services for HUMS At HAI 2018, there were displayed a number of noteworthy products and services. This growth is inclusive of the service itself, HUMS equipment, satcom data service, and the analysis and reporting services offered by OEMs and MROs. One of the major growth developments in the HUMS business is the variety of services offered. There are also options on how to store, how to move the data from the aircraft, analyze, and report it. The competition is increasing because each of these segments is a specialty in itself, so the results are more services and varied pricing tailored to fit different operations. Offerings of more portable data capture products have also improved, and in many cases also include smaller and more affordable data communications systems. But one that is emerging is lightweight and affordable communications instruments which are a key ingredient to the growth of the HUMS service industry.
Airbus Helicopters Airbus Helicopters introduced its Flyscan service last year with Global Helicopter Service, a German operator. This is part of an overall digital move by the OEM, spreading a wide net across all aspects of the operational process, from manuals to fully integrating critical maintenance data,
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The helicopter industry is rapidly expanding the use of iPad and smartphone applications to manage a single aircraft or entire fleets through the support of HUMs. Leonardo helicopters Heliwise Services is designed to operate in a web-based environment, and Bell’s MissionLink is an OEM-integrated solution provided for current Bell production helicopters.
to services that supply spare parts and perform repairs. The Flyscan service, as stated by the company, is a “true predictive maintenance” capability to analyze HUMS data. Flyscan is now integrated with the Airbus HCare program, and offers 3 levels of service where no infrastructure is required to capture or manage the data. The different services include data transfer with varying degrees of frequency of reporting, up to a hotline service.
Leonardo Leonardo Helicopters is providing Heliwise Services and connecting them from the aircraft to the operators’ PEDs. Heliwise services include what they call Advanced Anomaly Detection (AAD) and Advanced Vibration Data Mining (AVDM) tools to get to the answers and reduce the analysis workload. Heliwise is designed to operate in a web-based environment and, like some of the others, will grow in the amount of data provided and the graphics user interface to support maintenance actions and business level decision-making. You can now download the Heliwise app directly to your smartphone to monitor either a single aircraft or a whole fleet.
Bell Helicopter’s MissionLink is an OEM-integrated solution provided for current Bell production helicopters. Touted as the cornerstone and “missing link” to more reliable service and “greater productivity,” MissionLink can include vibration health data for drive systems, engines and rotors. MissionLink also captures flight parameter data, and the services offer phases of flight breakdown from the Bell 429 and 412EPI. As an indication of the standards design aspects of a modern helicopter, all of the current MissionLink features–and some planned for future release–are provided for the Bell 525 Relentless. Bell goes on to say that their goal is to make maintaining an aircraft effortless, and their system will provide operational and financial peace-of-mind. Bell has introduced MissionLink and has coined its HUMS product as Intelligence-Analysis-Intuitive-Free. And to get the message out, they have tied the integration of MissionLink into part of the options list presented to buyers when purchasing a helicopter. The company is clear in its message, “Bell Helicopter is currently offering the benefits of MissionLink to our customers at no additional charge.” When was the last time you saw that on an OEM website?
Honeywell Honeywell’s Sky Connect Tracker III and the Aspire 200 high data rate communications system are also some recent innovations in the HUMS market,
providing the means to communicate the data. Aspire 200 was actually designed for helos, so now operators have a means and technology that gets the data from their helicopter to the service department to be analyzed. Sky Connect Tracker III also provides Flight Data Monitoring (FDM) as well as condition data for rotor blades, transmission, engine parameters, and flight controls. The system also monitors vibration. And if a problem or discrepancy occurs, the data is automatically sent to the user or dispatch. Sky Connect Tracker III is also set up for mobile apps, and provides aircraft location, mapping, alert management, and 2-way messaging capabilities to your PED. Honeywell has also entered the portable carry-on vibration monitoring product field with the Vibrex 2000+ that can collect and provide a user analysis of components like the drive train, gearbox, shafts, rotor system and other components. This device includes a small data acquisition set, display unit, software and a carry-on sensors kit. The VXP also integrates with tachometer sensors through out the aircraft. The Enhanced Vibrex 2000+ (EV2K+) has been developed to provide some additional features such as aircraft balance charts, and propeller balance saves and recall.
