Procter & Gamble has been a leader in business aviation for nearly 70 years. The company operates 2 Gulfstream G650ERs and 2 Bombardier Challenger 350s ear from its facility at LUK (Lunken, Cincinnati OH). (Lâ€“R) DOM Bradley Hennis, Y the Asst Chief Pilot George Whitehead, Scheduling Mgr John Hampton, Dir Global of t ep Flt Ops Jeff McClean, Chief Insp David Melk, and Chief Pilot Todd Hillsgrove. tD h
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Vol 53 No 12
Features 8 PILOT EXPERIENCE How important are flight hours? by Shannon Forrest More hours flown doesn’t always mean more experience. 28 CONVENTION REPORT NBAA-BACE by Brent Bundy Las Vegas hosts 72nd edition of NBAA’s business aviation convention.
32 FLIGHT DEPARTMENT OF THE YEAR Procter & Gamble by Brent Bundy Operator flies company executives using 2 Gulfstream G650ERs and pair of Bombardier Challenger 350s. 38 SITUATIONAL AWARENESS Altimeter settings by Glenn Woodward Does the ATIS provide the current altimeter information?
42 EVENT COVERAGE Bombardier Safety Standdown by Martin Rollinger Annual event promotes training, discipline and responsibility as essential elements of flight operations. 44 INTERNATIONAL OPS Bizav missions to and within Mexico by Grant McLaren It’s important for GA users to understand the local rules and regs, and to carry hard copies of all required paperwork.
50 GLOBAL NAVIGATION Satellite constellations and ADS-B by Bill Gunn In perspective, global navigation satellite systems hold the potential to grow beyond aircraft positioning capabilities. 54 WX BRIEF Smoke and ash by Karsten Shein Lengthening wildfire seasons create challenging conditions for pilots.
58 FLIGHT SAFETY Upset prevention and recovery training by Martin Rollinger FAA’s free simulator-based UPRT program in Oklahoma City.
4 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / December 2019
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Procter & Gamble has been a leader in business aviation for nearly 70 years. The company operates 2 Gulfstream G650ERs and 2 Bombardier Challenger 350s from its facility at LUK (Lunken, Cincinnati OH). (Lâ€“R) DOM Bradley Hennis, Asst Chief Pilot George Whitehead, Scheduling Mgr John Hampton, Dir Global Flt Ops Jeff McClean, Chief Insp David Melk, and Chief Pilot Todd Hillsgrove. Photo by Brent Bundy
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How important are flight hours? More hours flown doesn’t always mean more experience.
Pilots with an aviation bachelors degree can fly Part 121 ops with 1000 hrs. This exception to the ATP rule is a financial boon for universities but doesn’t necessarily create a better product.
By Shannon Forrest
President, Turbine Mentor ATP/CFII. Challenger 604/605, Gulfstream IV, MU2B
ow important is an hour? The most common metric used to judge pilots is the number of hours enumerated in a logbook. Whether it’s a valid correlation or not, hours and “experience” are used interchangeably in the aviation lexicon. A pilot with more total hours is considered more experienced. The experience quotient is why corporate flight departments use a pilot’s hours as a baseline for employment. For example, a Fortune 500 company searching for a pilot might require that the applicant have attained 3000 or more hours of total flight time in order to be considered for the job. The insurance industry takes a similar approach when it comes to the
hours equals experience philosophy. Aviation insurance providers price aircraft coverage as an inverse relationship to experience – more flight time garners a lower rate. Pilots take great pride in using flight time to self-validate their level of experience, or to express to others how experienced they believe themselves to be. Total hours flown is almost always near the top of a pilot’s resume. When a pilot doesn’t get interviewed or hired for a flying position, total hours is usually the 1st thing that comes to mind – “But I’ve got thousands of hours! I should have gotten the job.” Pilots trying to bolster their professional image will tout their hours as a measure of expertise. Some flight instructors with significantly more hours than others in their peer group charge higher rates for instruction. Professional avi-
ation speakers, aircraft salespersons, and even aviation writers annotate the number of hours they’ve flown in their biographical statements.
Logged hours are important Right or wrong, hours annotated in a logbook are always important. Regulatory agencies place emphasis on hours because they are used as a basis for certification. For instance, to test for an FAA commercial certificate, an applicant must show a total of 250 hours of flight time. But there’s a caveat. If a pilot trains under an FAA-approved Part 141 curriculum instead of Part 61 (sometimes referred to as a “mom and pop” flight school), he is afforded a 60-hour reduction in time required and can apply for a commercial certificate with 190 hours.
8 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / December 2019
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The fact that FAA requires fewer hours to obtain a commercial certificate under a specific course of instruction leads one to conclude that the agency places more value on quality and specificity of training than time on task. The argument that better training equates to fewer hours to certification seems sound at first. But a pilot trained in Part 61 can obtain the same commercial certification and garner the same privileges simply by putting in a little extra flight time. It’s as if the FAA is saying, “We’d prefer you to do this, but if you didn’t, just go fly some more and that works for us as well.” Unfortunately, the skill difference between 2 newly minted commercial pilots – one with 190 hours and the other with 250 – cannot be determined from the number of hours alone. What happened during those hours is important. What is likely true, though, is that the training footprint will be longer, and the cost greater, for the pilot who needs more hours.
The focus on flight time may lead to false claims In terms of certification requirements or professional gain, the focus on flight time as a “barrier to entry” is a strong incentive for pilots to claim time not actually flown. Sometimes, obfuscation is obvious. A 45-year-old who attests to 25,000 hours would need to have flown roughly 555 hours a year beginning at birth, for the math to work. Even if said pilot began flying at age 14, he would still need to have flown over 806 hours per year over the course of 31 straight years to validate those numbers. That’s a lot of flying and at first glance appears dubious. While major embellishments are glaringly obvious, subtle manipulations are harder to spot. Fraudulently laying claim to a couple of hours of multi engine time or an instrument approach or 2 within a thick logbook will almost always go unnoticed. US airline pilots have the most consistent and predictable rates of flight time accumulation, and this serves as a baseline metric for how rapidly flight time can be accrued. These pilots are limited to 1000 commercial hours per year, although few airline pilots reach that number. A typical airline schedule is based
Pilots are only required to record time to prove qualifications or recency of experience. After a certain numbers of hours, many stop logging altogether.
on 70–85 hours per month of scheduled flying, and, although 80 hours per month for an entire year equals 960 hours, that doesn’t account for vacation, time off, sick calls, cancellations, and training. It’s normal for an airline pilot to get paid for 1000 or more hours per year because of contractual provisions, but annual time spent in an aircraft on duty is more on the order of 700–800 hours for someone with a full schedule.
Airline vs corporate flying hours Airline flying hours also vary as a function of whether a pilot is assigned or chooses to bid a reserve schedule. The reserve provision of “on call” or being used only when needed can substantially reduce the number of hours flown in a year. For example, a pilot may get paid for 700 hours or more while flying 200 or less. Based on an average schedule, it would be reasonable for an airline pilot to lay claim to 7500– 8500 hours per decade of employment. Career pilots in business aviation tend to fly far fewer hours per year than their airline counterparts. Over a 10-year period, a corporate pilot in a medium sized department with an average activity level would fly about 30–40% of what an airline pilot would. Military pilots typically fly less than corporate pilots. Those faced with hiring corporate
pilots in the current environment claim that the dearth of suitable candidates has forced them to lower previously held standards and interview candidates with significantly fewer hours (less experience) than in the past. Even the necessity of a type rating has gone from “required” to “preferred” in recruiting ads for corporate pilots. The underlying question – and the one that generates the most controversy – is how much experience is enough? Perhaps it’s even more stratified: good enough, good, and expert. Put another way, if the industry is so focused on a single hour or accumulation of hours as a measure of experience, what’s the magic number? For US Part 121 airline operations, the current standard is the Airline Transport Certificate (ATP), which seems the most inappropriately named certificate in the myriad of FAA certifications. It would be natural for one to assume that a pilot with an ATP is employed by the airlines, or at least had some airline-specific training. Nothing could be further from the truth, as the ATP is a proficiency-based certification and one held by airline, corporate, and a plethora of non-professional pilots flying themselves around in their own aircraft. Pilots can also obtain a single-engine ATP and sardonically take great pride in sporting the label while doing touch and gos from a PROFESSIONAL PILOT / December 2019 9
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Photo courtesy FlightSafety
Intense training programs with deliberate focus on relevant skills likely to be needed in specific career tracks can produce a better pilot than gross accumulation of hours.
grass runway in his Cessna 152 – no belittlement intended.
Origins of the ATP certificate The history is somewhat murky, but the origins of the ATP certificate go all the way back to 1927. In that year, licensed pilots were classified 2 ways: private or commercial. Commercial pilots were further divided into transport or industrial. According to the regulations at the time, a commercial transport pilot, which undoubtedly morphed into “airline transport pilot” when airline flying became the norm, may “pilot any type of licensed aircraft carrying persons or property for hire or reward.” A commercial industrial pilot may, “pilot any type of licensed aircraft not carrying persons for hire or reward.” The primary difference between the 2 commercial pilot designations was that the one allowed a pilot to carry passengers, and the other could carry property. In order to obtain the Commercial Transport Certificate in 1927, a pilot had to show 200 hours of solo flying, 5 of which needed to be within 60 days of application. On the other hand, a Commercial Industrial Certificate applicant only had to show 50 hours
of solo flying. Such a rule would be the modern-day equivalent of saying a pilot flying freight (eg, FedEx, UPS, or Kalitta) needs 75% fewer hours of experience than their peers at the airlines. Prior to 2013, a pilot only needed 250 hours total time and a commercial certificate to operate as an airline copilot under Part 121. The 2009 crash of Colgan Air 3407 led to a mandate in the Airline Safety and FAA Extension Act of 2010, that required both the pilot and copilot in airline operations hold an ATP certificate, which requires 1500 total hours. There’s no doubt that political pressure had a lot to do with the mandatory ATP requirement. To this day, politicians and pundits claim that the ATP requirement and the associated 1500 experiential requirements have made flying safer.
Dangerous correlations Sadly, no one has conducted a rigorous scientifically peer-reviewed study to prove this. Nor will they, as there’s really no valid way to conduct one. Instead, it makes a great soundbite despite being more about correlation than causation. Just because 2 things are correlated does not mean one caused the other. In
fact, it’s comical how many inferences about causation can be made from correlation. In 2015, National Geographic magazine highlighted the erroneous correlation vs causation argument with a salient example: Drownings are a function of the number of movies Nicholas Cage appears in per year. A lot more people drown when Cage appears in more movies. Therefore, if the actor appeared in fewer movies, our swimming pools would be safer. Obviously, the Nick Cage theory is bunk. However, like the ATP rule and airline safety, it has a strong correlation that looks true without a deeper investigation. Further, if 1500 flight hours deems a pilot “experienced,” wouldn’t 2000 hours be better? Or 2500? Or 10,000?
The 10,000 hour mark According to Malcolm Gladwell in his book Outliers, 10,000 hours seems to be the, “magic number of greatness.” Gladwell cites several examples – from Bill Gates to the Beatles to Grandmaster chess players – to prove his theory that subject matter expertise happens only after the 10,000-hour mark. Under Gladwell’s theory, it would
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from a financial standpoint (working a low wage job but taking out tens of thousands in loans to cover training). In his mind, the 1500-hour rule has made the problem worse.
Deliberate practice remains the gold standard
When it comes to hiring pilots, well-established corporate flight departments prefer time in type and a past history of similar flying over a large amount of total time.
take a corporate pilot flying 300 hours per year for roughly 33 years to master his skill, whereas an airline pilot could complete the s ame achievement in just over 10. Again, what’s happening during those hours is relevant. There’s a big difference between spending 10,000 hours actively engaged in thinking through a chess game and looking out the window on a transcon redeye while the autopilot flies 99.5% of the flight. A pilot with 10,000 hours may seem experienced, but how many of those hours are the same hour repeatedly? Along the same lines, 1500 hours spent flying around the pattern in a piston engine airplane doesn’t necessarily translate to a hand flown category III ILS in a sweep-wing jet.
Study on current training systems and future pilots Rod Rakic, co-founder of the company OpenAirplane, recently conducted a study at the behest of a major US aircraft manufacturer that looked at industry data regarding the future pilot pipeline and current training system. Rakic’s methodology included significant data footprints from flight schools, flight instructors, and pilots in training. Last time a study of this magnitude
was done it was conducted by AOPA in 2010. Rakic has a noteworthy history that’s relevant to standardization. He convinced the insurance industry and flight schools across the country that local checkouts were not required for pilots renting aircraft away from their home airport. Instead, a single universal checkout in aircraft type was proof of competency anywhere within the OpenAirplane network. In other words, if a pilot learned to fly a Cessna 172 in Jacksonville FL, he could also rent a 172 while on vacation in Hawaii without having to go through the onerous (and expensive) checkout. Rakic contends, “By every measure, hours are not a good measure of the quality of airmanship.” In lieu of a thick logbook, he believes a good pilot is a function of “knowledge, skill, and attitude,” which is context specific. Rakic also points out that the cost of training has precipitously increased but hasn’t necessarily increased the quality of the product. Perhaps in jest, but also with a serious flair, Rakic states that the pipeline of future pilots falls into 1 of 2 tracks: generational wealth (those with parents who can front or borrow the money to fund a child through the flight training process), and those comfortable with making poor life decisions
Renowned psychologist Ander Ericsson believes that deliberate practice “remains the gold standard for anyone in any field who wishes to take advantage of the gift of adaptability in order to build new skills and abilities.” In his book Peak, Ericsson espouses, “Doing the same thing over and over again in exactly the same way is not a recipe for improvement; it is a recipe for stagnation and gradual decline.” Deliberate practice involves training a very specific set of skills under controlled conditions with constant feedback. In his book, Ericsson mentions the Navy Fighter Weapons School (Top Gun) as a successful example of deliberate practice. Contrary to the “hour equals experience” theory, there’s no magic number to expertise. Proficiency is proficiency whether it’s 250 hours or 10,000 hours. Interestingly enough, a recent industry-led panel recommended that the Trump administration roll back the 1500 hour (ATP) rule as part of an overall regulation reduction package. Even Chesley Sullenberger, the US Airways pilot who landed in the Hudson River, decried, “Efforts to reduce flying hours fly in the face of evidence and logic, and put millions of lives at risk.” Perhaps, but by whose evidence and whose logic? Favoring quality over quantity would reduce training cost and footprint, deliver a better product, and increase the pipeline of professional pilots, whether they fly for airlines or corporate flight departments.
Shannon Forrest is a current line pilot, CRM facilitator and aviation safety consultant. He has over 10,000 hours and holds a degree in behavioral psychology.
12 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / December 2019
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Terminal Checklist 12/19 Answers on page 16
6. Which are restrictions for flying the circling approach? a Circling is not authorized at night. b Circling is not authorized for Category D aircraft. c Circling at night is not authorized south of Rwy 9–27. d Night landings are not authorized on Runways 5, 23 and 35. e If FERRI cannot be identified, the MDA for all categories increases by at least 800 ft.
5. Which apply to the specified fixes? a YERUT, DOOKR—intermediate fixes. b HAU, GELEY—maximum airspeed 175 kts. c ZIMUM, KEDEC, DOOKR—D20.0 from HLN. d HUDVU, NNORA, KEDEC—initial approach fixes.
4. Select all that apply. Which of the minimum altitudes apply to the route indicated? a 9700 ft MSL—from HLN to HAU. b 9000 ft MSL—from YERUT to GELEY. c 11,100 ft MSL—DME arc from CUSDA to ZIMUM. d 10,200 ft MSL—route between JUVGO and YERUT. e 7100 ft MSL—holding pattern course reversal at HAU. f 10,200 ft MSL—DME arc from KEDEC to intercept the localizer.
