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SC Aviation has evolved from a corporate flight department into a leading charter operator offering a fleet of Falcon and Hawker jets. They have expanded over the years, now providing maintenance, management and parts to customers across the upper Midwest. At their home ss base in JVL (Janesville WI) are (L–R) DOM Jim Dillavou, Dir of Safety Andrew Simonson, ne e ar Charter Sales Mgr Margaret Clark, Pres Nick Colombe, Dir of Ops Dan Avers, Asst Chief Aw l a Pilot Adam Singer, Chief Inspector Joshua Lundy, and Chief Pilot Matt Gasper. ion Sit

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January 2019

Vol 53 No 1

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Contributors in this issue DAVID BJELLOS, ATP/Helo. Gulfstream IV, Sikorsky S76, Bell 407. BRENT BUNDY, Phoenix PD Officer/Pilot. AS350, Cessna 210/182/172. SHANNON FORREST, ATP/CFII. Challenger 604/605. DAVID ISON, PhD, Assoc Prof Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. GRANT McLAREN, Editor-at-Large. BOB ROCKWOOD, Managing Partner, Bristol Associates. KARSTEN SHEIN, Comm-Inst. Climatologist, Natl Climatic Data Center. DON VAN DYKE, ATP/Helo/CFII. Canadian Technical Editor. Professional Pilot ISSN 0191-6238 5290 Shawnee Rd, Suite 201, Alexandria VA 22312 Fax: 703-370-7082 Tel: 703-370-0606 E-MAIL: editor@propilotmag.com

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2  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  January 2019

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January 2019

Features

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Vol 53 No 1

8 POSITION & HOLD Artificial Intelligence used within the aviation industry by Anthony Kioussis 34 OPERATOR PROFILE SC Aviation by Brent Bundy The Swiss Colony food marketing business led to SC Aviation providing charter, management, maintenance and parts throughout the US Midwest. 40 ADVANCES IN SITUATIONAL AWARENESS SA technology 2019 by Don Van Dyke Avionics OEMs keep developing flightdeck systems that allow pilots to be safer and more precise.

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46 ROAD TO ZERO-ZERO Low viz takeoffs using EFVS by Glenn Connor Below-minimums takeoffs in Part 121 and 135 operations. 50 WATCH YOUR ALPHA High AoA dangers by Mike Petridis Beware of stalls at high angle of attack flying. 54 TARGET POSITIONING A look at what Collins Aerospace offers in ADS-B In by Marty Rollinger Detailed info on threat evaluation is a real benefit.

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58 INTERNATIONAL OPS Fuel uplift considerations worldwide by Grant McLaren Buying fuel overseas can vary widely in price and you also often face surcharges that are tacked on. 62 TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHT ETOPS for business aircraft by David Ison Extended Operations are not just for the airlines. 66 CLEAR COMMUNICATIONS Improving collective situational awareness by Shannon Forrest SA can be summed up in 3 questions: What has happened? What is happening? What may happen?

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70 AVIONICS SURVEY Operators grade flightdeck OEMs based on aftersale service by Pro Pilot staff 78 OUTER MARKER INBOUND Eddie Rickenbacker, the man who made “The Hat in the Ring” famous. by David Bjellos 80 WEATHER BRIEF Obtaining data from satellites by Karsten Shein Photographs taken from space can paint useful pictures for pilots.

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84 FORECASTS Pro Pilot Technology Timeline 7.0 by Owen Davies Predictions for your career and your life.

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IT WAS IMPOR TA N T TO ME TO WOR K WHERE I’M VALU E D AS AN EMPLOY E E AND NOT JUST A NUMBER IN T HE BUDGET. - KYLE STEVENSON

January 2019

Vol 53 No 1

Departments 16 VIEWPOINTS Mente Group VP of Talent Management Colleen Kelly talks about solutions to the pilot shortage. Bristol Associates Managing Partner Bob Rockwood highlights changing trends in aviation. 22 TERMINAL CHECKLIST Quiz on procedures when flying into ANC (Anchorage AK). Answers on page 24. 26 SQUAWK IDENT Pro Pilot readers tell about recurrent training, where they go and the areas in which they’re most interested. 32 SID & STAR The pilots tell an old friend how they got into flying when they were kids.

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SC Aviation has evolved from a corporate flight department into a leading charter operator offering a fleet of Falcon and Hawker jets. They have expanded over the years, now providing maintenance, management and parts to customers across the upper Midwest. At their home base in JVL (Janesville WI) are (L–R) DOM Jim Dillavou, Dir of Safety Andrew Simonson, Charter Sales Mgr Margaret Clark, Pres Nick Colombe, Dir of Ops Dan Avers, Asst Chief Pilot Adam Singer, Chief Inspector Joshua Lundy, and Chief Pilot Matt Gasper. Photo by Brent Bundy.

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POSITION & HOLD an editorial opinion

Photo by Adrien Daste/Safran

Artificial Intelligence in use today within various parts of the aviation industry

AI applications in the aviation industry minimize aircraft down time by anticipating maintenance issues based on collected data. Safran’s Nacelles, used in the production of the Airbus 330neo, uses VR to facilitate the immersion of engineers, technicians and operators. Wearing 3D viewing goggles, users can see full-size parts designed with CAD software, or work on ergonomics and positions using virtual mannequins.

By Anthony Kioussis President, Asset Insight

A

rtificial Intelligence (AI) is often associated with robots able to mimic human actions and some level of cognitive reasoning. It is true that advanced robotics utilize various forms of AI, but what might surprise you is that you’re probably benefiting from the use of AI without knowing it. As most of my colleagues at Asset Insight will tell you, I’m not the brightest bulb on the company’s information technology chandelier. That being the case, I need things explained to me in layperson terms, offering me the ability (I hope) to explain how AI can enhance – and is already enhancing – planning and decision-making for business aviation managers. Bear with me through the techno-speak that is about to follow and you’ll understand its importance shortly (and it might even allow you to communicate with a millennial).

AI programming AI utilizes programming that is able to combine vast amounts of data with high-speed computer processing and advanced algorithms (a set of instructions that are repeated in a sequence a specified number of times or until a condition is met) that are adjusted by the AI, allowing the software to learn automatically from patterns in the data and move closer to “reality” over time. How has this helped you on a day-to-day basis? When you use Google, you’ll notice that your computer is offering you suggestions as you type. These suggestions are not random, but rather based on information that you, and others who have demonstrated similar interests, have found useful in the past. Google is actually utilizing a search engine algorithm that learns what people want as they use it, and then attempts to “guess” what the users are seeking.

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THE COMPANY WILL THANK YOU AGAIN AND AGAIN AND AGAIN. You simply won’t find a business aircraft that offers a better ROI than the PC-12 NG. You get a spacious 8-passenger cabin, seating that can be reconfigured in minutes, and a private lavatory. And we guarantee your CFO will love its low acquisition and operating costs. With an airplane this comfortable, versatile and efficient, you’d better get used to the praise. Pilatus Business Aircraft Ltd • USA • Phone +1 303 465 9099 • www.pilatus-aircraft.com

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DATA SOURCE

COMPUTER

DATA SOURCE

CELL PHONE DATA SOURCE

DATA SOURCE

TABLET

Rather than forwarding a user’s request to a source that can only respond with the information it has available, GraphQL, a powerful new computer language, allows the user to access data from countless sources to match the detected information request and respond to a user’s query with answers that are not constrained by the information available through any single data bucket.

Historically, the process used to establish, and allow for, data transference between computers has been accomplished through “REST APIs.” API stands for “Application Programming Interface.” It is a set of rules that allow programs to talk to each other. The capability is created on a computer server to permit communication with other computers. REST, which stands for “Representational State Transfer,” is a set of rules that developers follow when they create their API. One of these rules states that you should be able to obtain a specific piece of data when you link to a specific web address.

Aid in searching What does all this mean in layperson terms? Let’s say you’re trying to find videos about Hawaii on YouTube. You open up YouTube, type “Hawaii” into the search area, hit enter, and you see a list of videos about Hawaii. A REST API works in a similar way. You search for something, and you get a list of results back from the service you are communicating with. REST APIs have worked well. However, as people’s reliance on technology has increased, the load on computing power has as well – in some cases exponentially, hence the reason certain websites seem to “crawl” (if not crash) when too many queries attempt to utilize the REST API simultaneously. Other issues are that the form and content of information returned to a user’s query is predefined by the responder, and any changes to the API structure by that responder (the data path to the information the user is seeking to follow) can lead to applications not working. 10

GraphQL To provide a place where any application can go to obtain whatever data it needs (read: standardization), and to deliver what any requestor is seeking, as opposed to fitting a requestor’s query into an existing bucket, a data query language called GraphQL was developed that has been used by Facebook since 2012 and was released to the public in 2015. GraphQL replaces REST and is a powerful new language for APIs. How does that translate to planning and decision-making advances for business aviation? Say that you’re managing a maintenance facility and the completion of a maintenance event is running ahead of schedule. You could have your sales group search various databases for an aircraft requiring maintenance that could fit within the potential new slot. Alternatively, through the use of AI, your company’s program management system could have already communicated the potential capacity increase to Asset Insight. Rather than waiting for the facility’s personnel to ask for the information, Asset Insight’s AI capability, and implementation of GraphQL and Asset Insight’s proprietary technology would automatically investigate which aircraft had upcoming maintenance requirements that could fit the available timeframe (based on the facility’s capabilities), and recommend the facility consider pursuing specific aircraft serial numbers to create additional revenue. Rather than researching the correct aircraft operators to contact and allowing time to narrow the decision-making window for the facility and the potential maintenance cli-

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Think this is futuristic? OEMs today have the ability to monitor the engines and systems on many newer production aircraft while they are airborne, allowing for parts to be prepositioned based on actual or anticipated component failure. Airlines are logistically able to take advantage of such AI capabilities, and it won’t be long before business aviation finds ways to do so as well. What if you’re a frequent user of charter flights. You can use many capable systems to search and book a charter flight today. But how much could your personal efficiency increase, and your travel expenses decrease, if your computer’s AI, knowing your schedule, continuously monitored charter deals available through countless sources and recommended bookings to you based on your needs. Suppose the AI also told you that a better alternative existed, such as rail transportation – information you never requested and an option you never even considered.

AI in aircraft transactions

DARPA’s Aircrew Labor In-cockpit Automation System is a tailorable, drop-in, removable kit that promotes the addition of high levels of automation into existing aircraft, enabling operation with reduced onboard crew. The system intends to reduce pilot workload, augment mission performance and improve aircraft safety. It aims to support execution of an entire mission from takeoff to landing, even in the face of contingency events such as aircraft system failures.

ent, the facility’s sales team now has targeted prospects to pursue and more time is available for both sides to plan and decide, improving efficiency and (potentially) increasing revenue.

Planning production or utilization Let’s follow this thought process a bit further. Suppose your company manufactures aircraft components utilized in various maintenance events, and the need for such parts is based on aircraft flight hours and/or cycles. You could plan your production on general industry utilization figures. You could contact individual shops to learn what consumption levels they foresee for the next year. Or you could harness the power provided by AI’s ability to recognize the pattern of component use and allow it to recommend production level revisions based on changes in anticipated demand and your company’s inventory and existing production schedule. Utilizing REST API technology, thousands of connections between the API and data sources would need to be actively managed to ensure the communication stability necessary to provide an accurate and consistent response. However, by virtue of GraphQL’s stability, the new API language, in conjunction with Asset Insight’s proprietary technology, allows for data monitoring directly from the database itself, then permits the data source to communicate directly with the user. Updates to the database do not inhibit the connection and accurate information flow between the user and data source is assured.

When it comes to aircraft transactions, entities taking advantage of this technology will benefit substantially at the expense of non-users. For example, a large number of factors are employed by Asset Insight’s AI platform to derive current trends and long-term Residual Values ranging from the economic outlook and market momentum to the projected future cost for specific metals. The AI expands and refines these factors and proactively models (quite literally) millions of calculations involving parameters that aircraft owners, buyers and sellers have never considered. The ability to think in such complex terms is only some of the value created by AI. GraphQL assists the AI process by acting as something akin to a combination traffic flow monitor, data compiler and information desk. Rather than forwarding a user’s request to a source that can only respond with the information it has available, API systems utilize GraphQL to access data from countless sources to match the information request/flow patterns they detect, and they respond to a user’s query with answers that are not constrained by the information available through any single data bucket. Also, as was mentioned earlier, changes made at the data source do not break the API connection between the query originator and the responder. Although it will take time for GraphQL to demonstrate its full value to the business aviation industry, there are many reasons why entities will gravitate to it. Asset Insight is already applying GraphQL technology in the API available to our partners, and we see great potential in how it can help our clients and our partners’ customers in the years to come.

Anthony Kioussis is President of Asset Insight, which offers aircraft valuation and aviation consulting services. His 40+ years of experience in aviation includes GE Capital Corporate Aircraft Finance, Jet Aviation, and JSSI.

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ALPHA B R AV O COLLINS We are Collins Aerospace. With our customers we chart new journeys and reunite families. We protect nations and save lives. We fuse intelligence and partnership to tackle the toughest challenges in our industry. And every day, we imagine ways to make the skies and spaces we touch smarter, safer and more amazing than ever. UTC Aerospace Systems and Rockwell Collins are now Collins Aerospace. TOGETHER, WE ARE R E D E F I N I N G A E R O S PA C E

collinsaerospace.com Š 2019 Collins Aerospace, a United Technologies company. All rights reserved.

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ALPHA B R AV O COLLINS D E LTA ECHO FOXTROT GOLF HOTEL INDIA JULIET

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We are Collins Aerospace. With our customers we chart new journeys and reunite families. We protect nations and save lives. We fuse intelligence and partnership to tackle the toughest challenges in our industry. And every day, we imagine ways to make the skies and spaces we touch smarter, safer and more amazing than ever. UTC Aerospace Systems and Rockwell Collins are now Collins Aerospace.

TOGETHER, WE ARE R E D E F I N I N G A E R O S PA C E

collinsaerospace.com Š 2019 Collins Aerospace, a United Technologies company. All rights reserved.

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VIEWPOINTS editorial opinions

Kelly: Thoughts on the pilot shortage and some things we can do about it. Rockwood: Changing trends in aviation.

Aviation is coping with a real and ongoing pilot shortage. Flight departments could be more creative by offering flexible management solutions to counter the media-driven focus on compensation.

Colleen Kelly Vice President of Talent Management, Mente Group Thoughts on the pilot shortage and some things we can do about it or most of my aviation career, it seems I’ve been hearF ing about the looming pilot shortage. Talking to people older than I am, it seems the threat of a pilot short-

age has been with us on and off going back as far as the 1970s. But like the character in Samuel Becket’s Waiting For Godot, the pilot shortage was always something that was coming, but never actually seemed to get here. Until now. Now the pilot shortage is here, it’s real, and it’s having an impact on all aspects of our industry. Not long ago I spoke with the director of aviation for a corporate operator on the West Coast who told me she’s lost 4 people, 3 to the airlines and 1 to another corporate operator. The corporate operator had never even interviewed the candidate but offered a 20% pay increase and her employee was gone. This is not an isolated story. It’s happening throughout our industry. The good news is that everybody I speak with, at all different levels of the industry, shares a common passion to figure this out. We all want to solve the problem. And because the desire to fix this issue is so universal, I believe we are going to get through this.

Why is this happening? Clearly the demand for pilots is beginning to exceed the supply.But, particularly from a corporate standpoint, some of our past practices are also to blame. In many cases we haven’t done all we could to make the quality of life aspect of our business attractive enough to overcome the airlines’ ability to outbid us financially. When you begin to study the pilot shortage, you quickly realize this is a complex issue. It’s not just about money. There are many reasons why people do or don’t want to work for your organization. One of the first factors we need to understand is the role being played by the media. A lot of the reason why flight departments are struggling to retain talent today is because they are being hit very hard on a regular basis with news about the pilot shortage. That’s not to say the shortage isn’t real, because it is. But being constantly bombarded with reminders, particularly when it is coming from authoritative sources such as The Wall Street Journal (source of a recent article), isn’t especially helpful. What’s happening is that people who were perfectly content with their situations see all these things in the media and suddenly begin to ask themselves whether they ought to be asking for more money or perhaps ought to be thinking about a different job. The media have succeeded in making the otherwise happy individual unhappy, and that’s unfortunate. For corporate operators, the media is contributing in another way to this situation, although in this case it’s a problem entirely of its own making. After the Big 3 au-

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It’s time. What are the most precious things in your life? Your family, your friends, your business? Whatever they are, the most precious resource that links them all together is time. That’s why we’ve taken the time to make CorporateCare® even more comprehensive, with additional line maintenance, expanded support and even nacelle coverage on later engine models. Supported by the industry’s leading global service network and cutting-edge digital tools, we are focused on getting you to your destination on time, every time. It’s time to protect your most precious resource. It’s time to consider CorporateCare Enhanced. For more information, email corporate.care@rolls-royce.com The future. Rolls-Royce.

© Copyright Embraer 2018. All rights reserved.

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Educating some pilots to look beyond their flying skills at broader industry and management opportunities is but one of a number of solutions for flight department management.

tomakers so infamously rode their jets to Washington to beg for a handout, our industry just stopped talking about itself. Our silent approach has been so successful that today many of the students at Embry Riddle, North Dakota and the other big flight schools simply don’t know we exist because the media doesn’t talk about us anymore. As a result, we’re losing a lot of good potential employees because a whole generation of new pilots don’t know about careers in corporate aviation. Maybe it’s time for us to blow our own horns a little bit. Another factor that the pilot shortage brings into play is compensation. It’s natural enough that a pilot shortage will put upward pressure on compensation. When anything is in short supply, the price invariably goes up. Certainly, no corporate flight department manager wants to have to tell his boss that it’s going to cost 30% more to run the flight department next year because if salaries don’t go up the pilots are going to leave. But compensation is just one leg of a multi-leg stool that supports corporate aviation, so putting too much focus on compensation alone is a mistake. Most of the great corporate flight department leaders I talk to regularly seem to grasp this almost intuitively, but in times like these it’s important both to say and understand it. The other legs of the stool are quality of life and culture, and for most pilots these 2 factors are more important than compensation. Over the years during my job of recruiting pilots for corporate flight departments, I’ve found that compensation historically falls to the bottom of the priorities for prospective employees. So, when it comes time to try to defend against your pilots being poached by another flight department, compensation isn’t where I’d recommend you begin to build your case. Instead, let’s think about factors that will improve the pilot’s quality of life that can also be accomplished without incurring a lot of extra cost. One area where this can frequently be accomplished is in scheduling. As a flight department manager, you need to be looking at how many people are manned per aircraft, factored against the total number of hours the department typically flies. In a pilot’s world, even if you

have a good schedule, one factor that is highly valued is a hard day off. A hard day off means you are not working, are not on call and will never be called. Most flight departments don’t regularly have hard days off, mostly because they operate on demand 24/7. For a small department with just 1 or 2 airplanes, having hard days off might not be practical, but in my experience of working with departments that have 3 or more aircraft, this can often be arranged. Usually the reason it’s not done is because it was never a priority in the past, but when you’re looking for ways to keep your pilots happy, a little creativity can go a long way. But why is this hard day off so important to keep pilots happy? Well, just consider a pilot at home on a Friday afternoon with his family in town. He can’t have a glass of wine with them, even if he’s not on the schedule because he must be available if he’s called. Contrast that scenario with an airline job, where each pilot has a fixed schedule. They know exactly what’s happening and they know, with certainty, when it’s their time off. For many older corporate pilots that have lived this “on call” life throughout their careers, it’s what they’ve become used to. But for younger people coming into the industry, some type of fixed time off is more important today. Based on my experience in interviewing corporate pilots, I know that having as few as 2 hard days off per month is considered a huge benefit. As flight department managers trying to attract and retain good people, we need to be sensitive to this, particularly when we can provide some of these benefits with a little accommodation. And it’s a lot easier than trying to raise everybody’s salary by 30% in order to stay competitive. Another approach some companies are using to retain employees is Restricted Stock Units (RSUs). These typically have a vesting period of around 3 years, which means you have to stay around to take advantage of them. If I’m a chief pilot and I give you a certain amount of RSUs, that will motivate you to stick around for at least the next 3 years. And beyond that, now you’ve got a fully vested plan that you would leave on the table if you go somewhere else. And, again, from the chief pilot’s standpoint, it’s easier than raising salaries. Another element to consider is that corporate and airline jobs are fundamentally very different and so are the pilots attracted to them. An airline pilot just flies. It’s all he or she does. A corporate pilot does much more, including attending to passengers, loading baggage and keeping the airplane clean and stocked. There are also ground duties including things like maintaining the SMS, handling scheduling and perhaps moving up to executive leadership. Someone who just wants to fly isn’t likely to do well in a corporate environment. A pilot who enjoys the added elements of corporate aviation is likely to find the airlines a bore. Those are important factors that pilots thinking of changing jobs need to consider. Bottom line, in dealing with this overall pilot shortage situation I’ve found it’s very important that the people in a flight department know and understand that their leadership acknowledges what’s happening and is looking for creative ways to do something about it. Understanding that their leadership is aware, is critical in maintaining morale. That’s a key element in keeping people happy and keeping your flight crews happy is really what it’s all about.

