Professional Pilot Magazine August 2018

Page 1

AUGUST 2018

Pres & CEO Svcs & Support Johann Bordais (middle) with (L-R) Customer Relations: VP China Siu Yeung, Dir North & Central America Greg Graber, Dir Asia Pacific Marcio Moreira, Dir South America Rafael De Carvalho Leite and Sr VP & Aftermarket Sales Worldwide Pedro Paiva.

1st in 2018 PP Corporate Aircraft Product Support Survey Jet Division

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2018 Corporate Aircraft Product Support Teams

Dassault

Gulfstream (In front) President Customer Support Derek Zimmerman with

(L-R) Senior VP Worldwide Customer Svc Jacques Chauvet and Senior VP Customer Svc Geoff Chick.

(L–R) Dir Customer Support Technical Svcs Glen Howard, Chief Pilot Airborne Customer Support Tenille Cromwell, Dir Customer Support Planning & Inventory Rusty Bragg, Dir Parts Sales & Pricing Jamie Linstroth, and Dir Savannah Svc Ctr Ops Murtaza Hassan.

Textron Team listed clockwise, starting in the front center: Sr VP Global Customer Svc Kriya Shortt, VP North American Svc Network Roxanne Howell, VP Global Parts Programs & Distribution April Gerber, Dir Global Field Svc Seth Persons, Mgr 1CALL Team Travis Tyler, Sr Pilot Karen Demauro, Mx Tech Scott Huckins and VP European Service Network Heidi McNary.

Daher Sitting on Wing (L-R) Mgr Customer & Network Care Paulo Castro, Field Service Rep Ruben Castellanos, Mgr Warranty & Supplier Recovery William Hosey, Mgr Service Engineering Marcel Kim. Standing (L-R) NTSB & BEA Liaison - Mgr AOG & Special Projects Phil Santoro, Mgr Training & Knowledge Alejandro Prem, and VP Customer & Network Care Charles Holomek.

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Bombardier (L–R) Customer Response Centre Rep Robert Gingras, GM Cust Svcs & Customer Training Philippe Alessandrini, Dir Cust Response Team Ray Godon, VP Cust Support & Training Andy Nureddin, Sr Dir Aftermarket Products & Business Transformation Sajedah Rustom, VP and GM Cust Experience Jean-Christophe Gallagher, Aftermarket Sales & Cust Experience Bill Molloy & Cust Response Centre Rep Jean-Philippe Page.

Piper (L–R) VP of Sales Marketing & Customer Support Ron Gunnarson, Dir Customer Svc Vincent Zarrella, Sr Mgr Aftermarket Sales James Slaton and Mgr Customer Support Frank Sosta.

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Turboprop Product Support Award

2018

(L-R) Mgr Maintenance Training Mark Loos, President & CEO Thomas Bosshard, Sr Mgr Technical Support Engineering/Air Safety Bob Renshaw, Sr Mgr Parts Sales/Svcs Jerry Frank, VP Customer Svc Piotr “Pete” Wolak, Mgr Svc Center/Customer Relations Aaron DeBuhr and Mgr Warehouse Ops Roland Gelinas.

Pilatus 1 st in 2018 PP Corporate Aircraft Product Support Survey, TP Div, constant winner past 17 years

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August 2018

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Advertisers Index

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Vol 52 No 8

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Masthead Management MURRAY SMITH, ATP/CFI, Publisher (publisher@propilotmag.com) MARCIA ELENI SMITH, Assistant to the Publisher (esmith@propilotmag.com) ANTHONY HERRERA, General Manager (aherrera@propilotmag.com)

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Contributors in this issue PETER BERENDSEN, ATP/CFII. Boeing 747, MD11 DAVID BJELLOS, ATP/Helo. Gulfstream IV, Sikorsky S76, Bell 407. DAVID ISON, PhD, Assoc Prof Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. ANTHONY KIOUSSIS, President, Asset Insight. GRANT McLAREN, Editor-at-Large. BOB ROCKWOOD, Managing Partner, Bristol Associates. KARSTEN SHEIN, Comm-Inst. Climatologist, Natl Climatic Data Center. DON VAN DYKE, ATP/Helo/CFII. Canadian Technical Editor. Professional Pilot ISSN 0191-6238 5290 Shawnee Rd, Suite 201, Alexandria VA 22312 Fax: 703-370-7082 Tel: 703-370-0606 E-MAIL: editor@propilotmag.com

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59 Viasat Havas Media

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41 West Star Aviation MAI

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4  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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Bombardier and Exceptional by Design are trademarks of Bombardier Inc. or its subsidiaries. Š 2018 Bombardier Inc. All rights reserved.

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August 2018

Features

30

Vol 52 No 8

10 POSITION & HOLD Maintaining turbine-powered aircraft is a big and critical business by Bob Rockwood Service is made up of a myriad of factors but maintenance is the key. 30 EVENT COVERAGE NBAA Regional Forum at HPN by Pro Pilot Staff Meeting gathers 190 exhibitors and 2700 attendees at White Plains NY.

54

32 CORPORATE AIRCRAFT PRODUCT SUPPORT SURVEY Operators evaluate aircraft manufacturers based on aftersale service by Pro Pilot Staff 54 CORPORATE TURBOJETS Business aviation rises to meet demands of a stronger economy by Don Van Dyke Reach and flexibility of business aircraft are key factors to unlocking new commercial markets. OEMs compete offering aircraft with ever improving safety, comfort, connectivity, amenities, and range.

68

64 WEATHER BRIEF Density altitude by Karsten Shein Hot and high runways can create challenges for aircraft performance. 68 AIRBORNE WEATHER RADAR Proper use of AWR by David Ison Correct use of aircraft radar controls to detect and avoid thunderstorms.

76

72 EFVS OPERATIONS Seeing what can’t be seen by Peter Berendsen Enhanced Flight Vision Systems expand pilot capabilities. 76 OUTER MARKER INBOUND Lowell Yerex and a Central American airline called TACA. by David Bjellos

78

78 INTERNATIONAL OPS Bizjet activity to and within Latin America by Grant McLaren GA is welcomed throughout the Americas but operators must adhere to local regulations and be cautious to maintain security on the ground.

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PHENOM 300: PRESENCE AND POWER UNLIKE ANY OTHER JET “I was wowed by the difference between Phenom 300 and any other jet you could fly single pilot. It’s just an awesome aircraft. It’s a magic carpet. You pull up on the ramp, and you’re looking down on other jets, literally. The door, the stairs, the entrance to the aircraft − it’s the ultimate ramp presence. And then the raw power of the aircraft is phenomenal. Especially when flying in mountainous areas, which we do a lot, it’s great to have that confidence of power. So there was no question when we started looking for our next jet: the Phenom 300. It’s elegant. It’s a sexy plane. It can hold a lot of people, but the sheer, unadulterated power that it has to climb, and the power it has to fly fast, is unlike any other jet we’ve flown. It is the best jet you can fly single pilot.” - Mary Compton, Owner, Vivo Volare LLC Watch Mary’s story and request more information at EmbraerExecutiveJets.com/Mary

The best-selling light jet in the world for six years running, Embraer’s Phenom 300 platform has achieved breakthrough status and dominates as the fastest, longest-range single-pilot aircraft on the market. And now, with the introduction of the brand-new Phenom 300E, a whole new standard in value and customer experience has been set. Designated “E” for “enhanced,” this modern, clean-sheet light jet delivers top-tier performance and next-generation avionics, along with a revolutionary new interior design for improved ergonomics, ease of maintainability, advanced connectivity and unmatched comfort and space. Add to that the industry-exclusive upper technology panel, plus a generous baggage compartment and low operating costs, and it’s easy to see why the Phenom 300E is truly in a class by itself.

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August 2018

Vol 52 No 8

Departments 14 VIEWPOINT Asset Insight President Anthony Kioussis explains aircraft quality using his company’s methodology.

BACKED BY

2,150 Experts

18 SQUAWK IDENT Pro Pilot readers talk about their experiences with ATC centers and airport towers worldwide. 24 TERMINAL CHECKLIST Quiz on procedures when flying into SLK (Saranac Lake NY). Answers on page 26. 28 SID & STAR The pilots fly an important client to Cleveland. Sid explains the noise associated with landing gear retraction and extension.

Cover Duncan Aviation was founded in 1956 as an aircraft sales organization and is a founding member of NARA. Since 1956, we have conducted more than 3,500 transactions. Backed by 2,150 aviation experts worldwide, each with an average of 12 years with the company. The aircraft sales team partners with these experts to provide technical support before, during and after the aircraft transaction.

Embraer

Pres & CEO Svcs & Support Johann Bordais (middle) with (L-R) Customer Relations: VP China Siu Yeung, Dir North & Central America Greg Graber, Dir Asia Pacific Marcio Moreira, Dir South America Rafael De Carvalho Leite and Sr VP & Aftermarket Sales Worldwide Pedro Paiva. Photo by Embraer.

www.DuncanAviation.aero/aircraftsales

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POSITION & HOLD an editorial opinion

Maintaining aircraft is a big and critical business This is how Blockchain works

2. The transaction is represented as a block in the shared ledger

3. Block is broadcast to all participants

1. A transaction is registered

4. Participants approve the transaction as being valid, providing consensus

5. Block is added to the chain

6. Single picture of the chain and actual state is available to all authorized participants

By Bob Rockwood Managing Partner, Bristol Associates

Mitigating the problem

I

There are fundamentally 2 ways to mitigate this problem. The 1st is for service providers – be they OEM, airline, or independent – to invest in promoting aircraft maintenance as a career. This will involve job marketing, training and compensation increases. The 2nd way is technological. It’s here I would like to discuss Blockchain and Big Data. This is not to minimize the importance of the above, nor to imply there aren’t a myriad of other tech changes to consider. It’s just that these are going to be biggies.

t is generally accepted within aviation and other industries that sales are not only enhanced by, but driven by, aftermarket service. Although service is made up of a myriad of factors, maintenance is the key. The overall MRO market for commercial, general and military aircraft has been estimated at $135 billion, based on 2015 figures. As with any forecast projections, there is a wide variety of opinion about what a market’s growth rate will be. But if you look at a variety of opinions for compound annual growth rates for MRO through 2026 (11 years since 2015), 3.8% seems conservative. And I have seen forecasts as high as 6%. If this holds true, MRO growth could look like the forecast shown in page 12. Impressive. But we have a maintenance personnel shortage that, by some estimates, will reach a 10% gap between how many are in the work force and how many are needed over the next 10 years. Adding to this is the problem created by rapid product technological developments. It’s hard to maintain expertise on both aircraft built in 2000 and those built in 2016, let alone those that will be made in 2020 and after. And the MRO workforce is aging. The average age now is 51 versus the overall age of people in the workforce at 42. There will be a lot of attrition going forward just from retirements. This confluence of high market growth and low aircraft maintenance personnel availability is going to create more conflict than is seen in an average Kardashian episode.

Blockchain Blockchain is not Bitcoin. Blockchain is the platform on which Bitcoin exists and runs. Succinctly, Blockchain is a digital ledger of linked virtual transactions like in a chain where one link builds on another, recording transactions and tracking assets. These assets can be tangible (a starter-generator) or intangible (a patent). IBM has produced Blockchain for Dummies, which this dummy read. I highly recommend it if you want a deeper understanding of how, and why, this works. For purposes of this article and why I think it can have profound benefits within MRO, it’s best to think of it as a way to record something’s provenance without the need for an intermediary agency. It’s a method that is tamperproof and eliminates or at least cuts delays in response times. At the same time, in a controlled fashion, it can grant access to this

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MRO expenditures growth forecast

Annual expenditures in billions

300 250 200 150 100 50 0

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026

Low end forecast

High end forecast

information to anyone proving the need to have it. I could fill this magazine with ways in which Blockchain might save money and hassle within our industry, while driving records accuracy to a whole new level. But instead let’s consider just 1 hypothetical. It is estimated that the annual cost of transferring commercial aircraft ownership exceeds $1 billion. This cost is primarily driven by records research and verification. An aircraft is a system of systems, all of which must be traceable to their original manufacture, and all of which have multiple actions by multiple entities with multiple record keeping methods performed on them. Obviously, sorting through this takes time. Now imagine that all this information was entered to a Blockchain program at time of manufacture. Then, as actions are performed, that data is entered, verified and made tamperproof. Suppose algorithms are developed that go back over these blocks checking for inclusion and in doing so, eliminate the need to physically find and verify authenticity and compliance. Whereas it used to take many manhours to verify that starter-generator’s provenance and history, it now takes minutes and the process is 100% accurate. Lest you think these are the ravings of an elderly idiot savant, consider: according to a recent poll conducted by Accenture, 86% of large aerospace and defense companies surveyed plan to integrate Blockchain into their organization’s systems within the next 3 years. Wow!

Big Data Like I said, there are plenty of sources better than me for digging into the details of how Blockchain works. I especially recommend the IBM publication. So, let’s leave Blockchain and now let’s look at Big Data. The concept of Big Data is hardly new, but its description keeps changing as new technologies become available. After all, we have been collecting data since the beginning of history. The difference is that we now collect a lot more of it, and faster than in the past. You will find this hard to believe, but as with Blockchain, there are a lot better sources than me to provide

details about the technical side of today’s Big Data offerings. Read about Boeing’s Aircraft Health Management (AHM) program, or the similar offerings from other OEMs like Gulfstream, Airbus and Embraer to gain insight. What the application of and belief in Big Data can do is exemplified by some numbers from Delta. Delta operates one of the older fleets out there. In 2017, they canceled 78 flights due to maintenance issues. In 2016, this number was 123. In 2010 cancellations were an eye popping 5000. But since then they have come down every year to today’s dramatically reduced numbers. Certainly the technology is improving in leaps and bounds. But what is really changing are 2 things: our willingness to believe in and rely on the data collected as being predictive, and the willingness to bring in and share information with data analysts right alongside of mechanics and other maintenance personnel. The result is predicting parts failure and removing/reinstalling parts before a failure happens.

Predictive accuracy rates going up What I find particularly interesting is the fact that as experience with this predictive process is gained, so is the accuracy of its outcome. Early on in Big Data analysis programs it was unlikely to experience better than a 50% accuracy rate. That is, the decision to pull an item was wrong half the time. But as experience and confidence is gained, these accuracy rates are seen as going as high as 90%+, maximizing flight non-cancellation savings to an even greater degree. As the ability to transfer Big Data in real time improves and becomes more available, another layer of savings will be realized. Looking at the imminent failure of a part while still in flight, communicating this to line maintenance, and having them available on the ramp at landing to make the repair, keeps the plane flying. In addition, the ability to share all this information not only with the operators maintenance crews, but with the OEM or MRO providers, can only enhance repair accuracy, timeliness and thoroughness – aka safer flight. Are there issues? Sure. Most of them are legal or regulatory in nature. Data can’t be owned, but there needs to be rules set up to determine who controls the intellectual property that is the result of data. Who will bear responsibility in the event of a cyber attack that creates damage? What rules will be needed to govern an OEM’s responsibility to share data with outside MRO providers? However, as with the 100-ton rock rolling down the mountain, there will be problems, but you can’t stop it from coming.

Bob Rockwood has been in the aircraft brokerage business since 1978. During his tenure at Omni Intl Jet Trading Floor he began writing The Rockwood Report, which discusses the corporate aircraft market. In 1986 he joined Bristol Associates as a managing partner.

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VIEWPOINT an editorial opinion

Understanding asset quality Table B

By Anthony Kioussis President, Asset Insight

Maintenance Rating calculation methodology

I

t’s been said that beauty is in the eyes of the beholder, and that can certainly hold true for aircraft. Regrettably, a nice-looking aircraft may be in worse maintenance condition than an asset in serious need of repainting, hence the need to objectively understand an aircraft’s Asset Quality. Asset Quality defines an aircraft’s overall technical condition by taking into account everything from its paint to its passenger interior, with focus placed on the asset’s maintenance condition. The challenge comes in developing and using a grading system able to objectively analyze all aircraft on a standardized scale.

Asset Insight’s methodology At Asset Insight we use 2 parameters to grade an aircraft’s Asset Quality: Maintenance Rating and Financial Rating. Maintenance Rating objectively evaluates and grades an aircraft’s maintenance status relative to its Optimal Maintenance Condition (the asset’s maintenance condition on the day it came off the production line), utilizing the aircraft’s (standard/typical) Scheduled Maintenance Program. The Maintenance Rating scale, and what the figures represent, is detailed in Table A. To derive the Maintenance Rating for any aircraft make/model, several variables, particularly the Scheduled Maintenance Program established by the aircraft’s manufacturer and/or other regulatory authority (eg, the Federal Aviation Administration) must be compiled, and a frequency must be established for specifically identified Scheduled Maintenance events. For items that do not have specific service life (replacement) limitations, a Service Life figure must be established based on that component’s projected average failure rate. Once a specific aircraft’s maintenance history has been compiled, it is compared against its Make/Model Maintenance Program to determine its Maintenance Rating. The Maintenance Rating scale ranges from –5.000 to 10.000. This scale includes negative numbers as operators may be able to exceed the Service Life figure estabTable A

Remaining useful life

Component #1

25%

Component #2

75%

Component #3

10%

Event #1

60%

Event #2

30%

Engine #1

75%

Engine #2

75% Sum of remaining useful life: 350%

Divided by number of maintenance events: 7 Average remaining useful life: 50% Multiplied by optimal maintenance condition value: 10.000 Equivalent maintenance rating: 5.000

lished for components that don’t have specific service life limitations. One must also remember that OEM maintenance events often have “recommended” service intervals that someone operating an aircraft under Part 91 may not need to follow. Table B provides an example of how the Maintenance Rating would be derived for a theoretical aircraft that has only 7 maintenance events. Sum of the Remaining Useful Life for the events is 350%. When divided by the total number of events (7), the Average Remaining Useful Life is 0.500. Based on the Asset Insight scale, this equates to a Maintenance Rating of 5.000. From a Maintenance Rating perspective, this is an average aircraft. We must now compute the aircraft’s Financial Rating, which is the aircraft’s Scheduled Maintenance event costs based on its Maintenance Rating (Table C).

Maintenance Rating

-5.000 – 2.000 Poor Asset Quality

Maintenance event

3.000 Below average asset quality due to upcoming, heavy, scheduled maintenance

4.000 – 6.000 Most aircraft will score within this range, representing good asset quality

7.000 Very good asset quality (usually associated with recent production aircraft)

8.000 – 10.000 Exceptional asset quality (typical of new, or nearly new, production aircraft)

An objective measurement of the aircraft’s maintenance status compared to its “Optimum Maintenance Condition” (achieved on the day it came off the production line).

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Financial Rating

Table C 0.000

4.000 – 6.000

3.000

All scheduled maintenance events due

Aircraft with upcoming, high cost, scheduled maintenance events

7.000

Most aircraft will score within this maintenance status cost range

8.000 – 10.000

Aircraft facing relatively low-cost maintenance events

New or recently manufactured aircraft

The aircraft Financial Rating evaluates and grades an aircraft’s financial condition relative to its Optimal Maintenance Condition (achieved on the day it came off the production line), meaning the aircraft’s Maintenance Rating is weighted by the estimated cost to complete each maintenance event.