Reproduced with permission of Jeppesen Sanderson. Reduced for illustrative purposes.
3. Select all the elements that apply to this procedure. a DME distances on the approach course are based on IHLN. b The glidepath for the PAPI is not the same as that for the ILS. c Holding at HAU NDB is only authorized for Category A and B aircraft. d Lead-in radials of 103° and 081° from HLN are designated for the DME arc. e All of the above apply.
2. Select the true statement(s) about the cold temperature al titude corrections as indicated by procedural note 4 in the Briefing Strip. a Cold temperature corrections must be applied to ATC assigned altitudes. b Cold temperature altitude corrections can be found in a table on a separate chart for this airport. c On initial contact with ATC, pilots must report cold temperature-corrected altitudes for all approach segments. d If the aircraft does not have temperature compensating equipment, the approach may be flown if the pilot makes a manual cold temperature altitude correction.
1. RNAV (GPS) equipment may be substituted for both ADF and DME to fly this procedure. a True b False
Refer to the 11-2 ILS or LOC Z Rwy 27 for HLN (Helena MT) when necessary to answer the following questions:
Not to be used for navigational purposes
9. Which landing minimums apply for a Category C aircraft? a ILS with PAPI out—DA 4052; ½ sm. b ILS with MALSR out—DA 4052; ¾ sm. c LOC without FERRI—MDA 5620; 1 sm. d LOC without FERRI—MDA 5620; 3 sm. e LOC with FERRI; RAIL out—MDA 4520; 1 ½ sm.
7. Select all that apply. When flying the localizer approach _____ a perform the missed approach at 4.7 nm from FERRI. b descend to an MDA of 5620 ft MSL if FERRI cannot be identified. Select the true statement regarding the missed approach c maintain a minimum altitude of 7100 ft MSL from YERUT to HAU. 10. d descend to 5620 ft MSL after HAU and to an MDA of 4520 ft procedure. a WOKEN is D37.7 from HLN. after FERRI. b A teardrop entry to the holding pattern is appropriate. e perform the missed approach at a time of 5:13 from FERRI at c WOKEN is defined by radials from HLN and GTF VORs. a ground speed of 100 kts. d A minimum climb gradient of 300 ft/nm to 6000 ft MSL 8. When flying the localizer approach, a continuous descent final is required. e At the missed approach point, perform a climbing turn to approach (CDFA) requires the use of a flight director or autopilot. a heading of 021°. a True b False 14 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / December 2019
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Answers to TC 12/19 questions
a Although procedural note 1 in the Briefing Strip indicates the requirement for ADF or DME, AC 90-108, Use of Suitable Area Navigation (RNAV) Systems on Conventional Routes and Procedures, provides for the use of a suitable RNAV system as a substitute when a VOR, DME, TACAN, VORTAC, VOR/ DME, NDB, or compass locator facility including locator outer marker and locator middle marker is out of service; the aircraft is not equipped with an ADF or DME; or the installed ADF or DME is not operational.
b, d The FAA NOTAM Cold Temperature Restricted Airports indicates that pilots without temperature-compensating equipment must apply a manual cold temperature altitude correction to the designated segment(s) of the approach using the AIM 7-2-3, ICAO Cold Temperature Error Table. Jeppesen provides a cold temperature correction table on a separate airport chart. On initial contact with the ATC facility issuing the approach clearance, pilots must report cold-temperature-corrected altitudes that apply to an intermediate segment and/or a published missed approach final altitude. Pilots should not apply cold temperature corrections to ATC assigned altitudes.
3. b, c Procedural note 3 in the Briefing Strip states, “DME from HLN VOR, simul taneous reception of IHLN and HLN DME required.” Procedural note 4 indi cates that the VGSI (in this case, a PAPI) and ILS glidepath are not coincident. According to FAA Order 8260.19E, VGSI and IAP glidepath angles/vertical descent angles should be coincidental (angles within 0.2 degrees and TCH values within 3 ft). Ballflag note 1 on the plan view states, “holding at HAU NDB authorized for CAT A and B aircraft only.” Lead-in radials of 094° and 081° from HLN are shown on the plan view. The 103° radial defines KEDEC IAF. 4.
a, c, f On the plan view, a course arrow from HLN VOR to HAU NDB (HAU) indicates a minimum altitude of 9700 ft MSL. Ballflag note 4 shows a minimum altitude of 7400 ft MSL on the course from YERUT to GELEY. From CUSDA or HUDVU IAFs, the minimum altitude along the DME arc is 11,100 ft MSL. From ZIMUM or KEDEC IAFs to intercept the localizer, the minimum altitude decreases to 10,200 ft MSL. From JUVGO to DOOKR, a minimum altitude of 10,200 ft MSL is indicated but this decreases to 9000 ft MSL from DOOKR to YERUT. Both the plan view and profile view depict a minimum altitude of 7400 ft MSL for the holding pattern course reversal at HAU.
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c, d On the plan view, only one intermediate fix (IF) is shown – YERUT. Ballflag note 2 indicates that a speed restriction of 175 kts is required for holding at Hauser NDB (HAU) for Category A and B aircraft. ZIMUM, KEDEC, and DOOKR are shown as D20.0 from Helena VOR (HLN). HUDVU, NNORA, and KEDEC are all initial approach fixes (IAF) along the DME arc to the south.
6. d Procedural note 2 indicates that night landings are not authorized on Runways 5, 23 and 35. However, circling to land on Runways 9 and 17 would still be permitted. The Circle-to-Land landing minimums section states, “not authorized for CAT D South of Rwy 9–27.” The inability to identify FERRI increases the Category A and B MDAs by 980 and 820 ft respectively but does not affect Category D minimums. 7. b, c, d To fly the localizer approach, maintain a minimum altitude of 7100 ft MSL from YERUT to HAU as indicated by Ballflag note 4 on the plan view. According to the profile view and landing minimums, at HAU FAF, descend to 5620 ft MSL, and then at FERRI descend to an MDA of 4520 ft MSL. The descent/timing con version table shows the missed approach at 8.7 nm from HAU NDB or based on timing from the HAU based on ground speed. 8. b AC 120-108, Continuous Descent Final Approach, states that a CDFA requires the use of a published VDA or barometric vertical guidance (in this case, the glide slope angle of 3.00°) but does not require specific training or aircraft equipment. However, operators should provide flightcrews with appropriate ground training before performing CDFA operations. 9. a, b, d The landing minimums section shows increased visibility minimums for the ILS approach with RAIL or the ALS (in this case, a MALSR) out. An inoperative PAPI does not affect the landing minimums. In addition to an increase in minimum visibility for inoperative RAIL or ALS, both the MDA and minimum visibility increase for the localizer approach if the stepdown fix of FERRI cannot be identified. 10.
c, d According to the missed approach instructions, a climb must be made to 4600 ft MSL prior to turning to a heading of 021° and the airplane must be able to climb at 300 ft/nm to 6000 ft MSL. If this requirement cannot be met, the ILS or LOC Y Rwy 27 approach should be flown. The plan view shows that WOKEN is an intersection of the 336° radial from HLN and the 206° radial at D37.7 from GTF. A direct entry would be appropriate when on the 336° radial.
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se the flight data management system of your aircraft as an effective flight safety debrief tool to monitor exceedances, SOP non-compliance, and unstable approaches. Winter and low-visibility operations are coming up. Therefore, study airfield charts for departure, arrival, and enroute airfields meticulously. Also, carry adequate fuel and revise go-around and missed approach procedures. A Menon ATP. Airbus A320 Captain Interglobe Aviation Hyderabad Telangana, India
What safety tips can you share with your fellow pilots? Something that has proved successful in your flight department.
lways leave yourself leeway. Never plan a flight so tightly that no allowances are made for things not going as planned. In my flying experience in the Coast Guard, Navy, and present job, this extra allotted time has saved me in many occasions. Michael O’Brien ATP/CFII. Leonardo AW139 Captain PHI Cantonment FL
e always brief on the highest threats and how to mitigate them. For example, on a good VFR day flying out of ORD (O’Hare, Chicago IL), the highest threat might be taxing out of the runway due to complex instructions. We mitigate the threat by taxiing slowly with both heads out of the cockpit and writing down the clearance. For our destination, threats could include possible windshear, short runway, contaminated runway, thrust reverser or auto brake malfunction. It is also important to keep in mind the effect of fatigue at the end of a long duty day and late at night. David Lincoln ATP. Boeing BBJ Captain Penn National Gaming Las Vegas NV
earn from your mistakes! Leave that giant ego at the door. Most mistakes are caused by pilots who are too proud to admit they made a mistake. When in doubt, default to a conservative approach. It will keep you alive and you will maintain your job. George Chrest ATP. Gulfstream G650/V Flight Dept Mgr Jet Aviation/NANT Van Nuys CA
omplete a pre-takeoff briefing to include V speeds, 1st altitude and course, and emergency plan. Review everything before you take the runway. You do want this on tape. Remember, FAA/NTSB are listening. Robert Oehl ATP/CFII. Learjet 60 Safety Mgr & Captain Worldwide Jet Starke FL
eamwork and collaboration are the safety pillars. Our new director of maintenance introduced an aircraft status form that documents all the necessary information to educate and inform our flightcrews before all home-based departures. We use it as a roundtable communication tool. This consequently eliminates ambiguity among pilots, maintenance, and the scheduling coordinator. This was a very welcome change. Larry Meine ATP/CFI. Gulfstream G450 Director of Flight Operations Pittco Aviation Olive Branch MS
believe a short non-aviation talk is always good before pairing. If my copilot comes in and says his wife is upset with him, it is good he gets it off his chest. In turn, I pay extra attention to him on our flight. A previous argument with a spouse just before going to work is a distraction. I have seen pilots miss a level-off altitude because their minds are preoccupied. James Kobler ATP. Boeing 727 Captain Cargojet Airways Oil Springs ON, Canada hen reviewing an approach, use the chart in conjunction with the FMS/NAV system. Brief on how the approach will be flown with missed approach and autopilot use confirmed. Prepare expected descent rates, speeds, and configurations for different segments of the approach for landing or missed approach. Rhett Butler ATP/CFII. Daher TBM Instructor SIMCOM Aviation Scottsdale AZ
on’t forget your pilot errors, own up to them. Rod Machado called these failure milestones. You keep them as a reminder of what not to do. As a friend and local VNY (Van Nuys CA) pilot put it, the most conservative idea wins. That thought has resonated in our flight department. It takes the “who is right?” or “what is right?” question and turns it on its head. Chad Minor ATP/CFII. Global 6000 Captain Habari Newbury Park CA
on’t rush! Stay organized and use all the resources available. These may come from an FBO or other departments within your company, such as dispatch or maintenance. Use CRM and look at the big picture. Joe Glusic ATP. Phenom 300 Captain & Check Airman NetJets Hicksville NY
18 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / December 2019
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oster an environment of open, reprisal-free reporting. Our safety department made anonymous online safety reporting available this year, and our yearly average of 5–8 safety reports has skyrocketed to 25 so far. All pilots are interested in reducing safety hazards – many just need the opportunity and empowerment. Ryan Motte Comm-Multi-Inst/CFII. Pilatus PC-12 Director of Safety Tradewind Aviation Naugatuck CT
est tip I received was from a man named Gary Hart, who preached the importance of “professional pace.” Maintaining my own professional pace throughout the flying day has helped me avoid mistakes and omissions made in haste. Walter Beach ATP. Citation Latitude Captain NetJets Lawrenceville GA
afety tips I would recommend: start with parking your ego at the door. Show up prepared. If 1 crewmember is uncomfortable with the plan, change it. Never commit to saving a bad landing – remember that go-arounds are easy and cheap. Finally, remember that a complex, modern, multi-crew aircraft requires a team approach to safety. William All ATP. McDonnell Douglas MD11/10 Line Pilot FedEx Port Townsend WA
ly the aircraft first! It’s important to know all possible ways to disconnect runaway trim. Also, practice emergency egress from your aircraft annually. If it doesn’t look or feel right, it probably isn’t. Hightime pilots and 1st-class medicals do not always equate to the best pilot. Finally, you are not always right. Admit your mistakes! John Keller ATP/Helo/CFI. Pilatus PC-12, Daher TBM 910 & Cessna 421 Chief Pilot & Owner Keller Aviation Services Intl Cave Creek AZ
e operate 5 turbine-powered helicopters on a Part 135 certificate in the Midwest. Cockpit standardization is a high priority for us. Each aircraft is equipped with the same avionics package. I also believe pilot attitudes play an important role in the overall operation. High-quality initial and recurrent training is a must. Randall Sharkey ATP/CFI. Leonardo AW109 & Airbus H130 Director of Operations Sweet Helicopters Goshen IN
have some tips that have worked very well for me. (1) Never take your airplane somewhere that your “head” hasn’t already been. (2) Always have a solid-gold alternative airport for backup. (3) When something goes wrong, start with “what was your last action?” (4) Make sure the other pilot in the cockpit has a clear understanding of the plan. Norman Anderson ATP. Gulfstream G650 G550/G450/II & Learjet 55/35/28/24/23 Owner Skynorman Aviation Consultant Nampa ID
rue professionals need to know their aircraft. This can be as simple as observing some aspects of the maintenance performed at home or in a shop. Be involved, spend time learning about the simple things as well as the more serious aspects of maintenance. Stan Dolinski ATP/A&P. Gulfstream IV/III Captain S Dolinski Prof Pilot Services Upland CA
n my opinion, flight operations should be standardized by using checklists. Good and bad days, new crew pairings or any negative situations can be mitigated by using standards like checklists and wellknown SOPs. Rich Audette ATP/CFII/A&P. Learjet 40XR Dir of Maintenance & Pilot HT Hackney Alcoa TN
great tool is peer review. Many times the other person in the cockpit has valuable insight. They may or may not offer it to you, so you may have to ask for it directly. On the flip side, you may need to offer advice, whether it’s asked for or not. Remember to be considerate but direct. Unless it is critical to safety, give your advice at the end of the day. It’s counterproductive to have an upset coworker for the next 5 hours of your flight. Ryan Johnson ATP. Challenger 601 & King Air B350 Captain DC Air Denair CA
rust but verify. Always follow checklists and challenge fellow pilots if you sense anything non-standard. Do the preflight check with intention of finding something wrong with the aircraft. And if you don’t find anything wrong with it, then it’s ready to go. Jave Sheikh ATP. Dornier DO328 Jet Owner & President Crew Resource Mgmt Chicago IL
heck it twice. It doesn’t matter what it is, if it’s related to operating or planning the operation of an aircraft. You need to ask yourself, who do you trust more than any other pilot? Most of my flying has been single pilot, including a solo flight in a Caravan from ICT to HLA (Lanseria Intl, Johannesburg, South Africa). Double checking has saved my beloved bacon a couple of times. Richard Terrell ATP/CFII. Pilatus PC-12 & King Air 300 Pilot RT Aviation Norcross GA
tandard operating procedures are your friends. They’re your safety net, not a nuisance. We treat our SOPs as an asset. Thomas Conard ATP/CFI. Beechjet 400 Pilot Travel Management Co Pittsburg PA
20 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / December 2019
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he best safety tip I could share is that you should know your own personal limitations. Joseph Jet Tiritilli ATP. Learjet 55 Captain Florida Jet Deerfield Beach FL t SWA, we have developed a risk and resource management program. It is a methodical approach to addressing issues encountered during normal and atypical situations. It is a CRM program on steroids and has proved effective at addressing and reducing risks. Greg Ramallo ATP/CFII. Boeing 737 Captain & Check Airman Southwest Airlines Phoenix AZ