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FBO

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Bob Rockwood Managing Partner, Bristol Associates Facing major changing trends in aviation y the time you read this there will B probably have been a report issued detailing the cause of the Lion Air crash that killed

over 180 people in October 2018. At this time, we only know it pitched down and nosed into the ocean. The plane was a Boeing 737 MAX which was fitted with a Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System (MCAS) which provides an automated trim function when the plane is being hand flown. It is designed to improve pitch characteristics and stall control when the plane is at a high angle of attack. Because this system is an automatic override independent of pilot actions, and because Boeing’s manual does not teach pilots its inner workings, the story is front page news. No one, however, is pointing to it as causative. What has struck me more than anything about this is the comment made by an official of one of the major airlines operating MAX aircraft. Pertaining to the lack of training about this system, he likened operating this system to watching TV, declaring he didn’t have to know how the TV works in order to enjoy it. The difference is this: if the TV ceases to work, you shut it off, go to bed, call customer service the next day, and 2 days later when you finally reach them, the fix is easy. The TV is now back on, and all you lost was 2 or 3 days of Gilligan reruns. System failures on an aircraft, whether automated or not, have rather more serious consequences. Pilots should know as much as they can – and then a little bit more – about the aircraft they’re flying, their route, and the circumstances. And pilot knowledge brings me to the first of a number of trends I see developing in the aviation world: The ever-worsening shortage of pilots. The effect of this will be twofold. First, it will drive the growth of any business that increases the sharing of aircraft. This includes charter companies, management companies and shares companies like Flexjet or Netjets. It is also likely to bring about mergers (or some form of consolidation) between airlines and corporate aircraft operators. The tie-up between JetXSuite and Jet Blue from last year is an example. And second, it will drive development of pilotless flight technologies. To fully achieve pilotless flight will require huge doses of Artificial Intelligence (AI). AI cannot become part of or take control of a plane’s systems until we can understand and explain the choices AI is making and why it is making them. This is not in the same league as asking your smartphone’s AI character where the closest Sushi restaurant is. Current estimates are that we are 10 years or so from having this understanding, but the pilot shortage could increase the focus on accomplishing this and shorten this timeframe. As I have said many times, this is coming. The pilot shortage will simply accelerate its arrival. The second trend to discuss is the myriad of adjunct and alternative means of travel now on the drawing boards. To mention a few, there’s urban aviation, Hyperloop and Maglev trains, supersonic and even hypersonic aircraft,

With the advent of eVTOL machines being developed for urban travel, it is possible that in 20 years a helicopter of this type will only be seen in a museum.

electric airplanes, driverless cars, trucks, and even hotel rooms in the form of driverless RVs. I’d suggest this whole driverless genre will have a significant impact on current short haul corporate aircraft. In terms of total door to door time, drive and flying time for trips up to a couple hundred miles are comparable if you are flying corporate, and 400 to 600 miles if you’re going commercial. The big advantage to flying these trips today is enroute productivity, and that advantage would disappear with the advent of driverless technology. What’s fascinating is that while driverless improves the competitiveness of ground travel for these trips, the development of urban aviation offers potentially huge advantages for flight versus ground travel on very short trips. We will probably see the development of the needed airframes and electric propulsion before we see the air traffic controls that will be required, but with companies like Boeing weighing in on this aspect, it will all be here sooner rather than later. I don’t see urban aviation having any direct effect on corporate aviation, though there will be plenty of opportunities for tie ins between service providers to allow customers to buy door to door transportation. Supersonic, hypersonic and electric propulsion technologies are unlikely to have an impact on the corporate aircraft market growth or shrinkage. However, I suspect you will see these technologies first applied to corporate aircraft before seeing them in the commercial market. I do think hyperloop trains could have an impact on corporate air travel. The current complete lack of infrastructure for this technology, and what I presume to be the horrendous cost of building it, are inhibitors to it becoming a reality. However, ever more crowded skies plus the problems and costs of building new airports, the cost of bringing new aircraft to the market, and the loss of personnel to run these aircraft could all combine to make these trains a reality. And finally, the biggest trend of all is one of attitude. Younger people are simply not as acquisitive of things as they are of experiences. This slews towards rental and partial use versus ownership. Combine this with pilot shortages, increasing costs and regulations, and the advent of more sophisticated corporate aircraft sharing concepts, and you can see a continued drag on corporate aircraft sales.

20  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  January 2019

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Terminal Checklist 1/19

6. To fly the departure procedure, the RNAV equipment must be engaged to follow flight guidance for lateral RNAV no later than how many feet above the airport elevation? a 300. b 500. c 700. d 1000.

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5. Select the true statement(s) regarding a “climb via” clearance for this SID. a The clearance limit altitude is FL200. b ATC will assign a top altitude of FL200. c The flight must comply with all published altitude restrictions. d Upon initial contact with Seattle Departure, the pilot should state that the flight is “on the NOEND Four RNAV Departure.”

4. If a flight is “cleared NOEND Four Departure, climb and maintain 15,000” the aircraft is expected to comply with the lateral path of the SID and with all published altitude restrictions. a True b False

3. Select the true statement(s) regarding the minimum safe/ sector altitudes. a The MSAs apply within 25 nm of Anchorage VOR. b The MSA of 8900 ft MSL would apply to an aircraft located east of TED VOR. c An MSA of 5600 ft MSL would apply to an aircraft after takeoff from Runway 33. d In emergency situations, MSAs provide 1000 ft of clearance over all obstructions and assure acceptable navigation signal coverage.

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2. Which are features of the Grid MORAs on this chart? a All based on an obstacle clearance of 2000 ft. b All based on an obstacle clearance of 1000 ft. c Charted for the To-Scale areas of the procedure graphic. d Apply within grids formed by 30 minutes of latitude and longitude.

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1. Select the item(s) required for all aircraft to fly this SID. a GPS. d Special authorization. b Radar. e Navigation map display. c Autopilot. f Cross-track error/deviation limited to 0.5 nm.

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Refer to the 10-3C NOEND 4 RNAV DEPARTURE for PANC/ ANC (Anchorage AK) when necessary to answer the following questions:

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Answers on page 24

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9. After reaching LIFFE, ATC issues a clearance to fly a heading of 100°. The pilot should______ a consider the SID canceled. b rejoin the SID at OUTER. c modify the route in the RNAV system and maintain RNAV 1 accuracy requirements. d All of the above are correct.

7. Which minimum climb requirements apply to this SID at a groundspeed of 200 kts? a 500 ft/nm to 2200 ft MSL. b 500 ft/nm to 10,000 ft MSL. c 1667 ft/min to 2200 ft MSL. 10. Select all that apply. When flying the SID, the aircraft d 933 ft/min from 2200 to 10,000 ft MSL. should ______. e 280 ft/nm from 2200 ft MSL to 10,000 ft MSL. a proceed direct to EGKAJ after takeoff. b maintain a maximum speed of 230 kts until reaching NOEND. 8. If cleared to “climb via SID except cross CRAFT at or below c expect clearance to the filed altitude 10 minutes after departure. 6000” the aircraft should remain at 6000 ft MSL after passing d expect radar vectors or a clearance to the next fix after OUTER and CRAFT until receiving further clearance. reaching NOEND. a True b False e maintain 12,800 ft MSL after passing NOEND until receiv ing further clearance from ATC.

22  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  January 2019

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Answers to TC 1/19 questions 1.

a, b, f The procedural notes in the Briefing Strip indicate that radar, GPS, and RNAV 1 are required. No special authorization is required. AC 90-100A, US Terminal and En Route Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations, states that “pilots must use a lateral deviation indicator (or equivalent navigation map display), flight director and/or autopilot in lateral navigation mode on RNAV 1 routes.” Aircraft operating on RNAV 1 STARs and SIDs must maintain a total system error of not more than 1 nm for 95% of the total flight time. Cross-track error/deviation must be limited to 0.5 nm.

2.

c, d MORAs are represented in abbreviated form by indicating the thousands figures plus the first hundred figure in smaller character. On Jeppesen charts, all MORA altitudes that are 6000 ft or lower (in this case 5700) have an obstacle clearance of 1000 ft. If the MORA altitudes are 7000 ft or greater (in this case 10,000), the obstacle clearance is 2000 ft. Grid MORAs are only charted for the To-Scale portion of the chart. Areas that are not to scale are bordered by dashed lines and labeled “NOT TO SCALE.” Grid MORAs on SID and STAR charts are based on grids formed by 30 minutes or 1 degree of latitude/longitude. In this case, 30 minutes applies as shown by the latitude/ longitude indications.

3.

a, b, c Minimum safe/sector altitudes are depicted in brown and apply to sectors shown by bearings to TED VOR. The MSA diameter is depicted if it differs from 25 nm. The MSA is published for emergency use and provides 1000 ft of clearance over all obstructions, but does not necessarily assure acceptable navigation signal coverage.

4.

b “Cleared NOEND Four Departure, climb and maintain 15,000” indicates that the aircraft must comply with the SID lateral path, and any published speed restriction while climbing unrestricted to 15,000. The AIM 5-2-8 provides examples of the proper procedures to comply with a variety of ATC clearances for SIDs.

5. a, c A “climb via SID” clearance means that a flight must comply with the lateral path of the SID and comply with all published speed restrictions and altitude restrictions. When issuing the clearance, ATC does not assign the top

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altitude (FL200) published on the chart. If the flight has received a “climb via SID” clearance from the tower or in a Pre-Departure Clearance (PDC), upon initial contact, the pilot should report the flight number or aircraft identification, followed by the current altitude; then state “climbing via the (SID name) departure.”

6. b According to the RNAV DP and STAR Specific Requirements of AC 90-100A, the pilot must be able to engage RNAV equipment to follow flight guidance for lateral RNAV departures no later than 500 ft above the airport elevation. 7.

a, c, d, e According to the takeoff instructions, standard takeoff minimums (or lower than standard if authorized) are required with a minimum climb gradient of 500 ft/nm to 2200 ft MSL and then a minimum climb gradient of 280 ft/nm to 10,000 ft MSL. According to the table, at a ground speed of 200 kts, this translates to a minimum climb rate of 1667 ft/min and 933 ft/min, respectively.

8.

b According to the procedures outlined in AIM 5-2-8, the aircraft must cross CRAFT at or below 6000 ft MSL and the remainder of the departure must be flown as published so no further clearance is needed to climb. After CRAFT, the aircraft should climb to cross RAMMA at a minimum altitude of 10,000 ft MSL.

9. a According to the AIM 5-2-8, if vectored or cleared to deviate off of a SID, pilots must consider the SID canceled, unless the controller adds “expect to resume SID.” In that case, pilots should then be prepared to rejoin the SID at a subsequent fix or procedure leg. According to AC 90-100A, if ATC issues a heading assignment taking the aircraft off an RNAV procedure, the pilot should not modify the route in the RNAV system until a clearance is received to rejoin the procedure or the controller confirms a new route clearance. When the aircraft is not on the published procedure, the specified accuracy requirements (in this case RNAV 1) do not apply. 10.

c, d The plan view and Initial Climb instructions indicate a climb to 652 ft MSL prior to turning direct to EGKAJ. A speed restriction of 230 kts until passing LIFFE is shown on the plan view and below the departure name. The Initial Climb instructions indicate that clearance to the filed altitude should be expected 10 minutes after departure and to “expect radar vectors or direct next fix after NOEND.” The aircraft should cross NOEND at or above 12,800 and continue to climb to the top altitude of FL200.

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from mandatory items, we try to focus on standardization, performance-limited airports and cold/ hot weather ops. We try to review additional areas at every recurrent training sesion, taking advantage of the multiple online tools that FSI offers such as “For Our Last” and “Wx Radar.” Our yearly training schedule consistes of 2 visits, each with 2 days of class and 4 sim sessions. We find FSI recurrent training to be very useful and productive. Manuel Alcaide ATP. Gulfstream G650 Chief Pilot Gestair Alcalá de Henares, Spain

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ecurrent training for The Royal Malaysian Air Force pilots is at Emirates-CAE. We follow a standard syllabus that is very through and includes understanding, learning and practice to handle all types of emergencies in the Global Express. Raja Farizal Azam ATP. Global Express Pilot Royal Malaysia Air Force Shah Alam, Malaysia

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s a line pilot for FedEx I retrain every 6 months through our own FedEx recurrent training program. Besides various compliance training we are currently focused on RNAV operations, upset training and improvements in landing performance. I find the FedEx recurrent training syllabus to be interesting, useful and well-delivered

by qualified instructors. Our emphasis these days is on real world flight operations. We learn a lot. It’s great stuff. William All ATP. McDonnell Douglas MD11 & MD 10 Line Pilot FedEx Port Townsend WA

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y company sends its pilots to CAE training centers, usually to the one in Santiago de Chile. However, other pilots attend recurrent training at facilities in Lima, Perú or Madrid, Spain. Currently when I go for recurrent training at CAE I’m interested in getting back to manual flying if autopilot systems fail and to be quick and responsive to handle engine failures. Santiago Baravalle ATP. Boeing 787 First Officer Latam Santiago, Chile

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Cartoon art by

We invite readers to submit story lines that would work for a 6-panel Sid and Star cartoon. Send your thoughts by e-mail to Pro Pilot Publisher Murray Smith at murray@propilotmag.com. If we use your idea we’ll credit you by name and pay you $100.

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We treat you like a great customer. Not a contract. And you’ll certainly notice the difference. Brittney | Customer Service | Clay Lacy BFI

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OPERATOR PROFILE

SC Aviation ties original growth to cheese sales The Swiss Colony food marketing business led to SC Aviation now providing charter, management, maintenance and parts throughout the US Midwest.

By Brent Bundy

Phoenix Police Officer-Pilot AS350, AW119, Cessna 210/182/172

Photos by Brent Bundy

I

n 1926, a young entrepreneur began a home-based business that would become synonymous with holiday mail-order foods throughout the USA and beyond. This was the foundation of The Swiss Colony. The company began an expansion in which business aviation would play an early role. The success of their corporate flight department would eventually spawn a separate undertaking for the Wisconsin-based corporation. This additional enterprise, now known as SC Aviation, has become a leader in aircraft charter, management, and maintenance throughout the upper Midwest.

With nearly their entire fleet of 12 Hawker 800/850s and 5 Dassault Falcon 900/2000s based at their home field in Janesville WI, it takes an impressive crew to keep their charter, maintenance, management and parts operation running smoothly.

From the basement to the skies As a senior at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1925, Ray Kubly concocted an advertising campaign for an imaginary mail-order cheese company to fulfill the requirements of a marketing class. What separated Kubly from fellow students was that this idea was in fact his vision. The following year, with his degree and class project in hand, Kubly began mailing out advertisements for his hand-cut and wrapped cheeses. All 50 packages he had assembled in the basement of his Monroe WI home were sold in that first year.

He named his new company The Swiss Colony, and for the past 92 years they have delivered Wisconsin cheeses, meats, desserts, and more around the world. It wasn’t long after The Swiss Colony opened its doors that Kubly and his team recognized the benefits of air travel to their operation. In fact, it was at the dawn of business aviation as we know it today that The Swiss Colony began a long relationship with Cessna when they purchased their first airplane in 1946, a Cessna 140. Even with its meager 2-person capacity, it effectively transported personnel to locations distant from

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Pres Nick Colombe joined SC Aviation in 2005 and still flies legs for the charter operation.

the Monroe headquarters. The 140 was soon joined by a Cessna 195, expanding their passenger count from 2 to 5, including the pilot. The 195 held the distinction of being the first all-aluminum Cessna as well as the only post-WWII Cessna powered by a radial engine. While the 195 served them well, the continued success of The Swiss Colony found executives traveling to Chicago, Green Bay and even more remote locales, so they moved up to their first twin-engine airplane, a Cessna 310. Five years later, the 310 was traded for a Cessna 414 with even longer range, pressurized cabin and increased seating.

Citation II acquired As the company’s aircraft grew in size and capability, they began to see additional uses including transporting VIPs to the headquarters, bringing in spare parts, and delivering the occasional mail order. By the 1980s, The Swiss Colony had begun to diversify their product lines which meant a larger network of locations for both production and administration. To accommodate the expanded needs of moving their people from coast to coast, they added their first jet-powered airplane to the fleet in 1986. Once again, they stuck with their favored brand and opted for a Cessna Citation II to complement the 414 they were still flying. However, with longer required landing distances, the move to the Citation also necessitated a new home for The Swiss Colony flight department. They made their way to the JVL (Southern Wisconsin Regional, Janesville WI), 40 miles east of their original location in Monroe. Over the next 6 years, the first non-Cessna plane was purchased, a Sabreliner 40 which was later traded for a Sabreliner 60. Not long af-

SC Aviation’s 52,000+ sq ft state-of-the-art maintenance hangar opened in 2016 and, with the steady growth they are experiencing, the company is already planning additional expansion.

ter, the company had reduced their use of the aircraft and they were presented with a dilemma: sell the planes or find a way to make some money from them. They opted for the latter and began offsetting costs by offering the fleet for charter use. To maximize the utilization of their aircraft, management swapped their 2 current aircraft for a Hawker 700 and a King Air 200, both of which are more sought-after in the charter world. The immediate success of these decisions would open a new chapter in The Swiss Colony history.

The Swiss Colony flight dept becomes SC Aviation By 1999, the organization had realized that the move to chartering company-owned aircraft was making a profit. After 53 years as a corporate flight department, they branched off on their own, obtained a Part 135 certificate, and officially began operating as SC Aviation in 2000. Currently in charge of this endeavor is President Nick Colombe. Growing up in the Chicago suburbs, Colombe was fortunate to attend a public high school that offered a 2-year aviation program which included a field trip with a flight in a Cessna 172. “The teacher took us out to a small airport, piled 3 students at a time in the plane and let each of us fly. That was what hooked me on aviation,” Colombe recalls. While completing his Aviation Flight Management degree at Lewis University, he

obtained his flight instructor rating and also joined the Civil Air Patrol. In June of 2000, a month after graduation, Colombe took his first pilot job with AirNet Systems, delivering bank documents in Beechcraft Baron 58s, Cessna 310s, and Learjet 35s. His time in the Lear 35 and the 3000 flight hours he accumulated in the next 3 years would help with the transition to his first corporate job at Pace American Trailers in DuPage IL. After 2 years with Pace, Colombe accepted a position with SC Aviation in December 2005. He was promoted to chief pilot in 2007, then to director of operations in 2015, and his current title in early 2018. “When I obtained the chief pilot position, we owned or managed 12 aircraft and employed 40 pilots. Then the Recession hit. Those were some tough years. But we persevered and have been rebuilding since. With our additional ventures, we’ve positioned ourselves to help protect against future downturns,” he says.

Dir of Ops Dan Avers began flying in high school and has been with the SC Aviation team for 11 years.

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Dir of Sales Dan Morrison joined the company in 2002 and now watches over the charter sales and aircraft management.

At the same time, the parent company, now known as Colony Brands, has expanded and diversified into other businesses. “Under the SC Aviation title, we now have charter, aircraft management, maintenance, and our newest branch: parts. We still handle the Colony Brands corporate flights but that is a small percentage of our flights,” Colombe explains.

An optimal fleet Another part of their restructuring plan was to acquire, both for ownership and management, aircraft that their charter customers want to fly in. In the challenge of price for return on investment, they seem to have found a liking for Hawker jets. Director of Sales Dan Morrison states, “SC takes care of their people, and the Hawkers have proven to be a favorite for our customers. They are a great combination of cost, performance, and luxury.” Of the 17 aircraft on their certificate, SC Aviation currently owns 5 Hawkers, all 800/850 variants, and manages another 7. The rest of the stable consists of Dassault Falcons, both 2000s and 900s. There is also a Bell 430 available, arranged by SC Aviation through HeliFlite for use in the Chicago area. “We feel the versatility that our fleet offers brings our customers back. But, also important, we make the charter process as easy as we possibly can. Our agreement with our managed aircraft includes no wait for owner approval, which can sometimes delay a booking. We also offer free WiFi on all our flights. We want to stay relevant, which means a strong online presence as well as online booking and mobile apps, which we are looking into,” Morrison declares. “We make a commission on charter sales, we don’t charge for every little thing such as the WiFi,” adds Colombe.

As an Illinois-registered CPA, Colombe also works closely with their owner-clients to assist with their financial goals. “We show our customers we care and more often than not when owners or charter customers come to us, they stay,” he says.

The right people for the job One of the persons making sure those customers stay is Charter Sales Manager Margaret Clark. With over 30 years of experience in aviation, the last 18 with SC Aviation, she’s the right person for the job. Her plate is full as she oversees the 6 schedulers and dispatchers who provide quotes to customers, set up the trips, brief the pilots, and as of recently, schedule pilots for assigned flights. “This is a new duty for us this year. We’ve been learning as we go but it allows us to lighten the load for our operations section,” Clark explains. As far as challenges, she is quick to point out the effects of the pilot and maintenance shortages. “We’re already seeing it, but we continue to maintain high standards for our pilots. We routinely receive calls from customers telling us ‘You could sure tell that was an SC crew’ because of the way they were treated,” she relates. “We have a reputation for getting the job done and doing it safely. Every department at SC takes great pride in their job.” She credits much of this to SC and parent company, Colony Brands. “They really take care of their people, as well as the community. Not only do we try to hire locally but Colony is very active in charity work. This is the best job I’ve ever had,” adds Clark.

Chief Pilot Matt Gasper On the receiving end of Clark’s and her team’s hard work is Chief Pilot Matt Gasper. Inspired by his US Air Force pilot uncle, Gasper earned his

Chief Pilot Matt Gasper tried his hand at airline flying before realizing he preferred the personal interaction of charter and corporate work.

private pilot rating in his first semester at Purdue University. He joined Piedmont Airlines 2 years after graduation. “I found out very quickly that the airline lifestyle was not for me,” he says. “I wanted the direct interaction, doing the flight planning, dealing with the customers, and it just wasn’t there.” Gasper returned to the FBO he’d taught at after college and became chief flight instructor. He stayed there until accepting a position with SC Aviation in 2011. “I was hired as FO in the Lear then eventually became a PIC (pilot in command) in the Lear before moving up to the Hawker and now the Falcon 900s.” In 2014 Gasper earned the assistant chief pilot title which he held until being named chief pilot in 2018. In addition to continuing to take on flight assignments, he now oversees the current roster of 47 pilots. For safety purposes, only SC Aviation pilots are allowed to fly both their owned and managed aircraft, and they try to keep each pilot specific to only 1 airframe. As Clark mentioned, the shortage of qualified pilots is already affecting them. “We want most of our pilots close to Janesville because all but 2 of our aircraft are based here, but the weather and location are not always appealing,” Gasper notes. “In the future, we may expand the required radius for residency which would allow them to live in major cities like Milwaukee or Chicago.” When Gasper finds candidates who fit the company culture, once hired, they receive 5 days of internal training, followed by simulator training with CAE, then 2 days of “homecoming training” which consists of company-specific items like stocking aircraft and completing expense reports. They then begin their Initial Operating Experience for a minimum of 50 hours – potentially more if needed. Annually, all pilots attend a 5-day training session with 2 days of ground, 2 days of simulator, and 1 day of check rides. “Safety is the top priority for SC and is never compromised,” says Gasper. This is reflected in their use of a robust online-based safety management system which actively encourages safety issue reporting. In addition, SC Aviation recently received Stage 2 IS-BAO certification and anticipates obtaining Stage

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Maintenance and parts for all Charter Sales Mgr Margaret Clark brought more than a decade of aviation dispatch and scheduling experience with her when she joined in 2001.