The aircraft Financial Rating evaluates and grades an aircraft’s financial condition relative to its Optimal Maintenance Condition, meaning the aircraft’s Maintenance Rating is weighted by the estimated cost to complete each maintenance event. Unlike the Maintenance Rating scale, the Financial Rating scale ranges from 0.000 to 10.000 since a maintenance event should cost the same whether it is completed on time or later than the OEM’s “recommended” service intervals. Some might argue that it could be more expensive to complete an event when exceeding the OEM’s service interval. The question that is too subjective to answer is how much more expensive? So in order to maintain objectivity, the cost figure must remain the same. To derive the Financial Rating for any aircraft Make/ Model, the average cost to complete each aircraft event under its maintenance program must be determined. Having compiled the aircraft’s maintenance history, the time (calendar, flight hours or cycles) accumulated toward each individual scheduled maintenance event is used to determine its Financial Rating. Table D Financial Rating calculation methodology Remaining useful life

Event cost

Remaining financial value

Component #1

25%

$10,000

$2500

Component #2

75%

$1000

$750

Component #3

10%

$20,000

$2000

Event #1

60%

$50,000

$30,000

Event #2

30%

$100,000

$30,000

Engine #1

75%

$200,000

$150,000

Engine #2

75%

$200,000

$150,000

$581,000

$365,250

Maintenance event

Totals:

Divided by total event cost:

$581,000

Total “Remaining financial value” divided by total “Event cost”:

0.6287

Multiplied by optimal maintenance condition value:

10.000

Equivalent financial rating:

6.287

Table E Asset Quality scale Outstanding Excellent 5.500 or greater

5.250 to 5.499

Very good

Good

Average

Below average

5.000 4.750 4.500 Less than to 5.249 to 4.999 to 4.749 4.500

Table D calculates the Financial Rating for the same theoretical aircraft that has only 7 maintenance events. While the aircraft’s Maintenance Rating equated a 5.000, its Financial Rating is actually higher, as the aircraft has more Remaining Useful Life relative to its higher cost maintenance events. Having derived the Maintenance Rating (5.000) and Financial Rating (6.287), the aircraft’s Asset Quality Rating is calculated by averaging out these 2 figures. Listed on Table E is an explanation of how this aircraft’s Asset Quality (5.643) would be interpreted utilizing the Asset Insight scale (whose range is –2.500 to 10.000). Based on its Quality Rating, this aircraft is rated as “Outstanding.” For aircraft buyers, the Asset Quality Rating provides an objective approach to quantify the difference in aircraft maintenance condition, thereby helping them determine if they wish to pursue this asset as opposed to another aircraft. If the aircraft is determined to be desirable, computing its Maintenance Equity would provide the final parameter a buyer would need to structure an offer that is financially sensible and objectively justifiable (see Pro Pilot, January 2018, page 12). For sellers, understanding “where” the Quality Rating places their aircraft relative to competing models provides the ability to judge if an offer is appropriate. Furthermore, rather than refusing an offer for their asset, understanding its Quality Rating can help a seller objectively explain to a buyer why their aircraft is worth more. Buyer and seller may still not reach a deal, but whoever has the facts at hand is bound to make the more convincing argument and generate the best value from a transaction. Anthony Kioussis is President of Asset Insight, which offers aircraft valuation and aviation consulting services. His 40+ years of experience in aviation includes GE Capital Corporate Aircraft Finance, Jet Aviation, and JSSI.

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E

veryone has a bad day but I can honestly say that my experience with ATC and towers has been, for the most part, excellent. I’ve found cooperative and helpful controllers throughout the system. A big thumbs up to all of them – please keep up the good work. Paul Bradham ATP/CFII. Gulfstream G150 & King Air B200 Av Dept Mgr & Chief Pilot Perdue Farms Salisbury MD

D Which ATC centers and airport towers would you praise for good handling and why? Conversely, where have you experienced poor handling?

A

TC at BVA (Beauvais, France) has good radar service and efficient takeoff and landing procedures. This is especially important due to the low cost airline traffic (Ryanair, Wizz Air) that is so critical for a medium airport close to Paris. At MPL (Montpellier, France) near the French southern coast on the Mediterranean the ground and tower ATC services are good, but radar approach can be rushed at times. Jean-Luc Pilotto ATP. Falcon 200 & King Air 200T Captain IGN-CRNS-ENAC Bethisy Saint Martin, France

T

hus far I’ve only had a few challenging moments where I was wondering what the controller was doing. From what I’ve seen, as long as we as drivers do our job the controllers have been more than accommodating and professional. Erik Swanberg ATP/CFII. Gulfstream IV & Citation Bravo Lead Pilot Presidio Aircraft Leasing Yorkville IL

ET (Detroit MI) is 1 of the best non-federal control towers (NFCT) I’ve experienced to date. They’re extremely helpful with Expect Departure Clearance Times (EDCT). They’ve even called me on my cellphone to keep me updated on what to expect. Jay Stuve ATP/CFII. Learjet 45 & Falcon 20 Dir Ops City Aviation Laingsburg MI

F

TW (Ft Worth TX) tower is the best in my opinion. They’re able to efficiently and safely handle both training traffic and corporate jets while keeping a great, upbeat attitude. Because of them, I always look forward to returning to FTW. Joanna Meek ATP. Embraer Legacy 650/600 Av Dept Mgr WRI 1000 Ft Worth TX

M

iami ATC is the best in my opinion. They’re always easy to work with, provide superior service and are very good at sequencing and providing radar vectors that avoid significant weather. FXE (Ft Lauderdale Executive FL) tower also provides excellent service considering the amount of training traffic they deal with. Agustin Fuentes ATP. Learjet 35A Chief Pilot Air Ambulance Skylink Jets Pembroke Pines FL

L

aGuardia and JFK have always gotten the job done right for me. Keep it going! Robert Pongrac ATP/Helo/CFII. Gulfstream V & Sikorsky S76B Chief Pilot Pfizer Sea Girt NJ

O

ver the past 12 years I’ve been operating in Central Asia, Europe and the Middle East. In my opinion the most professional ATC centers and airport towers are at Geneva, Switzerland and Almaty and Astania Kazakhstan. Each of these facilities handle traffic extremely efficiently and I always know what to be prepared for. The most challenging ATC centers and airport towers I’ve experienced were in Moscow, Russia. Maybe I don’t understand their system, but the controllers don’t seem to plan ahead or really coordinate with each other. I’ve also had them issue a significant number of instruction changes which gives me safety concerns. J Faulkner ATP/Helo/CFII. Boeing 737 BBJ Captain & Check Airman Contract Pilot Services North VA

I

regularly receive great tower service at LUK (Lunken Airport, Cincinnati OH) and HXD (Hilton Head SC). Even though everyone has a bad day, I really haven’t seen systemic poor service anywhere from centers or towers. James Zimmerman Pvt-Multi-Inst. Citation V & Pilatus PC12 Owner DHZ Cincinnati OH

H

ome base for me is PWA (Wiley Post Airport, Oklahoma City OK). The tower is always courteous, friendly and helpful with amazing service even when it’s really busy. Craig Carson ATP. Citation Mustang Owner & Pilot Volar Edmond OK

18  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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ew York approach and TEB (Teterboro NJ) tower do a great job handling a lot of traffic in absolute perfect harmony. Fortunately I have to say that I haven’t had a really poor experience with ATC in any of my flights across the globe. João Bonatto ATP. Gulfstream G650 Captain Aero Rio Táxi Aéreo Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

H

igh traffic areas demand the best controllers and those professionals step up to the plate. The New York and Eastern Seaboard controllers are tops. If a pilot is on his or her game there’s no better place to fly – if not, best stay away until you’re up to it. In my opinion, in the US we don’t really have poor handling anywhere. It’s the best overall air system in the world. We need to think twice before we make any major changes to it. James Holbert ATP/Helo/CFII. Airbus EC135P2 Captain PHI Air Medical London KY

D

TW (Detroit Metro MI) approach is truly awesome during storms and weather events. Houston approach is less than fantastic, from my experience. Jodi Novak ATP/CFII. King Air B300 Captain GAMA Aviation Fowlerville MI

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ersonally, I’ve always received excellent ATC service at UAO (Aurora OR). Andrew Benedict ATP/CFII. Gulfstream IV & Phenom 100 Owner & Chief Pilot Betopsg4 McMinnville OR

B

JC (Rocky Mountain Metro, Broomfield CO) has always given me good handing. And in my experience, APA (Centennial Airport, Denver-Aurora CO) certainly hasn’t been up to the same excellent level of service. Steve Thorson ATP/CFII/A&P. Conquest I Owner Thorson Aviation Louisville CO

A

tlanta Center does a great job considering their high traffic volume. Teterboro tower also does a good job with the volume they control. Overall I haven’t had any really bad handling experiences with ATC. Don Walker ATP. Gulfstream G550/G450 & Challenger 300 Captain Independent Contractor Waleska GA

B

est in class are Chicago Center and O’Hare tower. On the other hand, with Seattle Center and BFI (Boeing Field WA), 9 times out of 10 we get a TCAS RA while coming in to land. David Lane ATP/CFI/FE. Challenger 650 Senior Pilot State Farm Mutual Insurance Bloomington IL

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y experience has shown that LAX always seems to move traffic efficiently. Andrew Bledsoe ATP. Challenger 300 Chief Pilot Noble Plane Indianapolis IN

’d like to credit Fort Worth Center for their expeditious handling of all the satellite airports in the area. And TKI (McKinney TX) does a great job handling all the training traffic. I also have no real complaints regarding my home airport, ADS (Addison TX), as the do a great job handling both corporate and training aircraft. Patrick Cannon ATP/CFI. Beechjet 400 & Mitsubishi MU300/MU2 President Mission Air Services Lewisville TX

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have to say that all the ATC centers and towers I’m familiar with are good. As with about anything, some are better than others. Walter Bradshaw ATP. Citation CJ3 Owner ATR Inc Punta Gorda FL TY (Fulton County GA) tower is excellent as are the vast number of ATC facilities. I can’t say the same thing for Ft Myers airport, which is last on my list for ATC facilities, and has been for years. My opinion extends to both approach and tower. Just tune in and listen when you are in the area, they always seem to be less than pleased about something. David Davidson ATP/CFI/A&P. Hawker HS125/400XP President Old Management Group Williamson GA

ood experiences with FXE (Ft Lauderdale Executive FL). I wish I could say the same about Nassau in the Bahamas. Anthony Complo ATP/CFII. Falcon 7X Captain Flying Lion Hollywood FL

N

o question in my mind, New York is the best. I enjoy working with those controllers. Randy Starbuck ATP. Citation X Captain NetJets Seguin TX

he controllers at FXE have the patience of saints with all the students and flight schools that they have to deal with. Same controller demeanor at Teterboro, where it’s very busy but they always seem to keep their cool in any situation. In fact, I travel all around the US, Canada, Mexico, Caribbean, and South America, and have found that all the controllers are very professional and courteous. Walter Leblanc ATP. Learjet 60 Dir of Ops & Captain Charter Airlines & Island Wings Boynton Beach FL

20  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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4.25” W x 10.875” H (plus .125 bleed on top, bottom, left)

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ictoria Harbor Flight Service at YWH (Victoria Inner Harbour Airport, BC, Canada) provides service for seaplanes. They juggle advisories about boats, paddlers, vessels large and small, marine mammals, and any floating debris that may affect landing in the 3000 ft of space allotted for seaplanes. They’re professional, courteous and very helpful to all of us flying at Victoria Harbour. Dave Tennesen ATP/CFII/FE. de Havilland DHC2 Beaver/ DHC3 Otter Captain Kenmore Air Seattle WA

W

e operate helicopters for utility patrol. From what I’ve seen, even during extremely busy times CLT (Charlotte NC) controllers are exceptional with the arrivals and departures of VFR rotary wing. There are multiple patrol routes within the Class B surface area along with several VFR helicopter routes coordinated with local traffic. I would say that 99% of the time we are granted our request to operate in close proximity to the runway environment. Roger Johnson ATP/Helo/A&P. Bell 407GX Chief Pilot for Utility Aviation Duke Energy Charlotte NC

F

rom my vantage point, I think Memphis Center, approach and tower are the best in the business. Thanks for all the good work. David Calvet ATP/CFII. Learjet 31A Captain AB Jets Millington TN

P

rovidence RI approach does a great job handling the traffic from NY, Bradley, Boston and Boston South. It gets busy there during the summer season with traffic from these other sectors passing through. A few years ago while on an IFR flight plan the controller promptly gave me a vector with climb instructions to avoid a converging aircraft from the 5 o’clock position. He was going twice my speed in IMC without an IFR clearance. The controller certainly avoided what could have been a tragic outcome due to the negligence of that illegally operated aircraft. The next day I called the center manager to express my appreciation for a job well done by the controller and her instructor, since the manager advised me she was a new controller still undergoing training. Robert Grinch ATP/CFII. Citation Bravo President Grinch Aviation Ridgewood NJ

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flySAM.com Squawk-ident 8-18 lyt.indd 21

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udos to the many controllers over my last 30 years of flying at FXE (Ft Lauderdale Executive FL). I’ve never seen a time where professionalism hasn’t reigned supreme. I want to give a special thanks to Richard Sack our current tower chief. We’ve been trading ride-alongs in our Lears for some quality tower time. Joseph Tiritilli ATP. Learjet 55 Captain Florida Jet Deerfield Beach FL

F

or approach control and airport tower services I think Pensacola approach and Naval Air Station Whiting Field North and South towers do an outstanding job. With a mix of commercial traffic and a very heavy load of military student training activity, Pensacola approach does an excellent job helping to support our military’s aviation training while safely and efficiently managing airliner traffic. For ARTCC services, I’ve got to give accolades to Houston Center’s offshore sector. It can’t be easy managing the increase in lower altitude offshore IFR helicopter traffic but I’ve consistently found them to be helpful and professional. Michael O’Brien ATP/Helo/CFII. Leonardo AW139 Captain PHI Cantonment FL

H

aving moved many times to different parts of the US, I have to say that ZNY (NY ARTCC) is the best and most helpful in the CONUS. I’ve lived in the Northeast for most of the last 30 years. They get to know who you are and where you’re based. Can’t pick anyone particular out for poor service, everyone has times when they shouldn’t have gone to work on any given day. Katha House ATP/CFII. Falcon Legacy Fleet Captain Contract Pilot Manchester NH

I

’ve always received great handling in South Florida, especially this time of year. Navigating thunderstorms while handling dozens of airplanes is usually effortless for those controllers. Recently we’ve had a few encounters with VFR aircraft out of Scottsdale that were too close for comfort for me. I think they could do a better job vectoring, creating separation and mitigating the VFR traffic alerts/RAs. Cory Schow ATP/CFII. Citation Excel Captain Cache Valley Electric Smithfield UT

W

e are based at MOD (Modesto CA). The tower here is awesome. They always get us going quickly and sometimes even give us a phone call when they see we are going to SFO and there are ground stop delays. They are genuinely helpful. Ryan Johnson ATP. Challenger 601 & King Air 350 Captain DC Air Denair CA

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ven though English is the international language for aviation, it would be unrealistic to expect everything to go smoothly everywhere all the time. On that note, it’s hard for me to understand the tower or ground controllers in Cairo Egypt. Lawrence Messick ATP. Beechjet 400A Aviation Mgr ERI Redwood NY

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inneapolis and Denver ARTCCs are the best in my view. New York ARTCC can be a little “short” in their communications at times. For control towers, I think the controllers at RAP (Rapid City SD) are both professional and friendly. James Dahlquist ATP/FE. Eclipse 500S Chief Pilot National American University Rapid City SD

C

ontrollers working around DC are top notch and seem to handle tremendous amounts of traffic with ease. The controllers in Orlando are great too and they keep the traffic flowing, but it seems that no matter how well set up you are for what you’ve been told, there is almost always the last minute change requiring frenetic activity. I don’t know what’s different, but DC controllers are predictable and make it look easy while Orlando seems to make things more complex than I would expect. Marc Dulude ATP. Citation CJ3+ Chief Pilot Mild Air Bluffton SC

S

eattle Center is great – they’re always ready with our clearances when we pick them up airborne. I’ve also found that CLT (Charlotte NC) tower is very professional and patient with transient corporate aircraft. Brett Udy ATP/CFII. Citation X Aviation Safety Mgr Schweitzer Engineering Labs Pullman WA

A

lthough somewhat biased by my location, I truly appreciate the approach and tower controllers at TUL (Tulsa Intl OK) and RVS (Tulsa County OK). They might not have the high density of a DFW, JFK or LAX, but they do have an incredible amount of high volume training flights with Part 141 and military flight schools. And all this activity can involve pilots speaking English as a second language. They expertly blend these operations in with airline and corporate operations alike. Add some famous Oklahoma storms and wind and you can see what professional ATC service looks like here in the heartland. I salute all the controllers for the job they do every day. Darren Rogers ATP/Helo/CFII. Learjet 45XR Captain Jet Linx Claremore OK

22  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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B

est is DCA, HHR (Hawthorne CA) and ICT (Wichita KS) for always being calm, collected and respectful, no matter what. And I think the centers are all well run. No bad experiences to relate, we all get overloaded and have a bad day from time to time. William Marples ATP/CFII. Citation X Pilot Sun Air Jets Discovery Bay CA

I

I

Z

think that Miami air traffic control and the Miami airports in general all do a great job. “No comment” on Chicago and New York though. Edward Baro ATP. Hawker 800XP President Compass Aviation Intl Hobe Sound FL

C

ompared to the rest of the world I would say, in general, the controllers are all good here in the US. Of course I have to pick ZID (Indianapolis ARTCC) as tops since they cover my home base. Rod Smith ATP/Helo/CFII/A&P. Grand Caravan & Bell 206L4 JetRanger Dir of Transportation Kinzer Drilling Pikeville KY

C

ontrollers at ORD really know how to do their job. I always thought I was a nuisance flying a Caravan into O’Hare. But after taking a tour of the tower, they had nothing but nice things to say about our pilots, as long as we keep pedaling these TPs as fast as we can. On the flip side, we seem to consistently struggle with St Louis TRACON. On more than 1 occasion I’ve been given 3 different runway assignments. Also have had difficulty with spacing and faced general unpredictability. This is generally not what I’d expect in Class B airspace. Andrew Tarini Comm-Multi-Inst. Grand Caravan PIC Air Choice One Columbus OH

Squawk-ident 8-18 lyt.indd 23

n my opinion, SOCAL and NORCAL both do a great job. And Seattle approach was good until they got a 3rd runway. Now it seems like they have to slow everyone down to handle the volume. Oakland and Seattle Center’s do great jobs also. Tim Riley ATP/CFII. Pilatus PC-12 Captain Bay of Dreams Leasing San Diego CA LC (Salt Lake), ZDV (Denver) and ZLA (Los Angeles) ARTCCs are the usual neighborhood for our operation. We also routinely use smaller Class D towers, sometimes busier Class C facilities and once in a while Class B. I can’t recall in the last 15 years when or where I’ve ever received any handling I would consider “poor.” Centers, towers and approach controllers always provide excellent professional handing. James Carpenter ATP/CFII. Beech Duke & Cessna C182 Pilot High Country Construction Lander WY

B

een flying for over 60 years with 30 years military and 30 years corporate. Throughout the years, our ATC folks and FAA briefers have all been great team members. We need to appreciate that relationship and keep it intact for the future. Earl Koester ATP/CFI. IAI Westwind Chief Pilot Al Dodds Aviation Corpus Christi TX

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A

TL Center and RAPCON are about the best in the world in my view. I’ll extend this praise to both ORD and JFK RAPCON as well. On the other hand, DFW approach is just not to the same caliber, which is an opinion widely held by other pilots I know. Kim Welch ATP. Challenger 604 Captain Kids ‘R Kids Intl Marietta GA

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7/30/18 12:42 PM


Terminal Checklist 8/18 Answers on page 26

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6. When flying direct to MREEE on a course of 030° at 8000 ft MSL, a flight that is cleared for the approach should____ a maintain 8000 ft MSL until reaching MREEE. b descend to 5400 ft MSL after reaching MREEE. c descend to 5400 ft MSL within 5 nm of MREEE. d descend to 6700 ft MSL within 30 nm of MREEE.

  



     



5. A flight arriving from the northwest at 7000 ft MSL that receives the following instructions, “Cleared direct CHANY, expect RNAV (GPS) Runway 5” may descend to 5600 ft MSL within 30 nm of CHANY. a True b False







 

4. Select the true statement(s) regarding the actions that pilots should take regarding cold temperature altitude corrections. a Self-announce corrected altitudes on the CTAF. b Apply cold temperature corrections to ATC assigned altitudes. c Report cold temperature corrected altitudes that apply to the initial approach segment to ATC. d Calculate and make manual cold temperature altitude corrections if the aircraft does not have temperature compensating equipment.



         

 

3. What items are required to fly the approach to LP minimums? a RAIM. b WAAS-certified GPS equipment. c Aircrew and aircraft authorization. d Monitoring of ground-based navigation equipment.





      

2. Select the true statement(s) regarding RNAV (GPS) approaches with LP minimums. a Advisory vertical guidance may be provided. b LP minimums must be lower than those associated with the LNAV procedure. c Lateral navigation sensitivity increases as the aircraft gets closer to the runway. d LP may be a fail-down mode for approaches with vertical guidance when published with LPV and LNAV/VNAV minimums.