dent reduction tool that redefines a stabilized approach. It was published by Marty Rollinger in the May 2019 issue of Professional Pilot magazine. It’s a very clear cut approach that was easy to incorporate into our operation. Gate #1, the fully configuration gate at 1000 ft for landing. Gate #2, the stabilized gate at 500 ft verbal call out if SAC is unstable. PF works quickly to fix. Gate #3 is the go-around gate when the aircraft does not meet the SAC by this point or below. Mandatory go-around a clear defined decision point. James White ATP/Helo/A&P. Gulfstream G200 & Airbus AS350BA Dir of Aviation & Chief Pilot Walsh Flight Operations Chicago IL
ew stabilized approach criteria would be my advice for safety standards. Flight Safety Foundation published a new landing acci-
iscipline is my advice to fellow pilots. At some point, all the checklists, actions, call outs, flows, briefs, notes, NOTAMs, charts and
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manuals are useless unless one possesses the discipline to always review and complete the tasks required to be successful with the mission. Complacency and fatigue are always at odds with discipline. Sam Myers ATP. Citation Latitude Captain NetJets Aviation Summerville SC
personal mantra that I‘ve adopted with regard to weather is as follows: I’ve never been sorry for waiting a little longer to take off, and I’ve never been sorry I’ve gone a little further around weather. The converse has certainly been true, and it wasn’t fun. That is the basis of the learning experiences and the background for that mantra. Dwight Albers ATP/CFII. Boeing 787/737 Captain United Airlines Houston TX
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always take 1 last walk around the aircraft after pax loaded. It slows the pace down. Setting up an approach to the intended runway, even if VFR, prevents landing on wrong runway or at the wrong airport. Erik Swanberg ATP. Falcon 7X Pilot White Lodging Yorkville IL
reventing runway excursions and wrong-surface events should be a priority. Aborted landing opportunities/limitations are aircraft-specific. At what point does your AFM prohibit go-arounds? It’s usually dependent on the deployment of an aerodynamic device such as reversers, lift-dump, ground spoilers or airbrakes. Are we giving the PIC every opportunity to perform a balked landing as normal procedure? I’m definitely guilty of learning the airplane so well that I can deploy TRs before nosegear touchdown. However, if that’s the point
at which the go-around is prohibited, perhaps it’s is not a good idea. Once the airplane is committed to the remaining runway, are we giving the PIC all the tools he needs to attain a slow taxi speed and maximum traction for turning off? In some situations, the devices are being stowed by the PNF at 50 or 60 KIAS, out of habit, based on a perceived groundspeed. This typically doesn’t create a problem until the habit causes an excursion from a contaminated runway while the PIC is making the turnoff. We should follow the AFM and training provider’s guidance regarding cleaning up the configuration on the active runway. The aircraft can be taxied slowly after landing to allow a safe cadence for checklists, even with a short taxi distance. Dean Brock ATP/CFII/A&P. Challenger 604 Captain Executive Flight Services Jacksonville FL
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ain tips that I can share would be understand the pilot envelope as well as the aircraft envelope, and never cross the margins. Also, everyone should follow the POH. Terence Winson Pvt-Instrument. Daher TBM 940 President AVEX Inc Camarillo CA
fter extensive research, I figured out the way to depict simultaneously the NAT tracks and the cleared route on the navigation displays of our Gulfstream G650. This is of great help while flying across the Atlantic, as it increases the situational awareness if forced to divert. It has been embraced by the rest of the pilots, and now is part of the cockpit preparation routine. Thereafter, study and investigate your avionics suite because it has hidden potential. Jorge Barroso ATP. Gulfstream G650 Captain & Flight Safety Supervisor SEAF Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain
omething that has proved to be successful in our flight department is “do not rush.” Often, rushing can be unsafe. Also, taking the time and making the right decision is essential for the operation. Keep studying the airplane you are assigned to, that way you always know the systems and aircraft really well. This can come very handy in distressful situations. Arnoldo Rojas ATP. Legacy 500 & Phenom 300 Pilot Elite Jets Naples FL
f your current abnormal flight situation sounds like the beginning of an NTSB report, stop! Reassess the situation and then go to plan B. Ken Cooksey ATP. Citation Excel Chief Pilot Priority Jet Kennesaw GA
22 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / December 2019
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Avfuel delivers 1st sustainable aviation fuel shipment to Bombardier
vfuel is providing Bombardier with sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) to support the manufacturer’s long-standing commitment toward the environment. This aligns with Avfuel’s ongoing efforts to work with leading OEMs on sustainability efforts. In total, Bombardier received 7300 gallons of SAF to fuel new aircraft deliveries. This delivery means a 2 metric ton reduction in life cycle CO2 emissions. “Working with leading OEMs, like Bombardier, is an opportunity for Avfuel and business aviation
as a whole to meet sustainability goals,” said Avfuel Executive Vice President CR Sincock. “We are appreciative of the Bombardier team for its willingness to participate in this initiative, for its professionalism in working with Avfuel on the logistics, and for the work it’s doing on green initiatives.” As supply of SAF continues to
be the most challenging hurdle to bringing the product to market on a commercial scale, Avfuel hopes raising awareness through initiatives such as this will help inspire commitments by operators to use the product. By creating the demand, Avfuel’s aim is to encourage further production for greater sustainable representation in the fuel supply chain.
Raisbeck receives FAA STC for composite 5-blade swept propeller
Photo courtesy Raisbeck
aisbeck Engineering received FAA STC approval for its composite 5-blade swept propeller for Beechcraft King Air 200 series aircraft. It is manufactured by Hartzell, made of structural carbon ﬁber composite with nickel cobalt leading edges for protection against foreign object damage. It increases takeoff acceleration by more than 15%, improves climb rate by over 20%, and reduces noise by 30% throughout the aircraft. It also offers King Air operators an average of 48 lb total weight savings. King Air 200 series TP with Raisbeck composite 5-blade swept propellers. STC approval efforts are under way for European Aviation Safety Agency, Transport Canada, and National Civil Aviation Agency of Brazil.
24 24 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / December 20192019 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / September
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NBAA 2019 Las Vegas NV hosts NBAA’s 72nd convention.
Gulfstream CEO Mark Burns unveiled the mockup of upcoming biz av leader, the G700. The $75-M jet promises all the advanced tech of the G500/600, at least 7500nm range, and a 10-ft stretch of the G650ER.
NBAA Pres & CEO Ed Bolen presented the 2019 Meritorious Service to Aviation Award to record-breaking pilot and philanthropist Ross Perot Jr. Close to 100 aircraft, from helicopters to the largest corporate jets, were open for viewing by attendees at nearby HSH (Henderson Exec).
By Brent Bundy
Phoenix Police Officer-Pilot AS350, AW119, Cessna 210/182/172
Photos by Brent Bundy & José Vásquez
he buzz across much of the aviation industry leading up to this year’s NBAA-BACE was upbeat with high expectations. The 72nd annual event did not disappoint on Oct 22–24 in Las Vegas NV. More than 23,000 attendees perused the latest products and offerings from over 1000 exhibitors filling a million sq ft of space at the convention center. Nearby HSH (Henderson Exec, NV) hosted the static display with nearly 100 aircraft open for viewing, in addition to several helicopters and airplanes inside the show hall. Pilatus CEO Markus Bucher unveils the 3rd generation of the PC-12 – the NGX. With a redesigned interior, new avionics, a revised version of the PT6A, and a price of $4.39 million, deliveries will begin Q2 2020. PC-12NGX
The week kicked off on a high note with the usual list of great speakers. This year’s day 1 keynote addressees included Earvin “Magic” Johnson, Game Composites Founder Steuart Walton, tech mogul Sky Dayton, and NBAA Meritorious Service to Aviation Award winner Ross Perot Jr. Day 2’s lineup was just as impressive with Jetman Yves Rossy, Uber Elevate Head Eric Allison, US Air Force Major General Jeannie M Leavitt, and Barrington Irving, record-setting pilot. Key topics continue to be sustainability, with many of the arriving aircraft utilizing sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) (150,000 gallons of SAF were sold at HSH), and innovation surrounding urban mobility vehicles, several of which were showcased during the convention.
Legendary basketball superstar Earvin “Magic” Johnson Jr and King Schools Co-founder Martha King comparing their heights to a delighted audience at the opening session.
Yves “Jetman” Rossy, the 1st man in history to fly with a jet-propelled wing, was an inspirational keynote at NBAA. USAF Maj Gen Jeannie Leavitt made history as the 1st female Air Force fighter pilot. She told about her career path to attendees. Embraer Executive Jets Pres & CEO Michael Amalfitano (L) and Flexjet CEO Michael Silvestro signed a $1.4 billion order for Praetor 500s/600s, Legacy 450s and Phenom 300s. Embraer bizjets at static display.
28 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / December 2019
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3 years after it entered service, the Dassault Falcon 8x remains their flagship, with nearly 6500nm range and the quietest cabin in its segment.
HondaJet CEO Michimassa Fujino announced the 1st medevac-configured Elite and a new service center in the northeast USA, and celebrated the recent Transport Canada certification.
Dassault Aviation ranked 1st in 2019 PP Corp Aircraft Prod Sup Survey Jet Division. Sr VP Worldwide Cust Service & Service Center Network Jean Kayanakis (L) and Sr VP Worldwide Service Network Geoff Chick.
Bombardier Pres David Coleal proudly reported the first Global 6500 is in service, with FAA and Canadian approvals expected soon. The Challenger 350 remains the best-selling business jet and the Global 5500 range increased to 590 nm.
Expectations were also met on the new product front. Gulfstream unveiled its new flagship G700; Pilatus took the wraps off the PC-12NGX, the latest version of its stalwart turboprop; Bombardier showed the recently-certified Global 6500 and the 1st mockup of the Learjet 75 Liberty. Textron’s Cessna Citation Longitude was also just awarded the stamp of approval, and the Denali is coming closer to its 2020 1st flight. Dassault announced its plans for the Falcon 6X to make its initial flight in 2021 with EIS the following year. HondaJet sales remain strong, and the 1st medevac-configured model has been completed. Airbus continues to be the only manufacturer offering fixed and rotary wing executive aircraft, with an ACJ319 and ACH145 on display. In addition to products and services, NBAA-BACE held over 50 educational sessions and handed out thousands of dollars in scholarships in a variety of aviation-related fields. NBAA Pres Ed Bolen said before the show, “This is going to be a big one, possibly the most exciting event we’ve held.” His prediction was accurate. All eyes are on the industry to see if this level of enthusiasm is seen next year as we head back to Orlando FL Oct 6–8.
(L–R) Leonardo Head of sales, North America Enrico Canal, Regional Sales Mgr Andrew Litteral and Pres & COO of London Air Services Dylan Thomas with the high-performance Leonardo AW139.
Textron President & CEO Ron Draper and Sr VP Sales & Mktg Rob Scholl reported that Longitude deliveries have begun, the cargo-focused Sky Courier will fly in 2020, and the Denali is progressing towards deliveries in 2021 with a GE catalyst, FADEC-equipped engine. Sheltair Dir of Sales & Mktng Karen Kroeppel (center) with her team and customers at their booth.
Citation Longitude also recently received certification and entered service on Oct 2. It is the 1st completely new Citation model in 15 years, and will sell for just under $27 million. The SyberJet SJ30i continues testing, on track for a production delivery in 2020. Collins Aerospace President Avionics Stephen Timm demonstrating the advanced avionics capabilities of Pro Line Fusion for Challenger 604.
Pentastar Aviation’s executive team at their display. (L–R) VP Mx Ops & Adv Svcs Douglas Levangie, Exec VP of Mx & Sales Brad Bruce, Pres & CEO Gregory Schmidt, and VP of FBO Svcs Robert Sarazin.
West Star Aviation continues to reign in the Preferred MRO rankings. Proudly showing their badge were CEO Jim Rankin (L) and Pres & COO Rodger Renaud.
Concorde Battery customers were met by European Sales Mgr Gary Vickery (L) and Tech OEM MGR Bob Burkel.
PROFESSIONAL PILOT / December 2019 29
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Williams Intl was represented by (L–R) Total Assurance Prog Global Sales Agent Bradley Deuel, Sr VP, Bus Devt & Prog Mgmt (L–R) True Blue Power Dir Erik Ritzman, Dir of Matt Huff, and Bus Devt Analyst Communication Julie Lowrance and Acc Mgr Ryan Concienne. Van Winter with new products TB40, TB30 and TB20 advanced lithium-ion batteries.
Universal Avionics CEO Dror Yahav was at hand showing a Universal-Elbit Skylens wearable head-up display.
Million Air CEO Roger Woolsey remind us they have been the best large FBO chain for 8 years in a row in PP’s PRASE Survey. Piper offers aviators throughout the world efficient and reliable single and twin-engine aircraft. (L–R) Cutter Reg Sales Mgr Larry Johnson, Piper Pres & CEO Simon Caldecott, Skytech Sales Rep Rick Shepard, and Flightline Sales Mgr Jeff Vickers.
Meridian is an award-winning, aviation company with locations at TEB and HWD. (L–R) Charter Sales Exec Bob Platten, Dir of Charter Sales Chris Battaglia, Mgr of Charter Ops Heather DeRegis, Charter Sales Exec Jeremy Ojerholm, CEO Ken Forester, VP of Aviation Sales Mike Moore, Aviation Sales Exec MaKayla Gorski, HWD GM Carlos Rodriguez, Dir of Purchasing Susan Forester and Dir of Mktg Kirk Stephen. Garmin flightdecks can be found in every class of aircraft, from OEM to retrofit. With the latest models were Media Relations Jessica Koss and Mgr Av Aftermarket Sales Patrick Coleman.
At the always impressive Avfuel booth were (L–R) Dist Mgr Brian Flogaus, Contract Fuel Sales Candace Schroeder, and Sedgwick Acft Scheduler Tyler Newman. Airbus showed the VIP-configured ACH145. It is available with Mercedes-Benz interior and will soon be upgraded to the 5-bladed iteration.
Thales Sr Mgr Brand & Ext Comm N America Adam Kostecki demonstrates the cost-effective Top Max full color wearable HUD. For over 20 years, MRY has been served by the #1 rated Monterey Jet Center. Cust Svc Mgr Kawai Lopez met with attendees.
It wouldn’t be Vegas without Elvis! Flanking the legend from Universal Avionics were (L–R) Brian Banks, Raul Batista, and Trevor Fenwick.
Banyan was well represented by Social Media & Mktg Coordinator Linda Li. Banyan is celebrating its 40th anniversary during 2019.
Wilson Air Center has 4 award-winning FBOs. At the show were Concierge Supv Dexter Cherry and Mktg Spclst Margie Katsma.
Skyservice is ranked high among leading FBOs in North America. (L–R) Skyservice Dir Biz Devt USA PJ Sharpe, Supervisor Cust Svc Irina Helary, and Dir Biz Aircraft Glenn Williams.
Texas Jet offers consistent and exceptional service. (L–R) Texas Jet Founder & Pres Reed Pigman, Cust Service Mgr Holly Hopkins, and Line Service Mgr Mario Sanchez. David Clark’s Mktg Mgr Dennis Buzzell demonstrates offerings to a customer.
Father and son team J. Robert Duncan (seated) and D. Todd Duncan made their annual trek to NBAABACE to represent Duncan Aviation.
Robinson Helicopters showcased its turbine-powered R66. This example was outfitted in executive configuration.
30 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / December 2019
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Megan & Tahoe
on the PRASE BALLOT
A vote for us is a vote for our team
Dear Sant a, All w e wan for C t hristm is a st as ockin g full of
Keep an eye out for our Christmas video!