3 in 2020. They also participate in the Wyvern Wingman Program and have earned ARG/US Gold Rating.

Dir of Ops Dan Avers As SC Aviation has grown over the past 2 decades since receiving their charter certificate; they have become one of the top charter companies in the Illinois/Wisconsin/Minnesota region. Overseeing the day-to-day affairs is Director of Operations Dan Avers. Avers has been with SC Aviation since 2007, when he joined as FO. He has been in and around aviation since “growing up under the flightpath at O’Hare Airport,” he proclaims. Avers worked at an FBO while in high school and college, earning his private pilot rating at the age of 17. After receiving his B.S. in Aviation Human Factors from the University of Illinois, he continued working at the FBO but now as a King Air and Lear 35 copilot in charter work. During this time, he met his future boss, Nick Colombe. Avers came to SC Aviation in 2007 and began his climb up the promotional ladder. “I was an FO for 2 years, then captain on the Lear. In 2014 I made assistant chief pilot, followed by chief pilot in 2015 and director of operations in 2018.” His current role keeps him away from the cockpit more than he’d like but he enjoys the managerial aspects. “There are 4 of us, including Nick (Colombe), who have operational control, and that can keep us busy. There are difficulties in the various projects we take on but it’s made easier because of the level of professionalism of our team,” Avers says. They currently occupy 4 hangars at the airport and, due to the success of the various businesses they have taken on, they are already looking to expand again.

Following a route similar to that of the beginnings of their charter operations, the opening of a maintenance shop wasn’t originally the plan. Becoming a Part 145 MRO facility developed out of necessity. The person who has seen this come to fruition is DOM Jim Dillavou, who descends from a rich history of military aircraft mechanics. “My grandpa worked on B-17s in World War II, my dad worked on aircraft during Vietnam, and I worked on KC-135s in the Persian Gulf War,” Dillavou recollects. Another Chicago-area native, he joined the Air National Guard when he was 18 years old and has been involved in aviation ever since. After receiving his A&P in 1990, he was deployed overseas and upon his return worked maintenance positions in cargo and corporate flight departments prior to joining SC Aviation in 2001. “When I was hired, we had 2 planes and, as we grew, we were sending them out for maintenance. We obtained our Part 145 certificate in 2004 but after the recession, we were faced with reducing our workforce. I was able to convince management to allow us to start doing the heavy work in-house.” As word spread amongst their customers, more work came in. They became so busy that a new hangar was built in 2015 with maintenance work in mind. This allowed them to expand servicing of not only their company-owned and managed aircraft but outside customers, as well. In their continued diversification, they also recently ventured into the parts business. With the Hawker jets making up the majority of their fleet and those aircraft no longer in production, they began searching for older aircraft that could be utilized for spare parts. What they found is, much like their beginnings in charter, they could not only support their internal fleet but also run another operation that could show a profit. Avers explains, “We didn’t necessarily set out to run a parts store, just like The Swiss Colony never set out to open a charter company. But once we took a closer look at what was available in the market and what we could do with it, it just made sense.” To support their expanding operations, SC Aviation now employs 35 personnel in the maintenance department, including 22 licensed

Dir of Mx Jim Dillavou learned his trade in the military and with previous cargo and corporate assignments. He has been with SC Aviation for over 17 years.

mechanics. Dillavou chalks the success up to their reputation and the Colony Brands support. “Safety is the number 1 priority. It doesn’t matter whose aircraft we’re working on. We treat every single aircraft like we own it. People recognize that, and it allows me to keep experienced people here. I’m a blessed man with a great staff.”

The Midwest and beyond From humble beginnings in a small, upper Midwest town, The Swiss Colony, now Colony Brands, would become one of the largest direct marketing companies in the USA. Their early recognition to the benefits of business aviation would pave the way to the foundation of a leader in aircraft charter, management, maintenance, parts and acquisition. What began as a more effective way to move corporate executives over 70 years ago has evolved into a success story all its own. By maintaining an attitude of customer first, fueled by strong company values, SC Aviation has established itself as a preeminent provider of domestic and international travel for their clients. With slow, steady, need-driven growth, they plan to continue to offer their services to their hometown region and beyond.

Brent Bundy has been a police officer with the Phoenix Police Dept for 27 years. He has served in the PHX Air Support Unit for 17 years and is a helicopter rescue pilot with nearly 4000 hours of flight time. Bundy currently flies Airbus AS350B3s for the helicopter side of Phoenix PD’s air unit and Cessna 172, 182s and 210s for the fixed-wing side.

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ADVANCES IN SA

Situational awareness technology 2019 Avionics OEMs have developed new flightdeck systems to allow pilots to be safer and more precise. By Don Van Dyke ATP/Helo/CFII. F28, Bell 222 Pro Pilot Canadian Technical Editor

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ituational awareness (SA) is having an accurate, coherent overview of the aircraft, its mission and the operating environment, including all factors and conditions affecting safety before, during and after flight. High SA helps pilots to foresee issues and threats that often precede errors, thus promoting the first goal of error management to avoid faults before they occur. While pilot training programs have proven generally effective to impart necessary technical knowledge and flying skills, non-technical pilot skills, including decision-making, crew cooperation and general systems management, are also important with SA being a common key element.

meet or exceed flight goals. Resulting combinations of distraction, complacency, unresolved discrepancies, confusion, poor communication, improper procedures and fixation can lead to no one flying the aircraft.

Integrated avionics systems Technology promotes, sustains and enhances situational awareness by providing the right information at the right time to make decisions. Over time, required and available information was sensed and displayed among several independent, specialized and self-sufficient subsystems. Integrated Avionics Systems (IAS) and hosted addons eliminate this duplication and enhance situational awareness by bringing large amounts of information into the cockpit for custom-tailored display

on intuitive, pilot-centered designs. This information is provided on graphical human-machine interfaces which have evolved from electromechanical instruments to cathode ray tube (CRT) displays to high-performance color liquid crystal displays (LCDs). SA is greatly improved with new types of information and advanced displays which reduce workload and allow more heads-up time. Most importantly, the IAS makes coordinated information available to the crew from a single source. The result is greater flight efficiency and safety as well as lowered costs. The integrated avionics systems concept has benefitted global operations by providing: • Terrain visuals which are available on both the primary flight display (PFD) and the multifunction display (MFD).

Loss of SA The human brain is a poor monitor for rare but critical events which can compromise SA, a condition made worse by influences such as – but not limited to – stress, task overload or underload, system design, complexity, lapsed currency, and emotional pressure. The capacity to correctly detect significant factors deteriorates over time (termed vigilance decrement) owing to influences such as inattention, fatigue, high blood pressure, environment, and classic behavioral traps such as the drive to

Honeywell’s Primus Epic 2.O powers the Pilatus PC-24’s ACE flightdeck.

Garmin GHD 2100 HUD complements integrated flightdecks in light, midsize and super midsize business aircraft. Shown is Citation Longitude.

Collins Aerospace’s Pro Line Fusion suite is used by Bombardier in Challenger 604 (shown) and also by Embraer in their Legacy 500 aircraft.

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CMC Electronics 3G SureSight improves overall safety and aircraft operating efficiency on types including Bombardier Challenger 605 and Dassault Falcon 7X.

Elbit Systems ClearVision is compliant with FAA rules on EFVS permitting the pilot to perform landing with no natural vision, independent of the destination airport’s infrastructure. It’s applied on Dassault Falcon 7X and Gulfstream 500 & 600 bizjets.

• MFDs with merged navigation (terrain, airports, airspace, navaids, and geopolitical boundaries) and sensor (airborne and uplink weather, traffic, and terrain awareness and warning system [TAWS]) data to facilitate seamless flight crew interaction and cooperation. • Open architecture to leverage innovations such as moving map, real-time weather, electronic flight bag (EFB), synthetic and enhanced vision and NextGen Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) applications.

Enhanced vision systems In all circumstances, pilots must be aware of the location of destination and alternate airports, terrain, hazards and obstacles. Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) significantly improve SA by allowing flight crew to see through fog, haze, and precipitation – day or night – not only while airborne but also during ground manoeuvering. EVSs are principally designed to improve detection, perception and understanding of: • Environment ahead, especially ground markings, lightings, obstacles, vehicles and traffic. • Nearby terrain (mountain, coast, airport configuration, etc). • Towering clouds so pilots can avoid these sources of turbulence and lightning. • Runway boundaries and centerline. • Possible runway incursions by other aircraft, vehicles, people or animals.

The multispectral infrared EVS-3000 EFVS by Collins Aerospace provides high-resolution, real-time images of the airport environment and obstacles, including vehicles, animals and aircraft, as well as both standard and LED runway lighting.

According to a recent Avionics Today survey, only 13% of respondents were interested in acquiring EVS for the sole purpose of achieving lower landing minimums. Improved situational awareness ranked as the top reason, followed closely by the ability to conduct operations in low visibility. The foundation of EVS are aircraft-based sensors (eg, near-infrared cameras, millimeter wave radar, etc). In the past, cooling systems prevented infrared technology from being used to its full potential. Contemporary designs avoid the need for heavy cooling systems, saving weight, lowering power consumption and greatly improving reliability. Civil certification of aircraft EVS was pioneered by Gulfstream Aerospace using a Kollsman infrared (IR) camera. EVS is currently also available on se-

lected business jets produced by Boeing, Bombardier and Dassault. FalconEye is the first Head-Up Display (HUD) system to blend synthetic, database-driven terrain mapping and real-time view generated by the multispectral EVS, providing SA to flight crews in all conditions. Multispectral infrared systems not only detect standard runway lights but are capable of detecting modern LED lights. EVS II is the next generation EVS which permits greater operational flexibility and improves flight safety during flight in darkness, smoke, haze, rain, fog, and other low visibility conditions. EVS II operation is based on advanced IR sensor functionality, and works in conjunction with the aircraft HUD and Head-Down Display (HDD). Enhanced flight visibility requirements are met in accordance with

PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  January 2019  41

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Collins Aerospace Pro Line 21 SVS is used on CJ1+, CJ2+, CJ3, CJ4, Encore+, XLS+, Premier 1A, Challenger 300/605, Learjet 60XR, Gulfstream 150, King Air B200/350, and Hawker 800XP/850XP, 750 and 900XP.

Universal Avionics Vision-1 SVS enhances pilot situational awareness by providing a high-resolution 3-D terrain image integrated with the flight plan and the projected aircraft flightpath.

FAA and EASA Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS) regulations. EVS II is installable in both fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft. An EFVS uses a HUD or equivalent display to combine flight information, flight symbology, navigation guidance, and a real-time outside image to the pilot.

Synthetic vision systems A Synthetic Vision System (SVS) aircraft installation combines data into intuitive displays to provide improved SA to flight crews, regardless of weather or time of day.

Honeywell Primus Epic for Dassault Falcon. SVS option in the EASy II flightdeck uses a 3-D virtual surface based on a terrain database coupled with HUD-like symbology to highlight the flightpath relative to nearby terrain.

The system also reduces pilot workload during complex situations and operationally demanding phases of flight. SVS seeks to model the real world, presenting information to the flight crew in a way that is easy to understand and rapidly assimilated. When coupled with databases of terrain and other cultural features as well as details of weather, obstacles, aeronautical information, data feeds from other traffic, etc, an SVS generates a 3-D high-resolution virtual landscape on the PFD, replacing the sky and ground depiction on the Attitude Direction Indicator (ADI) with this information in order to: • Improve flight safety. • Expand SA during critical flight phases and in low visibility or unfamiliar territory, regardless of weather or time of day. • Provide synthetic and realistic views normally seen in VFR conditions. • Use HUD and flightpath symbology to intuitively depict where the aircraft is going, making energy-management of the aircraft a less-demanding task. • Display obstacle data to improve crew situational awareness, especially in critical flight phases. • Apply detailed runway and extended centerline symbology. • Assist crews in visually locating airports and navigating to more accurate landings. In high-workload flight phases (ie, departure, approach, landing), SVS bridges the gap between longer-term strategic awareness (eg Interactive Navigation/Vertical Profile) and shortterm tactical warnings (eg, TAWS).

Honeywell Primus Elite DU-875/885 upgrade uses the Esterline SVS PFD on Gulfstream IV/ IV-SP/V, Bombardier Global Express/XRS/ 5000, Embraer Legacy 600/650/650E, Falcon 900 C/EX, Cessna Citation X, and Dornier 328 aircraft.

Training represents the main defence for operators to prevent the misuse or non-standard use of SVS by flight crews. Flight crew must undergo training on SVS operation as part of the rating on their aircraft type and meet any applicable currency requirement to be qualified for SVS operations. If the SVS malfunctions without built-in redun­dancy, pilots can quickly lose SA unless they are trained to rely on other available flightdeck info. Another concern is incorrect or cor­ rupted data. The SVS must enforce strict currency and validation criteria as well as ensure that reception of trans­mitted data is reliable. As a result of the adoption of SVS PFDs, the operator must ensure that the phenomenon of attention tunnelling or capture is given appropriate or increased emphasis during training to make flight crews aware that they can become overly focussed on the SVS display to the exclusion of other references or information inside and outside the aircraft. Again, the consequence is lost SA.

Combined vision systems For a time, a fundamental operating question sought to explore whether EVS and SVS could somehow be combined and, if so, to what extent. For a time, 2 perspectives prevailed: Honeywell advocated using the PFD to present combined EVS-SVS images, while Collins Aerospace argued that integrating EVS-SVS images on the Head-up Guid-

42  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  January 2019

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Honeywell’s CVS window can clearly be seen in the center top of the PFD. This is where the EVS IR image is combined with the SVS.

ance System (HGS) would avoid much physical pilot movement to alternate between scanning EVS-SVS images on the PFD and scanning using the HGS. FAA recently released FAR § 91.176 to provide dispatch and landing priority along with landing credit for conditions below authorized minima. The rule also: • Sets performance-based certification criteria which avoid mandated hardware configurations. • Establishes new landing minima. • Permits operators conducting EFVS operations under parts 121, 125, or 135 to use EFVS-equipped aircraft. • Establishes pilot training and recent flight experience requirements for EFVS operators. • Revises pilot compartment view certification requirements for enhanced vi­sion systems. Prior to the update, EFVS was only approved for use for descent to 100 ft above the Touchdown Zone Elevation (TDZE) using straight-in landing instrument approach procedures (IAPs). The new ruling allows operators to use an EFVS, and not necessarily natural vision, to continue descending from 100 ft above the TDZE to the runway and to land (and rollout) on certain straight-in IAPs under instrument flight rules (IFR). FAR § 91.176 also updates criteria to initiate and continue an approach when destination weather is below authorized visibility minimums for the runway of intended landing.

Conclusion Better aircraft designs and better flight training are important processes that help increase a pilot’s SA. Pilots often change their levels of supervisory control between a full autopilot and other modes, and the transitions must not in-

Collins Aerospace launched its CVS on the Bombardier Global 5500 and 6500. The system merges infrared EVS and SVS imagery into a single conformal view on a HUD.

Dassault FalconEye uses Elbit Systems technology. It was the first HUD blending SVS and EVS. CVS includes Elbit’s ClearVision EFVS, database-driven terrain mapping, and real-time enhanced video. It’s applied on Falcon 8X, 2000S/LXS, and 900LX bizjets.

volve an unsafe reduction in flight performance or unacceptable change in workload or SA. Research found that stress arising from challenging and sur­ prising situations during flight led to a significant reduction in empathic accuracy and thus social SA of both pilot flying and pilot monitoring. Recently, the effects of pilot ages and flight hours on SA and workload were studied. The results indicate that there are correlations between SA, pilot ages and flight hours. Failure to monitor or observe available information constitutes a majority of SA errors in aviation. These errors arise when relevant data are limited, hard to discriminate or detect, or when the accessible information is perceived incorrectly, or when memory loss occurs. Enhancing SA through better aircraft systems design and pilot train­ing has resulted in significant benefits. Situational awareness differs among individuals as a function of task expertise. As an example, it has been shown that novice pilots tend to be less proficient in anticipating future aircraft states. This phenomenon is, in part, owing to their inflexible visual scan patterns of cockpit instruments.

In contrast, experienced pilots are more flexible in their visual scanning and their control over per­ception of information. Their interpreta­tion of perceived information aids them in event prediction. Clearly, technology has developed and will continue to evolve effective systems which aid pilots by detecting, consolidating, and presenting information critical to the maintenance of situational awareness and the quality of decision-making.

Don Van Dyke is professor of advanced aerospace topics at Chicoutimi College of Aviation – CQFA Montreal. He is an 18,000 hour TT pilot and instructor with extensive airline, business and charter experience on both airplanes and helicopters. A former IATA ops director, he has served on several ICAO panels. He is a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society and is a flight operations expert on technical projects under UN administration.

44  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  January 2019

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ROAD TO ZERO-ZERO

Low viz takeoffs using EFVS Below-minimums takeoffs in Part 121 and 135 operations. 1- Enhanced vision (DO315A MASPS Min, 15° x 20°)

2- Heading/course indication

3- Natural vision Takeoffs in low visibility using Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS) will provide the means for departure from runways other than Cat II and III types.

By Glenn Connor ATP. Cessna 425 President, Discover Technology Intl

I

n aviation, the number of takeoffs is supposed to equal the number of landings. At least that’s what we have been told. But not all takeoffs are equal, and the reasons are due to a whole set of circumstances. Visibility is a major one. Take the foggy low visibility departure for example, a challenge to even the most seasoned aviator. What’s missing is seeing the runway remaining boards, or seeing the end of the runway, or in real low visibility, even seeing the edge of the runway. And for Part 135 operator, the issue is also being able to depart on time. Low visibility conditions around an airport play havoc with the departures as much with the arrivals. In fact, these conditions for a departure may be double trouble because of the backup and demand for the single runway configured for low visibility operations. The person paying the high prices for transportation

may not care for the technical explanation of fog, RVR and the like, especially when they see others headed out on time. However, most all corporate type aircraft may have limited options when it comes to a 500 ft RVR departure if you are a Part 135 operator. Soon there will be another option, the use of Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS) for takeoff.

Use of EFVS for takeoff In 2016 the rules for EFVS to land without natural vision were amended and published, permitting landing without natural vision. The rule, FAR 91.176, explains operationally what you can do with EFVS, including what visual references you must see with the EFVS sensor, and what additional equipage you need, mainly the Head-Up Display (HUD). The FAA also revised the rules for dispatch and approach to land for both 121 and 135 operators (effective March 2018) to permit use of EFVS in weather below published minimums. The revised EFVS regu-

lation covers the cases for weather issues at both your departure point and destination. Similarly, the FAA has also begun to introduce changes in the OPSPECS regarding EFVS, defining what an operator can now do based on the demonstrated performance of the EFVS system, called Visual Advantage. Around 2016, as the new EFVS rule was released, the FAA also began to consider the expansion of EFVS for the takeoff segment. The plan was to assess what the minimum requirements operationally for EFVS takeoff would be, and approve operators under OPSPECS. Within OPSPEC C078 you can find, for example, where the use of HUDs for takeoff is approved. These HUD takeoff operations are focused on a Cat III runway and require a Cat III HUD. Several Part 121 airline operators like Alaska Airlines have adopted the use of the Collins HUD for Cat III takeoff. However, these HUD operations are still limited to a Cat III runway. The motivation for EFVS as a means for takeoff is connected to the change in rules that enable you to dispatch to your destination. Being able to use any runway without being limited to Cat III types is a significant economic and operational driver. The use of EFVS for takeoff, even at a large airport, means that you can maintain your departure schedule and leave the competition chained to the gate.

RTCA Special Committee 213 The FAA once again turned to the now famous RTCA Special Committee 213, comprised of the world’s leading flightdeck designers and ex­ perienced aviation regulators with EFVS, Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) and HUD operations. The group’s end objectives is gate-to-gate capability regardless of the visibility. Their most recent activity is the development of the Aircraft State Awareness Stan­ dard with SVS to keep crews from loss of control during flight. This new focus on low visibility take­ offs with EFVS touches all the

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Summary of visibility minima operation Environmental conditions Min reported visibility ETOS-1000 ETOS-500

1000 ft (300 m) 500 ft (150 m)

RCLM Visible Y N Y or N

practical aspects from the minimum runway configuration to the low­ est visibility condition you would launch an aircraft. The committee even considered single or dual HUD operations that could deal with certain failure conditions.