Future of helo health monitoring While I was driving recently my truck announced on my “flight display” it was time for a service and system check. The options offered were to proceed by pushing “yes” and so I took the bait. My machine went through some hidden process while I drove to my destination. A few minutes later, the system announced the maintenance review and data transmission event was complete and that an email had been sent to me. I received a report with color-coded graphics on various parts of the truck–all was green. The aviation industry is fast approaching this kind of readiness check, it’s the mission that counts, not the process, and that’s where the money is. Glenn Connor is president of Discover Technology Intl. He is a pilot and a researcher specializing in the development of enhanced vision systems and advanced avionics.
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OUTER MARKER INBOUND
Alaska, its dependency on aviation, and the Japanese WWII Aleutian Invasion By David Bjellos
ATP/Helo. Gulfstream IV, Sikorsky S76, Bell 407 Pro Pilot Airport Historian
he continental United States has always enjoyed security from 2 vast oceans on either side, an expansive Gulf of Mexico, and challenging and demanding territories to its north and south–all making a land invasion difficult. However, once aviation became a weapon, previous minor vulnerabilities became greatly magnified. This is a story of just such a weakness in the then-newly acquired territory of Alaska, and an outcome that produced rewards that would be far-reaching. It was clear that the Alaska purchase had both strategic and economic benefits for defending America. So in 1867, for the price of $7.2 million, President Andrew Johnson signed documents that put America’s footprint into the far north while a sleeping giant was just awakening. Japan feared exposure to their homeland on their northern and eastern flank by military airfields on the Aleutian Islands, which extended hundreds of miles to the west from Anchorage. The Japanese had done extensive surveys to reach this conclusion, and planned to attack the islands in the early summer of 1942, as hostilities were increasing in the Pacific and WWII spread west.
Images courtesy Creative Commons
An invasion on American soil in WWII: The Aleutian Campaign The sole example of an active military campaign by a foreign aggressor fought on US soil in WWII can be found in that remote island chain. The Aleutian Campaign was fought by regular US Army US troops reported, “Conditions were and Navy troops and a brutal for both US troops and the Japanese invaders. Many died from ex- contingent of Canadian conscripts against the posure and frostbite.” Japanese, beginning on June 3, 1942. This battle would prove to be no less devastating to the combatants than those fought on Iwo Jima and Chichi Jima. It was to be a “feint” attack, or one intended to divert attention from the Battle of Midway which began the next day on June 4, 1942. Two Japanese aircraft carriers were dispatched by Admiral Yamamoto and steamed eastward, attacking the islands of Attu, Kiska, Adak and Dutch Harbor. By September of that year, the Japanese had taken numerous prisoners of war and transported them back to Japan where they stayed until the end of the conflict.
Will Rogers and Wiley Post, 2 of the most loved and listened to personalities of the 1930s. Both men were from Oklahoma and used their down-home charm and common sense to bring clarity to the day’s events for millions of listeners. They would die tragically at Point Barrow, Alaska in a crash.
Post flew the Winnie Mae Lockheed Vega to many records before retiring the aircraft, as newer and faster models were introduced. Upon his death, Congress appropriated funds to restore and display the Winnie Mae as an example of Post’s extraordinary flying skills and feats. Post was blinded in one eye while working on an oil rig many years previous, yet flew better than many men with both eyes.
There were 8500 Japanese troops spread across the Aleutian Islands, and by the time the campaign ended, over 4000 of these occupiers lost their lives, with an additional 1000 combined US/Canadian casualties. Over 45,000 armed troops were stationed in Alaska at the time. And with the help of a special deployment from the 10th Mountain Division of the US Army, who were specially trained and accustomed to fighting in cold and mountainous terrain, the invaders were repelled the following year. Frostbite and the elements killed as many troops as did bullets, bombs and grenades.