Happy Holidays NBAA-12- 19 lyt.indd 31
Monterey Jet Center 300 Sky Park Drive, Monterey CA 93940 â€¢ 831-373-0100 www.montereyjetcenter.com
12/2/19 4:07 PM
FLIGHT DEPT OF THE YEAR
Procter & Gamble Aviation division flies company executives to visit bases around the world using 2 Gulfstream G650ERs and 2 Bombardier Challenger 350s.
Photos by Brent Bundy
For nearly 70 years, the Procter & Gamble flight department has helped build the company into a global powerhouse in the consumer goods industry. Gulfstream G650ERs facilitate international travel.
By Brent Bundy
Phoenix Police Officer-Pilot AS350, AW119, Cessna 210/182/172
he story begins with an English candle maker, an Irish soap maker, and a chance meeting. Over 180 years ago, the merging of 2 small businesses would lead to one of the most iconic companies in American history. When William Procter and James Gamble combined forces in Cincinnati OH, they would form a business that now manufactures in more than 80 countries, sells products across the globe, and is firmly seated in the Fortune 100 list of companies. In addition to being a leader in many fields, Procter & Gamble (P&G) has always been at the forefront of corporate aviation. Since 1951, before the 1st business jet ever flew, the company has enjoyed the benefits of a flight department. And that foresight continues to this day with a fleet of modern aircraft housed in a state-of-the-art facility operated by a team of top professionals.
From the banks of the Ohio River In the late 1830s, Procter and Gamble arrived in America, each heading west on the Ohio River. They would both stop in Cincinnati for medical reasons. Procter’s wife had become gravely ill on their journey, and he stayed near her final resting place. Gamble himself fell ill while traveling with his family, so they paused their trip. By the time Gamble healed, they had put down roots. The destinies of the 2 businessmen would converge when they married daughters of another local shopkeeper, Alexander Norris. Norris suggested the 2 become partners in the soap and candle industries, and, in 1837, they pooled together $7192.24 and established P&G. The company’s location was ideal for its operation. They were making candles and soap from the byproducts of pork processing, and Cincinnati was a center of the meatpacking industry. P&G saw early success with sales reaching $1 million by the late 1850s.
Business advanced further during the American Civil War when P&G provided its wares to the Union Army. These 2 events would cement the company in history: the introduction of Ivory soap and the beginning of a profit-sharing program. Ivory soap would establish P&G’s branding leadership in the consumer market, while profit-sharing would encourage retention of workers. Over the next century, P&G introduced a string of products that have become household names: Crisco, Tide, Crest, Charmin, Pampers, Head & Shoulders, and many more. In 1930, the company became an international corporation with the acquisition of its first overseas subsidiary in England. Before the close of that decade, sales reached $230 million. This era also saw the beginnings of business aviation. Soon after the end of WWII, America had a surplus of airplanes and pilots, along with a new-found application of their services. P&G was an early adapter to this innovative mode of corporate transportation.
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Dir of Global Flt Ops Jeff McClean joined P&G in 2014 and has led the team since early 2019.
DC-3s for P&G P&G opened its flight department in 1951 at LUK (Lunken, Cincinnati OH), home of the Aeronca Aircraft Corporation and the original Embry-Riddle Company. Operations began with a small building and 2 DC3s. Soon, the company would take over the shuttered Aeronca factory. Throughout the 1950s, P&G incorporated a fire protection system in the hangar, purchased a Link flight simulator, added a radio room, acquired a 3rd DC-3, and installed weather radar in all aircraft. The next few decades saw several transitions for the P&G fleet. During the 1960s, P&G would begin inhouse training of pilots and mechanics, and welcomed 3 Gulfstream Is. Soon, 2 of the GIs were sold to make room for a pair of GIIs. In 1970, P&G made its 1st international flight with a GII to Mexico City. That same year, the company sold the remaining DC-3 and added a 3rd GII. By the end of the 70s, the hangar was filled with 3 Sabreliner 75A/80SCs and 2 Gulfstream IIs. More Gulfstreams joined in 1981 when 2 GIIIs were purchased. Also, an avionics shop was added. By the 1990s, all Sabreliners were sold and P&G was operating the 2 GIIIs plus 2 new Bombardier Challenger 601s. The Challengers stayed until the end of the 90s when the fleet evolved to four Gulfstream IVs. Those Gulfstreams would be replaced a couple of times until they settled into their cur-
Chief Pilot Todd Hillsgrove (L) set his sights on P&G early in his career, and his ambitions were fulfilled in 2002. He has overseen the flight department’s 15 pilots since 2013. Assistant Chief Pilot George Whitehead (R) spent 20 years in the US Navy before joining P&G in 2006.
rent collection of 2 Challenger 350s and 2 Gulfstream G650ERs, which are housed in P&G’s 100,000 sq ft facility, built new in 2006 complete with a 60,000 sq ft hangar.
Covering the globe With products sold in more than 180 countries and manufactured in nearly half of them, the P&G flight department faces the daunting task of moving its people to domestic and international locations. Making sure this task runs smoothly is Director of Global Flight Ops Jeff McClean, who is somewhat atypical as the head of a flight department in that he is not a pilot. “I’ve never taken a flight lesson,” he says. But that does not lessen his impressive résumé. Born into a farming family in rural North Carolina, McClean often worked on equipment with his grandfather. Also, he notes, “My father was an electrician, and he taught me a great deal in that field. That’s probably what pushed me down the technical path.” McClean was fascinated with military aircraft, which led to him joining the US Navy in 1984. During his 4-year enlistment, he was assigned to work on F-14 fighter jets. “That’s
where I found my passion,” he states. While in the Navy, he earned his A&P certification on his own time. After his service, he worked heavy and line maintenance for Piedmont Airlines, later USAir. This is also where he had his 1st exposure to management. “I found that I enjoyed leading people, getting them to work as a team to produce results,” he recalls. After the tragic events of 9/11, McClean left USAir and accepted a position with WYVERN as a consultant. “This allowed me to travel the world and see how flight departments worked, both good and bad,” he says. After several years with WYVERN, he took a director of maintenance position with software company SAS Institute in Raleigh NC, working on their extensive fleet and adding to his international experience. McClean joined P&G as DOM in 2014. “Similar to my position at SAS, I wasn’t just doing maintenance – I was involved in the business side of the operation,” he declares. Along the way, he also earned his BA in aviation and an MBA. This experience and education would come to fruition in early 2019, when he was offered the top spot in P&G’s flight department. “I learned long ago that
P&G’s catalog of 50-plus brands provides for the personal care needs of consumers in more than 180 countries.
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Scheduling Mgr John Hampton spent 30 years with the Ford Motor flight dept before starting with P&G in 2009.
a flight department is much more than just flying airplanes – it’s its own business, and I need a strong, diverse team around me to be successful. That is what we have here. Our strongest asset is our people,” states McClean. “This is a global company that requires face-to-face interactions. We contribute to the overall success of P&G, and our people get a great deal of fulfillment from that.” The team consists of 34 personnel, including pilots, maintenance, and administrative staff. “P&G could not be more supportive. The company recognizes our services as an invaluable business tool,” remarks McClean. “My job is to ensure that we provide safe, secure, cost-effective, flexible travel to get people where they need to be, and to make sure my team has the tools to accomplish that.”
Flight family P&G recognizes future needs. The company keeps an eye out for potential pilots with a 1-week summer program and a 3-month internship. Although participants would not be eligible for pilot positions afterward due to PIC flight hour requirements, P&G will periodically check up on program graduates as they progress through their careers. Proof of the effectiveness of the P&G outlook for future employees is former summer program attendee, Chief Pilot Todd Hillsgrove. Growing up in Pittsfield NH, Hillsgrove had no background in aviation. “I worked near the Concord airport after high school and thought flying looked interesting,” he remembers. However, after a $20 “discovery flight,” Hillsgrove was hooked. “Not only did I really enjoy it, but that was the 1st time I ever had any direction in my life,” he adds. At 19 years old, Hillsgrove secured a $3000 loan and began flight lessons. By 1992, he had earned his aeronautical sciences degree from
Embry-Riddle’s Daytona campus. During his junior year, he was accepted to P&G’s summer program. “That was what turned me to corporate aviation,” he says. “I don’t have enough words to describe what P&G did for me. From that point on, I focused on this company.” After 11 years and a short stint out of aviation, Hillsgrove’s aspirations came true when he was hired by P&G in 2002. By 2013, he had progressed through the ranks and earned the chief pilot spot. He now oversees 15 pilots and is clear about the role they play with P&G. “It doesn’t matter your title, you can make an impact. P&G empowers all of us to make a difference,” he proclaims. When new pilots are hired, they advance several steps from FOs to master captain, which requires significant skill and experience. After 1 year as captains, they can be considered for international qualification. “One of our goals is flexibility. To obtain that, we eventually want all pilots rated in both aircraft and internationally,” Hillsgrove declares. Working alongside Hillsgrove is Captain and Assistant Chief Pilot George Whitehead. As a college student, Whitehead’s roommate introduced him to the Air Force ROTC. After graduation, he joined the US Navy as a commissioned officer. He would spend the next 20 years there, rising to the rank of lieutenant commander. Along the way, he would fly a variety of helicopters and airplanes, as well as instruct in T-34s. After his service, Whitehead flew for Comair for 3 years before meeting Hillsgrove at the local ice rink and was told P&G was hiring. In 2006, he joined the team. With Whitehead’s extensive background in safety and training, he was offered the safety pilot position, which he held for 4 years. Whitehead became assistant chief pilot in 2014. “In this role, I support Todd (Hillsgrove) and Jeff (McClean) and act as a sounding board. I help DOM Bradley Hennis recently took over maintenance at P&G. He brought with him 30 years of mechanical and management experience.
Chief Inspector David Melk was a US Air Force C-130 crew chief before being accepted to P&G’s summer co-op. He was hired full-time in 1993.
maintain communications with other flight departments and incorporate what is best for us,” he explains. Although busy with other duties, he still tries to accumulate around 250 hours per year of flight time, as do most of the line pilots. Regarding the working environment at P&G, he reflects to his military days. “Our team here is very much like a family, like my squadrons in the Navy. This is a great company with great facilities, aircraft, and people,” he says.
Scheduling All P&G pilots work an itinerary planned well in advance, with very few pop-up flights. Hillsgrove explains, “Our schedule is as predictable as can be in this industry. P&G truly cares about its people. Just look at me. They saw a young kid and took a chance. They made a difference in my life and have entrusted me to do the same for others.” Hillsgrove still flies assignments, in addition to managing the pilots, scheduling, and assisting with hiring. Making sure all the pieces of the travel puzzle come together is Scheduling Manager John Hampton. After 6 years as an Air Force navigator, Hampton spent 30 years with the Ford Motor Company flight department until the company closed its flight department in 2008. He joined P&G in 2009. Along with 2 additional schedulers, Hampton receives travel requests, builds the trips, arranges the logistics, and coordinates with the pilots. Domestic trips are generally planned 30 days in advance, while international missions can be scheduled 3 months prior. His group also works with maintenance to ensure aircraft readiness, track progress, and complete post-flight paperwork. “This is a world-class organization with incredibly talented people at every level. It’s an honor to work here,” Hampton states.
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P&G’s 12-person maintenance team is able to perform most routine work and repairs on site at the company’s 60,000 sq ft hangar.
Maintenance minded Like the leader of the flight department, Director of Maintenance Bradley Hennis has a long history in the mechanical side of aviation. A friend’s father who worked at Piedmont Airlines introduced Hennis to aviation. “Growing up on the tobacco farms, as soon as I saw those planes, I knew that’s what I wanted to do,” Hennis recalls. After high school, Hennis worked for RJ Reynolds’ flight department while earning his A&P. When RJR moved to Atlanta, Hennis accepted a position with US Airways, which he held for 15 years. His next 10 years were with Lowe’s flight department, where he would rise to the level of chief of maintenance and aviation administrator. “I saw a lot of growth with Lowe’s, eventually being placed in charge of everything except the pilots. It was great experience,” he says. Hennis’ time at Lowe’s was followed by 4 years with Coca-Cola in Charlotte NC. In October 2019, the life-long North Carolina native finally left his home state when he accepted the DOM position with P&G. “I’ve only been here a month, but the team has been very welcoming, both professionally and personally,” Hennis states. He now oversees an experienced crew of 6 technicians, a maintenance supervisor, chief inspector, and 3 facility operations personnel. Hennis and his team perform most routine inspections, non-routine repairs, and service letters on site. Paint and major inspections are handled by manufacturer service centers. His team is quite busy, with the planes flying approximately 2000 hours per year. The Gulfstreams tackle the international routes, and the Challengers handle the domestic flights.
Pair of Bombardier Challenger 350s cover the domestic travel needs of company executives. Along with 2 Gulfstream G650ERs, the P&G flight department flies over 2000 hours per year.
Even with a bachelor’s degree in business, additional studies from The Darden Business School, numerous ratings, and impending NBAA CAM certification, Hennis continues to push himself and his team. “P&G has an incredible commitment to what we do. The facility, tooling, and aircraft, but mostly, the people. There is education offered at many levels, including developing the next generation of aviation leaders,” he relates. “This flight department truly works as ‘one department.’ It is made up of many roles working in an open, collaborative culture to achieve a common goal.” Further testimony to P&G’s mentoring of future team members is Chief Inspector David Melk. After a 4-year enlistment in the US Air Force as a C-130 crew chief, Melk attended Cincinnati Tech College to earn his A&P. While there, he was accepted to a P&G summer co-op program, which led to a full-time position in 1993. Starting as a line service tech, he worked his way to chief inspector. He now oversees quality control, parts receiving, flight permits, tool calibration, and more. For record-keeping, CAMP is utilized on the Gulfstreams and Flightdocs for the Bombardiers. Melk recognizes his good fortune to not only work here, but also see the appreciation of the P&G executive teams. “We know they absolutely count on us. We are driven to always make their requests happen and we’re proud of what we do,” Melk proclaims.
Community commitment P&G has a long history of supporting not only its employees, but also the communities where its people live and work. A shining example of this
dedication is the company’s involvement in the Corporate Angel Network (CAN). CAN matches the transportation needs of cancer patients with corporate flights that have available seats. P&G’s flight department has been involved with CAN since 1989 and has conducted 184 flights for those in need. The importance of this service came full circle when they were able to fly a patient across the country for medical treatment. This patient was a former P&G pilot who himself had been involved with the CAN program for many years.
Continuing the legacy For over 180 years, Procter & Gamble has been a part of the culture, throughout the US and every corner of the globe. Since the dawn of business aviation, they have used aircraft to stretch the company’s reach and expand its influence. Management’s unwavering support over the past 7 decades has created one of the finest aviation units in the industry. With a proactive eye toward the future, P&G’s aviation unit is well established to continue as an example for others, and Pro Pilot is proud to present it as the flight department of the year. Brent Bundy has been a police officer with the Phoenix Police Dept for 28 years. He has served in the PHX Air Support Unit for 18 years and is a helicopter rescue pilot with nearly 4000 hours of flight time. Bundy currently flies Airbus AS350B3s for the helicopter side of Phoenix PD’s air unit and Cessna 172, 182s and 210s for the fixed-wing side.
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P R O F E S S I O N A L P I L O T
HELICOPTER NEWS Bell delivers 407GXi in Canada
Leonardo AW139 in SAR/EMS configuration.