The EFVS takeoff For the EFVS takeoff operation, the pilot looking through the HUD sees not only flight instruments but imagery of the runway provided by the EFVS sensor(s). For the operational aspects, the EFVS takeoff has been divided into 2 cases: (1) visibility conditions of 1000 ft RVR and (2) as low as 500 ft RVR. In visibility as low as 1000 ft RVR, you will need approved EFVS equipment with a demonstrated visual advantage over the human eye in fog. The EFVS sensors must enable the pilot to see visual references like a runway with centerline markings or runway edge lighting. What goes up on the HUD for the pilot to view includes the EFVS sensor imagery, and for the basic case the heading bug, airspeed and altitude information. If you are not familiar with HUDs and EFVS, what the pilot sees is the actual world and the imagery with HUD symbology overlaying the real world. The EFVS extends your vision down range of the runway, and the effect is to get your eyes looking at the farthest point of the image. Seeing and sensing the slight changes in the direction of the aircrafts nose and the runway centerline are easily managed when you can see down range. If your vision is limited to a short distance down the runway, the workload goes up a lot. For the case where visibility is down to 500 ft RVR, the EFVS system and airport requirements are more, but still does not require a Cat III runway. According to the FAA, you will need an ILS or equivalent,

Runway equipage Runway Type 1 1/E

RW CLL

Runway Edge lights

Aircraft equipage RVR required

N/A Not required

N

HIRL/ MIRL HIRL

EFVS

Elec. Def of runway CL Not required

Required At least 2

2 RVR devices, runway edge lights and an electronic means to define the center of the runway. Significant here is that no centerline lighting on the runway is required with EFVS, opening up a lot of runways to the use of the technology, and a means to stay on schedule.

NASA Langley evaluations As the RTCA SC 213 established the minimum standards for the EFVS for takeoff equipage, NASA Langley

Required

RCLM in EFVS N Y

Research Center conducted evaluations of the proposed new standards with EFVS. The NASA Langley team led by Randy Bailey, Lynda Kramer and Tim Etherington, used a standard set of HUD symbology with EFVS sensors for this testing. The sensor technology concepts included the current infrared EFVS capabilities and the emerging millimeter wave technology which is not impaired by dense fog or clouds. A key aspect of the NASA evaluation was the use of commercial flight

SAAB Avionics development for the future ightdeck includes EFVS for takeoff as well as an advanced SVS for the PFD.

PROFESSIONAL PILOT / January 2019 47

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Lowest allowable visibility minima for takeoff without EFVS per OpSpec C078/C079 * NR: Not required; Two operating RVR sensors are required. All operating RVR sensors are controlling (except per notes). • With an approved HUD takeoff guidance system.

Adq. Viz Refs

RCLM

/4 Statue mile (400 m)

3

or

1600 RVR (500 m)

3

or

HIRL

CLL

RVR

or

3

or

3

3

or

3

or

3

1600/NR/NR*

3

or

3

or

3

1200/1200/1000*

3

or

3

1200/1200/1000*

3

or

3

1000/1000/1000*

500 RVR (150 m)

3

and

3

500/500/500*

300 RVR• (75 m)

3

and

3

300/300/300*

1

1200 RVR (Day) (350 m)

3

1200 RVR (Night) (350 m) 1000 RVR (300 m)

crews, many from operators with EFVS capability – including airline operations. The tests were designed to validate EFVS operations and visual references provided by the system for both cases, the RVR 1000 and 500 ft. For the 500 ft RVR scenario, the use of lateral path deviation symbology was added to the HUD symbology. The NASA test also helped to support the concept of operations regarding the need for centerline lighting or just centerline markings. Most regional airports are not equipped with centerline lighting, so an EFVS takeoff system that can operate without them has more value. As part of the test program, SVS was added for additional evaluations as a blended image with EFVS. Test results showed how the technology provides additional cueing in all phases of operation not just takeoff. SVS was found to be a significant contributor to flight crew awareness of the runway, taxiways. The recent results of NASA’s experiments with EFVS for takeoff seemed to be universal: low visibility takeoff from a standard Cat I runway was a non-event.

The value of EFVS takeoffs for business aviation operators For business aviation, the expectations are to leave on time to make a scheduled meeting. A ground delay is difficult to explain to a time pressured executive, and watching others taxi by you at the FBO can jade even the most patient traveler. Especially those who pay the bill. The FAA sees that the additional credit for EFVS for takeoff truly has both economic and operational benefits. For the operator, a reduced delay translates into direct dollars saved. With fuel, crew costs and manpower expended beyond

3

and

normal for each weather event, it doesn’t take much to imagine the total savings to the company. For the air traffic aspect, the Equivalent Visual Operation (EVO) can reduce traffic congestion and provide more utility for lesser equipped runways with EFVS. The ability for an aircraft to dispatch without a ground delay keeps the traffic flow up and the operators flying on time. The bizjet community is also competing for space in the departure zone as much as for arrivals, and being limited by the airport’s infrastructure with hopes of a runway upgrade is not a realistic solution. Therefore, the market discriminator can be found in those aircraft that can manage on their own without elaborate airports. The “Aircraft Centric” capability, coined by Nick Sabatini, former FAA Associate Administrator, is the direction new aircraft designs are taking. This philosophy is quite simple: with new technology on the aircraft and not on the ground, you have the means to complete the mission. ICAO and other global regulators have also moved in this direction with proposed changes to approach classification, arguing aircraft technology can better meet the requirements where the airport is lacking.

2 HUDS are better than 1 Today’s EFVS operators are typically equipped with a with a single HUD on the captain’s side. This configuration has worked since 2001 with the first EFVS STC, but the expanded use of EFVS may prompt dual HUD architecture sooner with additional new benefits. Recently Dassault set a new standard with dual HUDs and CVS for the Falcon 8X. The captain and copilot both benefit from dual HUD operations is getting

all the eyes on the flightdeck looking outside. Dassault’s award-winning Falcon Eye with EFVS and SVS combinations is also new, integrating the elements of SVS into the EFVS image and providing information that expands your awareness. Dual HUD combinations also offer a level of redundancy that may be needed to go further in the low visibility regime. The ability for both pilots to see in low visibility taxiing operations, line up and takeoff and each pilot equipped with a HUD enables successfully monitoring of critical speeds and guidance while observing the visual references provided by EFVS.

Better all-weather ops The ability for gate-to-gate operations in zero visibility is about to begin. Weather, ceilings and visibility limits may soon be removed with the new EFVS technology, providing the means to improve regular service at airports that are only minimally equipped. As for the RTCA SC 213 effort, the new technical standard for the FAA’s EFVS Takeoff Requirements state that it “is a visual maneuver... with the visual advantage that it provides, creates an operational and safety benefit.” The road to zero-zero seems pretty clear, if you don’t mind me saying so.

Glenn Connor is president of Discover Technology Intl. He is a pilot and a researcher specializing in the development of enhanced vision systems and advanced avionics.

48  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  January 2019

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WATCH YOUR ALPHA

High AoA dangers Beware of stalls at high angle of attack flying. Fig 1

CLmax

CL

Fig 2

Normal Stall

Coefficient of lift

Coefficient of drag

Coefficient of lift for a typical wing design.

By Mike Petridis

ATP. F-15, F/A-18, Gulfstream 650, 200, 150, Falcon 20 and Citation 500-series

I

was flying a business jet the other day, and was surprised to hear that the other pilot, my co-captain, did not know what “Alpha” was, or whether or not he had flown in a high Alpha scenario. Alpha, or the Greek letter “α”, is the commonly used term for Angle of Attack (AoA), or the angle of the relative wind compared to the average chord of a wing. Figure 1 might be familiar to some readers and hopefully to all pilots. It shows the coefficient of lift (CL) for a typical wing design, where maximum lift at a certain AoA, expressed in degrees or units, is achieved with a coefficient termed CLmax. Flying to an

Fig 3

High Low wing wing

α

0

Variation of coefficients of lift and drag with increasing AoA.

AoA Relative wind >>>

Regular AoA with flaps up.

Flaps increase lift and drag Can we change the “S” here to get even more lift? Sure! We just lower the flaps. Extending the flaps increases camber and therefore creates a larger wing, thereby increasing lift (see Figures 3 and 4). However, extending the flaps also increases drag. There is a point in the flap extension where the lift benefit exceeds the drag benefit, which is why most jets do not exercise a go-around procedure at full flaps. Typically, an intermediate flap setting (20 or 30 degrees on some business jets) allows for greater net lift. Some business jets have an auto-slat feature to automati-

Flaps down – AoA

Flaps up – AoA

Chord line

is the velocity of the aircraft, CL is the coefficient of lift for that particular airfoil, and S is the wing area or “span.”

excessive Alpha point (far to the right in Figure 1), the wing cannot generate any lift and a stall occurs. Beyond CLmax, the jet is on what is known as the backside of the power curve (ie the nose must be lowered to generate speed. Power alone will not put the jet on the front side of the power curve. Beyond that CLmax point, the coefficient of drag (CD) increases to the point where it exceeds the coefficient of lift, and the aircraft can no longer maintain level flight, as shown in Figure 2. Most will agree that a stall is a loss of lift due to a disruption of airflow over the wing. But, am I still flying? The short answer is “yes.” The long answer is “that it depends.” The lift equation for any wing can be helpful: L = ½*ρ*V2*CL*S Reading this equation, L is the resultant Lift value, ρ is the air density, V

Fig 4

New chord line New AoA Relative wind >>>

AoA increases with flaps down, therefore increasing lift.

50  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  January 2019

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Fig 5

Fig 6

CL M= .8

CLmax

.7

.6

.4

.5

L/Dmax

CL

CL

CD

L/D

L/D

CD STALL

α

Angle of attack, degrees Relationship between L/Dmax and CLmax. L/Dmax occurs at a lower AoA.

cally extend the slats at high AoA, thus preventing a stall. Now, I need to stop here and say that I do not in – any way – suggest the pilot lower the flaps or slats at the onset of any stall. Full throttle(s) (or “power levers” for our French colleagues) and decreasing AoA should be the pilot’s immediate actions. Clean stall happens at higher airspeed The latest version of the ATP Practical Test Standards (PTS) clearly emphasizes that it does not matter which action is taken first in a stall recovery, such as more power or reduction of AoA. However, hopefully pilots recall that in simulator training a clean stall happens at a higher airspeed than a stall with the landing gear down and full flaps. I do recall flying an F-15 in a slow speed “dogfight,” extending the flaps, immediately forcing the opponent out in front (assuming I beat him to the punch on lowering the flaps), and achieving an offensive position. Why? Because lift just increased by changing the camber of the wing, allowing the pilot to trade airspeed for altitude and causing the faster flying jet, the opponent, to shoot out in front of my jet. Value of a stick shaker In some corporate or business jets, the yoke has a stick shaker which vibrates and shakes at high AoA, typically about 0.80 on a scale of 0 to 1. In the military, we called this the “tickle,”

where your wing was performing at L/ Dmax, or maximum differential between lift and drag for your wing. The pilot can actually feel a slight vibration on the stick (or yoke) while in a turn or increased AoA when flying at L/Dmax. All new pilots should have felt this in “slow flight” during their private pilot training. In the F/A-18 Hornet, I remember flying at 30 degrees AoA, on the edge of a stall, at about 90 knots, trying to out-gun the brains of the poor fellow who was my opponent in his gunsight. But I was still flying, even though technically in a stall, at this higher AoA. Low speed buffet at high altitude Some pilots might have experienced the low speed buffet at high altitude when making a standard rate turn at FL400 at maximum gross weight. The onset – but not prolonged duration – of the low speed buffet can be equated with that “tickle” feel and maximum lift over drag differential. The relationship between L/Dmax and CLmax can be appreciated in Figure 5. When does the stall begin and end? When does the stall begin and when does it end? The recent changes to stall prevention and recovery in the PTS do not quantify when the stall ends. Is it below the 0.80 AoA index in Figure 5 which the stick shaker comes on? Is it when the stick shaker stops shaking? What if there is no stick shaker or AoA gauge in the jet? How does one define a successful stall recovery? The response, “…so that a recovery does not incur a secondary stall…” is not sufficient, in

OL

α

0 Change in CLmax with Mach number.

my opinion. A quantitative – not qualitative – response is needed here. Figure 6 shows how CLmax varies with changing Mach numbers. This might be intuitive, as pilots may have experienced the low speed buffet at a higher Mach number at high altitude, but not at sea level at that same Mach number. Figure 6 also shows that with lower Mach number, the ability to fly at higher AoA increases. Notice in Figure 6 that CLmax at Mach 0.80 occurs at a much lower AoA than at Mach 0.40. This helps explain why pilots experience the low speed buffet at high altitude versus at lower altitude at the same Mach number. Turning at a standard rate, like 3 degrees per second, at high altitude will cause the pilot to encounter the slow speed buffet earlier, as less lift is now available when in the turn. In summary, especially with new wing designs on aircraft being developed, using updated airfoils, flying at higher AoA but below CLmax may mean the aircraft is technically not in a stall, but technically still capable of flight. Knowledge of what AoA is being flown at all regions of the flight envelope is the key to safe flight.

Michael Petridis is managing director of Standard for Excellence in Business Aviation (SEBA) Council and also a partner at VIP Jets, an aviation consulting firm in Dallas TX.

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A REFLECTION OF EXCELLENCE

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TARGET POSITIONING

A look a what Collins ADS-B In offers Detailed info on threat evaluation is a real benefit. TCAS display on the left tells the viewer of the presence of an aircraft below that is climbing. ADS-B In display on the right clearly shows that Jet Blue 2007 is converging, but intends to level off below.

TCAS By Marty Rollinger ATP. Challenger 600 & 604, Falcon 2000 EASy and McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 PP Contributing Writer

T

he countdown is on. We’re less than 1 year away from the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast Out (ADS-B Out) mandate in the US. But as a Professional Pilot reader, you already know ADS-B Out is only half the story, and that real benefits for operators are realized when they’re equipped with ADS-B In. NASA’s recent issue of CALLBACK (#466), titled “Too Close for Comfort,” articulated that the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) has received many reports of both near mid-air collisions and critical ground conflicts. Lack of Situational Awareness (SA) was often cited. ADS-B In will help reduce these near misses with traffic displays presenting high accuracy ground and airborne traffic information, raising crew SA and aiding visual acquisition of nearby traffic. Lest you think that ADS-B In and Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) is just for light General Aviation (GA) aircraft, think again. Nearly half of new Boeing 787s are being delivered with certified ADS-B In traffic displays. Many aircraft and

You are at FL360 avionics manufacturers currently offer or are developing ADS-B In traffic awareness systems. The first 2 articles in this ADS-B In series described the system and highlighted benefits associated with cockpit display of traffic obtained from ADS-B systems. As a review, ADS-B Out is the automatic broadcast of own-ship’s position, track, speed and other information for use by Air Traffic Control (ATC) ground systems, as well as ADS-B In equipped aircraft in the vicinity. ADS-B In is the capability to receive and display ADS-B Out information from nearby aircraft and traffic information uplinked from ground stations. ADS-B In presents precise target position of airborne and ground targets, flight ID, wake turbulence category, aircraft squawking emergency and, most importantly, target track information. Cockpit ADS-B In displays resemble the radar scopes viewed by air traffic controllers. Ground based primary and secondary surveillance radar position updates occur as infrequently as 5 seconds for terminal radar and 12 seconds for enroute radar. But ADS-B position updates occur every second thus improving accuracy and situational awareness in ATC facilities, as well as in cockpits of ADS-B In equipped operators. In this article, Collins Aerospace ADS-B

ADS-B In In traffic awareness system offerings and future plans are described.

Collins Aerospace ADS-B In Collins Aerospace, formerly Rockwell Collins, supplies the ADS-B In technology currently certified and fielded on the Boeing 787 aircraft. The traffic awareness benefits are delivered through the Integrated Surveillance System 2100 (ISS-2100) which has been standard equipment on 787s from the first delivery in 2011. The ISS-2100 efficiently combines weather radar, Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS), Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS), traffic computer, and Mode S transponder into a single avionics unit. According to Mike McDowell, commercial avionics marketing manager at Collins Aerospace, the company plans to certify the same system on the Boeing 777X later this year. The ISS-2100 software application for Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) has been certified and available since 2015 and is offered as an option to airline purchasers. According to Bill Richards, a technical fellow at Boeing, roughly 40% of 787 aircraft are delivered with the ADS-B In option. Airlines choosing to initially forego ADS-B In purchase can do so later via simple software upgrade. McDowell anticipates that

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as the 2020 ADS-B Out mandate arrives, critical mass will be achieved and many customers will upgrade to take advantage of ADS-B In traffic awareness benefits. Asked to share customer feedback, McDowell says “Most customers are happy with the additional traffic information and the improved situational awareness. They are now looking for traffic apps that will provide economic value.”

UAT and 1090 ES As explained in my first article (Pro Pilot, Nov 2018, p 42), in the US, ADS-B will be spoken in 2 different languages. The 2 languages, really similar systems using separate frequencies, are called Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) and 1090ES (for Extended Squitter). The UAT system is generally less expensive and is intended for low flying, light civil aircraft. UAT operates on 978 mega-Hertz (MHz) frequency which serves to reduce frequency congestion on the 1090 MHz frequency that is already heavily used by existing transponders, TCAS and now 1090ES ADS-B. The numerous international ADS-B Out mandates currently in effect and coming soon, unanimously call for the use of 1090ES via a Mode S transponder. Similarly, all US operations flying above 18,000 feet will require 1090ES ADS-B Out broadcast. For these reasons, most business jet and airline operators choose the Mode S 1090ES version of ADS-B. The ADS-B In function piggy backs on the TCAS system since the TCAS antennas are already able to receive 1090 MHz signals. However, additional software is needed in the TCAS computer to blend or correlate TCAS targets with ADS-B targets.

Collins uses 1090ES ADS-B In Collins Aerospace systems use the 1090ES ADS-B In version and do not directly receive the 978 MHz UAT traffic signals. The displayed traffic picture is completed through ADS-R (Rebroadcast), Traffic Information Service – Broadcast (TIS-B) and TCAS active surveillance. ADS-R is the FAA-provided service that listens to all incoming ADS-B data, auto translates and transmits messages in the other language. TIS-B and TCAS active surveillance allow for detection and display of targets equipped

Prototype Collins Aerospace Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM) pictures that highlight additional guidance and situational awareness information.

with transponders but not fitted with ADS-B Out. The FAA-provided TIS-B service uses a combination of radar, interrogators and ground stations to detect and transmit non-participant surveillance information to ADS-B In participants when the non-participant is within defined airspace around the ADS-B In aircraft. However, TIS-B target position accuracy is not as precise as ADS-B Out targets because TIS-B targets rely on detection by surveillance radars with 5 to 12 second refresh rates while ADS-B targets send their Wide Area

Augmentation System (WAAS) GPS quality positions once per second. TIS-B is intended to provide broad SA of aircraft that chose not to equip with ADS-B Out. Since TCAS and 1090ES ADS-B share common frequency and hardware, 1090ES ADS-B has the advantage over UAT in the rare case where you are operating outside of FAA ground station TIS-B coverage. TCAS-equipped aircraft automatically use TCAS active surveillance to detect non ADS-B equipped targets that are fitted with a transponder. Aircraft without operable transponPROFESSIONAL PILOT / January 2019 55

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altitude you are aware of the pending conflict and can expect a TCAS resolution advisory. If you only have a TCAS display, you would be blind to the target’s intended level off altitude and would not even know that the target is converging.

Threat evaluation with ADS-B In

Collins Aerospace TTR-2100 horizontal and vertical traffic displays designed for the specific InTrail Procedure (ITP) traffic application. Displays show relevant traffic that the operator would like to climb between, perhaps for a better ride or to save fuel.

der or ADS-B will not be shown on traffic displays.

Additional benefits The Collins Aerospace investment in ISS-2100 has led to spin off benefits in other avionics systems that will have direct impact on business aviation. The first off-shoot is the Traffic Surveillance System TSS-4100 which is an integrated TCAS and transponder that is capable of hosting ADS-B In software applications. Designed for business aviation and regional jet aircraft, the combination of TCAS and Mode S transponder reduces cable weight and avionics unit count. Collins Aerospace recently completed TSS-4100 ADS-B In CDTI development and their plans include forward fit integration on the new Embraer Praetor series and Bombardier Global aircraft before the end of this year. Other derivative systems include the TTR-2100 and TTR-4100 TCAS systems which were certified in 2013. These upgraded systems are TCAS II (Change 7.1) devices with traffic computers that are capable of software upgrades to provide ADS-B In and CDTI. The TTR-2100 is a plug and play replacement for the previous generation TTR-921 TCAS system. The related TTR-4100 is lighter weight, more compact and designed for business aircraft, helicopters and regional aircraft.

Intended altitude All Collins transponders sold today transmit “intended” altitude, also referred to as “selected” altitude. This selected altitude is transmitted as a reply to routine interrogation and broadcast as a component of ADS-B Out messages. Selected altitude, as the name implies, is the ATC “cleared to” altitude that pilots enter into their flight guidance panel altitude selector for appropriate flight director and autopilot performance. Broadcast of selected altitude resulted from a previous European requirement known as elementary surveillance and enhanced surveillance. This selected altitude parameter is received by ADS-B In equipment and the information can be presented to pilots with CDTI displays. Consider this example: There is a converging target at your 10 o’clock and 20 miles that is a few thousand feet below you and climbing. With a fully developed ADS-B In display the target’s flight ID will be displayed as well as the altitude the target aircraft crew has selected for level off. Knowing the target’s flight ID allows you to understand radio communications between the aircraft and ATC. Seeing the ADS-B-provided selected altitude value of 1000 feet, or more, below your altitude is reassuring. Conversely, if the converging aircraft selected altitude is at, or above, your

Imagine the following urban pedestrian analogy to understand the advantage of ADS-B In. You are walking at night on a dark street in a neighborhood where muggings have occurred recently. As you approach a cross street, you have a device that tells you there is a person around the corner in the shadows. This device would be a TCAS display. Imagine now that instead you have a device that informs you not only of the threat existence, but tells you whether the person is moving toward or away from you and tells you their size, ID (police officer or mugger) and the speed at which they are approaching. This device is ADS-B In. Collins Aerospace, with 3 decades of TCAS production expertise and recent experience on the ultramodern Boeing 787 aircraft, is prepared to offer ADS-B In traffic awareness solutions to business jet operators. Their ADS-B In traffic displays present nearby vehicles and aircraft on the ground and in the air, preventing surprises and reducing cockpit workload. According to Collins Sr Director of Marketing Craig Peterson, “Collins has plans to invest in this market and remain committed to our TCAS customers by developing ADS-B In traffic apps that improve safety and provide economic benefit.” Occurring every second, ADS-B position and target track updates improve accuracy and SA in ATC facilities, as well as in cockpits of operators equipped with ADS-B In.