1. Approaches to LP minimums are published at locations where terrain, obstructions, or operational limitations pre vent the use of vertical guidance to LPV minimums. a True b False





lowing questions:



 





Refer to the 12-1 RNAV (GPS) Rwy 5 for KSLK/SLK (Adirondack Regional, Saranac Lake NY) when necessary to answer the fol-



d If a lateral flag or integrity alert appears, ATC can issue a clearance to remain in holding pattern until the flag/alert disappears.

7. Select all that apply. The flight is cleared for the approach. Which of these situations requires a course reversal at MREEE? 9. When performing this procedure to a landing at night, the Arriving from the ________ aircraft must circle to land on Runway 23. a east, cleared direct to GNVEV. a True b False b northeast, cleared direct to MREEE. Select the true statement(s) regarding the final approach segment. 10. c northwest, cleared direct to CHANY. a The runway is equipped with approach lighting system and d southwest, cleared direct to MREEE. a PAPI. 8. Select the true statement(s) regarding continuing the approach b When flying the approach to LNAV minimums, ELLAA if WAAS service is unavailable. should be used as a visual descent point. a The flight must proceed to an alternate airport. c For category A and B aircraft, the straight-in LNAV b The approach may be completed to LP minimums provided minimums are the same as the circle-to-land minimums. a lateral flag or integrity alert does not appear. d If the runway environment is not in sight, the missed c The approach may be completed to LNAV minimums approach should be performed at RW05 when flying to provided a lateral flag or integrity alert does not appear. either LP or LNAV minimums. 24  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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7/27/18 4:06 PM


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Answers to TC 8/18 questions 1. a RNAV (GPS) approaches with LP minimums are commonly referred to as WAAS procedures without vertical guidance. These approaches are typically published in locations where vertical guidance is not feasible due to terrain, obstacles, or other operational limitations. 2. a, b, c Refer to AC 90-107 for guidance on conducting RNAV (GPS) approaches to LPV and LP minimums. LP course guidance provides lateral sensitivity that increases as the aircraft gets closer to the runway. LP minimums are only published if they are lower than LNAV minimums. Advisory vertical guidance may be available during an LP approach. However, barometric altimeter information remains the primary altitude reference for complying with any altitude restrictions. LP is not a faildown mode for approaches with LPV minimums. LP minimums are not published with LPV or LNAV/VNAV minimums. 3. b The aircraft must have GPS equipment certified for WAAS capability by TSO C145/C147 in order to fly to LP minimums. The use of WAAScertified equipment does not require RAIM. If the aircraft’s equipment is not WAAS certified, the approach may be flown to LNAV minimums without monitoring ground-based equipment but RAIM must be available. No special aircrew or aircraft authorization is required. 4. a, d The FAA NOTAM Cold Temperature Restricted Airports indicates that pilots without temperature compensating equipment must calculate and make a manual cold temperature altitude correction to the designated segment(s) of the approach using the AIM 7-2-3, ICAO Cold Temperature Error Table. Jeppesen provides a Cold Temperature Correction Table on a separate chart for the airport so altitude corrections can be made easily. On initial contact with the ATC facility issuing the approach clearance, pilots must report cold temperature corrected altitudes that apply to an intermediate segment and/or a published missed approach final altitude. Pilots are encouraged to self-announce corrected altitudes when flying into airports without an operating control tower. Pilots should not apply cold temperature corrections to ATC assigned altitudes. 5. b According the AIM 5-4-5, an ATC clearance direct to an IAF or to the IF/ IAF without an approach clearance does not authorize a pilot to descend to a lower TAA altitude. If a pilot desires a lower altitude without an approach clearance, the lower TAA altitude must be requested from ATC. 6. c, d A course of 030° to MREEE is within the boundaries of the TAA icon depicted in the lower left of the plan view. The TAA icon indicates a descent to 6700 ft MSL within 30 nm of MREEE. Ballflag note 1 indicates a descent to 5400 ft MSL within 5 nm of MREEE. 7. b An aircraft arriving from the northeast cleared direct to MREEE must reverse course to intercept the final approach course of 049° A parallel entry to the course reversal would be appropriate in this case. A procedure turn (NoPT) is not authorized when arriving at CHANY or GNVEV— aircraft should fly the published course to MREEE and then turn inbound on the final approach course. NoPT is also indicated when flying to MREEE within the boundaries of the TAA icon shown in the lower left corner. 8. c, d AC 90-107 indicates that if WAAS service is not available prior to reaching the FAF, the pilot may complete the RNAV (GPS) approach to LNAV minimums if no lateral flag or other integrity alert appears. However, if the pilot sees a lateral flag or integrity alert, the pilot should do one of the following: (1) request clearance from ATC to enter and remain in a holding pattern (fuel permitting) until the lateral flag or integrity alert disappears, (2) request a clearance from ATC for a different approach using ground-based navigation aids (if available) or (3) request a clearance from ATC to fly to an alternate airport. 9. a Procedural note 1 in the Brief Strip indicates that night landings are not authorized on Runways 5, 9, and 27. Therefore, a circling approach to Runway 23 is necessary. 10. d RW05 is the missed approach waypoint for both nonprecision approaches to LP and LNAV minimums. Runway 5 is only equipped with a PAPI as indicated in the lighting box under the profile diagram. A visual descent point (VDP) is indicated by a V symbol on the profile diagram, which is not shown at ELLAA. For category A aircraft, the straight-in LNAV minimums are the same as the circle-to-land minimums. However, the MDA increase by 120 ft and the minimum visibility increases by ¼ sm for category B aircraft circling to land.

26  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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7/27/18 4:06 PM


THE COMPANY WILL THANK YOU AGAIN AND AGAIN AND AGAIN. You simply won’t find a business aircraft that offers a better ROI than the PC-12 NG. You get a spacious 8-passenger cabin, seating that can be reconfigured in minutes, and a private lavatory. And we guarantee your CFO will love its low acquisition and operating costs. With an airplane this comfortable, versatile and efficient, you’d better get used to the praise. Pilatus Business Aircraft Ltd • USA • Phone +1 303 465 9099 • www.pilatus-aircraft.com

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7/3/2018 2:01:29 PM 7/27/18 4:06 PM


Cartoon art by

We invite readers to submit story lines that would work for a 6-panel Sid and Star cartoon. Send your thoughts by e-mail to Pro Pilot Publisher Murray Smith at murray@propilotmag.com. If we use your idea we’ll credit you by name and pay you $100.

28  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

Sid & Star 8-18 lyt CS.indd 28

7/26/18 12:01 PM


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1/4/2018 8:40:54 AM 7/26/18 12:01 PM


EVENT COVERAGE

NBAA Regional Forum at HPN brings 190 exhibitors and 2700 attendees

On display were some 40 business aircraft, including helicopters, turboprops and jets. Picture above shows NBAA President & CEO Ed Bolen.

Pro Pilot Staff Report

C

onfidence in a resurgence of growth in business aviation was displayed at the HPN (White Plains NY) meeting on June 21. Hopefully the upbeat mood demonstrated by exhibitors and attendees will be reflected in more aircraft sales orders. NBAA Pres Ed Bolen initiated the forum with an overview of where we are today in business aviation, what challenges are facing our industry — including the potential problem of ATC privatization legislation, pilot and maintenance personnel shortages, and the slow road back to better sales of executive turbine-powered business jets, turboprops and corporate helicopters. Here are a some photos of the display booths, aircraft on the line and attendees.

Castle & Cooke VP Tony Marlow and Biz Dvlp & Mktg Mgr Candace Shroeder represented the company during the show. Avfuel CEO Craig Sinkock and Event Coordinator Melissa Novak answered questions from the attendees.

From left to right are Sheltair VP Bus Dvlpt & Special Projects Bill McShane, Dir Sales & Mktg Karen Kroeppel, Property Mgr NY April Converse, Bus Av Sales Mgr David Buritica, Graphic Design & Mktg Megan LaBarge-Reichel and FRG Base Gen Mgr Leonel Rivera.

At CAE booth were (L–R) Reg Sales Mgr Av Training and Svcs Mark Curnow, Reg Sales Mgr Carmine Petrone and OEM Sales Rep to Dassault Av Training and Svcs Bill Dougherty. Piaggio America VP Customer Support Paolo Ferreri on the ramp at HPN with Piaggio P.180 Avanti.

Photos by Jose Vasquez

Universal Avionics Sr Sales Mgr US Robert Randall and NE Regional Sales Mgr Lorrie White welcomed customers.

Dassault Falcon Sr Mgr Advt & Mktg Brad Lapin and Pro Pilot Publisher Murray Smith with Falcon 8X in the background.

(L–R) Duncan Aviation’s Chris Gress, Jack Smith, Vincent Antignani, and Dan Moog.

30  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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7/26/18 11:54 AM


Embraer Executive Jets Pres & CEO Michael Amalfitano (L) and PP Publisher Murray Smith.

(L–R) From Million Air were Janette Licastrino (HPN), Charlie Elliott (AEX), Skyqueen Enterprises CEO Millie Becker, Elise Donald (HOU), and Dir of Sales Dolores Johnson. EPIC Business Development SE Ramon Hudson (L) and VP of Sales & Business Dev Dan Gallogly.

The Meridian team at the convention included VP Av Sales Michael Moore (7th from left) and Dir Mktg Kirk Stephen (2nd from right).

Garmin Sales Mgr, Integrated Flight Deck Retrofit Programs Scott Frye (L) and Av Reg Sales Mgr NE Michael Kerrigan.

West Star Tech Sales Mgr CHA Donnie Shealy (L) and Reg Sales Mgr NE Wayne Sawyer.

TechnicAir Sales Administrator Reinaldo Arocha was available at the company’s booth.

Stevens Aviation Technical Sales Brian Elmer (L) and Large Cabin Technical Sales Tony Raines.

Elliott Aviation Reg Sales Mgr Casey Ritz (L) and VP of Mx, Paint & Interior Sales Michael Parrish. From left to right are Banyan Dir of Cust Support Jon Tonko, Cust Supt & Mktg Giselle Nieves and Dir of FBO Sales and Client Relations John Mason.

Concorde Batteries Area Sales Mgr Dave Schiavone greeted customers at the event.

Clay Lacy Aviation had this 2018 model Quest Kodiak 100 for sale at the show.

Shell Aviation Dir of Mktg Rhonda Bernthal and NE Sales & Mktg Steve Tibbetts.

(L–R) Pentastar Aviation Sales Supp Rep Kimberly Massa, National Acc Mgr MRO Svcs Matt Richardson and Dir of Engineering and Inside Sales Jesse Beard.

This HondaJet and other 40 aircraft on static display attracted visitors to the ramp at HPN.

Go Rentals Area Mgr Brian Sullivan explained his company’s services.

Leonardo exhibited this AW109SP multipurpose helicopter at the regional forum.

PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018  31

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7/26/18 11:54 AM


2018 CORPORATE AIRCRAFT PRODUCT SUPPORT SURVEY

Jets: 1 Embraer, 2 Gulfstream, 3 Dassault, 4 Textron, 5 Bombardier. Turboprops: 1 Pilatus, 2 Daher TBM, 3 Textron, 4 Piper. Embraer is back strong regaining 1st place in the jet div. Pilatus remains #1 in TP support. Results are based on 1537 line evaluations which generated 10,350 individual scores. Pro Pilot staff report

Data compiled by Conklin & de Decker

O

perating a business jet is so much more than just finding an aircraft with the specifications that meet your needs. It’s also about how well the OEM supports you, your aircraft and your mission after the buy. And of course, aftersale product support will greatly influence your next aircraft purchase. Quality of manufacturer product support is both tangible (response times/AOG speed, parts availability/ cost) and intangible (what makes a good tech rep, service satisfaction). Our survey has always captured the total product support experience in its 7 categories plus comments for a standard, year-to-year comparison. To make this survey even more useful to OEMs and readers alike, we’ve focused our chart format. For recency and relevancy, we’ve zeroed in on the last 11 years. To compare pre- and post-financial crisis performance, we included 2008 data that was collected before the “dip.” To quickly see trends across time, we’ve added the OEM rankings to each year’s data bar. And to account for Textron acquisitions, we’re still presenting historical Citation, Hawker, Beechcraft, and Cessna data in addition to the 1st year of combined ratings.

Category 2nd place spots were cost of parts, tech manuals, tech reps, and service satisfaction. Gulfstream’s highest category improvement was in tech manuals. Dassault’s overall trend has generally been up since 2014. This year they earned a strong 3rd place ranking after hitting 2nd last year. Exhibiting an even and stable showing, they received 3rd place in all survey categories. Dassault’s biggest score improvement was for their tech reps.

Jets Embraer increased in responses from 2017 and scores were higher to retake the jet division crown. They won 1st in cost of parts, tech manuals, tech reps, and service satisfaction, placing 2nd in the other 3 categories. Gulfstream remains in the top 2 overall, moving down from the number 1 spot last year. They scored 1st in company response time, spares availability and speed in AOG service.

2018/2017 OEM comparison

u No rating for 2017 Manufacturers

Company response time

Responses

2018

Jets

2017

Spares availability Dif

2018

Cost of parts

2017

Dif

2018

2017

Dif

Embraer

123

8.80

u

8.24

u

7.50

u

Gulfstream

242

8.86

8.89

-0.03

8.28

8.48

-0.20

6.43

6.55

-0.12

Dassault

159

8.51

8.46

0.05

8.21

8.33

-0.12

6.40

6.30

0.10

Textron

425

8.12

u

7.73

u

6.19

u

Bombardier

217

8.00

8.16

-0.16

7.40

7.77

-0.37

6.35

6.50

-0.15

59

8.73

8.43

0.30

8.60

8.46

0.14

6.93

6.80

0.13

Daher

86

8.76

8.60

0.16

8.33

7.88

0.45

5.94

6.00

-0.06

Textron

121

7.88

u

7.59

u

5.66

u

Piper

34

7.74

u

6.94

u

6.16

u

Turboprops Pilatus

2018 Pro Pilot Corporate Aircraft Product Support Survey

8.13

1 2

2 3 4 4 4 4

3

4 5

3 4 5

Embraer

Gulfstream

2018

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2018

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2018

2017*

6

Pro Pilot Survey Rankings

2

8.14

8.12

7.90

7.62

7.68

7.54

7.52

7.76

7.77

1 2 2

7.56

8.44

8.36

8.37

8.30

8.33

8.38

8.38

8.31

8.37

8.55

8.58

8.51

8.06

8.11

8.23

1 1 1 1

3 3

2016

0

1 1

3

2015

2

3

2014

4

1

2

2013*

6

1 1

2012

8 2008 through 2011, 2013 & 2017 received insufficient returns for rating

Comparison of overall average scores

10

11 years of surveys for turbine 8.14

Jets

*no rating for years indicated

Dassault

32  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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8/2/18 12:16 PM

su


2018 Pro Pilot Corporate Aircraft Product Support Survey

Overall ranking

Jets 123

Embraer

8.55

Pilatus

8.36

Daher

242

Gulfstream

159

Dassault

425

0

2

6

86 8.30 121 7.54 34 7.35

00

7.74 4

8.38

Piper

7.76

217

Bombardier

59

Textron

8.13

Textron

Turboprops

8

22

0

44

2

66

4

Overall ranking

10

88

6

10 10 10

8

Responses

Jet mfrs rated by 100 responses or more. Turboprop mfrs rated by 25 responses or more.

support scores for corporate jets and turboprops Speed in AOG service

Manufacturers Jets

2018

Embraer

8.41

Gulfstream

8.71

Dif

2018

u

9.07

8.83

-0.12

8.69

8.29

8.45

-0.16

8.18

7.86

2u

7.87

7.92

-0.05

Pilatus

8.32

8.49

-0.17

Daher

8.38

8.16

Textron

7.65

u

Piper

7.00

u

Dassault

2017

Tech manuals

0

Textron Bombardier

Tech reps Dif

2018

u

9.09

8.58

0.11

8.96

8.20

-0.02

8.90

8.75

8.10

8 u

8.35

8.00

8.03

-0.03

8.62

8.70

8.71

-0.01

8.69

0.22

9.03

8.88

0.15

8.10

u

7.67

u

8.10

4

2017

6

10

Service satisfaction

2017

Dif

2018

2017

u

8.74

9.02

-0.06

8.58

0.15

8.40

8.47

u

7.96

8.67

-0.05

7.91

8.63

0.06

8.68

9.01

9.05

-0.04

8.05

u

u

Overall scores Dif

2018

2017

Dif

u

8.55

u

8.71

-0.13

8.36

8.44

-0.08

-0.07

8.13

8.14

-0.01

u

7.76

u

8.03

-0.12

7.74

7.87

-0.13

8.73

-0.05

8.38

8.32

0.06

8.66

8.47

0.19

8.30

8.15

0.15

7.83

u

7.54

u

7.82

u

7.35

u

Turboprops

Cessna Citation

5

7.87

7.74

7.69

7.71

7.77

5 5 5

3 4

4 5 5

5

5

Hawker Beechcraft

2018

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

6 2017*

2016

2015

2014

6 6 6 2013

2012

2011

6

5

4

Pro Pilot Survey Rankings

4 5

Textron

7.72

7.51

7.49

7.61

7.58

7.14

7.04

6.96

6.88

7.22

6.90

7.81

7.56

7.53

4

2010

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

4

1 2

3

3 3 4

2009

3

2008

3

2018

2 2 2 2

Textron now includes Citation and Hawker Beechcraft

1 2 2

7.51

7.76

7.99

7.97

8.07

7.98

8.14

8.10

8.24

8.14

8.14

8.02

corporate aircraft manufacturers rated 2008–2018

Bombardier

PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018  33

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Textron starts their new jet division entry by placing 4th with a Cessna Citation-Hawker Beechcraft combined score. On March 14th, 2014 Textron acquired Beech Holdings, the parent company of Beechcraft Corp. It brought together Cessna and Hawker Beechcraft under 1 entity, Textron Aviation. Pro Pilot policy is to rate the newly-acquired product line separately for 3 years. A scan across historical Citation and Hawker charts on either side of the new Textron entry below provides an insightful comparison. It reveals there are points of excellence and challenge within this large organization. Pro Pilot will continue to follow their combined journey in future surveys. Bombardier has displayed consistency over the last 5 years after a high

point in 2013. They moved to the 5th position after taking the number 4 spot in 2017.

Turboprops Pilatus retained the division crown as they have since TPs were split out from jets 17 years ago. Their winning score included 1st place in spares availability, cost of parts and service satisfaction. They took 2nd in company response time (the highest category improvement for Pilatus), speed in AOG service, tech manuals, and tech reps. Daher TBM is a stalwart scorer, placing 2nd for the 10th consecutive year. Significantly, they earned the biggest improvement in the entire survey in the spares availability

category. Daher also took 1st in company response time, speed in AOG service, tech manuals, and tech reps. This manufacturer placed 2nd in spares availability, and service satisfaction. Textron takes 3rd as a combined entity which includes Caravan, Conquest and King Air. Similar to the jet division, a left to right comparison across Beechcraft, Textron and Cessna is instructive for their areas of strength. Textron placed 3rd in company response time, spares availability, speed in AOG service, tech manuals, and service satisfaction. Piper received more than double the number of respondents over 2017, taking 4th place. They also scored 2nd place in cost of parts and 3rd in the tech reps category.