Miami-Dade Fire Rescue orders 4 Leonardo AW139 helicopters
eonardo signed a contract for 4 AW139 twin-engine helicopters with Miami-Dade Fire Rescue (MDFR). The aircraft will be used to perform a range of missions, primarily fire suppression, emergency medical services (EMS), and search and rescue (SAR). The helos will be outfitted with special equipment such as cargo hooks, rescue hoists and Bambi buckets. The 1st helicopter is expected to be delivered from Leonardo’s Philadelphia facility in Q3 2020. A comprehensive 5-year support, maintenance and training package will be provided, with the possibility of a further extension to a total of 15 years. “The safety of our MDFR operations team and the well-being of the residents we serve is our greatest priority. For those reasons, the crashworthiness standards of the top-ranked Leonardo helicopters were a key factor in our County’s decision to award this contract,” declared Miami-Dade County Mayor Carlos Giménez. “In addition, the purchase price, training services and support we will receive during the transition to these world-class aircraft were also strong considerations.” Miami-Dade is the most populous county in the state. It encompasses more than 2000 sq mi, with 1/3rd of the county located in Everglades National Park. Because of the scope of its operations, Miami-Dade Air Rescue is frequently requested to provide mutual aid support to neighboring counties, including Monroe, Collier, Broward and Lee. Starting in Q3 2020, this region will be better served by the added reliability of Leonardo AW139 helicopters.
ell announced the delivery of Canada’s 1st Bell 407GXi to Nova Scotia-based business Municipal Enterprises Limited. The aircraft is outfitted with newly certified on-board equipment, and features a custom designed interior. Municipal Enterprises will use the aircraft with respect to its multifaceted group of companies. “We are excited to take delivery of the Bell 407GXi, and we are confident the aircraft will provide customers with an enhanced travel experience,” said Harold Johnson, vice president of Municipal Enterprises Ltd. “The Bell 407GXi provides improved pilot awareness, higher precision navigation, enhanced engine controls, and improved inflight connectivity to smartphones and tablets. It’s a great addition to our business in Eastern Canada.” In 2018, Bell introduced the enhanced Bell 407 platform at Heli-Expo. The 407GXi model features the Garmin G1000H NXi integrated flightdeck and a new Rolls-Royce M250-C47E/4 engine with dual channel FADEC, which delivers better high and hot performance, full automatic relight, and the ability to cruise at 133 kts. Additional options for the 407GXi include Garmin FlightStream 510, which allows pilots to upload flight plans from smart devices; Garmin SurfaceWatch, which provides runway identification and alerting technology; a 3100-lb cargo hook; and health usage monitoring systems (HUMS) for aircraft system diagnostics. More than 1000 Bell aircraft operate in Canada, including those with the Royal Canadian Air Force and the Canadian Coast Guard.
Photo by Peter Handley
Photo courtesy Leonardo
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People Make The Difference
Leonardo is committed to delivering the highest quality of Customer support, advanced service solutions and a comprehensive range of training programs ensuring mission success; anytime, anywhere. A global network of over 90 Service Centers, 10 Logistic Support Centers, 5 Training Centers and a team of over 1,800 support and training professionals are dedicated to ensuring Customer satisfaction; 24/7, 365. Leonardo is investing in performance and infrastructure to strengthen network collaborations and expand its portfolio of digital solutions, providing state of the art technology for the operation and maintenance of Customer helicopters, offering the best service and support. Inspired by the vision, curiosity and creativity of the great master inventor Leonardo is designing the technology of tomorrow.
leonardocompany.com Helicopters | Aeronautics | Electronics, Defence & Security Systems | Space
MNT-19-0136 Pro Pilot Services You Can Rely On.indd 1 Heli News.indd 37
13/11/2019 16:05:36 12/3/19 10:18 AM
Altimeter settings Does the ATIS provide the current altimeter information?
CPDLC, ARINC, and ACRS are all digital formats for relay and dissemination of crucial flight information to include meteorological data. Altimeter settings are one such vital piece of information on which pilots rely for safe operations.
By Glenn Woodward Contributing Writer
onsider this scenario: You are on final to land at your destination aerodrome. Let’s say it’s a small airport in Europe. It is IFR and you’re at minimums due to visibility. You are on final at 2042z talking to the control tower, having been instructed to switch by approach. The ATIS for the airport recorded at 1945z is broadcasting an altimeter/QNH setting of 2989/1012. In the control tower, the TACMET/digital weather display shows a current altimeter/QNH of 2993/1014. You advise the tower you have the current ATIS code. Quick survey: Show of hands from pilots who would prefer an altimeter setting for the aerodrome from ATC that is 45 min to an hour old? Or show of hands from pilots who would prefer the current altimeter
setting for the aerodrome from ATC? Let’s look at the definition of current. For the sake of context, we’ll use entry 1 in the Merriam-Webster online dictionary: Current: (1) Occurring in or existing at the present time. (2) Presently elapsing. (3) Most recent.
Current information in altimeter settings I am an ATC instructor with 18 years of front-line military, FAA contract, and ICAO tower experience. I’ve worked in 10 very different and diverse facilities with multiple volume and complex combinations around the world, alongside controllers from 9 different countries. And while I’m no god of air traffic, I do have a few stories under my microphone. One
thing has remained constant during all my controlling adventures: I was trained to always keep pilots advised of all appropriate and current information necessary for the safe operation of their aircraft within our scope of authority and jurisdiction. During a recent and exciting foray into the ICAO world of ATC services in Afghanistan, I was exposed to several perspectives from numerous non-FAA controllers from around the globe. One such brush with a veteran ICAO controller and certified assessor gave me reason to investigate the idea of what may be considered current information, and how that applies to altimeter settings. Globally, air traffic control is accomplished in the English language (with exceptions) under exceptional circumstances and situations. All certified air traffic controllers are mandated to achieve and maintain,
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Air traffic control at AUH (Abu Dhabi, UAE). All certified controllers are mandated to achieve and maintain, at an absolute minimum, level 4 English.
at an absolute minimum, level 4 English proficiency. Flyers who operate in airspace outside of the US may have experienced occasions when they knew the controller was speaking – or at least trying to communicate – in English, but wasn’t quite there. In addition, some readers may have seen or read recent articles and postings on aviation publications that speak to the issue of “English” versus “aviation English” and having (or not) a strong grasp of the nuanced differences that exist in that arena. Classes, courses, and articles abound to highlight the potential dangers of mimicking English words using minimum muscle memory with appropriate syntax, word accents, and dialects compared to understanding each word as uttered, along with the weight and value carried by its meaning and implications. International flyers may also have experienced the thin line between hearing and understanding non-native English speaking controllers issuing ATC instructions in “English-ish.” As pointed out in the articles noted above, there is arguably a remarkable “otherness” to aviation English throughout the world such that it is worth continuing to discuss and address.
Current ATIS vs current altimeter ICAO Document Annex 11 and FAA JO Order 71110.65 both address the ATIS and altimeter setting as it is to be issued by Air Traffic Control Services (ATCS). FAA JO 7110.65, 2–9–2, paragraph d says, ”Controllers must ensure that pilots receive the most current pertinent information. Ask the pilot to confirm receipt of the current ATIS information if the pilot does not initially state the appropriate ATIS code. Controllers must ensure that changes to pertinent operational information are provided after the initial confirmation of ATIS information is established.” ICAO Annex 11, chapter 4, addresses flight information service, and when and how it’s provided – the “how” being directly from meteorological sources via CPDLC, other digital means, ATIS (voice), or air traffic control officer (ATCO). “When” depends on the phase of flight, quickly changing weather conditions, or a request from the pilot. At more and more locations, the ATIS system draws immediately and directly from meteorological sources and provides the most current data. Pre-flight brief-
ings or pilot familiarity will determine the availability of real-time data from the destination airport ATIS, and can be trusted as appropriate. ICAO Annex 11, 4.1.1, says, “Flight information service shall be provided to all aircraft which are likely to be affected by the information and which are: a) provided with air traffic control service; or b) otherwise known to the relevant air traffic services units.” In other words, if ATCS has the information, and the aircraft is likely to be affected by the information, then it shall be communicated appropriately to that/those aircraft. One item of said information is an altimeter setting (QNH/QFE). ICAO Annex 11, 4.3.6, provides for the situation in which the aircraft shall acknowledge receipt of the ATIS. The ATC facility shall reply, as prescribed by the ATS authority, and “provide the aircraft with the current altimeter setting.” It goes on to say that the meteorological information shall be extracted from the local meteorological routine or special report (184.108.40.206, g). However, just 2 paragraphs later (220.127.116.11), Annex 11 reiterates the necessity of issuing a current altimeter setting (QNH/QFE). PROFESSIONAL PILOT / December 2019 39
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The runway is the reference plane for altimeter settings at airports. As barometric pressures fluctuate, pilots must be kept advised of all altimeter setting changes for safe arrival and departure operations.
What “current” actually means Let me clarify that. ICAO Annex 11 states that ATS will provide the current altimeter setting (QNH/ QFE), notwithstanding what the ATIS is broadcasting (even though it, in and of itself, is a current ATIS). In other words, when the pilot has reported in with the correct (current) ATIS code with an altimeter setting, the responding controller must issue the current altimeter setting (QNH/ QFE) from the weather display, as displayed in the facility from direct weather sensors (if it is different from what is being broadcast). That is what “current” altimeter setting means – not the altimeter setting broadcast from the current ATIS. The problem with my former ICAO associate was that he insisted that the altimeter setting issued to aerodrome arriving aircraft be the same setting that is broadcast on the current ATIS, even though the control tower cab had a duplicate weather display tied directly to the same sensors meteo had, and it showed the same real-time data that meteo was shown. His position was that all aircraft should have the same altimeter setting to keep them vertically separated in the class D airspace. Huh? If we were to extend his logic, then
we should also have been issuing the winds from the “current” ATIS as well, and that would not work at all. His ATC experience was predominantly area and approach control, where altimeter settings at altitude are crucial because aircraft have to have a reference point (single altimeter setting) to ensure proper vertical separation. This is where it’s very important to distinguish between English and aviation English. What I tried to impress upon him was the fact that the aerodrome already provides a solid reference point for vertical separation – the runway – which, in most places, is fixed and is not going to fluctuate vertically, except in the event of severe earthquakes. He had associated “current” with the “current ATIS,” ignoring the need for a “current altimeter setting” (QNH/QFE) that is available in real time.
proach the airfield. It is the correct setting, which gives them altitude information in reference to the landing runway. Granted, many – if not most – pilots that close to terra firma will most likely be using a radar-altimeter, although the back-up barometric pressure altimeter should be at an appropriately calibrated setting. My suggestion is this. When flying in the international arena or any unfamiliar airspace environment, ask/ insist on the current altimeter setting from the sensor as it reads right then. This is especially crucial during very-low-temperature flight operations. Do not rely on the ATIS broadcast to always provide the most current information, as it pertains to the current altimeter setting that is indicative of the affecting weather.
Conclusion It is possible that I am the one misreading the words and misinterpreting them, thus misapplying them as well. However, having asked thousands of pilots over the years, I firmly believe that the current altimeter at the airport of intended landing is the one pilots prefer as they ap-
Glenn Woodward is an air traffic controller with 18 years of tower experience in the US, UK, and Afghanistan. He is an FAA-licensed flight dispatcher as well as a veteran flightcrew member on
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Bombardier Safety Standdown Annual event promotes training, discipline and responsibility as essential elements of flight operations.
The Omni Hotel in Ft Worth TX was a comfortable setting for the 23rd annual standdown. The speaker stage was flanked by large screens so that all seats in the house were provided effective viewing. Behind the speaker is the motto of safety standdown: Learn. Apply. Share.
By Marty Rollinger
ATP. Challenger 600 & 604, Falcon 2000 EASy and McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Contributing Writer
conducted a safety standdown as a continuous improvement initiative, and decided to invite others in the industry. Andy Nureddin, Bombar-
dier VP customer support, describes the event, “For 2 decades, Bombardier has led the industry in knowledge-based aviation safety training through this event. Safety Standdown is a platform to exchange ideas, discuss safety topics, and broaden knowledge on aviation safety.” For this, the 23rd iteration of the standdown, the venue was switched from Wichita to Fort Worth TX. It was held at the Omni Hotel. Franco Pietracupa, Bombardier demo pilot and event emcee, gave a phone number where attendees and web attendees could text their questions. At the introductory session, industry leaders set the tone. “Safety Standdown wants to challenge you to raise your game to evaluate and expand your personal standards,” declares Andy Nureddin. Tim Miller, the director of the Office of Air Carrier Safety Assurance at the FAA, describes the event as the best known and well respected aviation safety conference. Steve Brown, chief operating officer at NBAA, says it is a must attend event.
he annual Bombardier Safety Standdown took place for 3 exhilarating days commencing November 12. Registration for the free event opened in August and more than 700 people flooded enrollment. Approximately 540 were accommodated, with the remainder of registrants waitlisted. While titled Bombardier Safety Standdown because Bombardier is the initiator, organizer and leader, the event is open to all pilots, mechanics, flight attendants, schedulers and managers, regardless of what type of equipment they operate. The theme for this year’s workshop was “Elevate Your Standards.” Safety Standdown was the idea of Bob Agostino from the Bombardier Learjet Flight Demonstration Team in Wichita KS. The demo pilots
Presented by USAF Lt Col Dr Tony Kern (ret).
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Each morning started with a 4-hour general session for all attendees in the large ballroom turned lecture hall. Dr Tony Kern, a perennial favorite, was the leadoff presenter. “Standdowners are a tribe of doers,” he says. The morning general sessions were live webcast to a worldwide Internet audience. Franco announced that there were over 8600 Internet connections from 25 different countries around the world. Afternoons offered ala carte sessions. A small sampling of session titles included hypoxia awareness, winter ops, ambiguous cockpit info, maintenance errors, leading safety, and international ops. Wednesday night, the middle night of standdown, attendees were treated to a cocktail reception and banquet dinner. The guest speaker was Astronaut Tom Henricks, who shared entertaining personal stories that meshed wonderfully with the conference theme. The evening concluded with presentation of the Safety Award. This year’s winner was standdown regular Michael Ott from Phoenix Air Group. In his acceptance remarks, he called the standdown “the ultimate act of corporate citizenship.”
Available online If you were unable to attend but interested in learning from the presentations, you are invited to view the recorded video webcast sessions at https://safetystanddown.com. Prior year webcast videos are available as far back as 2015. Bombardier Safety Standdown promotes knowledge-based aviation safety training along with personal discipline and responsibility as essential elements of aviation safety. The program direction, content, theme and award winner are chosen with the advice of a 12-person advisory council made up of operators and educators of diverse backgrounds. Safety Standdown is a landmark event to not only promote safety in aviation, but also to highlight leadership and professionalism in all aspects of our industry. This event is completely free to attendees, which is an extraordinarily generous gesture to the business aviation community on behalf of Bombardier, with contributions from
Creating your own standards 1. Existing standards may be Incomplete, inadequate, or incorrect. 2. Begin the process of standards creation with a clean slate and determine your desired outcome(s) with clarity and precision. 3. Be realistic in implementation adding in the comprehensive details required for effective introduction and application of the standard. Presented by Randall Brooks. Aviation Performance Solutions.
Rising above technology: Performance standards for 21 st century airmanship 1. Raising standards – yours and your company’s – is synonymous with constant improvement. 2. It’s not a temporary engagement – it’s a daily commitment. 3. You can target your efforts directly at the technology environment you work in. 4. You can begin today with the “to do” list provided in this talk. Presented by Chris Lutat. Convergent Performance LLC.