Marty has over 35 years flight experience in 68 different aircraft. A career Marine Corps pilot, he was Liethen-Tittle Award graduate of USAF Test Pilot School. He is Director of Flight Ops for a Midwestern operator and a member of the Falcon Operator Advisory Board.

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INTERNATIONAL OPS

Fuel uplift considerations worldwide Buying fuel overseas can vary widely in price. You also often face taxes tacked on surcharges. Staff at Manny Aviation Services TLC (Toluca, Mexico) coordinate a fuel uplift using a 3rd party provider. Some FBOs in Mexico and elsewhere have dedicated GA fuel trucks on standby while others rely on airport authority fuel trucks, which often arrive late.

Photos courtesy Manny’s Aviation

By Grant McLaren Editor-at-Large

F

uel is the largest variable operating expense for most longhaul flights and it’s an essential factor to any successful international mission. While the good news is that aviation fuel availability, quality and credit options have never been better, fuel uplift glitches do occur from time to time within the international General Aviation (GA) operating arena. Pre-planning for fuel uplifts is a part of the overall trip planning process that should always be given high priority on any international trip. “Planning and managing fuel uplifts internationally can be a complex business, with a lot of moving parts to consider,” says UVair Assoc Account Mgr Michelle Smith. “You need to dig down to really understand all opportunities, requirements and risks involved in the process. If you’re trying to wing it on your own, there could be challenges in terms of best pricing, credit, uplift delays, language barriers and the vetting of various local providers. In some cases this could turn into an

absolute nightmare. It’s best to work with experienced providers and be aware that the best price available at a particular location may not be the best deal.” International Support Providers (ISPs) encourage operators to plan overseas uplifts well in advance, whenever possible. “Fuel uplifts, along with ground handling, crew accommodations, catering and local transport, are all important elements of successful international trip planning. But sometimes we see fuel planning as more of an afterthought when it really needs to be right up there on the priority list,” says ITPS Special Accounts and Sr MGAS Mgr Chris Linebaugh. ”Be aware of fuel release requirements, pricing, applicable taxes, credit and credit backup strategies, FBO or ramp restrictions on fueler access, as well as impact of holidays and/or large local events and delivery delays that could occur at particular locations. Operators who plan fuel uplifts well in advance run into fewer issues than those who do things more on the fly.”

It’s different overseas Buying fuel stateside is normally via FBOs with dedicated fuel trucks, multiple credit options and short notification requirements. In the international environment you may need to schedule fuel uplifts 24, 48 or even 72 hours in advance and setting up fuel credit will be different. “When traveling internationally, fuel uplifts and credit are generally organized differently and there may be taxes and additional charges that need to be considered,” says UAS Ops Mgr Duke LeDuc. “In some cases this can be somewhat convoluted for operators to set up on their own. Even the most experienced international pilot can, at times, be confused regarding local fueling and credit arrangements, applicable fuel taxes, and fuel delivery restrictions. There could be fuel shortages to consider at certain locations during high demand periods, or you may face a potential delay of 2–3 hours due to fuel truck availability. Once you’re on the ramp you may find uplift op-

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tions to be limited due to FBO or other restrictions, and could end up paying $2 more per gallon than planned. Be aware that some FBOs restrict GA fuel uplifts to their own trucks or certain favored suppliers.” FBOs at LTN (Luton, London, UK), for example, may not allow competing fuel providers on their ramps. At HKG (Hong Kong) you’re dealing with a monopoly fuel situation, with high pricing all but assured. Taxiing over to the commercial side of a field for a better contract fuel price may not always be practical or possible. At some more remote locations in India, Central Africa or on small Pacific islands you may run into situations where fuel must be pre-paid in advance. “Fuel releases are always recommended overseas to ensure fuel will be available and credit will be in place,” notes ITPS Sr Ops Specialist Curt Kurshildgen. “However, if you land in Mexico with a standard fuel release, you may be out of luck. For uplifts in Mexico, your contract fueler needs to also set up an ASA fuel release, which may take 24 hours or so to obtain. The ASA release will specify uplift location and tail number and must always be presented to the local fueler.” While day of operation uplift glitches are rare, they do occur from time to time. Your fuel release may have been forwarded to the main office at your destination but may not yet have been delivered to the fuel truck driver. The fuel truck credit card machine may be inop, particularly at some small and/or remote locations. In some cases you may be required to prepay for uplifts, or pay cash upon uplift, so always have Plan B credit options available. “Fuel releases are usually accepted without issue but this is not always the case, particularly at 3rd world locations,” says Linebaugh. “We know a recent case where a fuel release had been issued, the uplift was completed but then the fuel truck parked in front of the aircraft until payment in cash was received. Best practice is to work with your ground handler and/or fuel broker well in advance to understand all local fueling processes, credit options and delivery restrictions. Meanwhile, always have back-up methods of payment available.”

Uplifting fuel at DMK (Don Mueang, Bangkok, Thailand) is usually a straight-forward process, although commercial airlines always take fueling priority and delays, at times, are possible.

Price is a consideration Aviation fuel pricing varies within the international operating environment depending upon the country, local tax structure, particular airport and individual supplier. Within the European Union (EU), fuel can be expensive, particularly in Germany, considering applicable Mineral Oil Tax (MOT) and Value Added Tax (VAT). For example, you may play close to $9/gal in Germany or Switzerland vs under $3 a gallon in Ireland. “Fuel taxes and additional charges can easily double the base price of fuel in many areas,” says Smith. “At WNS (Nawabshah, Pakistan) you may pay over $10 per gallon for fuel while at ASK (Yamoussoukro, Ivory Coast) fuel price may be over $11 per gallon. Meanwhile, we’ve been seeing fuel pricing north of $8.50/gal in the US Northeast. Low fuel costs, on the other hand, are often available in Ireland, parts of Spain, the UAE, mainland China, Angola and much of South America.” Contract fuel arrangements often save you $2 or more per gallon but you’ll need to coordinate the appropriate fuel release and ensure the correct fuel provider hooks up upon arrival. ISPs recommend checking with a number of contract fuel providers – pre-trip – for best pricing as some providers offer better options at particular locations. Also, be mindful that cheapest price is not

always the best option. “At many international locations you might save $1–2 or more per gallon using a commercial fuel provider rather than the traditional GA provider,” says UAS Fuel & Procurement Mgr Mark Davies. “However, although fuel cost is cheaper, you may wait 1–2 hours for a truck to come over to the GA side of the field. Using an FBO, or a dedicated GA supplier, costs a little more but there’s a convenience factor to consider.”

Fuel credit While some larger international locations do accept fuel cards on sight, a fuel release will normally be required by the local provider. With a fuel release, credit is guaranteed to the local supplier. You may also choose to use 3rd party credit, either from your ISP or the local handler, but there will be additional costs involved with these options. Note that some locations still stipulate fuel be prepaid prior to day of uplift, or paid with cash on the ramp. Although these circumstances are becoming rarer and rarer, pre-payment is still mandated at some locations in Mexico, Central Africa and elsewhere. “At some international locales across the world, local suppliers do not extend credit or simply do not have credit available,” says Davies. “In such cases you may need to prepay. While we don’t recommend carrying large quantities of cash,

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ternational fuel suppliers will send operators automatic pricing updates as you get closer to day of operation.

Fuel uplift delays and potential shortages

BQH (Biggin Hill, London, UK) has a strong GA focus, with fuel uplifts normally trouble free and on time. Even at major bizav locations, however, it’s always best practice to confirm credit arrangements and fuel release details prior to day of operation.

there are ways to pre-pay fuel, either directly or via your ISP.” Linebaugh stresses the importance of fully understanding your pre-negotiated credit arrangements to avoid issues on the day of operation. “Whenever you confirm a fuel release, it’s important that all layers in the process – from the local ground handler to the fuel provider and truck driver – understand that the uplift is on credit. Ensure that it’s the correct provider hooked up to your aircraft and don’t sign a fuel ticket until it can be carefully reviewed. Once the ticket is signed there are few options to make any retroactive corrections.”

Fuel taxes, duties and additional charges At many locations in the EU, VAT and MOT more than double the local base fuel price. Germany, Switzerland and France can be particularly expensive in this regard. While charter operators may be able to avoid VAT and MOT at the pump, this usually requires carrying your Air Operator Certificate (AOC), filing your flight plan as commercial and ensuring that the fuel ticket has been correctly filled out prior to signing it. Private operators are rarely able to exempt MOT but within the EU they do have options of either excepting VAT or having the ability to reclaim it later. Note that VAT exceptions are usually only available to private flights on business, and not

for leisure purposes. In the UK, for example, private operators can usually avoid VAT if their next leg is not a domestic leg. “If you’re uplifting to fly domestic within the UK, you’ll be hit with 20% VAT on the first 1–607 gallons and then 5% VAT thereafter,” says Smith. “Note that when operating out of SNN you can avoid VAT if your next flight leg is outside the EU,” adds Davies. “VAT exemptions for private flights vary from country to country, so it’s always best to know before you go,” remarks Linebaugh. “The assorted rules and opportunities, however, can be quite convoluted. In Greece, for example, if you’re buying fuel via a 3rd party provider, you’ll always be charged VAT irrespective if you‘re flying on business and/or have an AOC.” Additional fuel uplift related charges include overtime charges, low volume surcharges, into plane fees and local taxes if your next leg is within country and not international. “There may be overtime fuel charges at certain locations, you may be charged an extra fee for a low volume uplift (under 500 gallons or so), and some vendors will even hide a fuel release set up fee in their notes. Into-plane fees are normally included in your price quote,” says Smith. Be aware also that fuel pricing is subject to change. International pricing often changes weekly, biweekly or monthly, and will go up and down depending on the market. Many in-

Unless your provider has GA-dedicated fuel trucks available, scheduled commercial operators on the field normally enjoy fueling priority. “It’s not uncommon to experience an hour or so wait for a fuel truck at many international locations as scheduled commercial has first priority,” says Davies. “You may find yourself 5th or 7th in line – with passengers sitting onboard waiting. For this reason it’s often worthwhile considering tankering or fueling on arrival at busy locations, depending upon how long you plan on staying.” Here and there around the world you’ll encounter fuel shortages from time to time. NCE (Nice, France) tends to run out of fuel on busy weekends, while SXM (St Maarten) occasionally runs low on fuel during peak periods. Locations in Nigeria are also prone to face fuel supply challenges now and then.

Summary “When planning international fuel uplifts, look at a strategy that considers the entire trip as a whole,” recommends Smith. “The overall objective is to save time, avoid delays and maximize flexibility while keeping costs as reasonable as possible. Successful strategies might involve tankering fuel or uplifting fuel on arrival in some cases, having Plan B credit options, or paying a little more at certain locations to use GA-dedicated fuel trucks. Working with a couple of established providers, as opposed to numerous contract providers, usually gives you best pricing without diluting your negotiating power.” Editor-at-Large Grant McLaren has written for Pro Pilot for over 20 years and specializes in corporate flight department coverage.

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MMTO STAGE 2

1 877 50 MANNY

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+52 722 273 0981

ops@mannyaviation.com

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TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHT

ETOPS for business aircraft Extended Operations are not just for the airlines.

Airports Non-ETOPS flightpath ETOPS flightpath Distance traveled in 60 minutes with 1 engine inoperative ETOPS can open up new opportunities for routes. In many cases, this can dramatically shorten flight time and significantly reduce fuel burn.

SFJ KEF YYR LHR 60 minutes circles

JFK

120 minutes circles To determine ETOPS routes, draw circumferences around alternate airports that are based upon single engine cruise speeds in still air. Plot a route that keeps the aircraft within the circumference to keep within ETOPS standards. For added safety, include current winds in the calculation.

By David Ison, PhD

Professor, Graduate School Northcentral University

T

echnically, Extended Operations (ETOPS), from a regulation standpoint, are only for the airlines and related operators. Under 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), only Parts 121 and 135 mention ETOPS.

Part 91 operators, including Subpart K dealing with fractional ownership companies, are not explicitly required to comply with the laundry list of rules and requirements for ETOPS. With that said, if you do fly in remote areas such as the oceanic or polar regions, it is wise to consider the sage advice given in the variety of documents provided for ETOPS users.

Affectionately known as “Engines Turning Or People Swimming,” the origins of ETOPS can be traced back to the 1930s. Of course, engines were far from reliable back then, so flying routes that would take aircraft long distances away from safe landing spots was not exactly safe, especially for aircraft with only 2 engines. In 1936, aircraft with 2 piston engines were required to identify alternate airports at 100-mile intervals along their routes. By 1953, engines had gotten better, in part thanks to World War II and the Cold War, so Part 121.161 was implemented allowing for 2 and 3 engine aircraft to fly a maximum of 60 minutes from an alternate airport while enroute. Then in 1964, 3 engine aircraft were exempt from this restriction. As aircraft became more capable and reliable, especially in light of the advent of jet aircraft, increasing pressure came upon operators to fly routes that were progressively remote. Also, the energy crisis of the 1970s forced the concept of aircraft with fewer engines on the aviation industry while increased technology and automation indicated less need for 3 or more pilots. The amalgamation of these events led to early long-range, twin-engine transports such as the Airbus 300 and 310 as well as the Boeing 757 and 767. In 1985, Advisory Circular 12042 provided means of being exempt from 121.161 to allow twine-engine routes that had a suitable alternate airport within 120 minutes of flight. Just 3 years later, AC-120-42A was published giving the option for routes with alternates up to 180 minutes away. At the request of industry, in 2000, there was an exemption option for flights up to 207 minutes from an alternate for specific remote routes such as in the South Pacific, Polar regions, the South Atlantic, and the southern portion of the Indian Ocean. Now 3 and 4-engine aircraft are eligible for up to 240 minutes from an alternate.

ETOPS was based on engine reliability The premise of ETOPS began based upon engine reliability, but since turbojets have become pretty reliable,

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aircraft systems now dictate maximum distances from alternates. In case of an onboard fire or rapid decompression, can the aircraft limp its way to an alternate within a reasonable amount of time? For example, how long can a cargo compartment keep a fire extinguished in a worst case scenario? The same is true with other “time-critical systems.” Can the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) be started in-flight with reasonable assurance and can it run required systems for the necessary time? Does the alternate in mind have adequate fire protection services? How will passengers be recovered, especially in cases of extremely remote alternates? Moreover, of course, what if an engine fails? All of these are considerations for ETOPS authorization for aircraft with 2 engines as well as those with 3 or 4 engines. In addition, aircraft have to be able to keep in contact with dispatch and air traffic control during the flight. Weather conditions at the ETOPS alternate must be monitored carefully as the aircraft approaches the ETOPS part of the flight until it is safely back closer to civilization. ETOPS flights must designate ETOPS entry and exit points (stretches of the route that require ETOPS rules to be applied). If the weather at the ETOPS alternate falls below requirements, the aircraft either must avoid going ETOPS or identify a different alternate. Operators also must attempt to minimize time in the ETOPS zone if possible.

Requirements for ETOPS Initially, the FAA required 250,000 hours of in-service experience for an aircraft fleet to qualify for ETOPS. For 120 minute ETOPS, a certificate holder would need to have 12 consecutive months of service use of the aircraft with a specific Airplane-Engine Combination (AEC). For 180 minute ETOPS, a certificate holder would need 12 consecutive months of experience with 120 minute ETOPS. Eventually, with so many air carriers and aircraft types safely operating under various levels of ETOPS, the FAA authorized “Accelerated ETOPS Operational Approval” so that in-service proving times were no longer required. The majority of ETOPS operations these days are approved in this aforementioned manner. For continued ETOPS authorization, users are required to adopt special maintenance procedures and record keeping. This includes the ETOPS Pre-Departure Service Check (PDSC) which includes checking all of the re-

ETOPS/LROPS/EDTO thresholds

ETOPS certifications for business aircraft have slowly come to fruition over the years. Even though Part 91 operators are exempt from ETOPS requirements by the FAA, check with the host country’s regulations to ensure compliance with regulatory variations.

quired systems such as engine and APU oil quantities and consumption rates as well as any other reported issues. System reliability monitoring is also required. This includes tracking of InFlight Shut Downs (IFSD) of engines, diversions for failures or malfunctions of ETOPS mandated systems/components, engine surges or uncommanded changes in thrust, inability to control an engine, fuel loss or imbalance, and any other issue that may jeopardize safe aircraft recovery while operating under ETOPS.

Increased security for ETOPS Increased scrutiny specific to ETOPS also includes engine condition monitoring, oil consumption monitoring, and the implementation of APU inflight start and run reliability programs. According to AC-120-42B, the maximum IFSD rates (engine hours ETOPS) for 2-engine aircraft .05/1000 for up to 120 minutes, .03/1000 beyond 120 minutes up to but not including 180 minutes (or 207 minutes in the North Pacific), and .02/1000 for greater than 180 minutes (except for 207 minutes in the North Pacific). What does all of this have to do with business aircraft? Legally, not much, unless you are a Part 135 operator.

However, practically, it should turn some heads. If the airlines are going to these lengths to stay safe when flying in remote areas, why shouldn’t all operators, particularly those carrying passengers? Initially, business aircraft manufacturers sided with the philosophy of more engines are better, particularly for long-haul flights. Thus the 4-engine Lockheed JetStar was introduced in 1957. McDonald-Douglas 119/220, which looked like a mini DC-8, was prototyped around the same time. It became glaringly evident that such designs were not practical. Thus more practical options, namely the 3-engine Falcon 50, came to market for longrange business trips. Yet just as in the commercial aircraft world, the push for twin-engine, long-haul business aircraft was realized.

Flying with fewer engines Today, there are grand distance performers available such as the Bombardier Global Express and the Gulfstream G650. Some business jets have ETOPS authorization from different agencies. The Bombardier Global 5000, for example, received JAR OPS 180 minutes ETOPS, Hawker 800/900 series have FAA ETOPS for Part 135 operations,

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The 60-minute rule limits twin-engine route opportunities

120-minute rule greatly expands route opportunities

failure rates, time-limited systems, and maintenance procedures, there are other factors to keep in mind. The flight planning portion of Parts 135 and 121 are most helpful. Crew information requirements need to be arranged to include access to weather while enroute, including destination and ETOPS alternates. The aircraft should have 2 independent transceivers and a backup headset/speaker. It must also be considered degraded communication in remote areas such as reliance on HF radio, although it may be wise to install satellite communications or other systems to augment what is currently available onboard. Fuel requirements are fundamental, as an emergency can force the hand of trying to make it to an alternate. If improperly calculated or considered, one can run out of fuel before getting to safety.

Fuel calculations

180-minute rule further expands route opportunities

and large-cabin Gulfstreams are approved for ETOPS by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). However, just because an aircraft can fly on potentially extreme routes, does not mean they should be done so without some serious intentionality. In short, if you fly on what would be considered ETOPS for an airliner, you should consider all relevant aspects of ETOPS that could potentially bolster the safety of flight. Also be sure that your operations are authorized in the host controlling agency’s airspace as there are discrepancies, for example, between FAA and EASA requirements. Besides the obvious previously mentioned considerations, such as engine

Regulations state that the greater of 3 fuel calculation scenarios be used to determine necessities to fly to an ETOPS alternate airport following an engine failure and rapid decompression. First calculation is enough fuel to fly to the airport if the decompression occurs at the most critical point in the flight, considering oxygen requirements for the driftdown. Second calculation is fly to the alternate at engine inoperative airspeed in still air, assuming a simultaneous rapid decompression and engine failure at the most critical point, considering again oxygen requirements. Alternatively, calculation 3, an engine failure at the most critical point, considering descent to single engine inoperative cruise altitude. Additional recommendations for fuel calculations are wise to be considered. A 5% safety margin is called for when using estimated versus actual winds in calculations. Of course, some of the regulation mention “in still air” which we all know is pretty rare. Taking actual winds into account is only common sense. Adding margin for error is also smart. Fuel increases due to operations in icing conditions should also be considered. Engine deterioration should also be taken into account, adding another 5%. Fuel required for approach and landing at the alternate should be considered as well as a minimum of 15 minutes of holding at 1500 ft above field elevation. Lastly, fuel needed by the APU should also be added to the total requirement.

Approach capabilities Other considerations are the approach capabilities of the aircraft and the alternate airport. Additionally, what terrain may exist between the aircraft and the alternate as well as in the vicinity of the alternate. For example, Greenland has areas of high terrain that need to be considered if flying over the area or if an alternate is located somewhere on the island. It goes without saying the weather at the alternate should be on the mind of dispatchers and pilots at all times. Finally, the aircraft status should be carefully considered prior to “ETOPS” flights. How have the engines been behaving? When was the last time the APU was started and run in-flight? Has the fuel system been operating in tiptop shape? How has the airplane done with consuming various required solutions such as oil and hydraulic fluid? Have there been any engine or aircraft service directives based on fleet problems? All of these must be considered regardless of any regulatory requirements. After all, ditching in a cold ocean or landing off airport in arctic conditions is not the ideal way to end a long-range flight.

Conclusion With careful consideration to ETOPS procedures and regulations, irrespective as to whether they are “required” or not, operators can be assured to fly on remote routes in the safest manner possible. By adding procedures and checklists for all probable contingencies, crew and operational personnel will be able to confidently handle anything that comes their way. Practicing these procedures, including flight planning and incident response will solidify what needs to be done in case of the real thing. Because the time to learn is not when things go wrong. Instead, an operator can end an emergency with poise and the fact that the aircraft, crew, and passengers will arrive at their original destination tardy but safely.

David Ison, PhD, has 32 years of experience flying aircraft ranging from light singles to widebody jets. Currently he is a graduate school professor at Northcentral University.

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CLEAR COMMUNICATIONS

Improving collective situational awareness What has happened? What is happening? What may happen?

Crew resource management is a way to ensure that both pilot and copilot retain a high degree of situational awareness on the flightdeck.