Methodology

F

or the past 28 years Pro Pilot has used a paper questionnaire to ask corporate turbine aircraft operators to rate the quality of aftersale service provided by aircraft manufacturers. For 17 years jet and turboprop aircraft support have been rated in different divisions. There are 7 categories listed on the survey form—company response time, spares availability, cost of parts, speed in AOG service, tech manuals, tech reps, and service satisfaction. During Apr 2018 a target mailing of 7843 survey forms was sent out to a random selection of corporate operators from the Pro Pilot subscription list. A supplemental mailing of 3261 was sent to other turbine aircraft operators. A total of 1388 survey forms, representing a 13% return, came back to the Pro Pilot office by the July 24 cutoff date. A total of 1264 survey forms were properly filled out which provided 1537 evaluations with 1198 for the jet division and 339 for the turboprop division. A total of 124 survey forms were disqualified due to inconsistencies, errors, duplications, or lateness. On March 14th 2014, Textron Acquired Beech Holdings LLC, the parent company of Beechcraft Corp, and it brought together Cessna and Hawker Beechcraft under 1 entity, Textron Aviation. Responsibility for Cessna, Beechcraft and Hawker is now under Textron. Pro

Pilot’s policy is to continue to rate the newly-acquired product line separately for 3 years. Therefore, in this 4th year since the merger they are now all rated together under Textron Aviation. Pro Pilot rules for the 2018 survey required a minimum of 100 responses to rank in the jet division. There were 5 manufacturers that met the criteria and therefore were rated in this division—Bombardier, Dassault, Embraer, Gulfstream, and Textron (Citation, Beechjet and Hawker). There were other jet manufacturers that received responses but not enough to rank in this division: Airbus (4), Boeing (14), British Aerospace (1), Eclipse (3), HondaJet (4), Pilatus (1), Sabreliner (3), and Worthington Aviation/Westwind (2). For the turboprop division manufacturers needed 25 responses for inclusion. Only 4 TP aircraft manufacturers met the criteria— Daher, Pilatus, Piper, and Textron (Caravan, Conquest and King Air). Other TP manufacturers received responses but not enough to rank—Aero Commander (9), Fairchild/Swearingen (1), Mitsubishi (7), Piaggio (18), Quest Kodiak (2), and Viking (2). Survey respondents were asked to rate corporate aircraft OEMs on a scale of 1 (poor) to 10 (excellent) within each of the 7 categories. Conklin & de Decker of Arlington TX acted as research agent and performed independent data analysis.

2018 Pro Pilot Corporate Aircraft Product Support Survey

Pilatus

Daher

Beechcraft

7.35

6.81

7.22 6.93

7.23 7.18 7.13 7.19 6.85

5.77 6.30 6.17 6.21 6.31 6.57 6.73 7.06 7.51

2

3

3 4 4 4 4 4

4

4 5

Textron

Cessna

4 5 5 5 5 5

4 4

4

5

4 5

Pro Pilot Survey Rankings

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

2

1

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017* 2018

4

0

7.54

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013* 2014 2015 2016 2017

3

*no rating for years indicated

2

2018

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

6

Textron now includes TP Beechcraft and Cessna

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Comparison of overall average scores

7.55 7.54 7.47 7.44 7.32 7.38 7.61 7.61 7.61 7.77

8

7.49 7.68 7.60 7.65 7.59 7.91 8.01 7.96 8.28 8.15 8.30

10

8.37 8.16 7.74 8.02 7.71 8.20 8.07 8.32 8.42 8.32 8.38

Turboprops

Piper

34  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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JETS

I

Embraer President & CEO of Embraer Services & Support Johann Bordais, the new Business Unit that integrates the capabilities of Commercial Aviation, Executive Aviation and Defense divisions to provide the best solutions to the customers. Johann can be reach at +55 12 3927 3518 or by email at jbordais@embraer.com.br.

I

n my 45 years of fixed and rotary wing aviation I have never experienced a finer level of product quality and service that I have received from Embraer. Keith Christensen Comm-Multi-Inst/Helo. Phenom 300 President Christensen Industries South Salt Lake UT

E

mbraer has a very committed team with strong professionals. They’re always willing to help. Paulo Fernandes A&P. Phenom 300 Aircraft Mx Mgr NetJets Paço de Arcos, Portugal

’ve been managing and flying Embraer Phenoms since 2010 and Embraer has consistently demonstrated a willingness to listen to their customers and continue to strive to make a terrific product even more phenomenal. Jim McIrvin ATP/CFII. Phenom 300 & Boeing 767/757 Chief Pilot McIrvin Aviation Warrenton VA

W

e are entering our 9th year of Phenom 100 ownership with the aircraft bought new. Embraer support has been unwavering, especially the team at their BDL (Windsor Locks CT) service center. John Wood ATP/CFI. Phenom 100 Pilot Bedford Jet Flight Concord MA

O

ur Embraer Phenom 300 continues to be the most reliable aircraft we’ve ever owned. Embraer has built a world-class organization and their dedication to supporting their aircraft is clear every time we interact with them. Jay Obernolte ATP. Phenom 300 President FarSight Technologies Big Bear Lake CA

Manufacturer Responses Company Spares Cost Speed in Tech Tech Service Overall response availability of AOG manuals reps satisfaction average time parts service

Jets Bombardier Learjet

61

7.54 6.43 7.85 8.01 8.63 7.97 7.78

7.82 6.97 6.02 7.79 7.98 8.45 7.66 7.53

Gulfstream GII–V,G300–650

187 8.86 8.39 6.56 8.77 8.73 8.97 8.66 8.42

IAI-1125/G100-G280

64

8.81 7.95 6.02 8.55 8.61 8.92 8.37 8.17

Cessna Citation Jet

316

8.34

Hawker Beechcraft *

109 7.45 6.64 4.98 7.00 7.85 7.87 7.37 7.02

Textron 8.10

6.62

8.16

8.19

8.51

8.17

ove flying the Phenom 300. Embraer works extremely hard to keep their customers happy. I look forward to flying our Phenoms for many more years. Thank you Embraer. Rick Boyer ATP. Phenom 300 Aviation Manager SCANA West Columbia SC

M

y Phenom 300 just works. Actual issues are rare and when they do occur the quick response times from Embraer are phenomenal. Luke Krepsky ATP/CFII. Phenom 300 Owner & Captain Exec Aire Stevens Point WI

T

he Embraer maintenance facilities are clean, organized and easy to access. There is someone to help you and guide you through the building, with a dedicated room to use as an office while the aircraft is undergoing maintenance. And feedback is always available online. Francisco Sacco ATP. Legacy 650 Pilot Manager Lojas Riachuelo São Paulo, Brazil

O

2018 scores by product division for jets and turboprops

Challenger/Global Express 163 8.04

L

8.01

* Includes Beechjet 400, Hawker 400, MU300, Hawker 125 series and Premier

ur Phenom 100 has been remarkedly reliable. And our relationship with the Embraer BDL service center is outstanding. William Mildon ATP. Phenom 100 CEO Intervest International Concord MA

E

mbraer has been right there to support us when we go AOG. And their service personnel and service centers have been a pleasure to work with. Timothy Rink ATP. Phenom 100 Chief Pilot American Trust & Savings Bank Dubuque IA

T

Turboprops Textron Beechcraft–King Air

107

7.99

7.81

5.74

7.80

8.13

8.18

7.92

7.65

Cessna–Caravan, Conquest

14

7.07

5.92

5.00

6.54

7.92

7.00

7.14

6.66

Some respondents rated a single corporate manufacturer with 2 or more models they operate. (eg. Bombardier for a Challenger 604 and Learjet 45). Because of this, there is a small difference between total responses for the overall rankings by type of aircraft rated within the divisions.

he service center network for Embraer is top notch. We couldn’t be happier with their products or support. Ryan Christensen Comm-Multi-Inst. Phenom 300 Owner & Pilot Christensen Industries Salt Lake City UT

36  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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O

Gulfstream President Customer Support Derek Zimmerman can be reached at 912-395-0856, or via e-mail at derek.zimmerman@ gulfstream.com.

he G550 & G450 we fly are both very reliable aircraft with great support. Denny Zeller ATP. Gulfstream G550/G450 Captain American Express Montgomery NY

I

n my view, Gulfstream is head and shoulders above all other OEMs. This observation comes from a career flying military and business jets for over 40 years where I experienced most aircraft manufacturers including Bombardier, Cessna, Lockheed, Rockwell, and others. David Bausch ATP. Gulfstream G650/G550/V President Skyhawk Global Air Jamison PA

G

ulfstream is well known for great support and all the service centers I’ve dealt with are excellent. Brent Keyes ATP. Gulfstream G550 Chief Pilot Graham Capital Mgmt Bethel CT

I

n my opinion Gulfstream continues to set the standard for product support in the business jet market. Even with just the small number of issues we’ve experienced, they’ve been very proactive in rectifying these items. Ken Norman ATP. Gulfstream G650ER Chief Pilot Little Aviation Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

A

G

W

S

15 year support/warranty simply puts Gulfstream above all other manufacturers. They really stand behind their products. Edward Cassella ATP. Gulfstream IV Captain Hudsons Bay Columbia NJ

T

o support our Fortune 500 company, my corporate flight department needs to operate efficiently with high degree of reliability and availability. Gulfstream large cabin aircraft fit our operating model well. And from my maintenance standpoint, Gulfstream is the high water mark for corporate fleets. Fritz Oesterle Priv/A&P. Gulfstream G550 Chief of Mx Hewlett Packard Enterprise San Jose CA

Gulfstream

8.86

Embraer

8.80

Dassault

8.51

Textron

8.12

Bombardier

8.00

Turboprops Daher

8.76

Pilatus

8.73

Textron

7.88

Piper

7.74 2

4

6

8

10

imply put, with Gulfstream we’ve got a superior airplane from a great manufacturer with excellent backup service David Rada ATP. Gulfstream G550 Finance Mgr & Pilot DuPont New Castle DE

2018 Pro Pilot Corporate Aircraft Product Support Survey Jet mfrs rated by 100 or more. Turboprop mfrs rated by 25 or more.

Company response time Jets

0

ulfstream as a manufacturer has given us the best service as a customer than any other aircraft our company has owned or operated. Martin Quinlan ATP. Gulfstream IVSP Dir of Ops Philadelphia Jet Service Philadelphia PA

e enjoy great customer service and support from the Gulfstream team. And the tech reps category gets the highest marks from me. Kevin Flood A&P. Gulfstream G450 Aircraft Mx Mgr American Family Madison WI

2018 Pro Pilot Corporate Aircraft Product Support Survey Jet mfrs rated by 100 or more. Turboprop mfrs rated by 25 or more.

T

ut of the 5 different aircraft manufacturers that we operate, Gulfstream still has the best support. Thomas Meier A&P. Gulfstream G550/G450, Challenger 350, Boeing 737BBJ & Sikorsky S76B/C++ Av Mx Mgr Amway Grand Rapids MI

Gulfstream

Spares availability Jets Gulfstream

8.28

Embraer

8.24

Dassault

8.21

Textron

7.73

Bombardier

7.40

Turboprops Pilatus

8.60

Daher

8.33

Textron

7.59 6.94

Piper 0

2

4

6

8

10

38  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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C

an’t say enough good things about our Gulfstream tech rep Dallas Gumm. He has a vast knowledge of G200 aircraft systems and always displays a willingness to help us out. Jeff Finnigan A&P. Gulfstream G200 Dir of Mx JELD-WEN Charlotte NC

ways great to know that 1 call can get it done–from support to parts to service. Sherman Collins A&P. Gulfstream G650ER/G550 Dir of Mx Chevron Oakland CA

2018 Pro Pilot Corporate Aircraft Product Support Survey

Job titles of survey respondents

F

or 25 years I’ve been a director of maintenance servicing Gulfstream products. For me, they’re hands down the most reliable business aircraft made. Donald Carlson ATP/A&P. Gulfstream V/IV, Falcon 50 & Hawker 800A Pilot & Former DOM Lyon Aviation Pittsfield MA

V

ery longtime customer – our company has been in the Gulfstream family for over 57 years. We currently operate 1 G650 and 4 G280s. Our loyalty is due in large part to their remarkable tech support, superior customer service and endless drive for continuous improvement. Lee Bradshaw A&P. Gulfstream G650/G280 Asst Mx Mgr Cox Enterprises Atlanta GA

101 206 515

K

ept our loyalties with Gulfstream by purchasing a brand new G550 in Feb 2018 to replace our GIV. Factory support has been excellent. Robert Decker ATP/CFI. Gulfstream G550 Captain Executive Jet Mgmt Coral Springs FL

F

antastic is how I describe Gulfstream support. Kudos to our field representative Mark Soloman. I think he is the hardest working rep in the industry. Gulfstreams are great aircraft too. Anson Mount Comm-Multi-Inst/A&P. Gulfstream G550/G450 & KA 350i Flt Eng & Crew Chief Abbott Labs Arlington Hts IL

442

Aviation Dept Mgr, Chief Pilot, Dir of Aviation, Flight Ops Mgr or VP Operations Captain, Line Captain, First Officer or other pilot

I

f we are AOG, then Gulfstream and their Field and Airborne Support Teams (FAST) are there to get us going almost instantly. And when we drop in for maintenance, they drop everything to get us taken care of and out again. Jeff Jacober ATP/CFII. Gulfstream G650/G550 Chief Pilot Renco Group Bensalem PA

D

elivering world class support around the globe is what Gulfstream continues to do well. And the reliability of the Gulfstreams are outstanding. Plus it’s al-

Owner, Chief Executive, President, VP, General Mgr or other corporate officer Maintenance Chief, Maintenance Mgr or Mechanic

Cost of parts

Speed in AOG service

Jets Embraer

7.50

Gulfstream

6.43

Dassault

6.40

Bombardier

6.35

Textron

6.19

Turboprops Pilatus

6.93

Piper

6.16

Daher

5.94

Textron

5.66 0

2

4

6

8

10

Jet mfrs rated by 100 or more. Turboprop mfrs rated by 25 or more.

2018 Pro Pilot Corporate Aircraft Product Support Survey

Jet mfrs rated by 100 or more. Turboprop mfrs rated by 25 or more.

2018 Pro Pilot Corporate Aircraft Product Support Survey

Jets Gulfstream

8.71

Embraer

8.41

Dassault

8.29

Bombardier

7.87

Textron

7.86

Turboprops Daher

8.38

Pilatus

8.32

Textron

7.65 7.00

Piper 0

2

4

6

8

10

40  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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D

G

F

I

O

D

E

V

reat strides from Dassault are obvious as they continue to improve in all survey categories. Keep up the good work! Joseph Pritko ATP/CFII. Falcon 50EX & King Air 350i Av Mgr & Chief Pilot Silver Ventures San Antonio TX

assault has gone out of their way to make sure our aircraft meets our needs. Their support is very good for our privately owned aircraft. Peter Hearn ATP/CFII. Falcon 7X/2000 Chief Pilot The Working Group St Paul MI

Dassault Dassault Senior VP, Worldwide Customer Service Jacques Chauvet is based in SaintCloud, France. Falcon support personnel are positioned around the globe to provide Falcon operators with 24/7 AOG, technical, ops and spare parts services. Chauvet can be contacted at 3314-711-6194 or at Jacques.chauvet@dassault-aviation.com.

alcon Jet has greatly improved their customer support over the past few years. So I gave them very high marks in all Pro Pilot survey categories. Thomas Morrison ATP/CFII. Falcon 900LX/50EX Captain Solairus West Simsbury CT

W

e’ve always had satisfying, open communication with Dassault. We report any troubles and they’ve always given us strong support with a good level of response. Keeping the communication lines open is key to efficient and safe operations. Jean-Jacques Quenivet ATP. Falcon 2000LXS/S Deputy Mgr & Captain Michelin Air Services Clermont Ferrand, Cedex, France

t doesn’t matter if we’re on the road or at home base, Dassault takes care of us. They always do a fine job with product support. William Stephenson ATP. Falcon 2000LXS Av Mgr Jato Lxs Morristown NJ

ur company appreciates Dassault’s continued investments in product support. They’re showing their commitment to the customer, even during the current, challenging economic times. Ronald Ruocco Comm-Multi-Inst/A&P. Falcon 7X Chief of Mx The Hertz Corp Stamford CT

I

’ve been most impressed by Dassault aircraft, company representatives and their response to questions. And I’ll say that their manuals are the best I’ve seen. Ian Struthers ATP. Falcon 50EX Av Mgr & Chief Pilot Air 700 Richmond BC, Canada

assault builds a superior aircraft and offers excellent support to complement their aircraft design efforts. Robert Snyder ATP. Falcon 2000LX, Learjet 60XR & Gulfstream G200 SVP Av Ops Sedgwick Memphis TN

ery pleased with our tech reps Randy Boyles and David Graham. They’re always helpful and eager to assist with any issue we may have. James Wilser ATP/CFII. Falcon 2000EASy Pilot Concord Air Cary NC

xceptional product support from Dassault is evident in every way for our aircraft. D-FJ gets the highest survey ratings from me. Drew Oetjen A&P. Falcon 2000LXS/S Mgr of Aircraft Mx Union Pacific Railroad Omaha NE

Tech manuals

Tech reps

Jets Embraer

9.07

Gulfstream

8.69

Dassault

8.18

Textron

8.10

Bombardier

8.00

Turboprops Daher

9.03

Pilatus

8.70

Textron

8.10

Piper

7.67 0

2

4

6

8

10

Jet mfrs rated by 100 or more. Turboprop mfrs rated by 25 or more.

2018 Pro Pilot Corporate Aircraft Product Support Survey

Jet mfrs rated by 100 or more. Turboprop mfrs rated by 25 or more.

2018 Pro Pilot Corporate Aircraft Product Support Survey

Jets Embraer

9.09

Gulfstream

8.96

Dassault

8.90

Bombardier

8.62

Textron

8.35

Turboprops Daher

9.01

Pilatus

8.69

Piper

8.10

Textron

8.05 0

2

4

6

8

10

42  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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W

e’ve been well supported by Dassault in the operation of our fleet of 6 Falcon aircraft. Our experience has been that Dassault’s AOG support is outstanding. Mark Ellis ATP. Falcon 7X/2000EASy/50 Dir Av Tyson Foods Bentonville AR

Textron

(now Citation & HawkerBeechcraft) Textron Aviation Senior VP for Customer Service Kriya Shortt is responsible for all aftermarket service and support for Beechcraft, Cessna and Hawker brands. She can be reached at 316517-5065 or by e-mail at kshortt@txtav.com.

T

hey’re doing a really good job supporting my company at Dassault Falcon Service. Their service response time has been quick and our satisfaction with the D-FJ service has been great. Michal Wamej ATP. Falcon 2000S Captain Magellan Pro-Service Kielce, Poland

S

upport from Textron for our Mustang continues to be great. I gave high survey marks for response time, spares availability, and service satisfaction. Don Lockard Pvt-Multi-Inst. Citation Mustang Gen Mgr National Socket Screw Mfg Beamsville ON, Canada

D

assault Falcon has done an excellent job supporting our flight operations when we’ve experienced any service issues. The Falcon Command Center team consistently demonstrates a high sense of urgency in returning our aircraft to service quickly with efficient fault analysis assistance and replacement parts logistics solutions. Our department truly appreciates Dassault Falcon’s commitment to delivering outstanding customer service. Bradley Hennis A&P. Falcon 2000LX & Citation Excel Av Mx Mgr CCBCC Ops Charlotte NC

T

extron has established an impressive network. They did hit a rough patch when incorporating Beech/Hawker into the mix but now seem to have overcome that. The Mobile Service Unit (MSU) trucks have been very helpful to us on multiple occasions. Alan Dusman ATP/CFII. Citation Excel Aviation Dept Mgr Hanover Foods Thomasville PA

Jet mfrs rated by 100 or more. Turboprop mfrs rated by 25 or more.

2018 Pro Pilot Corporate Aircraft Product Support Survey

Service satisfaction Jets Embraer

8.74

Gulfstream

8.58

Dassault

8.40

Textron

7.96

Bombardier

7.91

Turboprops Pilatus

8.68

Daher

8.66

Textron

7.83

Piper

7.82 0

2

4

6

8

10

M

obile Service Teams are our go-to for AOG events. They’re great to work with, very knowledgeable and always very responsive. David Joyner ATP/CFI. Citation XLS Captain Milliken Co Simpsonville SC

T

extron continues to improve. They’ve been consolidating different systems and working to standardize their approach at each service center. Their billing and reporting software remains a weak point but the commitment of their team specialists is a very strong positive in their favor. Marc Dulude ATP. Citation CJ3+ Member & Chief Pilot Mild Air Okatie SC

W

e’re very pleased with Textron’s service center at MCO (Orlando FL), especially with the Mobile Service Unit. Every time we’ve called they’ve showed up quickly. The last time we called the waiting period was only 2 hours. Jose Marquez ATP. Citation Encore Chief Pilot Constructora Sambil Miami FL

T

extron Citation centers do an excellent job. And the Mobile Service Units are fantastic for AOG situations. Michael Martin ATP/CFI. Citation CJ1 Chief Pilot Mustang Properties Huntsville AL

V

ery happy with Textron’s 1CALL service. They’ve provided immediate solutions for the few issues we’ve had with our Sovereigns. On a side note, we’ve learned that the Jeppesen chart and nav database subscriptions on our aircraft are only about 1/2 the price compared to other midsize bizjets. Kevin Giefer ATP/CFII. Citation Sovereign Chief Pilot Southwestern Energy Spring TX

G

reat customer support received at the San Antonio Service Center. Glen Goodwin Comm-Multi-Inst/CFII. Citation XLS+ Chief Pilot RCS Houston TX

44  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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Field Service Engineers – In Your Hangar!