Proactive fatigue risk management 1. Flight departments should establish clear fatigue risk management policies and procedures, provide training to crewmembers, and set flight and duty schedules that provide for adequate rest opportunity. 2. Objective measures should be employed to verify that flight and duty schedules provide for adequate rest opportunity. 3. Individual crew members must use their off-duty time to get the rest that they need to ensure that they report for duty in a fit state. 4. Standard operating procedures that include objective measures should be employed to verify crewmember fitness for duty. Presented by Daniel Mollicone, PhD. Pulsar Informatics.
What matters 1. Return with a purpose – Choose to make a difference. 2. Beware of parentheses – Stay inside the boundaries of compliance. Know your job. Do your job. 3. Ride the “Want to Vector”– Put forth effort to summons all your potential to be your best. Presented by USN Capt Al Gorthy (ret).
partners NBAA and CAE, and sponsors Baldwin Safety & Compliance, CommScope, Duke Energy, London Air Services, Norfolk Southern and ACASS. Next year we are told to expect Bombardier Safety Standdown to be back in Wichita during the month of August. Watch for the official announcement and be sure to register in the first few days.
Marty Rollinger has over 35 years of flight experience in 68 different aircraft. A career US Marine Corps pilot, he was a Liethen-Tittle Award graduate of USAF Test Pilot School. He is director of flight ops for a Midwestern operator and a member of the Falcon Operator Advisory Board.
PROFESSIONAL PILOT / December 2019 43
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Bizav missions to and within Mexico It’s important for GA users to understand the local rules and regs, and to carry hard copies of all required paperwork.
Manny’s Aviation Services & Manny’s Catering at TLC (Toluca, Mexico) is always standing by with full bizav support services. Good-quality ground handling is available at airports throughout Mexico.
By Grant McLaren Editor-at-Large
hile business aviation traffic remains strong to many work and leisure destinations in Mexico, tourism-related general aviation (GA) has been down somewhat over the past year, say international support providers (ISPs). In spite of this, Mexico continues to maintain its place as a frequent and inviting country for N-registered private and charter ops. However, in order to ensure a successful journey to this part of the world, it’s important to understand both the rules and potential operating idiosyncrasies. “GA traffic has not been too rosy lately, in part because foreign investment in Mexico is down and current government policies may be perceived as less business-friendly,” declares Manny Aviation Services & Manny’s Catering Mexico Managing Dir Manuel Romero Vargas Jr. “But there are many positives to consider. Traffic to popular resort destinations remains strong, ground support options continue to improve, and we’re a welcoming destination for business aviation.”
Main business and tourism spots Popular tourism locations include SJD (San José del Cabo), CSL (Cabo San Lucas), CUN (Cancún) and PVR (Puerto Vallarta), with peak tourism season running from mid-November through late April. Primary business destinations include TLC (Toluca), MTY (Monterrey del Norte) and QRO (Querétaro), although GA movements are down to BJX (Guanajuato) and SLP (San Luis Potosí). Recommended tech stops include QRO and ACA (Acapulco), where services are quick and congestion is minimal. “A tech stop at TLC can be a highly complex and slow procedure, with turn times well over one hour,” says Vargas. “At TLC, you’ll need to clear customs, immigration and quarantine on both arrival and departure, and you’ll have to reposition for fuel uplift.” Charter operators need to be mindful that review and scrutiny of documentation has increased and become more commonplace. Digital copies of Mexican insurance policies are not always accepted, so it’s always best to have an original hard copy on board. Note also that every process and application submitted to AFAC
(the Mexican Civil Aviation Federal Agency) must name a legal representative via a power of attorney. Meanwhile, a new airport slated to serve Mexico City seems to be going nowhere. Construction of a new facility at NLU (Santa Lucia AFB), about 14 miles from MEX (Mexico City), was suspended by the new government about a year ago, and a planned highway has not yet been put in.
Ground handling ISPs say handling services are generally good in Mexico – sometimes very good. “You’ll not find FBOs outside major business and tourism destinations, but support services will be at least adequate,” says Jeppesen Vendor Relations Specialist Jeff Rupprecht. “A good local ground handler will keep you on schedule and help protect you from unknowingly getting into trouble.” Avfuel Account Manager David Kang adds, “The key here is to deal with reputable and efficient local handlers. A lot of shady handling activity goes on, so it’s important to use legitimate and vetted handlers. Someone who approaches you for handling could just be some random
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Handling, FBO & In-Flight Catering coordination in MEXICO Intl Ops-12-19 lyt.indd 45
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Cabo San Lucas region (left) is one of the most popular tourism hot stops in the country. Bizav ramp at CSL (Cabo San Lucas, Mexico) is accommodating, but it tends to fill up from time to time during holiday periods and peak season weekends.
guy hanging out on the ramp. We’ve had clients in the past who were busted by airport authorities for using these back-door handlers.”
Private and charter permits ITPS Ops Mgr Ben Fuller points out that, while there have been no major regulatory changes in Mexico, ramp checks have been elevated. “Local officials are still on the lookout for charter ops not properly declared as charter, and they want to ensure you have correct, valid and required documentation on board,” he says. Both single and multi-entry landing authorizations (MEAs) are available for private ops to Mexico. Single-landing authorization is usually issued on arrival, after providing aircraft and pilot documents. Private MEAs can also be obtained upon arrival at some airports, or via Mexican authorities in Mexico City. ISPs recommend frequent operators obtain an MEA valid for a calendar year, as it can save money and time. “In our experience, having an annual private permit usually pays you back within about 3 trips, while making life and trip planning easier,” continues Kang. In the realm of charter ops, both single-landing authorizations and indefinite blanket permits (IBPs) are possible. Since single-landing authorizations can be time consuming, plan on at least 4 hours before takeoff to complete the permit process. Be mindful that Mexican CAA will
cut charter operators off, at some point, in their ability to obtain 1-time permits. The good news is that, once you’ve submitted an IBP application, you’ll be permitted single charter landing authorizations while it’s in process. Moreover, IBPs provide the benefits of covering an entire fleet, saving time and operational costs while being relatively easy to modify in terms of adding or removing aircraft from your fleet.
Cabotage Cabotage is always a consideration with AFAC. “There are numerous cases in which approvals or
denials for operations considered to be cabotage have indicated varying interpretations made using different criteria,” says Vargas. “Every time cabotage is suspected, it’s best to verify and check with your handler to avoid issues.” Foreign-registered charters are not normally permitted to make more than 1 stop in Mexico,” reminds Vargas. “Each airport comander, however, has authority to grant special authorizations as he/she sees fit. Have a discussion with your ISP or local handler in advance to avoid any problems.” Kang says that, while permit enforcement has become stricter, AFAC
Customs clearance for international arrivals into Mexico works on a green and red light system. You push a button and, if a red light comes on, you’re in for a more in-depth inspection.
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ICCS Monterrey FBO (L) has supported GA ops for more than 20 years. Monterrey, capital of Nuevo León, is a major business and industrial center.
has clarified rules on what constitutes cabotage. “Private operators can generally move freely within Mexico, even when carrying Mexican nationals. But, for domestic circulation as a charter, you’ll need express permission from AFAC, which can be problematic, particularly for shorter-notice ops.” Note that Mexico has no requirement for overflight permits. You must, however, keep track of your overflights and ensure that applicable nav fees are paid, otherwise you’ll find yourself blocked from Mexican airspace at some point.
Insurance requirements Charter operators must always carry insurance policies issued by a Mexican company, but private operators are technically not required to do so. “Unfortunately, insurance requirements for private ops in Mexico remain a gray area,” explains Vargas. “While Mexican insurance is mandatory under law for charter, a general worldwide policy is technically acceptable for private ops. The problem is that many local airport authorities want and expect to see Mexican policies for all operators.” Likewise, Kang recommends that all operators have Mexican insurance policies. “Airport comandantes often insist on seeing a Mexican insurance policy. If you don’t have this, you could end up arguing with local authorities when you arrive,” he says.
Cost of operations Mexico is considered a reasonably priced operating environment, compared to Europe or Asia. However, it’s generally more expensive than the US, Canada or South America. Note that permit prices tend to be updated annually, and nav fees for overflights must be paid in a timely manner. Overflight fees must be paid directly from a Mexican bank account, or your local handler can do this for you to avoid potential fines. “Operating to CUN, CSL or TLC can cost you $3500–4000 per stop, while landing at smaller locations may run closer to $1200–1500 per stop,” estimates Kang. “Expect costs to be higher than normal at locations with only 1 handler on the field, as you’ll have no alternative.”
Documentation and procedures There are mandates concerning equipment requirements for all operators wishing to obtain or renew their aircraft operating certificate (AOC). If you do not have all specified equipment, Mexican authorities will reject permit requests. CAA may verify aircraft and crew documentation at any time. Be prepared for random ramp checks by having original hard copies of aircraft documents, as well as licenses and insurance. Passports are a requirement for all nationalities entering Mexico, including US citizens. Also,
any crew changes must be communicated to your ground handler, as failure to do so will invalidate your landing authorization or MEA. “If the crew is modified, your single-landing authorization or MEA will normally be cancelled, and a new request must be presented,” points out Vargas.
Private letter requirement For all private GA ops to Mexico, a letter should be carried and forwarded to your ground handler on a per-flight basis. It must specify that your flight is for private purposes. If you do not have this letter, you can expect delays and a hard time, especially at popular destinations. “This private ops letter needs to be sent to your local handler prior to each flight into Mexico,” says Jeppesen Vendor Relations Specialist Scott Taylor. “It states the purpose of your flight and the name of the lead passenger with his/her connection to the company. This letter is just another way to help separate legitimate private flights from charter flights disguised as private.” Additional information to be submitted with this letter, on company letterhead, includes date of operation, company name, aircraft type, registration number, and full flight schedule. You’ll need to specify if the primary passenger is the owner or a representative of the company, and if he/she will be accompanied by staff or relatives. PROFESSIONAL PILOT / December 2019 47
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Cancún is a major destination for both business and leisure activities. CUN (Cancún, Mexico) offers world-class infrastructure, and excellent ground handling services are available here for business aviation flyers.
Corruption and graft Making side payments to airport comandantes or support providers is considered malpractice. “Always ensure that your local handlers are not complicit in giving graft to government officials, as we all need to fight against corruption,” states Vargas. Kang adds, “Reputable handlers don’t want you to give out cash tips. Back-door tipping is discouraged, and efforts are being made to remove ground handlers that don’t have proper authorizations.” While it’s nice to think that graft and government corruption are things of the past, this is not necessarily the case. “Any time you venture into Latin America, tips can help,” points out Fuller. “But side payments to government officials are fading compared to what they had been. When it does happen, ISPs often do not hear about it.”
Avoid temptations to self handle ISPs rate support from very good to dismal, depending on location and ground handling. “Things may not always happen precisely and on time as they might in Switzerland, but things will get done eventually,” says Kang. “But don’t take chances with self handling because fuel trucks may not show up, catering may be delivered to the wrong side of the field, you could face language barriers, and you may need to pay kickbacks to se-
cure services. Reputable ground handlers know all the local contact numbers and will protect you from having to hand out tips here and there.” Vargas points out that at TLC it’s mandatory that all operators use a ground handler. “You need to do this to ensure a parking spot for embarkation/disembarkation.” he says. “Otherwise, you could end up on the far side of the field with hourslong delays.”
Security considerations “Border towns in Mexico do have potential to be dangerous, but main tourist locations don’t seem any more dangerous today then they had been,” observes Kang. Thieves and drug cartel members have not been known to specifically target GA ops, so it’s usually not recommended or necessary to organize secure or armed local transport in Mexico. However, it is advisable to practice common sense, be aware of your surroundings, use pre-vetted local transport, and be cautious when entering crowded areas. ISPs say the toll highway between TLC and Mexico City is considered safe, but Scott points out that you could be stopped and asked for money when traveling on some toll-free roads.
Summary When landing in Mexico from South America, Central America or
the Caribbean, you must first stop at either CZM (Cozumel) or TAP (Tapachula). This is mandatory for all ops other than diplomatic flights. The required security check may take up to a couple of hours and involves shutting down engines along with full security screening of aircraft, passengers and crew. To avoid complications, carry complete hard copies of all required paperwork and make sure your insurance is current and valid. “Reporting a charter flight as private or having incomplete paperwork could result in hefty fines and having your aircraft grounded until fines are paid in full,” warns Vargas. “Providing all necessary information and paperwork to your handler in advance saves possible headaches and delays.” Kang reminds that, when flying to and within Mexico, it’s important that GA users fully understand the operating environment so that they know what they’re in for and are able to evaluate options.
Editor-at-Large Grant McLaren has written for Pro Pilot for over 40 years and specializes in corporate flight department coverage.
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Satellite constellations and ADS-B In perspective, global navigation satellite systems hold the potential to grow beyond aircraft positioning capabilities.
An overview of some satellite-based augmentation systems available today. The footprint coverage for WAAS and the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System (EGNOS) are actually larger than shown.
By Bill Gunn
ATP/CFII Pro Pilot Regulations and Compliance Specialist
here are several worldwide global navigation satellite system (GNSS) constellations. GPS was the 1st to be deployed. The European Union’s Galileo is strictly for civil use and is available to all with more than 24 satellites to be fully deployed by 2020. Galileo is compatible with US satellite air navigation systems, including LPV arrivals. The Chinese BeiDou system is expanding to become a global network with 35 satellites in place by 2020. The Russian GLONASS constellation is deployed worldwide but not available for air navigation for US-equipped aircraft. Although BeiDou and GLONASS may not support certified naviga-
tion systems, they are available for non-certified aids to navigation and non-certified electronic flight bags (EFBs). The more satellites an onboard system can choose from, the better the accuracy – even if there is no differential correction for the system. While the major satellite systems are worldwide, without differential correction none of these systems can meet the accuracy requirements for vertically guided terminal arrival procedures. Each such differential correction system is defined to a specific region. Called satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS), the US wide area augmentation system (WAAS) was the 1st deployed. Ground receivers with a highly accurate known position across the US, Canada, and Mexico relay a correction factor to airborne navigation systems using geostationary communication satellites. Similar
differential correction systems are available for other areas in the world.
Satellite navigation and ATC Air traffic control (ATC) in the US is ready for the Jan 2, 2020 transition to Automatic Dependent Surveillance–Broadcast (ADS-B). The final systems put in place as of late 2019 were for the last of 155 terminal arrival locations. Differentially-corrected certified satellite navigators on board aircraft supply the position information to ATC via ground relay sites. Position, speed, height, and ID information is transmitted every second by the aircraft. While ADS-B will be primary for surveillance, it is not the only means available to controllers. The decision was made not to require the controller to know specifically how each position update is derived. Second-
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ary radar, wide area multilateration (WAM), and other ground-based navaids can also contribute to position updates. The ATC system simply manages inputs from the various systems and presents the most valid position to the controller. The number of radar sites is being reduced, mainly in the enroute structure. However, radar coverage will be maintained, albeit with fewer backup sites. WAM is a ground-based cluster of transceivers that interrogate an aircraft transponder simultaneously. The slightly different time of arrival of the reply to each ground transceiver defines the aircraft’s position. The 1st US WAM clusters were installed in eastern Colorado to provide coverage in the Rockies for Denver Center, where radar coverage is limited. Additional WAM sites are in use in the National Airspace System (NAS) to augment radar and ADS-B if needed. Although ADS-B is primary for surveillance, radar, WAM, and systems such as ground-based augmentation systems (GBAS), digital DME, and pseudolites (ground-based systems that provide positioning signals to on-board satellite navigation systems) will be part of the mix for the NAS. GBAS is similar to satellite-based augmentation, but the correction signal is transmitted directly to the aircraft line of sight. In the US, only IAH (Houston TX) and EWR (Newark NJ) have public GBAS systems for arrival. One looming consideration in all of this is the real possibility that satellite signals might be denied for a length of time because of extreme solar flare activity or intentional jamming, so ATC must maintain adequate alternate position systems to manage traffic in such a case. The integration of these multiple systems will be handled automatically so the controllers sees the best solution to manage traffic.