The most difficult task for humans seems to be predicting future events. The US Marines use the phrase, “Being left of bang” to describe the state of identifying and avoiding undesirable situations (being “right of bang” is after something bad has occurred). This concept is so critical to survival for deployed Marines that in 2006 General James Mattis, Commander of the First Marine Expeditionary Force, sought the development of a training program to identify and remove combat threats through enhanced SA. According to authors Patrick Van Horne and Jason Riley, 2 prerequisites are needed to maintain accurate SA and predict outcomes: (1) a mindset and mentality to actively search for deviations and (2) the knowledge of why something differs from baseline. The same is required of pilots.

By Shannon Forrest

Individual vs collective SA

President, Turbine Mentor ATP/CFII. Challenger 604/605, Gulfstream IV, MU2B

E

very new year begets resolutions. The goal of a resolution is to start something new, eliminate a past practice or improve the status quo. Unfortunately, most resolutions fail. In 2015 US News revealed that only 20% of those who enact resolutions will follow them through to completion. Forbes puts the number far worse at 8%. The self-awareness that resolutions have failed, in combination with the arrival of the holiday credit card bills, is one reason the 3rd Monday in January has been dubbed the most depressing day of the year, also called Blue Monday. The disappointing inability to fulfill a lifestyle resolution has a negligible long-term effect on most of the general population. On the other hand, career-based changes in behavior can produce dramatic results – especially for pilots. Operating practices can be continually assessed to enhance safety and reduce risk, and the new year is a great time to resolve to make changes. Improving Situational Awareness (SA) is a worthy goal.

SA – or lack thereof – is often implicated as a causal or contributing factor in aviation incidents and accidents. Dr Mica Endsley, a leading expert on SA and author of over 200 academic papers on the topic, defines it as “the perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future.” It’s unlikely many pilots could recite such an academic definition verbatim during their next recurrent training – nor would they need to.

Knowing what’s going on The concept of SA is colloquially described as knowing what’s going on around you. More precisely, it’s when one’s perception of reality matches reality. Accurate SA depends on 3 elements: perception, comprehension and projection. After sampling cues from the environment (perception) information must be processed and understood (comprehension). Projection involves predicting what may happen if the current course of action continues. The whole SA thought loop can be described as, “what has happened, what is happening, and what may happen?”

SA is most often discussed in terms of the individual rather than the group. That’s understandable given the internet houses a plethora of video examples depicting loss of individual situational awareness. Unfortunately, focusing only on the individual ignores the role the group dynamic plays in the situational awareness paradigm. Collective Situational Awareness (CSA) is the aggregate measure of SA among all participants in a situation. Much like the weakest link defines the total strength of a chain, the person with the lowest SA tends to drag the overall SA down. If that happens, safety is compromised and risk increases. Direct and unambiguous communication, rigorous adherence to Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), avoiding complacency, and automation management all improve CSA. Despite the best intentions, performance in each of these areas has the potential to wane over time.

Clear communication with ATC One of the biggest mistakes when it comes to communications is the use of slang. Years ago, a general aviation

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aircraft taking off from DET (Detroit MI) informed the control tower that he, “Had a sick one” and wanted to immediately return to DET for landing. The air traffic controller, who was task saturated with pattern traffic and 2 inbound business jets, thought it was a passenger with motion sickness so they honored the pilot’s request and placed him on a long downwind behind the jets. However, the “sick one” stated in the initial transmission was a rough running engine. Thankfully the aircraft limped back to the airport and the pilot learned a lesson in more appropriate phraseology. Although the pilot had a high level of SA about the impeding emergency, his failure to appropriately communicate it lowered the SA of the controller. Avoiding slang is especially important when conducting international operations. Air traffic controllers that are not native-born English speakers are trained using ICAO standard phraseology. English-proficient by aviation standards does not imply the ability to comprehend and speak the language perfectly. Egregious slang like fish finder (TCAS), the meter (altimeter setting), and no joy (traffic not in sight) are completely off the script and won’t be understood at all. Even innocuous sounding inquiries can be confusing. The phrase “I’m looking for a clearance” is a common request in the United States but has no equivalent in the ICAO vocabulary. At issue is the verb, “looking.” Unless the pilot is informing the controller that he is wandering about the ramp to find what was lost, he would be better served by restating it as “requesting ATC clearance.” Nitpicking? Perhaps, unless you happen to be in South America and are met with silence when “looking” for your clearance back to the states. The best practice for improving CSA in international operations is to speak slower than normal, eliminate nonessential words from the dialog, use standard terminology (eg engine failure instead of “lost” an engine), and be specific when making requests (“Gulfstream 123 requesting FL410,” instead of the conversational, “We’d like to go higher. How’s it looking up there?”). Standardizing communication in international operations was one of the main objectives in the development of Controller–Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC). It’s also why free text mode is discouraged in favor of “canned” phrases. Standard

Clear, unambiguous communication increases collective situational awareness.

CPDLC requests can be answered with standard responses (yes, no, expect, etc) which optimizes CSA even if language skills are weak.

Talking to cabin attendants Another area of concern when it comes to CSA is in communicating with cabin or flight attendants (FAs). Pilots tend to be overly technical when annunciating abnormal conditions or emergency situations. Sending the entire flight department to a Crew Resource Management (CRM) and general emergency course creates a team concept and establishes protocols and communication techniques to employ when things don’t go according to plan. There are companies that go so far as to require their FAs to ride in the secondary observer seat during a simulator session. This is typically conducted as an ancillary training event after all qualification requirements are met. In one case, a Fortune 50 company developed their own simulator-based training curriculum that incorporated 5 emergency scenarios. Prior to the simulator session, 3 of the 5 were chosen at random so the crew couldn’t predict which they would receive. Although the exercise was technically a training event, it was “non-jeopardy” in the sense that certifications were not at stake. Thus, everyone was free to respond and behave in any way they deemed appropriate to address the emergency with fear of reprisal. One safety caveat of a simulator in motion was that the FA would have to remain seated with her belt on. To maintain as much realism as possible, she would simulate her action

of moving about the cabin by annunciating them to the instructor who would facilitate the debriefing. She was also free to openly communicate with the pilots in the same way she would in a real emergency. The primary goal of the exercise was to see if CSA remained high, communication occurred, and if the scenario played out according to the company SOPs. It didn’t. During the 1 hour facilitated debrief, the pilots and flight attendant had the opportunity to describe what was happening from their perspective, what they did well, and what could have been improved. Lack of communication leading to low CSA was the primary concern. In fact, if the water ditching scenario simulated had been real, the FA would have been standing in the aisle during touchdown as she thought the aircraft was returning to the airport with functioning engines – a vastly disparate SA from that of the pilots, and one that would have resulted in her being injured or worse.

Stay with SOPs There is no doubt that developing and adhering to SOPs promotes a safer operation. The lack of SOPs or disregarding established procedures have played a significant role in the accident chain. The reason that SOPs increase CSA in group operations is that they provide a predictable framework (baseline) that can be used to identify changes and an opportunity to intervene before the situation is unrecoverable. Within the cockpit, a standardized procedure gives the pilot monitoring (PM) something to monitor. PROFESSIONAL PILOT / January 2019 67

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Use of CPDLC

SOPs are akin to an actor reading lines in a play. If the dialogue changes or goes off script the director immediately notices and can shout “Cut!” When deviating from SOPs, the others involved in the operation are unable to predict the next move. The unpredictability factor decreases CSA. If SOPs aren’t working, it’s better to change the SOP (they should be periodically reviewed anyway) than feign an effort to comply but fail to complete it as written. Ignoring an SOP, and subsequently ignoring the practice of ignoring it, sets a dangerous precedent and even has a name: normalization of deviance. According to sociologist Diane Vaughan, author of The Challenger Launch Decision, “social normalization of deviance means that people within the organization become so much accustomed to a deviation that they don’t consider it as deviant, despite the fact that they far exceed their own rules for the elementary safety.” Or in common terms, the wrong SOP (or lack thereof) slowly evolves into the way of doings things just because it goes unchallenged for so long. “That’s just how we do it,” is not a strategy when it comes it safety.

Watch out for complacency Complacency is a broad term used to describe a state of inattentiveness based on an intrinsic feeling that

Universal Avionics CPDLC screen with message telling pilot to “Climb to and maintain FL350.” Requests can be answered with standard responses rather than with pilot-generated text, further optimizing collective SA.

the current situation is acceptable and will continue to stay that way, hence no intervention is required. Complacency is a passive state whereas monitoring is an active condition. Complacency and monitoring are diametrically opposed behaviors. Lack of attentiveness has always been an issue in aviation but the prevalence of portable electronic devices (PEDs) and constant WiFi connectivity have added complexity to the issue. To be honest, the iPad has replaced the USA Today as the distraction of choice while cruising the flight levels. Although there’s no accident history that identifies a trend of PED use causing accidents, self-disclosures to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reveal that distraction, which promotes a loss of SA, is a leading cause of pilot deviations and flight errors. Both NTSB and FAA have their own stance on the use of PEDs on the flightdeck as do the airlines. Corporate and private operators will ultimately have to decide how to enforce PED policies while at the same time acknowledging the operational benefits. At the very least, sterile cockpit rules should be enforced, and non-essential PED use avoided below 10,000 ft.

Under the topic of how automation management impacts CSA, one area of concern for 2019 is CPDLC. Flight departments that engage in frequent international operations in CPDLC/ ADS-C equipped aircraft have likely been exposed to some of the pitfalls. In late 2018, the Indianapolis Air Traffic Control Center began around-theclock use of CPDLC in their airspace. Other US domestic airspace air traffic control facilities will soon deploy the technology. One of the enormous benefits of CPDLC is the ability to receive revised clearances and upload or “push” those changes into the active flight plan. When doing so, caution is warranted as there’s been an uptick in reports that pilots have acknowledged clearances, only to discover later that the clearance differs from the one auto loaded in the flight management system. There have also been reports that, when receiving route changes through the ground-based clearance delivery CPDLC function, the new instrument departure procedure does not load, or does not load properly (even though the route does). Avionics vary, but a good rule of thumb is that any change to a CPDLC clearance will not include the departure or arrival procedure, so a good practice is to look for it and reinsert what’s needed.

Have a willingness to change This January will be like any other, by Blue Monday most people will have given up on their new year’s resolutions and will revert to their old ways. Experts say the most common reason for quitting is overly ambitious expectations and goals. Small, measurable changes continued over time have a greater chance of working. The willingness to change and the discipline to stick with the change will increase the chances of success. Focusing on achieving a high CSA will improve the safety culture and have a lasting impact. Shannon Forrest is a current line pilot, CRM facilitator and aviation safety consultant. He has over 10,000 hours and holds a degree in behavioral psychology.

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2019 AVIONICS PRODUCT SUPPORT SURVEY

1 Garmin, 2 Universal Avionics, 3 Collins Aerospace, 4 Honeywell Garmin 1st for 15 yrs, Universal 2nd for 11 yrs, Collins 3rd for 11 yrs, Honeywell 4th for 3 yrs. Operators sent back a total of 795 survey forms, representing a 10.3% return. Total of 816 line evaluations used for results. Pro Pilot Staff Report Data compiled by Conklin & de Decker

his 2019 survey marks 24 years T that Pro Pilot has asked readers to share their experiences so our survey can rank the aftersale product support provided by the manufacturers. And the results of our 2019 survey are given here. With advances in avionics it is imperative that field service reps are more available to explain, train and readily provide the support needed by flightcrew members to be familiar with the equipment and to be able to use the products with knowledge and reliability to fulfill their missions. Garmin continues to lead in avionics aftersale service by earning the top spot during the past 15 years. Garmin’s overall 2019 score is 8.61 which improved from 8.47 earned in 2018, an increase of 0.14. This Olathe-based company also takes 1st place in all measured categories in this survey—product reliability, speed in AOG service, cost of parts,

spot in product reliability, cost of parts, manuals or CDs and support from the manufacturer, and ranked 3rd in speed in AOG service and tech reps. Universal has been consistent in providing fine support for its avionics customers worldwide. This Tucson-based company has a global network of regional offices, field technical reps, service centers and repair stations. The Universal support team is also ready to assist with UniNet, a Universal Avionics Online Service Center.

manuals or CDs, tech reps and support from the manufacturer. Garmin scored 7.94 in cost of spares, a betterment from 7.64 in 2018, the highest increase of 0.30 in the 2019 survey. The Garmin Aviation Product Support Program is dedicated to make sure all Garmin equipment works well and pilots know how to use the many avionics products Garmin designs and produces. Universal Avionics has ranked 2nd place for 11 consecutive years. For this 2019 tally Universal has an overall score of 8.02, down from 8.22 in 2018. Universal took the 2nd

Collins Aerospace, formerly Rockwell Collins, has placed 3rd in our

Avionics OEM overall score Manufacturers

Responses

Product reliability

Speed in AOG service

2019

2019

2018

Dif

2019

2018

Dif

Garmin

206

9.27

9.23

0.04

8.74

8.54

0.20

Universal

96

9.01

9.02

-0.01

8.27

8.48

-0.21

Collins

256

8.79

8.83

-0.04

8.28

8.42

-0.14

Honeywell

210

8.41

8.43

-0.02

7.91

7.92

-0.01

6.68 7.87 7.52 8.03 7.48 7.84 7.92 8.31 8.21 8.51 8.26 8.42 8.51 8.27 8.55 8.47 8.53 8.51 8.44 8.50 8.56 8.47 8.61

10 8

7.90 7.68 7.78 7.76 8.04 8.17 8.22 8.15 8.34 8.16 8.10 7.88 7.81 8.05 8.11 8.20 8.23 8.14 8.16 8.20 8.29 8.25 8.22 8.02

24 years of surveys

Garmin

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

2014

2010 2011 2012 2013

2005 2006 2008 2009

2002

1999 2000 2001

1998

1997

1995 1996

1993 1994

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

2014

2010 2011 2012 2013

2005 2006 2008 2009

2002

1999 2000 2001

1998

0

1997

2

1995 1996

4

Not rated in 1993

6

1994

Comparison of overall average scores

2019 Professional Pilot Avionics Product Support Survey

Universal

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survey for the past 11 years. Overall score earned in the 2019 tally is 7.92, down from the 8.00 garnered in 2018. This year Collins places 2nd in speed in AOG service, tech reps and is 3rd in product reliability, cost of parts, manuals or CDs and support from the manufacturer. Operators praise the Collins CASP (Corporate Aircraft Service Program) that is tailored to meet the varying requirements of their flight department customers.

2019 Pro Pilot Avionics Product Support Survey

Overall ranking 8.61

Garmin

Honeywell rounds out the 2019 Pro Pilot Avionics Product Support Survey with 4th place, their same position for the past 3 years in a row. The Phoenix-based company has an overall score for 2019 of 7.46 compared with 7.58 in 2018. In ranking Honeywell we include all avionics products of this OEM: Honeywell and BendixKing. This is the 5th year that the 2019 Pro Pilot Avionics Product Support Survey has tallied together its 2 flightdeck products divisions — Honeywell and BendixKing. The Honeywell Customer and Product Support Program and their field service engineers provide technical assistance 24/7. The reps will answer operator calls or come to flight department hangars to resolve any problems with the Honeywell equipment of their customers.

206 8.02

Universal

96 7.92

Collins

256 7.46

Honeywell

210

0

2

4

6

Overall ranking

8

10

Responses

Manufacturers rated by 30 or more users

comparisons 2019 vs 2018 Manufacturers

Cost of parts

Manuals or CDs

Tech reps

Support from manufacturer

Overall scores

2019

2018

Dif

2019

2018

Dif

2019

2018

Dif

2019

2018

Dif

2019

2018

Dif

Garmin

7.94

7.64

0.30

8.56

8.32

0.24

8.55

8.47

0.08

8.62

8.60

0.02

8.61

8.47

0.14

Universal

6.66

6.96

-0.30

7.62

7.93

-0.31

8.13

8.41

-0.28

8.42

8.50

-0.08

8.02

8.22

-0.20

Collins

6.49

6.49

0.00

7.56

7.61

-0.05

8.17

8.28

-0.11

8.23

8.38

-0.15

7.92

8.00

-0.08

Honeywell

5.85

6.17

-0.32

7.49

7.50

-0.01

7.62

7.82

-0.20

7.47

7.63

-0.16

7.46

7.58

-0.12

based on information collected from operators during 2018

* No survey was conducted for 2003 and 2007.

Collins Aerospace

(formerly Rockwell Collins)

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

2014

2010 2011 2012 2013

2005 2006 2008 2009

2002

1999 2000 2001

1998

1997

1995 1996

1994

7.60 7.64 7.59 7.73 7.73 7.88 7.83 7.52 7.71 7.67 7.80 7.55 7.47 7.63 7.62 7.60 7.35 7.52 7.60 7.57 7.67 7.61 7.58 7.46

Data for the 2005 survey was collected in 2004.

1993

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

2014

2010 2011 2012 2013

2005 2006 2008 2009

2002

1999 2000 2001

1998

1997

1995 1996

1994

1993

7.70 7.66 7.78 7.68 7.82 7.95 7.96 7.74 7.62 7.93 7.81 7.49 8.07 7.92 8.08 7.98 8.05 8.09 8.10 8.12 8.02 8.06 8.00 7.92

Avionics rated 1993–2019*

Honeywell

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Methodology

Garmin Garmin Intl Dir of Aviation Support Lee Moore can be called on 913-397-8200 and faxed at 913-397-8282. His e-mail is avionics@garmin.com.

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or the 24th year Pro Pilot has used a questionnaire to ask aircraft operators to rate the quality of product support provided by avionics manufacturers. The survey form includes—product reliability, speed in AOG service, cost of parts, manuals or CDs, tech reps and support from manufacturer. It also includes a section for commentaries. During Sep 2018 a target mailing of 7743 survey forms was sent out to a random selection of established qualified Pro Pilot readers. A total of 795 survey forms, representing a 10.3% return came back to the PP office in Alexandria VA by the cutoff date of Dec 17, 2018. A total of 612 survey forms met Pro Pilot’s criteria for inclusion in the survey. These forms yielded a total of 816 line evaluations. There were 183 survey forms disqualified due to inconsistencies, errors, lack of information or for rating hand-held units rather than panel-mounted equipment. Pro Pilot’s minimum requirement to rank in the survey is 30 line evaluations. A total of 10 avionics manufacturers were listed on the form and there were 3 blank lines for write-ins of others. Only 4 manufacturers received at least 30 evaluations and were included for ranking—Collins, Garmin, Honeywell and Universal Avionics. Other manufacturers also received some evaluations but not enough for inclusion in the survey. They were Aspen Avionics (3), Avidyne (16), Elbit (2), L3 (10), Sandel (7), Thales Sextant (4) and others (6). This is the 5th year Pro Pilot shows Honeywell analyzed into 2 divisions—Honeywell and BendixKing. Respondents were asked to rate avionics manufacturers on a scale of 10 (excellent) to 1 (poor) for each category in the survey. Conklin & de Decker of Arlington TX acted as research agent and performed the independent data analysis. The company used an unweighted average to determine category scores.

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e fly a Learjet 75 equipped with the Garmin G5000. Without a doubt it’s the best system I have ever used. Also Garmin provides us with great support. Jeff Presslor ATP. Learjet 75 Dir of Aviation Leggett & Platt Transportation Webb City MO

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armin actually listens to its customers rather than trying to sell us what they think we should buy. We’ve been very happy with our G5000. And aftersale service from Garmin is outstanding. David Keys ATP. Citation Latitude Chief Pilot Becker Aviation Casselberry FL

A

lthough we haven’t had the GTN 750/650 in our Citation Bravo for very long, I’ve been extremely impressed so far with the equipment and the support. Chase Hunter ATP. Citation Bravo President Hunter Aviation Greenville SC

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here’s no such thing as the perfect avionics system, but Garmin comes close with the G1000. We’ve had it in our King Air for nearly 4 years and are very pleased with its reliability and ease of use. And Garmin also does a great job of backing up their equipment. Keven Christopherson ATP/CFI. King Air B200 Chief Pilot PacifiCorp South Jordan UT

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ased on my experience with the Garmin G1000 on our Phenom 100, this is the best avionics suite that money can buy! And Garmin support is top of the line. Tim Rink ATP. Phenom 100 Chief Pilot American Trust Savings Bank Dubuque IA

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M

H

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ur Citation CJ3+ has the Garmin G3000 installed. It’s simply the best avionics platform available for GA. Ease of use, along with excellent documentation, means that I’ve had little need of tech support. I feel I can make the system do almost anything. Marc Dulude ATP/Citation CJ3+ Chief Pilot Mild Air Okatie SC

appy to have the latest software updates from Garmin for the G3000-based Prodigy Touch in our Phenom 300. Features include radar clutter suppression, turbulence detection, and reactive windshear alert—and there are more updates to come. Quite simply, Garmin products just work! Luke Krepsky ATP. Phenom 300 Owner & Captain Exec Aire Stevens Point WI

y experience with the G1000 and G3000 in our Phenom 100 and 300 has been consistently impressive. The systems are very reliable, and we’ve encountered no problems whatsoever. Thank you, Garmin for good products and good backup support also. Sávio Zamboni ATP. Phenom 300/100 Chief Pilot TAM Executive Aviation Guaratinguetá SP, Brazil

o matter what Garmin product I come in contact with, they are always intuitive and easy to operate. This certainly applies to the GNS430 and G1000 in our Bell 407. And service from Garmin is also very dependable. Ken Johnson Comm-Multi-Inst/Helo. Bell 407/ 205A1/UH1 & Airbus AS350 Dir of Ops Guardian Helicopters Van Nuys CA

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imple to use and an overall awesome piece of equipment, the GTN 750/650 in our PC-12 is unbeatable! And Garmin service is super. Michael Zimmermann ATP. Pilatus PC-12 Chief Pilot Aurora Flight Science Manassas VA

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eliability of the G3000 in our Citation M2 is great. System functions are very easy to use. And support from Garmin is excellent. Brian Smith ATP/CFI. Citation M2 & Piper PA31 Chieftain Captain Cottingham & Butler Dubuque IA

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nstalling Garmin G500 systems on our aging helos really brought them up to modern-day standards. Product reliability, speed in AOG service, and manuals are first-rate. Scott Melius ATP/Helo. Bell 206/UH1 & MD500E Mx Officer Atlanta Police Dept Atlanta GA

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he UNS-1Lw installed in our Piaggio P180 is a great product and it has been thoroughly reliable. Also support has been 1st class. Eric Russell ATP. Piaggio P180 Chief Pilot Rainbow Sandals San Clemente CA

Universal Avionics VP of Sales, Mktg & Support Dan Reida can be phoned at 520-295-2300 or 800-321-5253. His e-mail is sales@uasc.com.