Honeywell’s goal is to bring our technical experts to your aircraft to resolve your issue quickly and efficiently. Honeywell has field service local Field Services Engineers (FSE) to support you when needed. Your local FSE will be available in person, in your hanger to resolve your issue. And of course, your Customer Service Manager is always available to provide additional assistance. The MyAerospace portal is accessible 24/7 so you can quickly and efficiently troubleshoot your problem, or easily access specialized technical support experts. So no matter how you prefer your support delivered – in your hangar, on your tablet, phone, internet, or all of these – we’re there for you. To learn more about the FSE program, go to aerospace.honeywell.com/CustomerSupport

For product information, visit aerospace.honeywell.com © 2018 Honeywell International. All rights reserved

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ortunately, we haven’t had much requirement for manufacturer help. Our Citation CJ1 just doesn’t break down. That’s probably because I’ve personally flown all of the 1840 hours on the meter! But when I have needed help, the tech reps have been outstanding. Will Carroll ATP. Citation CJ1 Chief Pilot LDB Corp Kerrville TX

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ervice center and MSU support from Textron are both excellent. They’re also continuing to improve their mobile capabilities. This saves us time and money by not having to move the aircraft to a service center. Michael Herman Comm-Multi-Inst/Helo/CFI. Citation CJ3 Owner & Pilot Bear Air San Diego CA

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ur Citation Ultra is a great airplane with outstanding support, which is why I gave Textron high marks across all survey categories. Daniel Carrigan ATP/CFII/A&P. Citation Ultra Chief Pilot Mikal C Watts San Antonio TX

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hen we have a problem I usually only have to make a call and it is no longer my problem. Nicholas Pellegraind ATP. Citation CJ3 Chief Pilot Maverik Salt Lake City UT

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n my opinion, Textron is doing a great job supporting the large number of models they have being operated worldwide. Dwain Chase A&P. Citation Latitude Dir of Mx Levine Investments Mesa AZ

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extron does a nice job supporting their legacy Citation aircraft. Thomas Lyons ATP/CFII. Citation X Chief Pilot C750 LLC Lawrenceville GA

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ick Best is the tech rep for our CJ, and he is the best I’ve ever worked with. He stays on top of things and is extremely good about follow-ups whenever they are necessary. Frank Hale ATP/CFII. Citation CJ2 Contract Pilot AMC Kalispell MT

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extron has the best product support in Europe and does a good job supporting our CJ. James Healey ATP/CFII. Citation CJ Managing Dir Jet Alliance International Monte Carlo, Monaco

I Cloverleaf Cold Storage VP & Partner David Kaplan holds an ATP and has over 6100 total flight hours. He rates and comments on the product support provided by Daher and Textron Aviation for his company’s Citation Encore and 2 TBM 850s. Overall he was very pleased with Daher and the services received. His survey is 1 of the 1388 forms received for the Pro Pilot 2018 Corporate Manufacturers Product Support Survey.

’ve always thought Cessna made very good to excellent quality products. I’d rate Textron’s service and support to the same level. Mark Moran ATP/CFII. Citation Latitude Captain NetJets Port Orange FL

46  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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Bombardier Bombardier Business Aircraft VP Cust Support Andy Nureddin can be reached by phone at 514-855-8307, or by e-mail at andy.nureddin@aero. bombardier.com.

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upport professionals from Bombardier are really great people to work with, especially with over-the-phone assistance on various issues. Michael Crotty ATP. Challenger 300 Chief Flight Standards Branch The United Co Gray TN

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onsidering we have operated our Challenger 601-3A for 10 years and it’s now 28 years old, I have nothing but praise for Bombardier. Over these years I have seen Bombardier customer service and product support improve greatly. Bobby Lippner ATP/CFI. Challenger 601-3A Chief Pilot Ride Realty Investments League City TX

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ield service rep from Bombardier is outstanding. Our FSR responds quickly to our DOM. We have had some issues with parts availability however. Rob Garrison ATP/CFII. Challenger 300 & Learjet 35 Dir of Av & Chief Pilot Sinclair Services Salt Lake City UT

ombardier continues to improve their customer support. Now we’re looking forward to service center improvements. Chad Moore A&P. Global 6000 Dir of Mx Johnsonville Sausage Sanford FL

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D

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ean Eechaute is our field support rep, and he’s absolutely the best. Always quick to respond, his product knowledge on our Lear 45 is phenomenal. Dean is the kind of FSR who builds product loyalty. Keith Cook ATP/CFII. Learjet 45 Chief Pilot Basler Electric Worden IL

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ombardier has made a huge improvement in the quality of delivered aircraft. They’ve complemented this with great support emanating from the help desk in Montreal. Charles Hunt ATP. Global Express Dir Flight Ops HK Bellawings Hong Kong, China

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n my experience, Bombardier’s AOG mobile response team is exceptional. They have exceeded my expectations in speed and service to get us back in the air a day or 2 early after mx. Trey Willis ATP/CFII. Learjet 75/45 Owner Willis Aviation Enterprises Bentonville AR

ompany Challenger 350 is an excellent aircraft. And Bombardier backs it up with superior service and support. Joseph Akins ATP. Challenger 350 Captain NetJets San Ramon CA

ur Bombardier tech rep for our Challenger 300 is great. He’s efficient and always replies quickly to our phone calls. Chase Guinn ATP. Challenger 300 Line Captain Circle K Freetown IN

A

ll in all we have been pleased with our Bombardier 300 and 350 aircraft. The 350 took a lot longer to work the bugs out of the new aircraft compared to our 300s. We had Hawkers previously and hope the Challengers give us the same reliability our Hawkers did over the last 12 years. Ronald Neds ATP. Challenger 350/300 Chief Pilot Marathon Petroleum Findlay OH

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ombardier has consistently met the high profile requirements of our operation both in technical and operational support. Thomas Miller A&P. Challenger 605 Dir of Mx Jet Asia Macau, Macau

TURBOPROPS Pilatus Piotr “Pete” Wolak is Pilatus VP for customer service. Wolak welcomes calls from Pilatus customers. Operators can reach him at his office by calling 303-410-2720. Wolak’s cell phone is 720-201-3765 and his e-mail is piotr.wolak@pilatus-aircraft.com.

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‘ve flown a Pilatus PC-12 for the past 22 years. Of the 15 aircraft I’ve owned and flown, the PC-12 has been the greatest to fly and the most outstanding in backup service. Aaron Henschel Pvt-Multi-Inst. Pilatus PC-12/47 Owner H-S Air Englewood NJ

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ilatus is an excellent company that makes an outstanding product and has great support. John Thompson Pvt-Inst. Pilatus PC-12 President E L Thompson & Son Atlanta GA

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ever had an AOG issue with our Pilatus aircraft. In the last 2 years the plane has always been ready. KCAC Aviation at SUS (Spirit of St Louis MO) is our maintenance facility. Don Yager Comm-Multi-Inst/CFI/A&P. PC-12 Pilot Pure Air Ventures Greensburg IN

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e’ve had great communication with Pilatus on parts, service and scheduling. Mike Parnell Comm-Multi-Inst. Pilatus PC-12NG Chief Pilot TimeTool Eastsound WA

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have logged over 900 hours on our new PC-12NG and I really enjoy flying this fine aircraft. And service from Pilatus is great. Robert Armstrong ATP/FE. Pilatus PC-12NG Chief Pilot Allegheny Wood Products Rawlings MD

48  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018  49

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ur PC-12 has fantastic reliability and Pilatus provides unmatched support. High marks in all survey categories for great service. Daniel Mavrakis Comm-Multi-Inst. Pilatus PC-12 CEO Myriel Aviation Luxembourg, Luxembourg

Daher

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he team at Daher is always easy to reach and responds quickly to questions and problems. I highly recommend the Daher TBM aircraft, service and support. John Labonte Pvt-Inst. Daher TBM 850 President & Mgr JL Asset Mgmt Rice Lake WI

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ery pleased with the TBM and Daher’s care and professionalism. It’s a great airplane with a great organization supporting it. Richard Krulik Pvt-Inst. Daher TBM 850 CEO DZ Holdings Hauppauge NY

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aher is to be commended for their free online service manuals. And if a customer thinks a part price is too high, they have an e-mail address for you to send your inquiry. I’ve never waited more than 2 business days for a response and most times it’s in my favor. Daher stands head and shoulders above the others when it comes to customer support. And for anyone that thinks their TP parts are too expensive, try buying jet parts. David Kaplan ATP. Daher TBM 850 & Citation Encore VP Partner Cloverleaf Cold Storage Sioux City IA

M

y TBM 900 is truly an outstanding airplane. We bought the airplane new and have flown the airplane approximately 780 hours to date. Our trips have covered the highlights of South America and last year Air Journey’s Australian around the world adventure. It’s just a great airplane with excellent backup support. John Edwards Comm-Multi-Inst. Daher TBM 900 Owner JE Consulting Geneseo IL

Daher VP Customer & Network Care, Charles Holomek is located in Pompano Beach FL. His email is c.holomek@ daher.com. The TBM Care team can be reached at 1-833-TBM Care during office hours. For after hours AOG support their 24 hour Global AOG Hot Line is 1-844-4 TBM AOG.

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or over 50 years I’ve owned & operated many different aircraft. I’ve owned TBMs for the last 10 years along with several other airplanes. Daher aircraft and service are impeccable. They are absolutely the best in the industry in my opinion. Ralph Ragland Comm-Multi-Inst/CFII. TBM 850 Owner Ragland Aviation Fredericksburg TX

Textron

now King Air, Caravan & Conquest

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ircraft dispatch reliability on our King Air 200 continues to be excellent. Good airplane with good backup. Allen Lambert ATP. King Air 200 Owner & Pilot Allen Lambert Pilot Service Roanoke VA

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e’re receiving good service from Textron on our King Air 300, so I gave them high ratings across the survey categories. Paul Balas ATP. King Air 300 Av Dept Mgr Allen Concrete & Masonry Lake Placid FL

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ove the King Air, period! Textron does a great job supporting my operations. David Strahle Comm-Multi-Inst/CFII. King Air 200 President MIUS RMI Fenton MI

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’ve found that Daher-Socata has been a wonderful company to deal with over the past 30 years. James Thorpe Pvt-Inst. Daher TBM 850 Owner & Pilot Spring Brook Marina Naperville IL

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harlie Holomek and his team at PMP (Pompano Beach FL) have always been very responsive and helpful in resolving AOG and service issues. Running my TBM 850 under Part 135 requires an exceptional level of service for operational integrity. I really appreciate Daher’s product support efforts. Eric Walden ATP/CFII. Daher TBM 850 President & Pilot Little Hawk Logistics Charlottesville VA

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ove this airplane! It’s easy to fly and manage while being fast, economical and having great avionics. Also the backup from Daher is great. Phil Griffith ATP/CFII. Daher TBM 850 Pilot Domokur Aviation Massillon OH

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aher has done an outstanding job building a close relationship with their customers. Brian Dunsirn Pvt-Inst. Daher TBM 850 Owner Dunsirn Aviation Menasha WI

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love the aircraft and am mostly satisfied with service. I wish Textron would work on the high cost of parts though. Ross Sullivan ATP/CFII/A&P. King Air 350 President RAS Rutherford CA

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reat product support and parts availability from Textron. Tech reps are excellent and knowledgeable. But I think that combining Cessna and Beech into a joint service center still needs work. Closing the Beech ILG (Wilmington DE) center and moving to SWF (Newburgh NY) is okay for CJ owners but not so good for King Air operators. I’m flying down to TPA (Tampa FL) now, since they have the maintenance experience. Chaz Harris ATP/CFI. King Air 350 Flight Dept Mgr C and C Aviation Worchester MA

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he Conquest I we fly has been a very solid workhorse for us. Parts for it are still available, but sometimes a little hard to find. Hal Arnack ATP/CFII. Conquest I Av Dept Mgr SAS Lima Cary IL

50  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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eems that as sales of new aircraft decline, parts and service has increased at a rate of 7-8% per year for our operations. Aircraft age is a factor of course, but I feel manufacturers are taking advantage of a cornered market. Sean Doherty ATP/CFII. King Air 350 Chief Pilot Adams Leasing Milton FL

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e are flying a new plane so all the work is still under warranty. The service and support has been very professional. Wayne Hammermeister Comm-Multi-Inst. King Air 200 Chief Pilot Texas Farm Bureau Waco TX

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ur King Air 300 is a great, solid aircraft which is well supported. Dan Upstrom ATP/CFII/FE. King Air 300 Captain Flexsteel Industries East Dubuque IL

Piper Piper Aircraft VP of Sales, Marketing and Customer Support Ron Gunnarson can be reached at 772-2992000. Additional contact information is available online at www.piper.com. Contact your nearest Piper dealer for product support and service questions.

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xtremely pleased with Piper aircraft. I’m also very happy with Skytech that is our Piper authorized service center. As owner of serial number 38 I’ve been well supported on my new M600. Very few maintenance issues have occurred during my 1st year of ownership, but those that did were well handled. Philip Soucy Comm-Multi-Inst/CFII. Piper M600 CEO P and P Services Springfield VA

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he M600 is a fantastic machine. We burn 40 gals per hour at 275 kts with great range and payload. Piper really hit a home run with the M600, and they have provided us excellent support. Kirby Chambliss ATP. Piper M600 Manager Chambliss Aerobatics Eloy AZ

Comments regarding TP OEMs that did not receive the 25 responses required to be rated.

Piaggio (18 responses)

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ver the past 2 years we’ve seen improvements by Piaggio on spare parts availability, but I think this area still needs more attention. In addition, the cost of parts is still very high. Dany Hemond ATP. Piaggio Avanti II/I Mx Mgr & Pilot Cascades Victoriaville QC, Canada

Piaggio America VP Customer Support Paolo Ferreri is based in West Palm Beach FL and can be reached at +1 561 253 0104 or via e-mail at pferreri@piaggioaerospace.it.

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utstanding tech reps from Piaggio have provided us excellent support. They’re very professional, knowledgeable and responsive. In my opinion they’re the best component of the company, hands down. Gina Beckner ATP. Piaggio P180 Chief Pilot SFG/1st Source Bank South Bend IN

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ery pleased with Piaggio’s knowledgeable tech reps, so they get the highest marks on the survey from me. However I do recommend that they work to improve on what are sometimes extremely high costs and long lead times on many of their parts. Eric Russell ATP. Piaggio P180 Chief Pilot Rainbow Sandals San Clemente CA

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iaggio technical support has been and remains outstanding. And their parts availability is improving even though some of them are still pricey. Pete Brower ATP/CFII. Piaggio P180 Chief Pilot Bob Jones University Greenville SC

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have been running an operation with Meridians for 10 years. Overall I’m very happy and satisfied with the aircraft and the support for them. Andre Mueller Comm-Multi-Inst. Piper M500 Owner & Pilot Mullair Weggis, Switzerland

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e flew over 600 hours in our 2005 Meridian in just 2 years. Now we’ve upgraded to the M600 and really love the airplane and the good support from Piper. David Irvine Pvt-Inst. Piper M600 Pilot Eagles Flight Grove OK

Piaggio (L-R) Head of Customer Svc BU Andrea Di Fede, Product Support Engineering Mgr Alberto Siviero, Mx Mgr Danilo Piccone, Head of P180 Customer Support Simone Pietro Saragosa, Spares/ Logistics & Procurement Mgr Mauro Porcu, Program Mgr Alice Boggiano, Warranty & Svc Centers Network Mgr Massimiliano Mencaroni, Governmental Commercial Svcs Mgr Giacomo Tacchella.

52  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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CORPORATE TURBOJETS

Business aviation rises to meet the demands of an increasingly stronger economy Reach and flexibility of business aircraft are the keys to unlocking new commercial markets. Meeting on-demand requirements depends on aircraft reliably providing high levels of safety, security, comfort, connectivity, amenities, range, and performance. Business aviation passengers range from time-stretched customers who prefer boarding just once to more corporate and premium leisure travelers. So, accordingly, business aircraft must offer features which make trips – and accompanying jet lag – more bearable in terms of comfort, endurance and productivity. Seats, luggage access, crew accommodation, and catering are a few of the elements considered in meeting mission requirements. Environmental concerns include aesthetics, cabin pressurization and interior noise, as well as humidity control and airflow management.

Following its introduction in 1996, the Cessna Citation X continued to set speed records with the design team earning the National Aeronautic Association (NAA) Robert J Collier Trophy. According to the GAMA 2017 Annual Report, production totaled 337 Citation X/Citation X+ aircraft.

Meeting changing markets

short-field performance, dispatch reliability, and operating costs in support of commercial operations and high-value air transport. Moreover, business aircraft represent attractive and secure alternatives to increasingly crowded airline flights. Note that worldwide Passenger Load Factor (PLF) rose significantly from 75.2% in 2005 to 81.7% in 2018, among which 4 carriers exceeded a 90% PLF.

By Don Van Dyke

ATP/Helo/CFII, F28, Bell 222. Pro Pilot Canadian Technical Editor

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usiness aviation continues to develop as global economic, technological, political, and social influences evolve. Given operations often over remote or challenging areas, business aircraft are optimized for range, capacity, speed,

While business aviation is an attractive alternative to airline travel, its viability depends on continuous technical improvements and new designs providing ever-greater aircraft reach, speed, comfort, endurance, and productivity. 2018 has been referred to as a reset year in which new business aircraft strategies seek to offset market declines in several older legacy designs. 25

1300

20

Deliveries

1100

15

900

10

700

25

500

5

300 100

Value of deliveries ($B)

Global business jet deliveries 1500

94

95

96

97

98

99

00

01

02

03

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

0

Year The 32% decline in deliveries during 01–03 was triggered by the 2000 dot.com technology bubble and worsened by the 9/11 attacks. The 48% decline in deliveries during 08–13 was exacerbated by fractional/charter consolidation and fleet rationalization. Since 2008, new bizjet deliveries have remained relatively flat. Data source: GAMA (2017) 2016 General Aviation Statistical Databook & 2017 Industry Outlook.

54  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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Textron halted Citation X production in 2018, following on earlier discontinuation of the Cessna CE510 Mustang in 2017. Certification of other designs such as the Cessna Hemisphere is now delayed by technical issues. Introduction of several new types, including the super midsize Citation Longitude in 2018, will likely stimulate the market. Gulfstream ended G450 production in favor of developing the FlyBy-Wire (FBW) G500 and G600 large-cabin models. Dassault canceled in late 2017 further development of the large, long-range Falcon 5X, citing a 3-year delay in the development of the accompanying Safran Silvercrest engines. In early 2018, however, Dassault revealed plans for its new Falcon 6X to be powered by 2 P&WC PW800 engines. The 6X is scheduled to enter service in 2022. Bombardier Global 7000 was renamed the Global 7500, essentially an all-new design featuring a 4-zone trend-setting cabin interior expected to be certified in 2018. The company recently revealed plans for the Global 5500 and 6500, new longer-range variants of its current large-cabin Global business jets, expected to be certified in 2019.

Challenges Business aviation is an integral part of the overall mobility mix but the business jet market is cyclical and sensitive to the global economic cycle. The year 2018 marks 10 years since the beginning of the financial crisis. Like other areas of the aviation sector, the business aviation community was significantly impacted by the crisis. Over the last decade, the sector has grown year-on-year but worldwide growth remains below 2008 levels. OEMs. Current business aviation production is nearly 50% lower than the 2008 peak. The large cabin market fared relatively well during the downturn and has since achieved record levels. Light and mid-size segments saw steep declines in orders and production but now show early signs of recovery. End Users. Market drivers include greater international demand, aging fleet replacements, increased global access, and a shift toward larger aircraft and new products.