Iridium NEXT satellites Iridium NEXT are low-orbit satellites which have the capability to receive ADS-B Out signals on 1090 Extended Squitter (ES). While the US has 1090ES in all of the NAS, and 978 UAT below Class A airspace, it should be noted that 1090ES is the world standard for ADS-B Out signals. Considering only about 30%
Typical wide area multilateration transceiver. These are in use in multiple locations worldwide. One benefit is that aircraft only need a transponder to provide positioning information to ATC.
of the world has radar coverage, a means to track aircraft via satellite vs ground-based receiver sites and provide the potential for worldwide tracking, is tantalizing. Iridium, Aireon, FlightAware, and Nav Canada were primary partners in this spacebased ADS-B reception technology. Iridium NEXT satellites orbit at 485 miles up, as opposed to GNSS systems, which are in the 10,000 to 11,000-mile range. There are at least 66 Iridium satellites in orbit to ensure full-time coverage. The partners in this system can provide turn-key surveillance for aircraft equipped with ADS-B Out with no additional instruments required other than the possibility of a top-mounted ADS-B Out antenna. While Nav Canada will require this install, FAA has not declared yet, but will run a test using NEXT satellite tracking in the Caribbean region starting in March 2020. This is just a test to determine if antenna diversity is required for NEXT reception. Several other organizations are contracting with FlightAware for NEXT surveillance information, including Italy’s ENAV, the UK NATS, Ireland’s IAA, and NavAir in Denmark. All of this will take some time to implement, coordinate, and ensure continuous coverage contingency.
Aireon ALERT Beyond surveillance, Aireon offers a public service to the world’s aviation industry for emergency locating and tracking of ADS-B-equipped aircraft. Aireon’s aircraft locating and emergency response tracking (ALERT) is a global emergency aircraft location service that comes at no cost to the user, and does not require the customer be a client of Aireon or IAA. Users of the ALERT system only have to register with the Irish Aviation Authority North Atlantic Communications Center in Ballygirreen. Online registration is available at www.aireonalert.com. In emergency situations where an aircraft cannot otherwise be located, a pre-registered aviation stakeholder can call the Aireon ALERT 24/7 phone number and provide the missing aircraft’s flight ID or unique ICAO 24-bit address, which is shown in the FAA database as “Mode S Code (base 16/hex).” The Aireon ALERT operator will then locate the last known position of the aircraft and, if found, will provide that location in WGS 84 coordinates to the aviation stakeholder over the phone. The operator will also e-mail a report of the location of the missing aircraft to the aviation stakeholder. PROFESSIONAL PILOT / December 2019 51
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GADSS is made up of standards and operating procedures for airlines and operators for normal tracking, as well as tracking for aircraft in distress.
Image courtesy Iridium
ADS-B and protocol
Visual depiction of coverage for Iridium NEXT satellites. There are 6 plains of rotation with 11 satellites in each plane in near pole-to-pole orbits. Each satellite can track ADS-B Out during its 100-minute orbit. Data is relayed from satellite to satellite, then to the appropriate ground site.
ADS-B tracking and positioning is required in transponder airspace in the USA starting in 2020. How will aviation change in the USA and what are the prospects for the future?
For routine fleet management, Aireon and FlightAware offer Global Beacon – a fleet tracking service using NEXT satellites. A position and altitude fix can be observed on a 1-minute interval for aircraft equipped with ADS-B Out. Customers can expect positioning information reported for their fleet anywhere in the world via Global Beacon at
least every 15 minutes with this, and the service will increase to every minute by 2021 for any aircraft in distress. All that is required is for the aircraft to be ADS-B Out capable on 1090ES, and have antenna diversity with top-mounted antennas. The ICAO requirement under the global aeronautical distress safety system (GADSS) is met by Global Beacon.
ATC has been using satellite positioning for some time as part of the mix for surveillance – radar being primary until the transition date. A few lessons have been learned and some clarification has already come up. FAA stated in the Federal Register on July 3, 2019 (FAA 2019 0539 0001) guidelines for use of a Service Availability Prediction Tool (SAPT), which is required for some operators and available to all. SAPT estimates probability of loss of GPS coverage along the filed route of flight. Stated in this final rule is, “After January 1, 2020, unless otherwise authorized by ATC, all aircraft operating in the airspace identified in § 91.225 must comply with the ADS-B Out performance requirements in § 91.227. There are circumstances outside of an operator’s control that may result in a temporary degradation of GPS performance and an apparent violation of § 91.227. An operator may exercise due diligence in performing a preflight availability prediction for its intended route of flight but experience rerouting by ATC after obtaining an initial ATC route clearance, which may cause an unanticipated degradation of performance. Additionally, an operator may encounter actual GPS interference on its intended path of flight, which would affect the ability of an aircraft to meet the performance requirements of § 91.227. Lastly, an operator may not be able to complete a preflight availability prediction for its intended route of flight due to the FAA’s SAPT being out of service. As previously explained, the FAA recognizes that these situations are outside of the operator’s control. Therefore, the FAA will not consider these events to constitute noncompliance with § 91.227 due to the circumstances discussed in this document to the extent such an application would impose a standard of conduct wholly outside the operator’s control.” Essentially, an operator required to use SAPT and doing so would not be in violation of FAR 91.227 in the explained circumstances. The most
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Transaction #: 1NZCH03GZG0MF Prediction time: 2018: 03:15 23:54 (Z) Departure time: 2018: 03:16 10:00 (Z) Try again with your departure time offset by 15 minutes Name
A sample SAPT reply. Note the prediction that GPS may not be available over ACY (Atlantic City NJ) but that alternate surveillance is predicted to be available. The system can recommend, as above, offsetting departure time by 15 minutes for possible improved coverage.
recent SAPT user guide is available at https://sapt.faa.gov/default.php. FAA issued Exemption Nº 12555, a time-limited grant of exemption from § 91.227(c)(1)(i) and (iii) ADS-B Out performance requirements for the period from January 1, 2020 through December 31, 2024 for some operators. Those under this exemption must follow specific guidelines for GPS predictability and routing.
Formation If 2 or more aircraft are operating in close formation, the air traffic controller may now request all aircraft in the flight (except the leader) to place ADS-B Out in standby. In such a case, ATC treats the formation as a single aircraft for the purposes of separation and sequencing.
Other issues FAA is finding numerous errors with ADS-B system installations, one of which is a flight ID associated with the incorrect ICAO 24-bit address. Aircraft with a fixed N registration can have this corrected by their avionics shop, and those with random changing callsigns will require ADS-B Out transmitters that can be configured for call sign. The rules require the bit address and call
sign match what is filed as well as what the “Out” system transmits. Finally, revised AC 91-85B (1/29/19) provides relief from a letter of authorization (LoA) from an FSDO for some Part 91 US operators seeking reduced vertical separation minimums. Only the LoA requirement is dropped if the aircraft is equipped with ADS-B Out. All other requirements for installation, inspection, maintenance, and training remain.
A beginning Mandatory ADS-B Out in the NAS is a milestone. But there are other developing systems in the cockpit. Controller pilot data link communications (CPDLC), for example, is growing to replace voice control with text over a staged period. Departure or pre-departure clearances have been available at 55 US hub airports, and CPDLC is in use for transoceanic operations, as well as in the Pacific Rim and Europe. FAA has sector handoffs via CPDLC for those so equipped. Voice communication will remain and CPDLC is not mandatory for most operators. Traffic via ADS-B In is advisory for most of the fleet and, unlike TCAS II, it is not a stand-alone traffic separation device. Regardless, the new domestic ICAO flightplan format has a
block to advise ATC of any aircraft’s ability to observe traffic via ADS-B, so the value of this tool is understood. Minimum performance standards for ADS-B In traffic are defined in TSO C195b and discussed in AC 20-172B, Airworthiness Approval for ADS-B In Systems and Applications. Aircraft that must have ground traffic “In” capability as well as certain traffic to follow and In trail capabilities via In traffic are a hint to the long-range possibilities for traffic in the cockpit. Today we must concentrate on the shift from radar to satellite-based positioning, and the increase in capabilities this provides for ATC. The only certainty is that, once this is better understood, the capacity for technology growth is there. Bill Gunn is former manager of airport compliance and training for the Texas DOT, Aviation Division. Gunn retired from the USAF flying the RF-4C Phantom, including 18 months in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War, flew corporate for 10 years and managed federal contracts for aviation services. He lectures throughout the US for an international aviation advocacy group.
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By Karsten Shein
Photo by USAF Staff Sgt Eric Harris
Smoke and ash
A C-130 Hercules drops fire retardant on a wildfire. Non-firefighting aircraft ﬂying too close to fires can create a collision hazard in the reduced visibility created by the smoke.
Comm-Inst Climate Scientist
Lengthening wildfire seasons create challenging conditions for pilots.
he pilots had gotten the word from Anchorage Center as they crossed over the Aleutians enroute to STS (Santa Rosa CA). The airport had closed an hour earlier and would likely not reopen that day due to being in a wildfire evacuation zone. Crew acknowledged and dialed in their alternate – APC (Napa CA). Descending from cruise level, they could see the widespread blanket of smoke, and a large swath of charred landscape where a major wildfire raged. Although the fire was still well north of the airport, their entire approach would have to be on instruments – there was no way they’d be able to pick up a visual until at least the inner marker. Complicating things, the wind whipping those fires was strong. A ridge-top station near the fire recorded a sustained 50-kt wind with gusts reaching 80. Winds at APC were relatively lighter – 20 kts gusting to 36. Although crosswind wouldn’t be too bad on Rwy 36, the gusts would make for an uncomfortable approach. Descending through 8000 ft, slant range visibility began to deteriorate. Soon, the crew was fully on instruments as the pilots stuck to the glidepath. Outside, the sky was a murky whitish-brown. Passing through 2000 54
ft, the aircraft jolted off the glidepath as they hit a layer of stronger wind. The offshore windstorm that was fanning the flames was moving air above a stable marine layer. That wind was slowly mixing in with the surface air, and producing moderate windshear as it did so. The aircraft was fast approaching the decision height when the copilot called out that he had the runway. It was just a vague dark rectangle in the windscreen, but they could see it, as well as the runway end lights. The FBO radioed that they’d meet the aircraft with face masks because the air quality was very bad. The worst issue now was that both pilots’ homes, as well as that of their CEO, were in the evacuation area. They’d all have to wait out the fire with friends at a safe distance away.
Fire fuel While wildfires are nothing new, recent years have seen longer droughts and stronger windstorms across many areas that are historically prone to conflagrations. This has extended the “wildfire season” in many of these places to a nearyear-round menace. But what does this mean for aviation?
Wildfires can form any place there is fuel and an ignition source. That fuel is dry timber, grasses, and other dead or dried out organic matter. Those who fight wildfires refer to the fuel by time, as in 1-hr, 10-hr, 100-hr and 1000-hr fuels. These fuel ratings roughly correspond to the diameter of the fuel and refer to the approximate time it takes a fuel of that diameter to dry out as ambient humidity drops. Accordingly, 1-hr fuels are thin grasses and scrub, generally under 1/4 inch diameter, which takes only an hour or so to dry to a moisture level equivalent to the surrounding air; 10-hr fuels are 1/4 to 1 inch diameter; 100-hr fuels range from 1 to 3 inches diameter; and 1000-hr fuels are 3 to 8 inches in diameter, meaning it would take a larger dead tree branch about 1000 hrs to dry out. A reason that wildfire managers use this scale is that it makes it easier to track the availability of dry fuels and to understand how quickly the vegetation in a particular location might respond to a sudden shift toward favorable fire conditions. That information can help assess the likelihood of a fire igniting or estimating how rapidly it may spread. Often, it is the 1 and 10-hr fuels that grow most quickly during brief
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Atmospheric conditions In general, the atmospheric conditions that produce wildfires also keep most of the smoke and ash produced by those fires from rising too high into the free atmosphere. There are some occasions where the heat of the fire is able to destabilize the lower level of the atmosphere and even generate convection. However, given the lack of humidity, what is carried aloft is not a vapor cloud,
Extreme Santa Ana winds blow smoke offshore from the Thomas fire in southern California in this satellite image from Dec 2017. Satellite imagery often reveals the source and extent of smoke that may impact aviation, as well as giving a hint of surface wind conditions.
but rather a smoke cloud. The rising ash and aerosols frequently carry a charge that can create lightning and make the smoke cloud appear as a cumulonimbus, but without rain. Lightning from these pseudo-storms may, in turn, ignite more fires nearby. The primary challenges of wildfire smoke are a loss of visibility and thermal turbulence. Heat from the surface fires, even when not creating rising and billowing smoke plumes due to strong surface winds, will
still produce convection that results in often moderate turbulence in the lower levels. Surface heating is far greater in a fire zone than the normal daily cycle of heat that we expect will produce mild chop on climbout. As a result, the burning surface can maintain a strong convective cycle, drawing in cool air from its surroundings and quickly heating it to where it can rise. Strong winds above the surface layer can strengthen the turbulent eddies as they intercept the rising air.
Image courtesy NASA
wet seasons. They are adapted to taking advantage of a short period of rain, and the ecosystem may even be dependent on the frequent burning of those grasses and shrubs to provide nutrients to the soil. After their short growing period, this vegetation may become dormant or die. Adequate humidity or further precipitation keeps the grasses and small brush from drying out completely, but, when warmer and drier air covers the area, the associated low humidity quickly saps any remaining moisture from the vegetation. At that point, all it takes is a carelessly tossed cigarette, an unattended campfire, a lightning stroke, or even a spark from a powerline brought down by high winds. The latter is the reason that some utilities in fire-prone areas are now turning off power when winds exceed a threshold at which it could cause power lines to come down.
High-resolution visible satellite image from the Camp fire in California in Nov 2018. Larger wildland fires can disrupt aviation at many regional airports, even some distance from the fire itself.
As with smogs and fogs, the smoke layer may be relatively thin and even transparent when viewed from above. However, because it is concentrated near the ground, often trapped beneath a temperature inversion, it can severely reduce horizontal visibility. As a result, pilots will notice a distinct reduction in slant visibility as they descend toward an airport. In addition, as with smog over major cities, the smoke particulates are effective at scattering light, resulting in muted colors and a deterioration of depth perception. Pilots traversing an area of fire activity at cruise levels do not normally experience any adverse conditions, and can often see the smoke plumes far below, which can provide some indication of the strength and direcPROFESSIONAL PILOTâ€‚ /â€‚ December 2019â€ƒ 55
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you open the cabin door. Every year, thousands of people die in structure fires from smoke inhalation. While outdoor smoke from wildfires tends to be less concentrated, it can still pose a significant health danger to you and your passengers, especially if you/they must spend significant time outside. Once the smoke has cleared, you will also want to wash your aircraft to get rid of any residual ash that may have deposited, and change your cabin air filters because they will likely be clogged with smoke particulates. In extreme cases, you may need to arrange for a thorough interior cleaning to remove the smoke smell that will likely have permeated the aircraft.
Forecasters often issue wildfire danger maps to alert local emergency managers and help to stage firefighting assets. Pilots can use this information to plan for potential fire disruptions at certain airports.
tion of the low-level winds. This lack of perceived danger can, however, be misleading. Caution must be exercised when climbing or descending through the smoke, which, although not inherently dangerous to aircraft, should be treated as flying through any other cloud. The smoke is likely to extend all the way to the surface, so pilots should be prepared to miss the approach if they cannot spot some part of the runway or its lights by the decision height.