The only viable option was airpower US military aviation was mobilized to Alaska and the (then) US Army Air Corps 11th Air Force flew over 1500 sorties against the entrenched Japanese in the outer Aleutians. Ground forces were making limited headway, so B-17s, P-40s and B-18 “Bolo” bombers flew through impossible weather and cold to isolate and neutralize the enemy. Fleet Air Wing 4 of the US Navy provided carrier support, and 6 submarines helped sink surface ships. The air battle was one of the most difficult to execute and results were nearly impossible to verify, given the constant low visibility. Few air battles anywhere faced such challenges and risks. Many Alaskan bush pilots were drafted and flew those aircraft because of their experience and knowledge of the area. And when they returned to civilian life, many start-
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ed their own airlines or charter services. Names such as Wien, Reeve, Kellogg, and Crosson are testimony to these brave men who defended their country. This story of a homeland invasion by Japan is unknown to virtually all Americans today. Very few during that period were even aware of this action since Guadalcanal was being fought simultaneously and received the lion’s share of headlines and attention. The Battle of Midway also diverted attention from the Aleutians, and the losses suffered there by the Japanese is possibly ironic, given the fact they devoted 2 aircraft carriers to the Alaska invasion. What might have become of one of America’s most decisive victories during WWII had those 2 carriers been deployed to the south Pacific instead of Alaska? One can only speculate.
Tragedy and triumph – Wiley Post and Will Rogers Wiley Post and Will Rogers were beloved Oklahomans who rose from poverty to become radio, literary and movie icons in the 1920s and 30s. They perished near Point Barrow, Alaska on August 15, 1935 in a crash that, through tragedy, forever changed Alaska aviation for the better. Such was their fame that Congress, moved by their loss, recovered Post’s neglected and parked Lockheed Vega (in which he set many speed and distance records) called Winnie Mae. They authorized funds to restore it to its original luster and made it a permanent display in the Smithsonian. The deaths of Wiley Post and Will Rogers effected what became a permanent change in how the Alaskan government viewed the importance of aviation to the economic success of the state. Washington has provided millions of dollars in the decades since, funding high tech avionics projects. One of these was Capstone, a joint FAA-industry avionics project that ran from 1999–2006. The Capstone successes resulted in nationwide implementation of ADS-B. And the state retains, by far, the highest per capita population of pilots. Other states, notably California, Texas and Florida, benefited greatly from Alaska’s foresight in investing in aviation.
The air mail expands north – challenges in early aircraft The US Post Office was instrumental in helping Alaska grow and expand the use of aircraft. Air mail routes were awarded to operators who could best serve and were individually granted by the Postmaster General. Called CAM, or Contract Air Mail routes, dedicated numbers CAM Route 5. CAM routes were well-established in the lower 48, and CAM 5 flew between Elko NV and Pasco WA. Dozens of other such routes existed. This early biplane is a typical example of the kind of aircraft used in the 1920s and 30s for mail in the US.
General Billy Mitchell recognized the strategic importance of Alaska from his early days as a young lieutenant stringing telegraph cables in the territory in 1900. He advocated strongly before Congress in establishing air power in the new state, and was only modestly successful. Alaskans never forgot the man who championed their state, and they named a mountain peak Mount Billy Mitchell in the Chugach Mountains, just west of the Copper River.
were painted on the sides of aircraft to identify the particular city-pair. They then flew mail and were paid by the pound. An occasional passenger could sit on the mail sacks in the front cockpit (they were all open-cockpit biplanes at the time), and brave souls shivered in the freezing temperatures for the convenience of traveling quickly. CAM routes were already well-established in the lower 48, but Alaska’s weather tested these new airmail pilots and their routes to the limits. Alaska’s geography was–and remains–the culprit. The relatively warm Pacific Ocean colliding with the frigid Bering Sea produces vicious storms in the winter, as well as fog, drizzle and stratus in the summer. Navaids were non-existent. Landings were mostly rated successful (very often the outcome was a crash or severe damage) or “other.” It was not unusual to have repair needs for the aircraft after every landing.