The European Business Aircraft Association (EBAA) focuses on improving business aviation productivity by addressing issues such as access to airports and flight-time limitations. It reports that business aviation traffic in the EU grew 6% in 2017 but remains roughly at 2006 levels. Buyers in China prefer larger business jets, witness their selections increasingly driven by corporate requirements versus more personal needs.

Conclusion The design goal for ever-greater operating range seeks to reduce or avoid fuel stops, to operate to destinations with limited alternates, and to open areas previously thought too distant. Increased reach accommodates overflight restrictions, flexible re-dispatch, improved security, increasingly important connectivity and rapid, direct response to business needs. Brexit also represents a challenge including topics of interest such as traffic rights, ownership and control, VAT/customs duty and future relationships with EASA. Uncertainty over Brexit, security concerns and rising tensions in various regions around the globe could affect growth rates and the potential socio-economic contribution over the next 10 years. Aircraft introductions can stimulate demand among early and replacement buyers. In the main, new and upgraded business aviation platforms set to enter the market by 2020 primarily focus on serving the higher end of the market (larger, longer-range aircraft), to continue the sector’s admired record of resolving challenges.

Don Van Dyke is professor of advanced aerospace topics at Chicoutimi College of Aviation – CQFA Montreal. He is an 18,000 hour TT pilot and instructor with extensive airline, business and charter experience on both airplanes and helicopters. A former IATA ops director, he has served on several ICAO panels. He is a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society and is a flight operations expert on technical projects under UN administration.

Bombardier Global 7500 CABIN Seats (crew/max passenger).......................4/19 Volume .................................................2637 ft³ WEIGHTS BOW..................................................56,800 lbs MTOW.............................................106,250 lbs MLW..................................................NA Payload w/max fuel.......................................NA Fuel w/max payload......................................NA Max fuel weight.................................47,450 lbs PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC)..........M 0.85/487 ktas High speed cruise....................M 0.90/516 ktas MMO......................................................M 0.925 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........7700 nm MISSION PERFORMANCE (time/flight level) 1000 nm.................................................NA/NA AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW/MLW)............5800/2520 ft POWERPLANT(S) Type..........................................2 x GE Passport MTOT/Flat rating...............18,650 lbs/ISA+20°C AVIONICS Manufacturer..............................Rockwell Collins Standard suite.................Pro Line Fusion (Vision) ENVIRONMENT Cumulative noise margin (Ch4)........................NA MAINTENANCE INTERVALS Engine inspection............................................NA FIRST FLIGHT.............................................2016 ENTRY INTO SERVICE (EIS).......2018 (planned) PRICE......................................................$72.5M

104 ft

27 ft

111.2 ft

6.3 ft

8.2 ft

PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018  55

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Gulfstream G650ER

Gulfstream G550

Dassault Falcon 8X

CABIN Seats (standard/max passenger)...............11/18 Volume .................................................2138 ft³

CABIN Seats (standard/max passenger)...............16/19 Volume .................................................1669 ft³

CABIN Seats (standard/max passenger).................8/16 Volume .................................................1695 ft³

WEIGHTS BOW..................................................54,000 lbs MTOW.............................................103,600 lbs MLW..................................................83,500 lbs Payload w/max fuel..............................1800 lbs Fuel w/max payload...........................43,500 lbs Max fuel weight.................................48,200 lbs

WEIGHTS BOW..................................................48,470 lbs MTOW...............................................91,000 lbs MLW..................................................75,300 lbs Payload w/max fuel..............................1800 lbs Fuel w/max payload...........................36,900 lbs Max fuel weight.................................41,300 lbs

WEIGHTS BOW..................................................36,800 lbs MTOW...............................................73,000 lbs MLW..................................................62,400 lbs Payload w/max fuel..............................1259 lbs Fuel w/max payload...........................32,200 lbs Max fuel weight.................................35,141 lbs

PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC)..........M 0.85/488 ktas High speed cruise.....................M 0.90/516 ktas MMO......................................................M 0.925 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........7500 nm

PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC)..........M 0.80/459 ktas High speed cruise....................M 0.87/575 ktas MMO......................................................M 0.885 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........6750 nm

PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC)..........M 0.800/459 ktas High speed cruise.........................................NA MMO......................................................M 0.900 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........6450 nm

MISSION PERFORMANCE (time/flight level) 1000 nm.........................................2h10/FL510

MISSION PERFORMANCE (time/flight level) 1000 nm.........................................2h20/FL490

MISSION PERFORMANCE (time/flight level) 1000 nm.........................................2h17/FL470

AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW/MLW)............6299/3000 ft

AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW/MLW)............5910/2770 ft

AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW/MLW)............5880/2240 ft

POWERPLANT(S) Type..............2 x Rolls-Royce BR700-725A1-12 MTOT/Flat rating...............16,900 lbs/ISA+15°C

POWERPLANT(S) Type..............2 x Rolls-Royce BR700-710C4-11 MTOT/Flat rating...............15,385 lbs/ISA+15°C

POWERPLANT(S) Type....................................3 x P&WC PW307D MTOT/Flat rating..................6722 lbs/ISA+17°C

AVIONICS Manufacturer.......................................Gulfstream Standard suite...................................PlaneView II

AVIONICS Manufacturer.......................................Gulfstream Standard suite......................................PlaneView

AVIONICS Manufacturer........................................Honeywell Standard suite...................................Primus Epic

ENVIRONMENT Cumulative noise margin (Ch4)..........26.5 EPNdB

ENVIRONMENT Cumulative noise margin (Ch4)..........21.9 EPNdB

ENVIRONMENT Cumulative noise margin (Ch4)........................NA

MAINTENANCE INTERVALS Engine inspection............................................OC FIRST FLIGHT.............................................2009 EIS...............................................................2014 PRICE......................................................$69.4M

MAINTENANCE INTERVALS Engine inspection...................................8000 hrs FIRST FLIGHT.............................................2002 EIS...............................................................2003 PRICE......................................................$61.4M

MAINTENANCE INTERVALS Engine inspection...................................7200 hrs FIRST FLIGHT.............................................2015 EIS...............................................................2016 PRICE......................................................$58.4M

93.5 ft

86.3 ft

99.6 ft

96.4 ft

99.8 ft

26.1 ft

25.8 ft

25.7 ft

80.2 ft

6 ft 6.2 ft

6.4 ft

8.5 ft

6.9 ft

7.7 ft

56  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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Watch Headset Video

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An Employee Owned American Company

W W W. D A V I D C L A R K . C O M

7/26/18 12:20 PM


Bombardier Global 6000

Dassault Falcon 7X

Embraer Lineage 1000E

CABIN Seats (standard/max passenger)...............13/19 Volume .................................................2140 ft³

CABIN Seats (crew/max passenger)......................3/19 Volume .................................................1552 ft³

CABIN Seats (standard/max passenger)...............13/19 Volume .................................................4085 ft³

WEIGHTS BOW..................................................52,230 lbs MTOW...............................................99,500 lbs MLW..................................................78,600 lbs Payload w/max fuel..............................2804 lbs Fuel w/max payload...........................41,750 lbs Max fuel weight.................................45,050 lbs

WEIGHTS BOW..................................................36,600 lbs MTOW...............................................70,000 lbs MLW..................................................62,400 lbs Payload w/max fuel..............................1660 lbs Fuel w/max payload...........................29,200 lbs Max fuel weight.................................31,940 lbs

WEIGHTS BOW..................................................70,548 lbs MTOW.............................................120,152 lbs MLW................................................100,972 lbs Payload w/max fuel..............................1828 lbs Fuel w/max payload...........................40,124 lbs Max fuel weight.................................48,217 lbs

PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC)..........M 0.85/470 ktas High speed cruise....................M 0.88/505 ktas MMO......................................................M 0.890 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........6111 nm

PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC)..........M 0.800/459 ktas High speed cruise..................M 0.866/497 ktas MMO......................................................M 0.900 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........5670 nm

PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC)......................454 ktas High speed cruise.................................472 ktas MMO........................................................M 0.82 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........4602 nm

MISSION PERFORMANCE (time/flight level) 1000 nm.........................................2h13/FL490

MISSION PERFORMANCE (time/flight level) 1000 nm.........................................2h17/FL470

MISSION PERFORMANCE (time/flight level) 1000 nm.........................................2h20/FL410

AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW/MLW)............6476/2236 ft

AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW/MLW)............5710/2070 ft

AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW/MLW)............6076/2450 ft

POWERPLANT(S) Type..............2 x Rolls-Royce BR700-710A2-20 MTOT/Flat rating...............14,750 lbs/ISA+20°C

POWERPLANT(S) Type....................................3 x P&WC PW307A MTOT/Flat rating..................6402 lbs/ISA+17°C

POWERPLANT(S) Type...................................2 x GE CF34-10E7-B MTOT/Flat rating...............18,500 lbs/ISA+15°C

AVIONICS Manufacturer..............................Rockwell Collins Standard suite.................Pro Line Fusion (Vision)

AVIONICS Manufacturer........................................Honeywell Standard suite...................................Primus Epic

AVIONICS Manufacturer........................................Honeywell Standard suite...................................Primus Epic

ENVIRONMENT Cumulative noise margin (Ch4)..........21.3 EPNdB

ENVIRONMENT Cumulative noise margin (Ch4)..........16.9 EPNdB

ENVIRONMENT Cumulative noise margin (Ch4).......................NA

MAINTENANCE INTERVALS Engine inspection............................................OC FIRST FLIGHT.............................................1996 EIS...............................................................2006 PRICE......................................................$62.3M

MAINTENANCE INTERVALS Engine inspection...................................7200 hrs FIRST FLIGHT.............................................2005 EIS...............................................................2007 PRICE......................................................$53.8M

MAINTENANCE INTERVALS Engine inspection............................................OC FIRST FLIGHT.............................................2007 EIS...............................................................2010 PRICE.........................................................$53M

94 ft

86 ft

25.4 ft

99.4 ft

94.2 ft

34.7 ft

25.7 ft 118.9 ft

76.1 ft

6.6 ft

6.2 ft 6.3 ft

8.2 ft

7.7 ft

8.8 ft

58  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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Embraer Legacy 650E

Textron Cessna Citation Longitude

Textron Cessna Citation Latitude

CABIN Seats (crew/max passenger)......................2/14 Volume ........................................................NA

CABIN Seats (crew/max passenger).......................2/12 Volume ........................................................NA

CABIN Seats (crew/max passenger)........................2/9 Volume ........................................................NA

WEIGHTS BOW..................................................31,217 lbs MTOW...............................................53,572 lbs MLW..................................................44,092 lbs Payload w/max fuel..............................1910 lbs Fuel w/max payload...........................17,571 lbs Max fuel weight.................................20,600 lbs

WEIGHTS BOW.............................................................NA MTOW...............................................39,500 lbs MLW..................................................33,500 lbs Payload w/max fuel..............................1600 lbs Fuel w/max payload...........................29,200 lbs Max fuel weight.............................................NA

WEIGHTS BOW..................................................18,656 lbs MTOW...............................................30,800 lbs MLW..................................................27,575 lbs Payload w/max fuel..............................1000 lbs Fuel w/max payload..............................9850 lbs Max fuel weight.................................11,394 lbs

PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC).................NA/425 ktas High speed cruise...........................NA/459 ktas MMO......................................................M 0.800 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........3839 nm

PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC)................NA/449 ktas High speed cruise...........................NA/478 ktas MMO......................................................M 0.840 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........3422 nm

PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC)................NA/368 ktas High speed cruise...........................NA/432 ktas MMO......................................................M 0.800 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........2645 nm

MISSION PERFORMANCE (time/flight level) 1000 nm.........................................2h33/FL410

MISSION PERFORMANCE (time/flight level) 1000 nm.........................................2h16/FL450

MISSION PERFORMANCE (time/flight level) 1000 nm.........................................2h25/FL430

AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW/MLW)............5741/2346 ft

AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW/MLW)...............4900/NA ft

AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW/MLW)............3580/2085 ft

POWERPLANT(S) Type........................2 x Rolls-Royce AE 3007A2 MTOT/Flat rating..................9020 lbs/ISA+15°C

POWERPLANT(S) Type..........................2 x Honeywell HTF7700LL MTOT/Flat rating..................7600 lbs/ISA+19°C

POWERPLANT(S) Type..................................2 x P&WC PW306D1 MTOT/Flat rating..................5907 lbs/ISA+15°C

AVIONICS Manufacturer........................................Honeywell Standard suite...................................Primus Elite

AVIONICS Manufacturer.............................................Garmin Standard suite............................................G5000

AVIONICS Manufacturer.............................................Garmin Standard suite............................................G5000

ENVIRONMENT Cumulative noise margin (Ch4)..........24.4 EPNdB

ENVIRONMENT Cumulative noise margin (Ch4)........................NA

ENVIRONMENT Cumulative noise margin (Ch4)..........32.1 EPNdB

MAINTENANCE INTERVALS Engine inspection............................................OC FIRST FLIGHT.............................................2009 EIS...............................................................2010 PRICE......................................................$25.9M

MAINTENANCE INTERVALS Engine inspection............................................OC FIRST FLIGHT.............................................2016 EIS...............................................2018 (planned) PRICE....................................................$26.99M

MAINTENANCE INTERVALS Engine inspection...................................6000 hrs FIRST FLIGHT.............................................2014 EIS...............................................................2015 PRICE....................................................$16.65M

69.4 ft

86 ft

72.3 ft

21.8 ft

26 ft

86.4 ft

20.9 ft

62.3 ft

87 ft

6 ft 6 ft

6.9 ft

6.4 ft

6 ft

6.4 ft

60  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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Pilatus PC-24

Embraer Phenom 300E

Honda HA-420 HondaJet

CABIN Seats (crew/max passenger).......................1/11 Volume ...................................................501 ft³

CABIN Seats (crew/max passenger)......................1/10 Volume ........................................................NA

CABIN Seats (crew/max passenger).........................1/6 Volume ........................................................NA

WEIGHTS BOW..................................................10,870 lbs MTOW...............................................17,968 lbs MLW..................................................16,579 lbs Payload w/max fuel..............................1233 lbs Fuel w/max payload..............................4179 lbs Max fuel weight....................................5965 lbs

WEIGHTS BOW..................................................11,583 lbs MTOW...............................................18,387 lbs MLW..................................................14,220 lbs Payload w/max fuel..............................1561 lbs Fuel w/max payload..............................4277 lbs Max fuel weight....................................5353 lbs

WEIGHTS BOW.....................................................7450 lbs MTOW...............................................10,600 lbs MLW.....................................................9860 lbs Payload w/max fuel................................385 lbs Fuel w/max payload..............................1880 lbs Max fuel weight....................................2845 lbs

PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC)................NA/346 ktas High speed cruise...........................NA/436 ktas MMO......................................................M 0.740 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........2079 nm

PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC).................NA/383 ktas High speed cruise...........................NA/444 ktas MMO......................................................M 0.780 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........1883 nm

PERFORMANCE Long-range cruise (LRC)................NA/360 ktas High speed cruise...........................NA/420 ktas MMO......................................................M 0.720 Range@LRC (200 nm alternate)..........1282 nm

MISSION PERFORMANCE (time/flight level) 1000 nm.........................................2h29/FL450

MISSION PERFORMANCE (time/flight level) 1000 nm.........................................2h26/FL450

MISSION PERFORMANCE (time/flight level) 1000 nm.........................................2h40/FL430

AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW/MLW)............2810/2083 ft

AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW/MLW)............3254/2220 ft

AIRFIELD PERFORMANCE (SL, ISA) Field length (MTOW/MLW)............3934/2795 ft

POWERPLANT(S) Type..................2 x Williams Intl FJ44-4A-QPM MTOT/Flat rating..................3420lbs/ISA+23°C

POWERPLANT(S) Type....................................2 x P&WC PW535C MTOT/Flat rating..................3360 lbs/ISA+15°C

POWERPLANT(S) Type.........................2 x GE Honda HF-120-H1A MTOT/Flat rating..................2037 lbs/ISA+10°C

AVIONICS Manufacturer..........................Pilatus (Honeywell) Standard suite....................ACE (Primus Epic 2.0)

AVIONICS Manufacturer.............Embraer (based on Garmin) Standard suite................................Prodigy Touch

AVIONICS Manufacturer.............................................Garmin Standard suite............................................G3000

ENVIRONMENT Cumulative noise margin (Ch4)........................NA

ENVIRONMENT Cumulative noise margin (Ch4)..........32.8 EPNdB

ENVIRONMENT Cumulative noise margin (Ch4)..........21.9 EPNdB

MAINTENANCE INTERVALS Engine inspection...................................5000 hrs FIRST FLIGHT.............................................2015 EIS...............................................................2018 PRICE........................................................$8.9M

MAINTENANCE INTERVALS Engine inspection...................................5000 hrs FIRST FLIGHT.............................................2008 EIS...............................................................2009 PRICE......................................................$9.45M

MAINTENANCE INTERVALS Engine inspection............................................NA FIRST FLIGHT.............................................2003 EIS...............................................................2015 PRICE........................................................$4.9M

55.8 ft

52.2 ft

39.8 ft

16.8 ft

17.3 ft

55.2 ft

42.6 ft

51.3 ft

5.1 ft

5.6 ft

14.9 ft

4.9 ft

5.1 ft

4.8 ft

5 ft

62  PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018

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Your satisfaction is my responsibility Manny Jr. RomeroVargas

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WEATHER BRIEF

Density altitude Hot air can create challenges for aircraft performance. Cold, dry day at sea level

Low density altitude

Hot, humid day at 5000 ft elevation

High density altitude

On a hot day, the air becomes “thinner” or less dense and its density at a given location is equivalent to a higher altitude in the standard atmosphere. Power, thrust and lift are reduced under these conditions. As a result, a longer takeoff and landing roll is required.

By Karsten Shein Comm-Inst Climate Scientist

W

ith 2 passengers and the last box of machine parts loaded, the pilot closed the cargo door and cranked the engines. The twin Lycoming 540s sprung to life and with a quick check of the mags and gauges, he pushed the throttles full forward, allowing the old Piper Navajo Chieftain to accelerate down the short mountain runway. Though it was a weekly run for the company, this was only the 2nd trip to this remote Alaskan village for the pilot. He knew that the runway was short, high in elevation, and he’d be taking off slightly uphill. But he also was confident that it was no problem for the Chieftain. However, as the other end of the runway quickly approached, that confidence evaporated. He wasn’t going fast enough. He pulled back and the nose came up, but the mains never left the ground. Cutting power and mashing the brakes, the aircraft began to skid. One of the mains collapsed and the wing gouged into the dirt and gravel. The investigation didn’t take long to deduce what had happened. The region had been baking under clear skies for the past 3 days and the temperature was 14° C above normal. In the abnormally warm air, the den-

sity altitude was a full 2000 ft above the true runway elevation of 8900 ft. With the aircraft near maximum takeoff weight and the short runway, there was just no way it was going to be a successful lift off. Had the pilot taken a moment to determine the density altitude of the field, he could have offloaded a couple of crates and made the takeoff without incident.

Density altitude is an important consideration Though most commercial and business aircraft operations take place from long runways at low altitude airports and do so with aircraft with lots of thrust, density altitude is still an important consideration, especially for summer flying. An aircraft’s ability to fly depends on lift and thrust exceeding weight and drag. Anything that reduces the first 2 forces or increases the latter 2 will necessarily decrease the aircraft’s performance. One of the primary factors in creating lift is the density of the air through which the aircraft is moving. The density of the air also factors into the amount of thrust an engine produces, either in terms of power produced by the combustion of fuel and air in the engine, or by the efficiency of propellers. Air density is simply a measure of the mass of air molecules in a given volume of space. Normally, air densi-

ty is 1.225 kg per cubic meter at sea level, but it’s half that at 21,860 ft. This is because the force of gravity tends to concentrate the molecules near the surface. And the reason they all don’t pancake into a thin layer of air just at the surface is something called hydrostatic equilibrium. At any given level, the air exerts a pressure in all directions, including upward. That pressure is produced by the air density at that level, and the temperature. Because fluids like to flow from areas of higher pressure (like at the surface) to areas of lower pressure (outer space), the pressure gradient creates a net upward force. If the force exceeds the downward pull of gravity, the molecules at that level will rise. If gravity exceeds the upward pressure gradient force, the molecules will descend. That adjustment will continue until for every level of the atmosphere the air density is just right to balance the 2 forces in hydrostatic equilibrium.