Special considerations On takeoff, pilots need to treat smoke as they would fog. With horizontal visibility often reduced to a few hundred feet, the movements of other aircraft or vehicles on the runways or taxiways become less certain. If you can’t see far enough ahead to stop in time to avoid a collision, it may be prudent to wait for improved conditions, slow down on the taxiways, or even ask for a “Follow Me” truck. While you may be certain of your position, if there are other aircraft or vehicles moving about, some of them may not be fully aware of their exact location, posing a collision hazard. Some of the most important considerations of operating in smoke are ones we may not think of. In
an active fire zone, there are often aerial firefighting operations under way involving multiple aircraft flying low and erratically, and their pilots are concentrating on delivering water or fire retardant. While they may be in communication with ATC at nearby controlled airports, their paths may take them into or near the patterns of uncontrolled fields with little or no warning to approaching or departing pilots. Normally, ATC will close the airspace around where aerial firefighting is taking place, but that is not guaranteed in more remote places, and it remains up to individual pilots to make themselves aware of any such advisory notams before they get anywhere near the region. Some countries have regulations in place prohibiting aircraft from operating too near to fires. For example, Canadian regulations keep aircraft at least 5 nm from any active wildland fire. In the reduced visibility of a fire zone, it may be impossible to see a forest service helo or a low-flying, fast-moving McDonnell Douglas DC-10 tanker in time to avoid a collision as you approach some small airport downwind of the fire area. A couple of other considerations are that, when you are on the ground, your passengers may need masks or even respirators before
While larger wildfires make the news, and pilots can reasonably prepare to operate in and out of affected airports, the vast majority of forest and brush fires go unreported. There are frequently hundreds of smaller wildfires in play on any given day of the year. Airports in and downwind of places such as the Amazon basin, the Congo, or Indonesia, are nearly perpetually affected by the smoke from the many fires burning there year-round. On some days, the shear number of small fires burning in those places collectively produces more smoke than single-source larger fires. The first hint of the presence of smoke at an airport can be found in the metar report. Look for the code “BR” in the remarks. BR is derived from the French brume, meaning smoke, though it is normally used to indicate any aerosol condition reducing visibility, including smog, haze, and even mist. A next step is to examine any satellite photos over the area. Because smoke tends to be low level, thin, and warm, it will often not show up well on infrared satellite images, which are dependent on temperature differences to differentiate colder cloud from the warm ground beneath. But visible satellite images will normally show smoke plumes. In an otherwise cloud-free airspace, imagery can quickly pinpoint the source of the smoke, and the direction and relative strength of the surface winds. Narrow and long plumes suggest the wind is fairly
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Image courtesy Prince Albert FD
Wildland fire forced the closure of YVC (La Ronge SK, Canada) in 2015. Airports in a fire zone may close due to the danger from the fire itself, or, more commonly, from the effects of smoke or presence of airborne firefighting activity.
steady from a single direction, keeping the smoke confined to a distinct path. Plumes that spread out, on the other hand, indicate the presence of gusty winds or windshear turbulence. Some plumes will even shift direction downwind from the source, giving pilots a clue about potentially strong directional shear. In mountainous areas, the plume can sometimes reveal mountain wave flow, helping pilots steer clear of the affected area. In situations where clouds are also present on the satellite image, it can sometimes be difficult to differentiate clouds from smoke. This is where other satellite images can come in handy. Infrared images will show the clouds more clearly, while areas of smoke appear empty of cloud. Similarly, water vapor images will only show where there is water vapor. Although fog may be warm enough to not show on an infrared image, it will still likely register on a water vapor image. So, if there appear to be clouds in the visible image that do not appear on either the infrared or the water vapor image, then it is likely that those are dry and warm smoke plumes.
Low-level smoke If there is smoke beneath the clouds, satellite imagery is unlikely to be helpful. Instead, look to sources of wildfire information. Many countries provide this information and are able to track and map fire hotspots using infrared sensors on
satellites. In the US, a good source for active fire information is the National Interagency Fire Center (www. nifc.gov); in Canada, it’s the Canadian Wildland Fire Information System (cwfis.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca). Using their information and maps showing wind direction, it is not too difficult to estimate what airports might be affected by smoke plumes.
It takes time to control wildfires Once you’ve established that smoke is likely affecting an airport at which you intend to operate, you can use TAFs, prog charts and other forecasting tools to generate a reasonably reliable estimate of whether the smoke will still be an issue when you’ll be departing or arriving. In general, wildfires take several days to get under control when they are fought, so you can expect that, unless meteorological conditions significantly change in the hours leading up to your arrival or departure, the smoke affecting the airport now will still be present in a few hours or even a day or more. Things to look for that will indicate whether smoke will dissipate or get worse include a change in humidity and wind speed or direction. The likelihood of precipitation is also a good indicator, although if thunderstorms are forecast, that can often lead to lightning igniting new fires and worsening the situation. On forecast maps, look for largescale changes in the weather, normally brought about by an ap-
proaching or developing synoptic system such as a frontal passage or strengthening of a low over the area. At the least, these larger systems will change the airflow patterns, moving the smoke in a different direction and perhaps clearing the air at your airport. At best, they will decrease the wind, bring in humid air and even precipitation that, combined, will help to mitigate the fire and smoke. TAFs will also often confirm these changes. The meteorologists who provide your preflight briefings are a great source of knowledge about potential smoke impacts. When smoke is a factor, it is a good idea to speak with an actual briefer, rather than rely solely on a computerized weather briefing that may not be able to fully describe the behavior of smoke affecting your flight. As always, if you encounter conditions that are not as forecast or expected, including smoke or the absence of it, or if you happen to spot a fire in a remote area, a pirep is always appreciated by meteorologists and your fellow pilots. Karsten Shein is co founder and science director at ExplorEiS. He was formerly an assistant professor at Shippensburg University and a climatologist with NOAA. Shein holds a commercial license with instrument rating.
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Upset prevention and recovery training
Image courtesy FlightSafety
FAA’s free simulator-based UPRT program in Oklahoma City.
By Marty Rollinger
ATP. Challenger 600 & 604, Falcon 2000 EASy and McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Contributing Writer
ave you considered attending a dedicated upset prevention and recovery training (UPRT) course? Maybe you are a graduate of one or more programs. In-aircraft UPRT training providers include Aviation Performance Solutions (APS), Calspan, Flight Research, Patty Wagstaff Aviation Safety, Prevailance Aerospace, and Sky Combat Ace. And the list includes CAE, FlightSafety and FAA for simulator-based upset recovery training. Are you surprised to see FAA on this list? We were. Not a crew to pass up free training from a reputable training provider, we wanted to learn more. Let’s fly back in time for some UPRT background. The 2009 Colgan 3407 loss of control inflight (LOC-I) crash resulted in the deaths of all 49 people aboard and one person on the ground. This accident was a turning point and resulted in a Congressional mandate (Public Law 111-216) that required FAA to develop new regulations requiring all commercial transport pilots to receive stall and upset training. In March 2019, upset and full-stall recovery simulator
Upsets can be startling and lead to deadly loss of control inflight (LOC-I). Pilots must develop and maintain upset prevention and recovery skills.
training became a requirement for US air carrier pilots.
Current mandates Airline pilots receive this training initially when hired, whenever they change aircraft or upgrade, and every 2 years thereafter. According to CFR 121.423, Pilot: Extended Envelope Training, guidance must include slow flight, loss of reliable airspeed, upset recovery maneuvers, recovery from a bounced landing, and handson experience from full stall and stick pusher activation (if equipped). Extended envelope training compliance must be done in a level C or higher full flight simulator, and is to be repeated at least every 2 years. The simulators used for this mandated training must meet new requirements which address weaknesses of simulators past. Simulator requirements outlined in Part 60 call for improved aerodynamics past stall warning, stability reduction, control effectiveness reduction, enhanced buffet, stall roll-off, stall randomness, and the addition of icing physics. Also, simulator instructors are required to complete additional training, and the simulator operating stations they in-
struct from must be upgraded. Along with the new regs came 2 new advisory circulars: AC 120-109A, Stall Prevention and Recovery Training, and AC 120-111, Upset Prevention and Recovery Training. The 1-day FAA Upset Prevention and Recovery Course was developed in response to these new regulations and initially targeted principal operations inspectors (POIs). These authorities need to understand the proper implementation of safe and effective simulator-based UPRT to overcome LOC-I, which is the leading cause of fatal accidents in aviation.
FAA’s UPRT course It was 3 years ago at the October 2016 Aviation Safety InfoShare event in Kansas City that we learned of the FAA UPRT course. One of the presentations was titled “Stall/Upset Training in Simulators: Newest Developments,” given by speakers Dr Jeffery Schroeder and Rob Burke of FAA. Aviation Safety InfoShare is a semi-annual confidential industry-sponsored multi-day meeting attended by government and industry safety professionals who share safety concerns and best practices in a
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1º to 2º Increasing Mach number
Swept wing High speed Angle of attack, a
Stall break Stick pusher
Straight wing High lift/low speed
Lift Coefficient - CL
Effect of Mach number
Lift Coefficient CL
Configuration or contamination
Buffet Stall break
Angle of attack
Angle of attack
Angle of attack
Note: not to scale
Taken from the FAA UPRT syllabus, these diagrams show how both lift generation and stall vary with shape of the wing, Mach number, and ice contamination.
Stall warning threshold in direct or alternate law
~4° ~ 0.3
protected environment. Participants at Aviation Safety InfoShare include representatives from airlines, labor groups, aircraft manufacturers, university aviation departments and, most recently, corporate operators who participate in the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS). The guiding principle behind FAA’s UPRT can be summed up in this quote presented during the syllabus: “The biggest hurdle we face is convincing experienced professionals that they may not know everything.” Accordingly, FAA’s UPRT presenters at InfoShare displayed a couple of slides which had a particularly humbling effect on the group of experienced professionals attending the event.
Defining a stall The first slide asked, “Which of these defines a stall?” The audience was then presented with the following multiple choices: a) A nose-down pitch that cannot be readily arrested, which may be accompanied by an uncommanded rolling motion. b) Buffeting of a magnitude and severity that is a strong and effective deterrent to further increase in angle of attack.
~ 0.75 0.82
c) The pitch control reaches the aft stop for 2 sec and no further increase in pitch attitude occurs when the control is held full aft, which can lead to an excessive descent rate. d) Activation of a stall identification device (eg, stick pusher). The correct answer can be found in AC 120-109A. And I’ll give it to you at the conclusion of this article.
Mistaken beliefs In the next slide, Dr Schroeder played myth-buster with a 1-by-1 countdown presentation of “mistaken beliefs.” These were: 10. Angle of attack (AoA) is negative when I’m upside down. 9. It’s okay to lift a swept wing with rudder. 8. I’ll just level these wings first. 7. The low airspeed alert is the “first indication” of a stall. 6. Stall depends on airspeed and bank angle. 5. Available thrust at cruise is about half that down low. 4. Doubt the airplane buffets that strongly. 3. That wasn’t a stall, as there was no break. 2. I should still power out of a stall down low. 1. If stalled, I need to add full power first.
FAA’s UPRT course offered at Oklahoma City addresses each of these mistaken beliefs. The course consists of 4 hours of academics and a 2-hour simulator exercise. While the FAA course was developed for POIs, the organization extended an open invitation to attend to air carriers, training centers, manufacturers, and business aircraft operators. Most of the course content is not original, as it draws from published sources and ideas. Top take-aways include “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure,” reducing AoA is the most important pilot action in an upset event, and pilot upset training in simulators must account for simulator limitations.
Loss of control inflight LOC-I is defined as your flightpath not going where you want it to go, and it accounts for the largest percentage of fatalities in worldwide commercial jet aviation. External disturbance (wake turbulence or severe weather) is the leading cause of LOC-I incidents, while stall is the leading cause of LOC-I accidents. The academic syllabus provides details and lessons learned from more than a dozen LOC-I fatal accidents since the mid-1990s. The syllabus also includes actual stall incidence statistics, swept wing transport category aerodynamics, and the general stall recovery template. PROFESSIONAL PILOT / December 2019 59
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tion, so I don’t need to do this training, correct? The training is only mandatory for Part 121 operations, but it is required whether or not their aircraft has envelope protection. Although envelope-protected aircraft reach the stall regime at a lower rate in the NAS, they still manage to reach the stall regime, so pilots must be prepared. Operators are encouraged to reach out to their manufacturer to determine the best way to degrade the protections in order to accomplish this simulator training. Can simulators accurately replicate a stalled condition? The FAA simulators in Oklahoma City can, and yours will too. FAA has qualified nearly 400 sims to the new simulator requirements.
FAA collaborators in UPRT Display from UPRT simulator instructor operating station showing AoA versus Beta (sideslip angle) and speed versus normal load factor flight histories.
Flight operations quality assurance data, better known as FOQA data, communicates that frequency of stall warnings among Part 121 operators is 1 stall warning each 100,000 flight hours. This equates to 3 to 4 stall warnings per week in the US national airspace system (NAS). Catastrophic upsets are rare, but occur at a rate 30 times higher than the 1 catastrophic failure per billion flight hours that is considered allowable. UPRT is an attempt to reduce LOC-I since it is a leading cause of fatalities. The FAA UPRT course presented and clearly explained the stall recovery template that is described in AC 120-109A: 1. AP & AT: disconnect. 2. a) Nose-down pitch control: apply until stall warning eliminated. 2. b) Nose-down pitch trim: as needed. 3. Bank: wings level. 4. Thrust: as needed. 5. Speed brake/spoilers: retract. 6. Return to desired flightpath.
high, nose-low, stalled and unstalled upsets. Upset is defined as unintentionally exceeding parameters normally experienced in line operations such as pitch >25 degrees nose up or >10 degrees nose down, bank >45 degrees or operating at airspeed inappropriate for the conditions. In the simulator, stall prevention is emphasized and proper stall recovery is practiced before conducting several graduation scenarios. Teaching the proper response seems simple in maneuver training. However, it must be recognized that pilots tend to revert to their old way of recovering from a stall (eg, trying to power out) when faced with a startling or surprising situation. This is the reason why FAA recommends adding scenario-based upset and stall training. The graduation scenarios will not be described here to preserve their true startle effect for those who attend FAA’s UPRT.
Isn’t forcing pilots to fly to the full stall point negative learning? No. The objective of the training is to learn cues and handling characteristics surrounding the stall, and the characteristics of the stall. The recovery procedure of reducing AoA works great for full stall, too. My aircraft has envelope protec-
After the morning academic session and a break for lunch, participants head to the simulator exercise. The 2-hour practical application session is conducted in either the Boeing 737 or the Airbus A330 full flight simulators, and initially consists of nose-
Pilots have questions
FAA credits Airbus, Boeing, Bombardier, CAE, Dassault, Embraer, FlightSafety, NetJets and numerous airlines as collaborators on this UPRT course. So, which of the multiple-choice answers correctly answers the “Which of these defines a stall” question? All of the given choices! This is important, as a transport category aircraft stall is often not like a Cessna 172 stall, where you get a pitch break.
Conclusion FAA UPRT helps experienced professionals learn stall recognition, and effectively reinforces that reducing AoA is the most important pilot action in an upset event. What would you expect to pay for this training? Currently, FAA’s UPRT is offered free of charge. Interested operators can contact Jeffery Schroeder or John Farmer at firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com, respectively, for reservations. Marty Rollinger has over 35 years of flight experience in 68 different aircraft. A career US Marine Corps pilot, he was a Liethen-Tittle Award graduate of USAF Test Pilot School. He is director of flight ops for a Midwestern operator and a member of the Falcon Operator Advisory Board.
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Professional Pilot Magazine December 2019