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y experience with the UNS-1 in our Sabre 80 is that it’s an excellent unit and very dependable. Universal has both great products and service. Glenn Michael ATP/CFII. Sabre 80 & King Air 100 Aviation Mgr Aeropac Merrimack NH

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niversal is always responsive to our needs. The UNS-1Ew in our Learjet 45 has been bulletproof, and technical assistance is great since it is only a phone call away. Keith Cook ATP/CFI. Learjet 45 Chief Pilot Basler Electric Worden IL

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ur Learjet 35 is equipped with the UNS-1 FMS. We’ve found it to be a user-friendly system, and it has given us years of dependable service. Randy Meyer ATP. Learjet 35 Senior Captain Flight Concepts Sperry OK

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t’s a tribute to the reliability of the Universal UNS-1Lw aboard our Falcon 50 that we have never had an issue with the unit. Lawrence Myers ATP. Falcon 50 Head of Av Dept Harron Entertainment Lititz PA

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or all upcoming compliance requirements, UNS-1Ew is an excellent FMS. It has CPDLC and FANS 1/A compatibility, and ADS-B and ADS-C are very good. Upgrades are costly, but perhaps not unduly so. And another fine feature from Universal is their support. Ian Struthers ATP. Falcon 50EX Av Mgr & Chief Pilot Air 700 Richmond BC, Canada

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e’ve found the UNS-1 to be a user-friendly FMS. Updating databases is relatively easy, although only airport runways of 4000 ft or more are included, and regional databases are not available. Michel Litalien ATP/CFII. Citation 650 Captain Fen Air Sylvania OH

2019 Pro Pilot Avionics Product Support Survey

2019 Pro Pilot Avionics Product Support Survey

Product reliability

Speed in AOG service

Garmin

9.27

Universal

9.01

Collins

8.79

8.41

Honeywell 0

2

4

6

8

10

Manufacturers rated by 30 or more users

Manufacturers rated by 30 or more users

irst GPS I ever learned on was the Garmin GPS 500W. My transition to the G5000 installed in our Citation Sovereign was about as simple as it can get! Cal Twitty ATP/A&P. Citation Sovereign Chief Pilot & Mx Mgr Engineered Floors Chattanooga TN

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Universal Avionics

Garmin

8.74

Collins

8.28

Universal

8.27

7.91

Honeywell 0

2

4

6

8

10

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ependability has been a longstanding characteristic of the UNS-1. I have nothing but praise for this product. I also give top marks to Universal tech reps who provide us with excellent support. Stan Dolinski ATP/A&P. Gulfstream III/IV Captain S Dolinski Prof Pilot Services Upland CA

Collins Aerospace

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verything about the Pro Line 21, including reliability, is excellent. It outperforms any other system we’ve ever used and continues to be our preferred equipment. Thomas Schaad Owner. Premier I Owner & CEO Diamair Biberist, Switzerland

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ur Global 6000 is equipped with the Pro Line Fusion-based Vision flightdeck. I find it an excellent avionics suite in every respect. Backup from Collins is also good. Eric Black ATP. Global 6000/CRJ200 Captain & Training Coordinator LBrands Columbus OH

2019 Pro Pilot Avionics Product Support Survey Job titles of survey respondents 45

18

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op marks to Collins for the superb Pro Line 21! For product reliability and customer support it’s simply unbeatable. Rodney Marshall ATP. Challenger 300 Av Gen Mgr ABC Supply Beloit WI

330

219

Aviation Dept Mgr, Chief Pilot, Dir of Aviation, Flight Ops Mgr or VP Operations

Z

ero issues with the Pro Line 21 aboard our CJ4. When we needed some minor assistance with setting up the unit, customer support was awesome! Matt Dieter ATP/CFII. Citation CJ4 Chief Pilot CESCO Cuba City WI

Captain, Line Captain, First Officer or other pilot Owner, Chief Executive, President, VP, General Mgr or other corporate officer Maintenance Chief, Maintenance Mgr or Mechanic

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ro Line Fusion is relatively new to the market. It’s an excellent piece of equipment, with everything you need at your fingertips. However, it has failed a couple of times, which has lowered my confidence slightly. But Collins responded quite well to the issues and all have been covered under warranty. William Phillips ATP/CFII. King Air 250 Chief Pilot PFGC Air Henrietta NY

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atabase access could be improved, in my opinion. The same applies to other website-hosted information. At present, it requires too many clicks into the site. Hotlinks at the portal or widgets on the smartphone app would be more helpful for routine tasks such as monthly downloads. Dayto-day reliability of the Pro Line 21 in our Challenger 605 has been excellent. Support from Collins is also quite good. Mark Couch ATP. Challenger 605 Dir of Av Endeavor Aviation Lexington KY

2019 Pro Pilot Avionics Product Support Survey

2019 Pro Pilot Avionics Product Support Survey

Cost of parts

Manuals or CDs

Garmin

7.94

Universal

6.66

Collins

6.49

5.85

Honeywell 0

2

4

6

8

10

Manufacturers rated by 30 or more users

Manufacturers rated by 30 or more users

Collins Aerospace Senior Director, Customer Support Craig Bries can be reached at 319-2954129. His e-mail is craig.bries@ rockwellcollins.com.

Garmin

8.56

Universal

7.62

Collins

7.56

Honeywell

7.49 0

2

4

6

8

10

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e have Pro Line 4 installed in our Challenger 604. It’s a very user-friendly system, and we have the WAAS/LPV, AFIS, and ADS-B upgrades. VNAV capabilities on advance RNAV arrivals are very good. Dean Brock ATP/CFI/A&P. Challenger 604 Captain Executive Flight Services Jacksonville FL

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have a very high opinion of Collins customer support. We encountered some delays when we added the ADS-B upgrade to the Pro Line 21 in our King Air 350— but RC’s tech reps stepped up and took care of the issue. Prices may be high, but the equipment is fantastic! Jim Bell ATP/CFII. King Air 350 Chief Pilot Southern Farm Bureau Casualty Insurance Ridgeland MS

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ollins has always provided excellent product support for the Airshow 500 3D moving map system aboard our BBJ. Al Sichlinger Comm-Multi-Inst. Boeing BBJ Aviation Mgr EIE Eagle Harrison ID

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ro Line 21 combined with the FMS 3000 in our King Air 350 works very well for us. Support is good and updates are fairly painless once you’ve mastered the learning curve! Chris McHaney ATP/Comm-Multi-Inst. KA350 Captain Ring Container Technologies Olive Branch MS

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lthough upgrades for Pro Line 21 are expensive, they are very nice. The system itself is bulletproof, and Collins tech reps are outstanding! Jeff Ward ATP. Challenger 604/300 Chief Pilot Harsch Investment Properties Wilsonville OR

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or single-pilot ops, Pro Line 21 reduces workload and provides redundancy, which lowers the risk in the event of a system failure. All of this makes our already great King Air a real joy to fly! Rick Lewis Comm-Multi-Inst. King Air B200 Chief Pilot Air Service Spokane WA

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atching the Collins Pro Line 21 with the Challenger 350 has been a perfect fit. The system has an extensive database of navaids, waypoints, and airport data, all of which helps me with navigation tasks on my flights. And the tech reps along with the factory support always take good care of us when we need it. Joseph Akins ATP. Challenger 350 Captain NetJets San Ramon CA

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pgrades to the Pro Line 21 Advanced in our Challenger 605 to meet requirements for FANS 1/A and Link 2000 (EASA datalink regs) have worked perfectly. We’ve found these systems to be very reliable and intuitive. And I give Collins top marks across the board in all the survey categories. Guillermo Vozza ATP. Challenger 605 Captain Emes Air Buenos Aires, Argentina

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reat product! Pro Line 21 is dependable and very user friendly. In our experience updates are prompt and easy to install. And if we have any questions we can always call on Collins tech reps for assistance. The backup support from Collins has been very good. Mark Fields ATP. King Air 350/250GT Captain State of Ohio Av Dept Utica OH

2019 Pro Pilot Avionics Product Support Survey

2019 Pro Pilot Avionics Product Support Survey

Tech reps

Support from manufacturer

Garmin

8.55

Collins

8.17

Universal

8.13

7.62

Honeywell 0

2

4

6

8

10

Manufacturers rated by 30 or more users

Manufacturers rated by 30 or more users

ince purchasing our Legacy 500 in 2015 we’ve performed 2 upgrades to the Pro Line Fusion avionics suite. Each has improved this already impressive equipment. We find it consistently reliable and a joy to use. Collins also has great tech reps and product support. Stephen Manifesta ATP/A&P. Legacy 500 Chief Pilot ABP Capital Winchester CA

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Garmin

8.62

8.42

Universal

8.23

Collins

7.47

Honeywell 0

2

4

6

8

10

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Honeywell Honeywell Aerospace B&GA Dir Custom­er and Product Support Paco Perez can be reached by phone at 480-280-8667. He can also be reached by e-mail at jose.perez5@ honeywell.com. Alternatively, contact Honeywell’s Complete Customer Care team 24/7 at 800-601-3099. For Technical Support 24/7 at 855-808-6500/602-365-6500 or AeroTechSupport@honeywell.com. Honeywell Customer Support http://aero­space.honeywell.com/ CustomerSupport.

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oneywell tech reps are easy to contact, and they provide accurate troubleshooting advice on the Primus Apex in our PC-12. As a government agency we’re constantly aware of costs, and Honeywell is flexible when it comes to service plans, multiple warranties, and replacement parts. Stephen Gillooly Comm-Multi-Inst/CFII. Pilatus PC-12 Chief Pilot Phoenix Police Dept Air Support Unit Hollywood SC

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rimus Epic—what a great EFIS! It’s reliable, Honeywell’s product manuals are very good and, on the occasions when we’ve needed it, speed in AOG service is impressive. M Garth ATP/CFII/Helo/A&P. Leonardo AW139 Captain Bristow Helicopters North Epping NSW, Australia

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e’ve found the Primus Epicbased Gulfstream PlaneView extremely dependable. Honeywell has consistently provided us with first-rate support. Nikolaos Mittas ATP. Gulfstream G450/G550 Captain Gainjet Athens, Greece

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ulletproof! That’s my one-word assessment of the Honeywell NZ2000 FMS installed in our Challenger 601. It’s an easy-to-use system and well supported by the manufacturer. Lynn Allen ATP/CFII. Challenger 601 Chief Pilot Allen Aviation Waxahachie TX

Honeywell divisions Division Honeywell

BendixKing

Operator responses

187 20 responses needed for ranking

23

Product reliability

8.43

8.23

Speed in AOG service Cost of parts Manuals or CDs Tech reps Support from manufacturer

7.97

7.40

5.86

5.77

7.49

7.53

7.66

7.29

7.56

6.65

Overall 7.49 7.15 For the 5th year, the 2019 Pro Pilot Avionics Manufacturers Product Support Survey analyzed the 2 divisions under Honeywell: Honeywell and BendixKing. There were 210 line evaluations for this breakdown. Between the 2 Honeywell divisions, Honeywell had the better overall score of 7.49 as compared to BendixKing which tallied 7.15 overall.

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espite lacking some features, such as the ability to display waypoint altitudes and speeds on the moving map, PlaneView is an outstanding and capable platform. The cursor control device is very effective for calling up approach charts, scrolling through checklists, and other tasks. Support is great. Gregory Hampton ATP/CFII. Gulfstream G450 Captain Executive Jet Mgmt Sandy Hook CT

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t may be 1990s technology, but the Primus 2000 aboard our Citation X is easy to use, and relatively simple to update using a USB thumb drive data reader. With the latest software updates, it is RNP and ADS-B capable. Johnny McGee ATP. Citation X Captain NetJets Carrollton GA

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ustomer support has been very helpful when we’ve had issues with database loading. PlaneView is a fine product—plus, we have the security of avionics coverage under Gulfstream’s PlaneParts program. Daniel Hook ATP. Gulfstream G450 Dir of Aviation Deeside Aviation Reno NV

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y experience with the Primus Epic-derived PlaneView in our G450 is all positive. In my opinion, Honeywell makes excellent avionics and software. And Honeywell also provides us with great support. Jon Calhoun ATP. Falcon 900 & Gulfstream G450 Safety Captain Lowe’s Companies Mooresville NC

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o complaints about the Honeywell NZ2000 FMS in our Citation 650. I find it to be a very dependable unit. And both Honeywell tech reps and support are nicely customer oriented. George Ortiz ATP. Citation 650 Chief Pilot Willamette Valley Eugene OR

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eliability of the Primus Epicbased EASy flightdeck in our Falcon 2000s is excellent. However, parts are expensive and inventories are sometimes low—but tech support continues to improve, and we’re very pleased with the Honeywell product overall. Drew Oetjen A&P/IA. Falcon 2000S/2000LXS Aircraft Mx Mgr Union Pacific Railroad Omaha NE

Avionics OEMs not scored Other manufacturers also received responses but didn’t meet the 30 minimum required to rank in the survey. Avidyne obtained the largest number of those not ranked (16 line evaluations) so their customer support contact information is provided.

Avidyne Avidyne Dir of Customer Experience Bryan Kahl can be reached at 321751-8494, cell 321-5061541 or by e-mail using Bkahl@avidyne.com. Customers have a special website of MyAvidyne. com that presents the many services available for Avidyne operators.

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ngoing improvements to the Primus Epic platform—and the PlaneView suite we have in our G650ER—include refinements in performance and reliability. Honeywell provides world-class product support, and the tech reps are outstanding. Nitish Iyengar ATP. Gulfstream G650ER Captain & G650 Fleet Pilot Oceanic Services San Diego CA

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n extended warranty program can help a company avoid unexpected costs. HAPP (Honeywell Avionics Protection Program) works quite well for us, although some of my requests for assistance with programming and updating issues have not been answered fully. Thomas White ATP. Citation Sovereign Chief Pilot Rio Vista Aviation Cibolo TX

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have never had any trouble when using the Honeywell Primus 1000 system we have installed in our Citation Encore. I fly it with confidence as it has been a very reliable product. And I know great backup is available if I need it. Nick Belvedresi ATP. Citation Encore Pilot University of Mississippi Oxford MS

Chief Pilot Marc Dulude of Mild Air is an ATP pilot with 2645 logged hours. He’s very pleased with his Garmin G3000 installed in the Citation CJ3+ he flies. He likes both the performance of the unit and product support provided by Garmin. His survey form was 1 of the 795 forms received for the 2019 Pro Pilot Avionics Mfrs Product Support Survey.

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OUTER MARKER INBOUND

The man who made “The Hat in the Ring” famous: Eddie Rickenbacker By David Bjellos

Photos courtesy Wikimedia Commons

ATP/Helo. Gulfstream IV, Sikorsky S76, Bell 407 Pro Pilot Senior Contributor

Prior to his service as an airman, Eddie raced cars and started his own motor company called Rickenbacker Motors. His cars were the first in the world to be fitted with 4 brakes, 1 on each wheel.

First Lieutenant Eddie Rickenbacker with SPAD XIII. He flew with the 94th Aero Squadron and made the “Hat in the Ring” logo famous after becoming the world’s highest-scoring ace in WWI with 26 kills.

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ddie Rickenbacker was a wining race car driver, automobile maker, World War I ace, envoy to 2 presidential administrations supporting the war efforts on behalf of America, and the chairman and CEO of Eastern Air Lines, the country’s largest air carrier at the time. He was the most celebrated and famous aviator of the 1920s until Charles Lindbergh crossed the Atlantic nonstop in 1927. His German-American lineage originally spelled his name as “Richenbacher” but it was changed due to anti-German sentiment in the events leading up to WWI. He had no middle name, so chose his own – Vernon – and signed many documents as EVR. Above all, he was a modest and religious man who always answered to “Captain Eddie” by friends and foes alike, and he indelibly left his mark in Miami, where his airline Eastern was based. Here is his story. Born in 1890, EVR loved automobiles and he first worked as a mechanic then bought and raced his own designs, eventually competing in the Indianapolis 500 a total of 4 times prior to WWI. He later bought the entire

speedway in 1927 and ran it with his brother. His love for mechanical details brought him into contact with a downed flyer, Townsend Dodd, who eventually became General JJ Pershing’s aviation officer. EVR repaired Dodd’s aircraft, who later remembered him when he came to apply for a flying position. He went on to become the highest-scoring ace in WWI with 26 kills and over 300 combat hours – the highest of any US pilot during that war. He was instantly made a hero and awarded the Distinguished Service Cross a record 8 times (1 later converted to the Medal of Honor) and the Croix de Guerre by France. His unit was the famed 94th Aero Squadron with the legendary “Hat in the Ring” emblem. He flew the Nieuport 28 and SPAD XIII. His 26 kills were accomplished in an astonishing 90-day period. Post-war, EVR was feted as a hero and was offered numerous opportunities from Hollywood, including everything from selling perfume to acting, but he would have none of it. He felt that it would set a poor example to the public as the patriotic mood of America at the time was everywhere and in everybody. EVR understood his goals should be to represent the spirit of American aviation, and any commercial endeavor, no matter how well-intended, could only cheapen the image he had worked so hard to achieve. He continued on a modest course and eschewed all personal enrichment the rest of his life. As a civilian, EVR worked for General Motors selling cars and persuaded them to buy a small airline called North American Aviation. They agreed and made EVR manager of the conglomerate, which included assets from Eastern Air Transport (EAT). EVR merged EAT with Florida Airways and grew that entity into a major airline, primarily flying mail contracts for the Post Office. GM later considered selling the airline to GM board member John Hertz (later

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Rickenbacker spent 24 days adrift at sea, and this photo shows how emaciated and near death he was when rescued. Sadly, 1 crewman died from injuries and exposure. This was his 2nd near-fatal aircraft accident as a passenger in a 15-month period.

founder of the Hertz rental car company), and EVR countered the sale by agreeing to purchase it for $3.5 million. GM Chairman Alfred Sloan agreed, and Eastern Air Lines was born. On Feb 26, 1941, EVR was a passenger on an Eastern DC-3 enroute to Atlanta. The airplane crashed in fog and he was severely injured with a crushed and dislocated hip, one eye displaced from its socket and shattered elbow and ribs. The doctors at Piedmont hospital replaced his eye, set his ribs and elbow and eventually his pelvis and hip. EVR never forgot their kindness and expertise. It would take him a year to recover from the accident and he walked with a permanent limp for the rest of his life, yet never complained. Almost a year and a half later, EVR was on a mission from US Secretary of War Henry Stimson as a civilian envoy, with a secret message to General Douglas McArthur. Over the Pacific, his B-17 flew far off course, ran out of gas and ditched. The 8-man crew spent 24 days adrift near Japanese-held islands but were never spotted. The newspapers had given them up for dead after 2 weeks, but EVR took command and rationed the little food they had, which lasted but 3 days. They caught seagulls bare-handed, ate small fish and drank rainwater to survive. A PBY Catalina picked them up mid-ocean, close to death, and brought 7 survivors back. One crewman succumbed to his injuries, an event which troubled EVR the rest of his life. He eventually delivered the message to McArthur. His temperament was always strong, and his language could only charitably be called “colorful.” He was a fierce negotiator for Eastern, and often engaged his fellow airline executives into a battle of wits with plenty of expletives and shouting. During an Air Transport Assoc meeting, EVR chastised other airline executives for spending too much on food service, and was raising hell at his colleagues. Pat Patterson of United Airlines finally

Eastern Air Lines Constellation christened with a bottle of Coca-cola by Fred B Moore and Paula Reid for inaugural flight to San Juan PR. Captain Eddie took control of Eastern Air Lines after purchasing it from General Motors and grew it into the country’s largest airline in the 1950s. He was an extremely frugal and dynamic leader, and expected the same from his employees. As tough as he was, he was truly respected and loved by them all until the labor problems of the late 1950s caused irreparable harm to the airline and its employees. That acrimony would last until it went out of business in 1991.

This Douglas C-54 was part of Eastern Air Lines, “The Great Silver Fleet.”

had enough and said, “...dammit Eddie, sometimes we wish you were back on that raft…” to which EVR roared back “…with guys like you, makes me wish I was!” He rarely lost an argument. Captain Eddie suffered a stroke and passed away in Zurich, Switzerland on July 23, 1973. The bridge that connects the Miami mainland with Key Biscayne was renamed Rickenbacker Causeway after his death. His eulogy was read by good friend and WWI fellow flyer General Jimmy Doolittle at the Key Biscayne Presbyterian Church. David Bjellos is the Aviation Manager for Florida Crystals, flying a GIV-SP, S-76C+ and Bell 407. He also serves on the Board of Directors for the Helicopter Association International (HAI).

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Satellite weather

Visual satellite image of a winter storm departing the eastern US in January 2016. High resolution visible imagery can help pilots easily distinguish cloud types and regions of adverse weather, but are limited to daytime hours as they rely on light.

Photographs from space can paint useful pictures for pilots. By Karsten Shein Comm-Inst Climate Scientist

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s the pilot wrestled the yoke against the incessant moderate turbulence among the towering convective cells that had popped up seemingly all around them, the copilot was using his electronic flight bag to access the most recent weather information. Sure enough, a convective sigmet had been issued for a pretty large area through which they were now flying. With tops above FL400 it seemed unlikely that they’d be able to climb above things. But when he tapped the link to the latest visual satellite image, he saw that a large section of the sigmet region off to their left was devoid of the cloud deck that was plaguing them at the moment. Informing the pilot that clear air could be found just about 20 miles to the left, the crew requested a deviation from their route and within a few minutes had broken out into clear air. Using the satellite image, they plotted a VMC route around the adverse weather.