ISA and aircraft performance This density versus altitude relationship is well known, and part of the International Standard Atmosphere (ISA). The ISA is a set of average conditions of temperature, pressure and density relative to altitude. It’s what we base aircraft performance numbers on. The density of air governs aircraft performance at a given altitude, with the amount of thrust and lift decreasing as density decreases. Because lift is dependent on true airspeed, as density decreases, the loss of lift must be compensated by an increase in thrust. Above an aircraft’s service ceiling, the air density is too low for the aircraft to generate enough lift or thrust to maintain the altitude. Of course, the density of the air at any level will be affected by the air temperature and, to a lesser extent, by humidity. When energy is absorbed by air molecules, they become more active. This increased activity translates into the molecules releasing more sensible (heat) energy, meaning warmer air. It also means that the molecules will spread farther apart as they move around more rapidly. Fewer molecules in a given area means less density. If the amount of energy received by the molecules is less than the amount they are releasing, they will slow, become

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re he osp atm

Density altitude

ard nd Sta

more tightly packed (denser), and release less and less sensible energy (colder). This inverse relationship between density and temperature helps us understand density altitude. Pressure is also related to density and temperature. Recall that each volume of air is exerting a pressure force in all directions on the air around it. That pressure depends on the number of molecules in the volume and their motion. Adding energy will increase the temperature, and decrease density in the volume, which means that the air pressure will decrease. An increase in air temperature above the ISA temperature at a given altitude means that the air density at that altitude will be less than what it would be under ISA conditions. Since the aircraft only responds to density, it would behave as though it is at a higher ISA altitude. Conversely, if the OAT is colder than what ISA would suggest for that altitude, the aircraft will operate as though it is at the altitude where that higher density would normally be found in the ISA. This reference altitude is the density altitude. Humidity also plays a role in adjusting air density. Water molecules weigh less than the oxygen and nitrogen molecules they displace as more water vapor is added to the atmosphere. This decrease in overall molecular mass decreases the air pressure exerted at that altitude and destabilizes the hydrostatic equilibrium, allowing some molecules to move out of that altitude. In net, the decrease in density with increasing humidity is tiny relative to any change brought about by temperature, which is why the humidity component of the density altitude equation is usually ignored. While understanding your density altitude is arguably most critical when you are planning your takeoff or landing, it is also important to know for estimating your aircraft’s ability to climb above an approaching obstacle or overfly that distant mountain range. For most pilots, density altitude really only becomes a critical factor during summer months at higher altitude airports. At airports well above sea level, aircraft performance is already reduced, necessitating longer takeoff and landing rolls and more sluggish climb outs. If a runway is sufficiently short, pilots may need to sharpen their pencils and reduce takeoff or landing weight to compensate for not having the additional runway they need. A heat wave or even a clear and sunny afternoon can add several hundred to several thousand feet to the airport’s

Effective runway elevation

Density under very hot conditions

Density under standard conditions

Actual runway elevation

Low

This heavy solid curve shows how density decreases with altitude in the standard atmosphere. Under standard conditions, the surface density would correspond with a density altitude equal to the elevation of the airport. Under very warm conditions, the density is lower and it corresponds with a higher density altitude.

Atmospheric density

altitude in terms of what altitude the aircraft “thinks” it’s operating at.

Determining density altitude There are several ways in which you can determine the density altitude your aircraft will operate as though it is at. There is a formula, which is easily googled, but not so easily applied. Instead, if we know the pressure altitude and the air temperature, we can use a density altitude calculator. There are several web sites and mobile apps that will calculate density altitude for you. Or you can use the density altitude chart that is in most aircraft pilot operating handbooks. Pressure altitude, or QNE, is the ISA altitude at which the measured station pressure would be expected. It’s an adjustment of actual altitude to correct for non-standard pressure – either higher pressure than normal or lower. A low pressure moving over the area would mean a pressure altitude higher than the absolute altitude above sea level, while a high would put the QNE below the absolute altitude. For example, the ISA atmospheric pressure for an airport at 5000 ft MSL is roughly 24.90 in Hg. If a low came through and dropped that pressure to 24.70, the corresponding QNE would be 5200 ft MSL, meaning your actual altitude is 200 ft below what your pressure altimeter would be reading. This is the science behind the saying “When flying from high to low, look out below.” If you are on the ground, you can determine the pressure altitude by dialing 29.92 in Hg or 1013.25 hPa into your altimeter and reading the altitude.

High

If you don’t have a pressure altimeter available, the rule of thumb for finding pressure altitude is to subtract the altimeter setting from 29.92 and multiply the result by 1000. This provides the difference between the field elevation and the pressure altitude. For example, at an altimeter setting of 30.25, the pressure altitude is (29.92 - 30.25) x 1000 = -330 ft, meaning that under that high pressure, QNE at a 5000 ft airfield is 4670 ft.

Pressure to density alt with OAT In order to go from pressure altitude to density altitude, you also need to know the outside air temperature. Enter the temperature and pressure altitude into the calculator and it will crunch through a fairly complex equation to deliver density altitude. Using the density altitude chart is actually just as simple. Find the pressure altitude on the vertical axis and the temperature along the horizontal axis. Trace across and up, respectively until the 2 grid lines intersect. The sloping lines that run across the graph are the density altitude lines. Read the nearest lines on either side of the intersection between your pressure altitude and temperature, and interpolate the density altitude. For example, given a pressure altitude of 10,000 ft and a temperature of 20° C, the intersection falls just short of the 13,000 ft density altitude line, or roughly 12,800 ft. Pressure altitude and outside air temperature are also what is needed to calculate aircraft performance factors such as takeoff or landing distance and climb rates. For a given weight, aircraft require a specific true PROFESSIONAL PILOT  /  August 2018  65

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20,000

Standard Atmosphere

Pressure Altitude – Ft

15,000

Density Altitude

15,0

00

10,000

10,0

00

5000

500

0

0

zero

-50

00

-5000 -50

-40

-30

-50 -40

-20

-20 0°F

-10

0° C

Temperature C

20

40

Temperature F

10

20 60

30 80

40 100

50 120

Calculating density altitude can be done mathematically or via a chart if pressure altitude and outside air temperature are known. Density altitude is the value of the diagonal lines at the intersection of the altitude and temperature axes.

air speed on takeoff for the lifting surfaces to produce enough lift to counter that weight. A typical takeoff distance calculation will start with OAT and pressure altitude to account for density altitude, factor in aircraft weight, and finally take account of headwinds or tailwinds. Changes in any of these variables can have a big impact on the amount of runway needed. For example, a King Air 300 taking off at maximum weight in 15° C temperature and 4000 ft pressure altitude might need 4452 ft of runway. At 25° C you’d need an additional 600 ft. Add 1000 ft of pressure altitude and those lengths are 4850 ft and 5507 ft, respectively. This mix of variables also means that under the above given combination of OAT, pressure altitude and weight, an aircraft might have a 15,000 ft runway, but still not be able to lift off. To use the same King Air example again, at 6000 ft pressure altitude and 35°C (an unlikely, but not impossible scenario), no amount of runway would help a max weight King Air lift off. The only option is to reduce weight by at least 1000 lbs (454 kg) and hope you’ve got 6000 ft of runway with no obstruction.

While most of us don’t normally load our aircraft to the limits, we can see the effects of these sort of decisions in the larger commercial passenger and cargo aircraft that routinely operate out of high altitude tropical airports such as NBO (Nairobi, Kenya) at 5328 ft MSL, or UIO (Quito, Ecuador) at 7874 ft MSL. Though these airports have runways that exceed 13,000 ft (4000 m), many operators schedule landings and departures at night when the temperatures drop and the aircraft can safely takeoff and land under heavier loads. During the day, density altitudes can become high enough to limit aircraft takeoff weights.

Air temperatures are rising Because of the limitations that aircraft weight places on the equation, this is an important consideration for operators as air temperatures continue to rise globally. Where once there may have only been 1 day or 2 each summer at PHX (Phoenix AZ) or DEN (Denver CO) when density altitude rose too high for a fully loaded Boeing 767 to take off, now there may be

a dozen of those hot days. A decade from now there may be 20 or 30. This translates into more flights needed to carry the loads, at more cost to aircraft operators and more congestion at major airports. At least on a short lead time, high density altitudes can be anticipated. A look at surface weather maps will quickly identify areas of high pressure. During the summer those often mean elevated temperatures and heat waves. Metars from your airports will also quickly show you the temperature and altimeter setting so you can calculate density altitude. Since the greatest impacts of density altitude are felt at higher altitude airports, it is also worth a look at upper air charts, such as the 500 and 300 mb charts. These will show more reliably what the pressure is like above those surface highs. A heat wave at the surface coupled with a low pressure aloft can produce much higher density altitudes than a heat wave alone. In addition, look at wind flow. If winds are blowing warm air into the area and there is a low nearby, you can expect increased density altitudes.

Factor in a few extra degrees You can also use the forecast high temperature for the next day or 2 to make a reasonable estimate of the highest density altitude you may encounter at an airport. Whether using a forecast high or the currently reported temperature, is a good idea to factor in an extra few degrees as a margin of safety. An airport or nearby town may report a temperature, but it is likely taken over grass or a light surface. With the sun beating down on a dark concrete or asphalt runway, the temperature along your takeoff or landing path – especially in the 50 ft closest to the surface – may be as much as 5 to 10 degrees warmer than what is being reported. If you do notice such a temperature difference as you position on the runway, be sure to let the tower know so your fellow pilots can be more accurate in their density altitude and performance calculations. Karsten Shein is a climatologist with NOAA in Ashe­ville NC. He formerly served as an assistant professor at Shippens­­burg Uni­versity. Shein holds a commercial license with instrument rating.

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PROPER USE OF AWR

Airborne weather radar made easy Remember C-TAG: contouring, tilt, attenuation, gain. What went wrong? Unfortunately, the pilot was fooled by one of Mother Nature’s dirty tricks: precipitation attenuation. As the NTSB noted in the report, attenuation “may cause one cell containing heavy precipitation to block or shadow a second heavy cell located behind the first cell and prevent it from being displayed on the radar.” The pilot flew through a cell in which he and his airplane could not survive.

Avoid being ambushed

Thunderstorms are clearly visible on this Boeing 737 display. What to do next may often seem simple, but many times it is not. By exploring cells with CTAG – an evaluation of contouring, tilt, attenuation and gain – pilots can safely navigate through areas of severe weather.

By David Ison, PhD

Associate Professor College of Aeronautics Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University – Worldwide

W

hy would a pilot fly a perfectly good airplane with Airborne Weather Radar (AWR) into a massive thunderstorm? It’s a good question. The unfortunate answer is it’s almost always due to the pilot’s flawed use of the AWR. While weather avoidance technology has come a long way in recent years, pilots are still getting themselves in serious trouble around convective activity. One example of AWR use gone awry can be found in the NTSB accident report about a corporate Cessna 421C in July of 2009. It occurred over the Gulf of Mexico at 1452 local time. Savvy pilots immediately will envision what the conditions must have been like for the flight: towering cumulus and thunderstorms abound in hot and humid conditions. Weaving through these

obstacles shouldn’t normally be a problem in a pressurized twin-engine aircraft with turbocharged Continental GTSIO-520-L powerplants and a service ceiling of 30,000 feet, especially considering the C421 was equipped with AWR and a Stormscope. According to the report, “the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Regional Radar Mosaic Chart, which was valid for the time of the accident, also depicted a band of ‘intense to extreme’ intensity” across the route. Further, “at 1446:56 the pilot advised ARTCC that he was experiencing a 2 thousand foot per minute descent rate. At 1447:02 the controller then asked him if he would like to turn around and go back in the opposite direction, to which the pilot responded that he would. At 1847:07, the pilot was cleared to reverse course. Sixteen seconds later, the pilot declared an emergency, and advised that the airplane was ‘upside down.’ There were no further transmissions from the pilot.”

So how can pilots avoid being ambushed by severe thunderstorms? By keeping the use of AWR simple. While there are many philosophies on how to use AWR, one can be assured of safe weather avoidance by using common sense, rules of thumb (eg, do not fly closer than 20 nm to a strong storm, at the closest), and a simple mnemonic about radar features to test areas of weather with AWR. This modest tool can be remembered with 4 letters: C-TAG. “C” is for contouring, “T” for tilt, “A” is for attenuation, and “G” is for gain. Using these 4 simple attributes or features of AWR can help keep you safe if you use them correctly. These are not in any particular order of importance. Instead, they should be used simultaneously and frequently when cruising around nasty weather.

Contouring Contouring refers to the general appearance of a weather return (ie, a storm of the radar “scope”). Using this technique of evaluation, pilots can distinguish between a benign rain shower and a cell that can kill you. A steep contoured image, one where the radar colors are closely spaced together with well-defined edges of each color (think green, yellow and red in close proximity), indicates convective activity. More nonthreatening activity is indicated by what is essentially the opposite:

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The situation between 12 o’clock and 1:30 commands attention. Notice the aircraft is east-southeast bound, with an overhang to the left. Since high level winds in the US tend westerly to easterly, the top of the storm is obviously leaning downwind. And what do you suppose that little weak looking echo just to the left of the big red one (downwind of the mother cell) might be? Could it be hail blown out the top of the storm and falling out in front of its movement?

wide spacing of colors and ill-defined edges, especially at the borders of the colors. An additional evaluation of contouring comes into play by taking into account the season and geographical location. For example, if it’s summer near the Gulf Coast, we should be more skeptical of yellows and reds on the scope as opposed to if it’s winter in the Pacific Northwest, where a colorful display represents most likely non-convective heavy rain. With that said, even in less innocuous seasons and parts of the world, steep contouring is an area you are best advised to avoid.

Tilt Tilt and the its management is an essential skill for every AWR user. If the tilt, the angle at which the AWR is pointing vertically, is misused, you will not be able to adequately evaluate weather. In the extreme case of abuse, you may not see the weather at all. Think about tilt as pointing a flashlight at night – you cannot see things that are not in the beam. The safest and easiest way to stay out of trouble is to tilt the radar down until you can see ground returns at the edge of the

scope (a reflection of the beam off of the ground), then tilt up and down as necessary to evaluate cells further. If you can “see” the ground behind an area of weather, it is a good sign (and one that will be covered more about shortly). Thunderstorms can also wreak havoc on aircraft flying over their tops. So while “in the clear,” even at cruise, pilots must tilt down to evaluate what is below. Severe thunderstorms can send both lightning and hail far above their tops, not to mention they can cause various levels of turbulence in the VFR conditions that may exist over the core of the cell. It’s also necessary to adjust the tilt to evaluate what is below as one initiates a descent – just as pilots must tilt upwards when evaluating weather in the path of takeoff. But if you have the tilt set improperly, you may underestimate storm severity or may not even “paint” it until it is too late. For those who are thinking to themselves that manual tilt is not applicable because their radar has “auto-tilt,” think again. As Honeywell states in one of their user manuals, “frequently select manual tilt to scan above and below the aircraft’s flight level. Always use manual tilt for weather analysis.”

A cluster of echoes is a certain indicator of local instability. In the USA, the cell at the south end of a line, like the one in this picture, is normally the most dangerous as it has less competition for moisture/water vapor coming up from the Gulf of Mexico.

Painting the sky with your AWR The tilt savvy needed to know precisely how much sky the radar is painting and even how high the top of the precipitation may be can be more complicated. So if you’re allergic to math, skip to the next section. The formula for figuring out these intricacies is Degree width of the radar beam x Distance at which ground returns are painted by tilting down = Number of feet of sky within the radar beam after adding 2 zeros. That’s what the radar can “see”. You can learn the width of your radar by reading its manual. For a wider application to many other aviation calculations, this is just the old 60:1 rule. At 60 nm distance, 1 degree width of anything (radar, radials, etc) equals about 1 nm, or 6076 ft. So at 1 nm, 1 degree equals about 100 ft. Without going into the math of how the ratio is derived, realize it’s an approximation, but close enough for normal flying. Let’s look at a few examples. Flying along at cruise, we tilt the radar down until we can see ground returns at 60 nm ahead. Our aircraft manual states that the radar beam width is 5º. Using the provided formula, it’s 5º x 60 = 300; adding 2 zeros we get 30,000 (ft). We are assured that the radar is evaluating weather at 60 nm from the ground to 30,000 ft.

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Pilots should be intimately familiar with the controls and capabilities of their radar systems, such as these found on the Airbus 330. Gain control (left) should always start in the maximum position (clockwise for these controls). Tilt (right) is in degrees up (clockwise) and down (counterclockwise) of the nose (think alignment with the longitudinal axis of the aircraft).

Tilting the radar up 1º, we can use the same formula to determine how the picture has changed. 1 x 60 = 60. Adding 2 zeros is 6000 (ft). Thus the radar is now looking at a range that is 6000 ft higher. Hence the beam is now detecting what is between 6000 and 36,000 ft at 60 nm. You can use a similar tactic to determine the top of precipitation within a cell. First, paint the ground at the same range as the storm in question. Keeping the numbers the same as before, assume that the cell’s core is 60 nm ahead. Initially, you will be looking at the aforementioned 30,000 ft of sky. Slowly tilt the radar up 1º at a time. Recall that each time you do so, you are adding 6000 ft to the floor and top of the radar beam. Hypothetically, if the cell disappears as you reach 6º up from where you started, the bottom of the beam is at 36,000 ft, meaning the top of precipitation is somewhere close to that altitude. It is important to note that the top of the precipitation is not the same as the top of the cloud – not to mention a cell with precipitation tops this high are bad news. In short, you would not want to go near or over the storm.

Attenuation Attenuation is when precipitation is so intense that it does not allow for a round trip of the radar beam. Basically, it blocks the radar. The easiest way to detect extreme attenuation is the lack of ground clutter being painted behind a cell when playing around with tilt. Some radar systems

highlight possible attenuation areas with a unique color or marking. The moral here is that whatever is behind the attenuation is underestimated or unobservable. Avoid these areas at all costs. Another possible manifestation of attenuation is a crescent-shaped cell with weaker areas being indicated behind the core of the storm. Be careful anytime you see odd shapes or curved boundaries on radar returns. Lastly, ice on the aircraft nose (radome) can also decrease the effectiveness of AWR. Use caution.

Gain Gain can be thought of as the sensitivity setting of AWR. A storm in question can be further evaluated by adjusting the gain, so if you reduce the sensitivity of the AWR and the cell is still readily apparent, it is bad news. There are a few philosophies about how to manage gain. Some say turn it down 50% as the cutoff; others say turn it all the way down. Some discretion is needed, but if a cell remains on the scope while other strong looking storms disappear, steer clear. Another critical thing to remember is to ensure that the gain is set to the maximum until you are ready to do your further scrutiny of weather. Don’t forget to return it to maximum when you are done. You do not want to accidentally be thinking it is all clear ahead when your gain is at the lowest setting.

Conclusion Keeping things simple in the cockpit helps keep the workload manageable. In the case of AWR, there is no need to be overly complicated regarding its operation. Even all that math that was outlined in the article is not absolutely necessary, although it is helpful. Pilots can safely navigate through adverse weather by adhering to the basics of C-TAG. Steep target contouring coupled with the absence of ground clutter behind a storm is indicative of weather that is severe enough to take down an aircraft. Further appraisal of attenuation, readily apparent due to proper tilt management, reinforces the decision to circumvent. Lastly, by verifying the previous observations when manipulating the gain knob, pilots can have the most information possible about proximate weather to make the safest decisions possible. Tactical weather avoidance is not a place to take chances. Stick with C-TAG to keep everyone onboard secure. David Ison, PhD, has 32 years of experience flying aircraft ranging from light singles to widebody jets. Currently he is an associate professor for the College of Aeronautics at ERAU–WW.

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EFVS OPERATIONS

Seeing what can’t be seen Enhanced Flight Vision Systems expand human capabilities.

FalconEye EFVS blends symbology, synthetic vision and enhanced flight vision sensor images into a single view on the head up display. This image captured by Dassault’s CVS system on a Falcon 2000LXS shows the SVS above the horizon line and EFVS below.