Summary General Billy Mitchell made clear that he considered Alaska of vital national security. “I believe that in the future, whoever holds Alaska will hold the world. I think it is the most important strategic place in the world,” said General Mitchell when he testified before the House of Representatives in 1935. His words would prove to be true, both during his time and into perpetuity. However, General Mitchell was a contrarian to the longheld belief that sea power would always triumph over air power, and he suffered both personally and professionally. His predictions and forecasts would prove themselves true for many decades to come, and his posthumous awards and accolades are evidence of his foresight. Our industry today owes a debt of gratitude to those early pioneers, military and civilian, who brought aviation to Alaska. They doggedly maintained a passionate course towards advancement and improvement during both war and peace. The Aleutian Campaign bears sober witness to as-yet unknown weaknesses we will most certainly face.
David Bjellos is the Aviation Manager for Florida Crystals, flying a GIV-SP, S-76C+ and Bell 407. He also serves on the Board of Directors for the Helicopter Association International (HAI).
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Archie Lee Trammell Jr, world renowned aviation safety advocate By Pro Pilot staff
The evolution that can be seen in Archie’s life, from airplane mechanic to pilot to radar specialist, was what really set him apart. He craved growth in his field, in his life, and in other pilots. He worked to accomplish an ever-growing wealth of knowledge that will continue on, which is why he spent such an abundant amount of time researching and determining the best and most efficient ways of training pilots in the proper use of airborne weather radar.
viation journalist and safety icon, Archie Trammell Jr died February 5, 2018 at his home in Mansfield TX. His impressive background includes senior editor for Flying magazine, editor-in-chief of Business and Commercial Aviation magazine, and executive director of the AOPA Air Safety Foundation. In 1976 he was awarded the distinguished Earl Osborn Award by the Aviation/Space Writers Association for his article “Weather Accidents.” As an aviation journalist he flew hundreds of hours each year in all kinds of aircraft, from simple trainers to large corporate jets, often while they were still in the experimental stage. Archie was born October 23, 1928 to Georgia N and Archie Lee Trammell Sr. During WWII he served in the US Coast Guard, gaining entry by using a bogus birth certificate. After tours in the Philippines and Okinawa, he completed his education and graduated with honors from the University of the Pacific with a degree in Journalism.
Archie’s true passion can be found in the endless hours logged on typewriters and computers in order for continuous open communications with pilots and others in the field. The knowledge and growth in the field that this accomplished for the use of airborne weather radar will continue to benefit pilots for many years to come.
In 1979 Archie formed his own company and created a training program for pilots on the proper use of weather radar. The next year he began lecturing on the subject worldwide. His training included clients from the FAA, DEA, FBI, all military branches, many corporate flight departments, and most major airlines. His dedication to aviation safety was acknowledged by the National Business Aviation Association, who awarded him the Meritorious Service Award in 2006. This award is NBAA’s most distinguished honor presented to an individual who, by virtue of a lifetime of personal dedication, has made significant, identifiable contributions that have materially advanced aviation interests. Referred to as the “leading authority on the use of airborne weather radar,” Archie published an informative website free of charge to pilots, produced a new “Convective Weather Flying” training manual and wrote articles for Professional Pilot through 2017. Although he consulted with radar engineers on his recommendations for their future radar designs, he was a most humble man, never taking full credit for his own research and knowledge. He always gave credit to the people who supported his efforts and the scientists that contributed to his work. Archie is survived by his wife, Mary and his 3 children: Nathan (Lisa) Trammell of Linden TX, Rev Bessie (John) Adams of New Harmony IN, and Archie D (Kristine) Trammell of Dallas TX. His stepchildren are Michele (Kevin) Miracle of Graham TX and Douglas (Aracely) Seitz of Arlington TX. He also has 6 grandchildren, 4 step-grandchildren, 13 great-grandchildren, and 2 great-great grandchildren. He was preceded in death by his parents and 1 granddaughter. Services were held at Jaynes Memorial Chapel in Duncanville TX on February 14 with interment at DFW National Cemetery. Memorials may be made to the James M Cook Scholarship Fund at the University of Oklahoma, 100 Timberdell Road, Norman OK 73072.
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Professional Pilot Magazine March 2018