Eyes in the sky For the first 50 years or so of flight, pilots relied solely on what they could see, along with weather reports from air-

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ports along their routes or pilots flying ahead of them. If they were fortunate, they might have access to rudimentary weather maps that gave them some clue about the bigger weather picture. But that changed in February 1959 with the launch of the Vanguard 2 weather satellite. Though its images were of little use due to technical problems, Vanguard 2 demonstrated the possibilities of satellite weather observation, and by 1960, TIROS-1 and then the Nimbus series of weather satellites were forever changing the way pilots and meteorologists saw the atmosphere. At that point, a single image beamed down from space could display cloud patterns and other measurements over a large area, and though it would take many more years, that image would eventually become accessible to pilots for flight planning and routing. Interestingly, while Vanguard 2 yielded disappointing imagery of the cloud cover it was intended to observe, it remains in orbit to this day along with its 5 successor Vanguard satellites, still providing valuable telemetry data and information about the density of the upper atmosphere. At present there are at least 25 primary weather satellites in orbit. Given the expense (a single weather satellite may cost upward of $1 billion dollars) it is no surprise that these satellites are launched and maintained by the gov-

ernments of the world’s largest economies: United States, Japan, China, Russia, the EU and India. This constellation of satellites, however, provides near complete global coverage of the atmosphere. At any given moment, terabytes of data are flowing toward receiving stations and being processed into hundreds of graphical depictions of different aspects of the weather we will face as we launch ourselves into the sky. The weather satellite constellation is divided into 2 primary types, geostationary and polar orbiting – both having advantages and disadvantages for pilots. Geostationary satellites orbit high above the earth, at an altitude of around 22,300 miles (~ 36,000 km) in order to not only maintain an orbit speed that matches the speed of earth’s rotation, but to also capture a wide-angle image of a large part of the planet over which they are positioned. Some cameras are even able to see the fulldisk of the entire planet. As the name implies, geostationary satellites orbit in such a way that they remain above a fixed spot on earth at some location along the equator. The advantage of this is that the satellite can perpetually observe the same geography, giving the ability to track the movement of the weather over time. Simply comparing one image to the next can reveal how quickly a weather system may be evolving or moving across the landscape. A downside of a geostationary satellite is that what it provides in spatial coverage, it loses in detail. Digital cameras can only “see” at a given pixel resolution. The farther the camera is from its subject, the larger is the area included in that single pixel. Additionally, because of their fixed position, the camera cannot see the entire planet, and the part it can see goes through daily phases of light and dark. The other orbit is polar orbiting, also called low earth orbiting. These satellites orbit over the poles, at an altitude of about 530 miles (850 km), while the earth rotates beneath them. This configuration allows the satellites not only to scan a smaller swath of earth with great resolution, but also to make a complete scan of the earth every 24 hours. This is useful for a variety of applications, and, for aviation is important to capture what may be happening along polar routes. Of course, the downside is that, except where the swaths overlap at higher latitudes and the poles, a location may only be scanned once per day. These satellites therefore are limited in their usefulness for tracking fast-moving weather systems.

Image courtesy NASA

WEATHER BRIEF

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Although a great deal of the information captured by satellite sensors will be of little use to pilots in real time – much of it is meant so forecast models can have more skill and research scientists can better understand the dynamics of the atmosphere – there are several sensors that provide pilots with timely visual information that can help them to manage flight weather. The top 3 are visual, infrared and water vapor.

Visual imagery The earliest satellite weather “observations” were simply cloud brightness captured by optical scanners invented just a few years prior. These scanners were the original ancestor of the digital cameras we have in our smartphones today and produced some of the first digital photos ever seen by the public. These images were coarse and provided only rudimentary information, but, for the first time, large scale weather patterns could be viewed in their entirety. Today, high resolution cameras are able not only to reveal cloud patterns, but also can differentiate cloud types. Zooming in on a visible image of a cold front may clearly show the wispy cirrus ahead of the front, a thicker cumulus deck, and along the front, the shadows revealing the tops of growing thunderstorms. Near a mountain range, visual satellite images often show cloud streets and the lenticular patterns of standing waves. This information can be valuable to pilots determining wind direction or seeking to avoid lee wave turbulence. Visible images can also be good for identifying thick fogs or low strati that may affect airport operations. Look for regions of cloud that appear to closely conform to valleys or coastlines. These are areas where fog and low ceilings will tend to be distinguishable on visible satellite imagery. Additionally, the visible pictures are frequently used to identify the spread of smoke or ash clouds from wildfires and volcanic activity. A major downside to visible images is that they require daylight. Except in a few rare cases where a bright full moon is situated behind the satellite, a nighttime visible satellite image will not show clouds, but will be essentially a black square. Even in the few hours after sunrise or before sunset, when the sun is low in the sky, the image may not have enough illumination to fully see the cloudscape. To compensate for the low or no-light hours, we turn to infrared satellite imagery.

Infrared satellite image taken around dusk across the western hemisphere. Though visible images provide better distinction of cloud types, infrared images, which measure the temperature of the clouds, do not depend on sunlight and can help pilots to see weather patterns and avoid adverse weather after dark.

Infrared images Weather satellites are also able to observe infrared radiation that is emitted by the earth or the clouds above it. Therefore, it doesn’t require sunlight for those things to be visible to the infrared sensors and so the infrared signal allows us to see the clouds at night. The amount of infrared radiation emitted by an object is largely related to the object’s temperature. Hot objects emit a lot of infrared energy, while cold objects emit less. We can use this relationship to estimate cloud top temperature. Infrared satellite images scale the energy value by brightness, with values going from white (low to no infrared energy) to black (high quantity of infrared energy). In some images a colorization scheme is applied to help pilots distinguish between different values. A cold cloud, such as the top of a thunderstorm anvil, or a cirrocumulus deck high in the troposphere may be exceedingly cold, displaying as bright white, while a low stratus deck or fog may be relatively warm and therefore appear as a dark shadow on the landscape.

The land and ocean give of a great deal of heat, even at night, and even thin, warm clouds are colder and will be visible as subtly gray regions against this backdrop. While night time is when infrared images are of most use, during the day, unlike visible satellite images, an infrared image can more clearly show where there are high clouds or clouds with significant vertical development by the bright white regions of the image. The relationship between infrared emissions and temperature also allows the computers that process the images to do things like estimate cloud height and temperature, and potentially the likelihood of whether a precipitation-bearing cloud might produce rain, snow or even freezing rain. Another limitation of infrared satellite images is that they tend to have difficulty showing fog with great distinction. The images also cannot help a pilot to differentiate clouds at different layers that may be of similar temperatures. Snow cover on the ground can also appear as low clouds on an infrared image. Importantly, over the ocean, which has a great ability to store heat

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Water vapor image taken around dusk across the western hemisphere. These images show the quantity of water vapor in the upper troposphere and therefore provide guidance about high level clouds, moisture flow, and the ability of the atmosphere to support significant convective development.

through the night, the display of warm low-level clouds is often overpowered by the warmth of the ocean.

Water vapor Satellite sensors observing another frequency in the electromagnetic spectrum are able to measure water vapor, another important aspect of the atmosphere. This information also can be translated into an image in which dark areas represent dryness and bright areas are moist. However, this information is limited to water vapor in the upper troposphere (between 15,000 and 30,000 ft or so). Fortunately, information on water in this zone is important. Water vapor images will clearly provide a measure of the amount of water available to make clouds or support convection – day or night. Pilots can use this information to determine whether the cold clouds they are seeing on an infrared or visible image are simply a high, thin deck, or the top of a thick convective cloud. Perhaps more critically, the presence or absence of water vapor in the upper troposphere will help to establish whether a region of convection is likely to grow or be vertically limited. Storms rising into dry air are normally unable to continue to mature into severe storms, while those that ascend through already moist air will likely have ample upper air support to reach 82

the upper altitudes of the troposphere and mature into strong cells. Water vapor images also will often show fronts as sharp boundaries between humid and dry air, and can identify narrow dry slots ahead of which severe storms may develop. Bright or dark “fingers” on the image that are lined up with the general atmospheric flow pattern over the area will also indicate the introduction of moister or drier air to the region, and possibly an increase or reduction in cloud cover and thunderstorm activity. Areas of the water vapor image that indicate a rapid change in water availability over a short distance are best avoided to keep clear of adverse weather conditions.

Using satellites in planning Since many flight plans are made just hours before the flight, pilots can gain an advantage over the weather by incorporating satellite imagery into their flight planning. But, like any bit of weather information, satellite images are best used in connection with other weather information products. Many products such as sigmets and surface synoptic and prog charts are available graphically. So, starting with surface analysis and upper air charts of wind and pressure, pilots can plot a few optimal routes. Transferring those routes to the most recent versions of the 3 types of sat-

ellite images studied will show pilots where they may encounter clouds or potentially adverse weather. Animations of the past few hours of satellite imagery, or at least flipping through still images of the past few hours are good ways of determining the development and movement of weather systems or clouds across the route of flight. For example, a pilot may have difficulty deciding on a route across a cold front that is showing up on the surface analysis chart. Looking at the visible satellite image, they might see that one route takes them across a region already filled with thickening cumuli, while the other route has a wide field of low-level popcorn cumuli, suggesting that vertical development is limited there. Plotting the routes over the water vapor image might further reveal dry air aloft over the later region, indicating that storms are unlikely to form there over the next few hours. In the air, pilots with electronic flight bags and onboard data feeds can access the most current satellite imagery. In some cases, the aircraft’s route can be overlaid on the images, providing a near-real time look at the sky ahead of and around the aircraft. This visualization can help pilots to reroute to avoid areas ahead that may have become unfavorable since the time of their departure. Weather satellite images are some of the most illustrative weather products available to aviators. In just a single glance, they can inform pilots of weather patterns and conditions across an entire continent, and help them to see and avoid areas where adverse weather may impact their flight. However, pilots should be aware that these images are often as much as an hour old. Where weather conditions are developing or changing rapidly, the information they present may be out of date well before the next image becomes available. As such, pilots should never rely solely on such images to keep them out of trouble. And, if weather conditions are encountered that your fellow pilots should know about, a pirep remains the thing to do.

Karsten Shein is cofounder and science director at ExplorEiS. He formerly was an assistant professor at Shippensburg University and a climatologist with NOAA. Shein holds a commercial license with instrument rating.

PROFESSIONAL PILOT / January 2019

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FORECASTS

Technology Timeline 7.0 Information for your career and your life.

SpaceX Dragon 2 is an Apollo-style 7-person capsule for vertical launch and splashdown at sea. A cargo version is set to fly in 2020.

By Owen Davies Forecasting International & TechCast Global

T

he last edition of this timeline (Pro Pilot, Apr 2018, p 74) mentioned a study our friend Marvin Cetron carried out while head of tech forecasting at the Navy Department. He found that medium-term forecasts were usually right, but those for technologies nearer than 4 years or farther out than 15 often went wrong. Forecaster Roy Amara independently captured the idea in Amara’s Law: “We tend to overestimate the effect of a technology in the short run and underestimate the effect in the long run.” This timeline has proved him right in occasional short-term optimism. But let’s deal with that later. Successes are pleasanter to write about.

of Alzheimer’s. It also improves cognition in early-stage patients and slows progress of the disease by 30%. Target date was 2019. Score this as a win. Designer babies born outside the US: This November, Dr He Jiankui announced the birth of 2 babies genetically modified to resist HIV. The forecast date was 2019, but 2018 will do.

Failures Renewables overtake gas as the world’s second largest energy source: This ancient prediction seemed reasonable at the time but was long overdue for retirement. BP says renewables will contribute only 14% of energy in 2040, compared with 25% for natural gas.

Successes AI chatbots indistinguishable from real people: Last May, observers listening to Google’s Duplex chatbot found it “totally, terrifyingly human.” China’s Alibaba is marketing what’s said to be an even smarter chatbot. Right on schedule. CO2 fixation becomes a practical weapon against climate change: Carbon Engineering met our 2018 target by turning CO2 from the air into gasoline at a pilot plant in Canada. Cost is 1/5 that of prior technologies. “Milk” from gene-engineered yeast reaches market: A company called Perfect Day says theirs will be in stores in 2019, as expected. Drug that arrests Alzheimer’s enters human trials: BAN2041 rids the brain of amyloid plaques characteristic

Robots already deliver hospital medication and meals, but it will be the 2030s before they become the mechanized nurses and all-purpose helpers our forecast envisions.

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Robots available for almost any job in homes or hospital: Targeting 2018, it was another triumph of optimism over experience. Robots are available for many specific tasks, but the versatility this forecast imagined still lies in the future. James Webb “next generation” space telescope orbited: I should have ignored NASA’s target for a project so often delayed. Launch is now set for March 2021. I will believe it when I see it. Mitsubishi introduces business variant of its regional jet: Not in 2018. First deliveries of the MRJ have been set back to the mid-2020s.

Tossup or pending First manned tests of private orbital launch vehicle: SpaceX says it plans to send astronauts up in its Dragon 2 capsule this April. Let’s keep this forecast. FAA approves first autonomous drone airliner: US approval will wait until 2031. China could get there years earlier. The reasoning is simple. 1) Asia needs 240,000 new pilots by 2037 out of 637,000 needed worldwide, but won’t have nearly that many. 2) China is the world’s leader in AI development. Connecting the 2 isn’t a stretch. AI technology imitates thinking processes of the human brain: Artificial neural networks have been used successfully for computer vision and other hard problems, but the better they handle specific tasks, the less they resemble the brain. I see this as a loss, but could be talked out of it. Eyeglasses that translate signs, menus marketed for Tokyo Olympics: Expected in 2019, the idea seems obsolete. Google Translate will do it with your smartphone’s camera. Success or failure? You decide.

James Webb “next generation” space telescope.

New and improved A carbon-free process for making aluminum goes into production: This is a big deal because conventional electrolysis produces 1.5 pounds of CO2 for each pound of aluminum, 1% of global emissions. There are now 100 maggot farms around the world: They will be owned by AgriProtein in South Africa. The company feeds flies on reclaimed food waste and processes the maggots into animal feed and fertilizer. In late 2018, AgriProtein had 2 farms and planned to build 98 more by 2024. Life extension by 1 year per year: It will arrive in 2025, per the timeline, but practical life-extending therapies may be available already. The details are too complicated to summarize here, but look up nicotinamide riboside and senolytics if you are interested. My target date for successful life-extending therapies is approaching a lot faster than I once expected.

Technology Timeline

2020–2024 Due date Artificial intelligence and life

Machine knowledge exceeds human knowledge AI support for air traffic controllers is demonstrated Artificial insects and small animals with artificial brains Nanotechnology smart fabrics enter mainstream markets

2020 2023 2024 2024

Biotechnology: Health and medicine

Artificial liver Nanobots in toothpaste attack plaque Fully functioning artificial eyes Routine medical treatments based on patient’s DNA Drug resistance makes antibiotics useless for most diseases Artificial kidneys enter clinical use Designer baby born clandestinely in the US Lab-grown meat reaches the market Stem cell transplants routinely cure age-related eye disease

2020 2020 2020 2021 2021 2023 2024 2024 2024

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Due date Business and education

Businesses begin using smart machines to direct activities Learning superseded by brain interface to smart computers

2023 2024

Computing power Exaflop computer is 5 times faster than the human brain 2021 All-optical computers 2023 Computers based on phase-change memory, 200 times faster than conventional, reach the market 2024 Desktop computer as fast as human brain 2024 Environment Wind energy provides half of Denmark’s electricity 2020 and resources Cheap, high-tech filters make most water drinkable, ending shortages in most of the world 2021 Titanium is cost-competitive with steel, thanks to a new refining process 2021 Synthetic, non-petroleum aviation fuel (JP8) reaches commercial market 2022 Graphene foam available for high-strength light-weight composites 2023 Nanorectenna arrays finally reach market; convert sunlight to electricity at 1/10 the cost of solar cells 2023 Carbon-free process for making aluminum goes into production 2024 Efficient, durable fuel cells reach the market 2024 There are now 100 maggot farms around the world 2024 Generator based on low-energy nuclear reactions (“cold fusion”) available for high-end homes 2024 Home and leisure 30% of appliances, cars, etc, are connected to the Internet 2020 New coating makes cars self-cleaning 2022 Experience-recording technology developed 2023 Machine/human Thought recognition experimentally replaces the computer mouse 2020 interface Constitutional amendment guarantees thought-privacy 2021 Robotics

Realistic nanotechnology toy soldiers

2022

Space Suborbital flight of space tourists by private carrier 2021 Space tugs take satellites into high orbits 2022 NASA’s Orion “Multi-Purpose Space Vehicle” flies 2024 Antimatter production and storage becomes feasible 2024 Travel and transportation Driverless truck convoys using electronic towbar 2020 Satellite-based ADS-B is commercially available 2021 First fully automated “hop in and go” personal aircraft reaches the air-taxi market 2022 Supersonic bizjet makes its first flight 2022 FAA approves unrestricted flights of UAVs in US airspace 2023 Average range of electric cars passes 300 mi 2023 Airbus demonstrates single-pilot airliner ops in China 2023 Electric or hybrid cars carry 10% of American drivers 2024 Flying “HUMVEE” for the military 2024 Security, law, war China completes GNSS, its own GPS satellite system Global sensor nets make “stealth” flight impossible 50% of ID cards replaced by biometric scanning Lockheed Martin’s Hypersonic Conventional Strike Weapon is operational with the US Air Force Wearable and personal technology

2020 2020 2022 2024

Computer-enhanced dreaming 2020

86  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  January 2019

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2025–2029

Due date

Artificial intelligence and life 65% of large corporations have adopted some form of AI to streamline business processes 2025 Living genetically-engineered toy/pet developed 2025 40% of occupations available in 2014 are being taken over by AI 2027 25% of TV and movie celebrities are synthetic 2029 Biotechnology: Health and medicine Life extension at 1 year per year 2025 3D-printed human organs reach clinical trials 2026 Regenerating amputated limbs 2027 Business and education Molecular manufacturing 2025 Individual education program 2025 Environment and resources US Navy deploys carrier group powered by biofuel 2025 Process based on “cold fusion” converts reactor waste to less dangerous elements 2025 Artificial precipitation induction and control 2025 Affordable batteries with half the energy density of fossil fuel 2027 reach the market. Effective prediction of most natural disasters 2028 Home and 3-D printers bring one-off manufacturing to 10% of homes leisure

2025

Internet

2025

95 million devices are connected to the “Internet of Things”

Machine/human interface Full direct brain-computer link 2025 Security, law, war Court crime scenarios reenacted for jury holographically 2025 Drone bomber with global range 2026 Space Mars sample return 2027 Small-satellite launch business reaches $15 billion revenue 2027 Single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle 2029 Travel and transportation Prototype hybrid airliner makes its first flight 2025 Teletravel 2025 3D airspace system frees aircraft from ground-based ATC for most operations 2025 Computer displays replace airliner cockpit and passenger windows to improve aerodynamics and save weight 2026 First Hyperloop enters service from Abu Dhabi to Dubai 2027 Economically practical supersonic airliners with low boom for overland flight 2027

2030–2039

Due date

Artificial intelligence and life Robots are physically and mentally superior to humans 2037 Biotechnology: Health and medicine

Artificial brain Major body parts 100% regenerated, eliminating surgery

2030 2032

Computing power 108 improvement in computing power through nano/atomic computers 2030

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Due date Environment and resources EU emits 29% less greenhouse gas than in 2014 2030 Nuclear fusion commercially viable 2039 Robotics

Robots, automation replace 70% of humans in workforce

2035

Security, law, war

Emotion control chips regulate behavior of violent criminals

2032

Space Moon base 2030 Space hotel accommodates 350 guests 2032 Chinese “taikonauts” land on the moon 2033 NASA tests nuclear fusion engine for 3-month Mars trip 2033 Teleoperated Mars base 2033 Space factories for commercial production 2035 Travel and transportation FAA approves autonomous drone airliners 2031 First regional airline with a hybrid powertrain enters service 2033 First hybrid-wing aircraft reaches market 2034 50−100 passenger hypersonic airliner 2038 Fully automated personal aircraft reach 300 kts 2039 Wearable and personal

Dream-linked technology built for night-time networking

2035

2040 and beyond Due date Computing power

A 1-petaflop computer, 1/20 as powerful as a human brain, fits in the space of a sugar cube

2060

Environment Record high temperatures set in 147 cities around the world, New York, Washington, Los Angeles among them 2047 Parts of American Midwest are now subtropical 2047 Tundra reborn as global “breadbasket” 2048 Solar power delivers 25% of world’s energy 2050 Security, law, Asteroid diversion technology used as a weapon war

2040

Space Moon base expands to size of a small village 2040 First manned mission to Mars 2040 Europa ice digger 2042 Titan balloons 2042 Space solar power stations 2050 Use of human hibernation in space travel 2052 Star travel 2069 Travel and transportation Tele-everything replaces most physical travel 2040 Hydrogen-fueled executive jets (cryoplanes) 2041 The last gas-engine cars go out of production 2050 4D airspace system ensures automatic separation and eliminates last requirement for ground-based ATC 2050

88  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  January 2019

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SYMMETRY IN MOTION The Gulfstream G500™ introduces the Gulfstream Symmetry Flight Deck™. With touch-screen avionics, ergonomically fitted active control sidesticks and timesaving Phase-of-Flight™ integration, Symmetry is an intuitive connection to a pilot’s mind, body and skill.

SCOTT NEAL | +1 912 965 6023 | scott.neal@gulfstream.com

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Profile for Professional Pilot

Professional Pilot Magazine January 2019  

Professional Pilot Magazine January 2019

Professional Pilot Magazine January 2019  

Professional Pilot Magazine January 2019

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