By Peter Berendsen

ATP/CFII. Boeing 747, MD11

O

n the southern coast of Australia, just west of Melbourne, there’s an 80-mile stretch of limestone cliffs called Shipwreck Coast. Just over 100 years ago, ships were lost by the dozens at that location. Ship crewmembers hit the cliffs, which they could not see in foggy and stormy nights. This was after a 3-month voyage from Europe to Australia via the North and South Atlantic ocean and the stormy roaring forties in the Indian Ocean. They had been dead reckoning without a good celestial fix for too long. Staring into the night, into the fog, looking for something that should or should not be there, is as old as human navigation. But with intelligent calculations and ever advancing technology we have mostly overcome this ambiguity as any pilot qualified to Cat III minima can testify. Landing in dense obscuration using airliner autoland technology is routine at the foggy airports of this world. The decision height at my airline for a Cat IIIc landing is “no decision height.” It’s zero. If all systems indicate normal status, we continue all the way to the runway with no visibility at all.

That procedure is easily done in quarterly simulator events, but it feels quite different when you actually do it live. Especially with some 400 passengers putting all their trust in you and your aircraft’s technology. And the local airport’s technology as well, by the way. The solution to the fog/night problem has always been precise positioning of the vessel by navigation, or the penetration of fog and night with technical eyes that can see what human eyes cannot. Radio transmissions are used for landing systems in aviation and radar reflections for imaging the unseen. While ships have been able to get good radar images of ports and channels displayed on the bridge, aviation radars have been used primarily for weather. This is because ship’s antennas can be quite large and their relative low speed allowed slower processing times. Thus for aviation only ground-based installations could use radar for positioning (GCA/PAR approach) and traffic situation (ATC primary radar).

Finding a solution for general aviation operators While Cat III autoland may work well for airline operators at major hubs, it doesn’t work for executive aircraft operators. Most destination airports don’t offer the ground infrastructure and cer-

tifications for this technology, flightdeck technology is expensive and the training/currency requirements could be quite onerous for a GA operator. It’s no surprise then that top end executive aircraft manufacturers such as Gulfstream, Dassault and Embraer, together with avionics suppliers such as Honeywell, Rockwell Collins, Kollsmann and CMC, listened to their customers and adapted military enhanced vision technology for civil use. When I was offered the opportunity by Gulfstream to fly the brand new G450 out of ISP (Long Island McArthur Airport, NY) in 2002, I was very impressed. The Gulfstream Honeywell PlaneView cockpit technology integrated an infrared (IR) camera for the 1st time in a civil aircraft. The images from the Kollsmann sensor were displayed both on the Head-Up Display (HUD) and on a panel for the monitoring pilot in the right seat. We were above the South Fork of Long Island close to Montauk above a broken cloud cover. Looking through the HUD, I could see the ground clearly, as if the clouds never existed.

Regulations regarding enhanced vision technology Benefits of this technology were obvious, and I’m sure it was used with discretion by operators. The rules, FAR 91.175 (l) and (m), no longer applicable, allowed a substitution of naked eye visibility and recognition of runway surroundings with Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS) down to 100 ft above the runway. Below 100 ft, the EVS could not be used. However, with the FAA’s new AC 90106A, published in 2017, the possibility to use the EFVS/HUD all the way to touchdown and rollout was added. This allows manual, zero real visibility landings in civil aircraft for the 1st time. As this technology offers tremendous benefits to executive aircraft operators, the AC is well worth a closer look. The AC makes a clear distinction be-

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tween EFVS operations down to 100 ft above touchdown zone elevation (TDZE) and EFVS operations all the way to touchdown and rollout. It also explains how to obtain Operations or Management Specifications (OpSpec/ MSpec) or a Letter of Authorization (LOA) for these ops. The AC also points out that there may be some confusion about the terms EFVS and EVS. The FAA uses the term Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS) for fully approved and certified installations, while Enhanced Vision System (EVS) may refer to a system that is not certified for use in accordance with AC 90-106A. Gulfstream, pioneering the civil use of enhanced vision technology, has always used the term EVS for their fully certified systems. Also, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and other foreign Civil Aviation Authorities use Enhanced Vision System (EVS) rather than Enhanced Flight Vision System (EFVS). Both terms refer to a vision system that pilots use in lieu of natural vision to conduct certain specified operations. You should not confuse the term EVS in this context with an EVS that is not permitted to be used in lieu of natural vision to descend below decision altitude or height. Enhanced vision technology can only be certified as an EFVS if certain criteria are met. From a pilot’s perspective, the most important are conformity, latency and display technology that combines all this information in a HUD and a Head-Down Display (HDD) or a 2nd HUD for the monitoring pilot.

Avionics conformity is often overlooked On the artificial horizon of the Primary Flight Display (PFD), the pitch angles displayed as seen from the pilot’s eyes never conform to the real world angles. In order to be reasonably displayed on the instrument, they have to be much smaller. However, once you use a HUD, you must show pitch angles that conform to reality, otherwise the display would be severely confusing and not flyable since HUD indications overlay the real world. As the distances on the display between angles are now much larger, only a smaller section of the pitch-range is shown. So you can steer more precisely but have less overview. Taken to EFVS systems, conformity must now be required for everything displayed on the HUD. Whatever the

EFVS operation to touchdown and rollout Visual segment

Instrument segment

EFVS used in lieu of natural vision to descend below DA/DH to touchdown and rollout

100 ft above the TDZE

DA/DH

Operators may now receive FAA approval for precision approach EFVS operations all the way down to touchdown and rollout.

sensors see by IR, light enhancing technology or millimeter wave radar, the images displayed on the HUD must adhere strictly to the real world. This is actually quite an involved process, as images collected at the various installation points of sensors on the aircraft frame must be re-computed to a common reference point. Thus the looks and angles are created as if objects were seen from the pilot’s eye position. Achieving this requires a lot of computer processing power. This brings us to the next requirement of an approved EFVS: acceptable latency. Latency is a term used for the delay that processing of data in a computer or network may incur. Jet aircraft are usually approaching the runway at speeds of 120 to 150 kts, so there is almost no room for latency – or the displays will be behind the aircraft progress along the flightpath. In addition, an approved EFVS installation must also have an HDD or a 2nd HUD.

EFVS operations to 100 ft above the touchdown zone elevation This is the 1st of 2 distinctions that the FAA makes between types of EFVS approach operations. For EFVS ops to 100 ft above the TDZE, as the name suggests, the pilot uses the enhanced vision imagery provided by an EFVS in lieu of natural vision to descend below DA/DH or MDA down to 100 ft above the TDZE. Natural vision must be used to descend below 100 ft. These operations may be conducted on IAPs that have a DA/DH or MDA, which means on precision and non-precision approaches. AC 90-106A details in paragraph 4.2 what is necessary to conduct an approach in this manner. The EFVS HUD must display the

forward external scene to the pilot. FLIR, millimeter wave radiometry, millimeter wave radar, or low-light level image intensification are combined to display a conformal image. Airspeed, vertical speed, attitude, heading, altitude, command guidance for the approach, path deviation, and flightpath vector must also be shown in a way that don’t obscure the pilot’s view of the scene. Pilots must also be able to switch the vision imagery on and off with the flip of a switch on the control wheel. And the guidance must be suitable for manual control of the aircraft. Above 100 feet above the TDZE, the pilot is expected to conduct a goaround if the EFVS fails. Descent below 100 feet above the TDZE through touchdown and rollout is conducted using natural vision, so any failure of the EFVS should not prevent the pilot from completing the approach and landing. Note that EFVS systems do not provide for peripheral vision. They may not be used in lieu of natural vision for circling approaches and helicopter helipad/platform approaches. This is because, with current technology, designs that meet conformity requirements have other limitations. Using the relatively narrow field of vision of the forward looking HUD, the lack of overview reduces general situational awareness. EFVS only gives vision in a narrow angle straight head, therefore you will not be able to see over your shoulder as you would need to do for a circling approach.

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Garmin’s GHD 2100 HUD has a 30-degree wide angle view, symbology with flightpath marker, and also displays EFVS and SVS.

use enhanced vision imagery provided by an EFVS in lieu of natural vision to descend below DA or DH to touchdown and rollout. These operations may be conducted only on IAPs that have a DA or DH (eg, precision approaches). An operator’s OpSpec/ MSpec/LOA to conduct EFVS operations to touchdown will specify a visibility minimum for the operation. Visibility, in this context, means visibility provided by EFVS. Operators may get approval for RVRs below 1000 ft. Details for EFVS operation to touchdown and rollout may be found in AC 90-106A, paragraph 4.1. Aside from certification of the installation, operator and crew, the main difference is that the HUD must also incorporate guidance for radio altitude, flare and rollout. Also, the recovery from failure modes of the EFVS is more robust. In the Advisory Circular, the FAA also explains the rules for aircraft and operator approval, as well as the rules for dispatch, flight release, crew training, and currency. As usual, there are differences between Part 91 and 91K, Part 121, 125 and 135 commercial carriers. But the underlying principles are all familiar. For example, commercial operators can only dispatch a flight, release a flight or takeoff under IFR when the forecast weather is at or above the authorized minimums at the estimated time of arrival at the destination airport, or 1 or 2 alternates as required. This same operating principle applies to EFVS operations. A Part 121, 125 or 135 operator may dispatch a flight, release a flight, or takeoff under IFR for the purpose of conducting an EFVS operation when the forecast weather is at or above the authorized EFVS operational minimums at the estimated time of arrival at the destination airport or alternate airports as required.

EFVS limitations Are all the problems with fog and night solved? Not quite. There are some limitations to EFVS technology that pilots should be aware of. Depending on the sensor, objects may not show or may have a very weak signature. The main sensor for EVS technology is IR detection. This is basically a thermal image. While warm bodies will show up nicely (think of the deer on the runway), LED runway lighting recently installed on some airports will not. The wavelength LEDs emits is only in the visible spectrum. These LED lights are considered to be so eco-friendly precisely because they don’t emit heat. But as there is no heat, no IR image can be detected, at least by older sensors. However, newer sensor packages use multi-spectral technology in the 1–5 micron band to achieve a high resolution image across a broader spectrum of wavelengths. Such sensors include the Rockwell Collins EVS 3000 installed in Embraer Legacy 450/500 series aircraft. Kollsmann and CMC supply these sensors, which also include LED detection technology to achieve lower operating minima. Rockwell Collins uses an uncooled sensor for the EVS 3000, while older IR sensors need to be cooled to achieve best sensitivity.

Synthetic and Combined Vision Systems As you consider EFVS, other terms you may come across are Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) and Combined Visions Systems (CVS). In theory, one way to overcome the limitations of IR, radar and light enhancement technol-

ogy is to not look outside at all but create a virtual image based on a complex database of all objects around the airport. Basically, instead of simulating reality in a simulator, you now simulate reality in reality. What’s the difference? Your life is on the line. In my opinion, and with the current wealth of experience in existing databases and computer errors, we are very, very far away from a virtual reality world that is so precise and conforms to reality so well that you could trust your life on it. Much less fly an aircraft through mountainous terrain to touchdown using this data and system alone. And while GPS positioning has become ever more reliable, the possibility of a major failure still exists, even though they are rare. There is no backup, which is one of the reasons why ILS approaches are still with us. Due to the weak satellite signals, it just takes a small GPS jammer to block your signal. There are enough truckers who have these jammers to create problems for car ferries already. CVS, on the other hand, may be a smart way forward. It overlays the synthetic image on both the EVS image and the real world. Hopefully all 3 are aligned perfectly and CVS further helps the pilot distinguish and identify features.

Conclusion Pilots should never lose sight of which data source is providing the images presented to them. A natural image is best and proven – it’s reality for us humans. An EFVS image is 2nd best, as it is measured by its own sensors and does not depend on 3rd party data. SVS and CVS on the other hand, depend on the quality of the database and the accuracy of their own position as determined by GPS. As always, a good pilot will be cautious with these technologies. What I like about EFVS technology is that it enhances the pilot’s capability and allows a manual landing in almost no natural visibility. This seems to be a much more elegant solution to the fog problem than the cumbersome and very expensive approach used since the 1970s known as Cat III autoland.

Peter Berendsen flies a Boeing 747 as a captain for Lufthansa Airlines. He writes regularly for Pro Pilot on aviation-related subjects.

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OUTER MARKER INBOUND

Lowell Yerex and an airline called TACA New Zealand swashbuckler, aviator & capitalist, Yerex created opportunity where there was none and changed global air transportation in the process. By David Bjellos

ATP/Helo. Gulfstream IV, Sikorsky S76, Bell 407 Pro Pilot Senior Contributor

T

he 1930s saw tremendous growth in aviation, and Lowell Yerex established a small airline, originally in Honduras expanding eventually through Guatemala, Nicaragua and El Salvador with dreams of hemispheric international growth. Born in New Zealand as a British citizen, he lived much of his life in America and attended college at Valparaiso IN, graduating in 1916. He learned to fly in the Royal Flying Corps shortly thereafter and saw limited combat in WWI. While most refer to the “golden age” of aviation in terms of Pan American and the flying boats, Yerex sought and achieved his fame and fortune as an adventurous aviator and impresario in Central America.

Bellanca and Trimotor in Honduras. Runways were carved from dense jungles by hard men, and trips that previously took weeks by horseback or mule were reduced to minutes or hours by airplane.

Yerex the pilot lasted but a short time. Flying some precious ore miners from Mexico to Honduras, he convinced them to allow him to use their airplane while they were exploring. He eventually bought the aircraft (his first) from the miners and reorganized, calling his operation Transportes Aereos Centro Americanos (TACA). He flew anything anywhere there was a runway – mostly just strips carved out of jungle (many he cut out himself). Here’s when Yerex the entrepreneur emerged. He invented the concept of “deferred freight” by filling space on empty flights at a discount, and shortened trips in the rainforest from weeks to hours using aircraft.

An eye for an eye: Dominating negotiations Part of his success was the support of the Honduran government during regional conflicts. Yerex flew anything the president and cabinet officials requested and lost an eye on one flight from a ricocheted bullet fragment. He

Lowell was charming, clever, a ladies gentleman and a hard-nosed and determined businessman. Like Wiley Post, he flew as well with 1 eye as most men did with 2. Yerex and TACA were famous for innovation in the 1930s in air transportation.

declined a cash reward and instead accepted mail and freight contracts once hostilities ended, although negotiations were often contentious. During stalemates, he would remove his glass eye from its socket and place it on his knee pointed at his counterpart and say in a crippling stutter he had from birth, “…here’s a w-whadda I give for your country…whadda ya g-gonna do for me?” It never failed. By the end of 1939, Yerex was considered the world’s largest freight carrier, hauling 22 million pounds annually. His airline had no fatal accidents between 1935 and 1943 – a remarkable achievement given the conditions – but his dreams were bigger: to become the hemisphere’s largest international airline. For that, he needed the help of one of the world’s 2 greatest air powers, the British or Americans. The concept of the “chosen instrument” was for a designated individual airline to carry the “flag” of each reThis Bellanca CH-300 Pacemaker was an example of the aircraft TACA used in the 1930s and 40s. Note the fine clothing worn by the passengers. Air travel was only for the very wealthy and elite during this time period. Note also the fabric-covered struts (they provided additional lift), a patented item by Giuseppe Bellanca on this aircraft. One of the TACA’s earliest freight contracts was for chicle, the basis of chewing gum, in the 1930s. Made from the sap of the zapote tree, which grows prolifically in Guatemala, TACA reduced the time from 4 weeks to 4 hours to transport the raw product from the jungle to a waiting freighter. The Trimotor also carried mules, tractors, fuel, food, and anything else that would fit. Despite the desperate conditions, TACAs safety record was enviable by any standard.

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Lowell’s son Tony visited Tegucigalpa during the summer of 2017 and saw many lasting memories and aircraft from his father’s heyday. Here he poses with an early 1940s DC-3 in TACA livery.

spective country internationally, Imperial Airways for England and Pan American for America. Both countries fought fiercely for routes and landing rights, and competition was keen. The Americans actually viewed the British as adversaries (interwar aviation was struggling). That distrust was to quietly last another 3 decades. Being a British citizen, Yerex approached Whitehall first, asking for assistance. He was rebuked as being “too American,” having been raised in America. The Americans likewise politely declined his request for support, citing their distrust of a British citizen. As one historian put it, “He was a man without a country.” But Yerex was not deterred and continued to grow his system, and temporarily triumphed over Pan Am’s initial attempts within Latin America to shut them down. However, his fortune was not to last.

The strength and ruthlessness of Juan Trippe and Pan Am When WWII witnessed the French occupation, it was clear the British could not survive without American assistance in every respect, and open competition in aviation between the 2 was out of the question. Yerex’s timing could not have been worse. He was slaughtered by Pan American and never recovered, financially or personally. Yerex went on to found British West Indies Airways (BWIA) and gained minor regional Caribbean monopolies, further inflaming the Americans (when he received landing rights in Miami) and causing embarrassment for the British. Yerex was now seen by both sides as suspicious and increasingly untrustworthy, but he redeemed himself yet again. During WWII, TACA and BWIA flew support missions that swept the Caribbean for German U-boats and benefited from Anglo-American cooperation during wartime, but the distrust for him never fully abated.

Goodbye monopolies, hello open skies Yerex did more than make a lasting contribution to the future of global aviation by providing service in times of need through his 2 airlines, TACA and BWIA. His dramatic successes and failures forced the US State Department to realize that the “chosen instrument” concept was flawed and in need of revision. Multiple flag carriers from any nation could and should fly routes they were quali-

TACA DC-3 with TACA’s macaw logo. Lowell was once asked why he chose the macaw for his logo, and he replied, “That bird reminds me of my pilots, they constantly squawk on the ground and in the air, and generally can’t fly worth a shit.”

fied and capable of supporting. This eventually became known as the first “open skies” policy and lead to the Chicago convention of 1946, the formation of ICAO, and the ensuing of “aviation freedoms.” Yerex’s direct influence cannot be understated in this development. Correctly, the Americans realized that individual regional influences of aviation were less preferable to open competition – and America had the preeminent manufacturing capabilities for aircraft, and huge financial reserves. The US would benefit the most. In spite of Lowell’s unapologetic support for both sides, the resulting post-war proliferation of airlines and routes caused him to lose both TACA and BWIA in a short period of time. He was simply no match for giant corporate tactics that were applied and the nearly unlimited financing (and influence) that they brought. His entrepreneurial ending marked the end of an era. Lowell Yerex died in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1968 in relative obscurity. His contributions to global aviation were remarkable, and especially so for an individual. The well-respected aviation author R.E.G. Davies noted that TACA and Lowell Yerex were the only airline and individual that he devoted 2 entire chapters to in his book Airlines of Central America. Lowell is survived by several children, including his son Tony, who had an interesting and colorful flying history himself as an airman. Tony worked as an instructor for FlightSafety International, where this author was most fortunate to have worked with him for many years.

Editor’s note: The author wishes to personally thank Tony Yerex for his contributions to this article with photos and first-hand accounts of his father and the TACA legacy.

David Bjellos is the Aviation Manager for Florida Crystals, flying a GIV-SP, S-76C+ and Bell 407. He also serves on the Board of Directors for the Helicopter Association International (HAI).

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INTERNATIONAL OPS

Bizjet activity to and within Latin America GA is welcome throughout the Americas but adhere to the regs and be cautious to maintain security on the ground. Manny Aviation Services has a long history in offering full-service FBOs, FBO partnerships and ground service support throughout Mexico.

By Grant McLaren Editor-at-Large

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atin America, from Mexico down to the southern tip of the continent, is generally a straightforward, flexible and cost efficient bizav operating environment. However, there are still some unique requirements, operating quirks and security considerations to be mindful of. Overflight and landing permits, for example, are needed for most of the region, but these are usually quick to obtain and easy to revise. “Latin American ops have become more hospitable, open and friendly towards business aviation than they were even a few years ago,” says Jeppesen Vendor Relations Specialist Mexico & Latin America David Lafleur. “The region is generally cheaper for bizav than Europe, Asia and many other parts of the world. When flying to and within Mexico is almost like filing a trip in the US. Brazil, however, stands out as the most expensive and complicated operating environment in the region. If you’re planning more than a single stop in Brazil, the permit process is trickier and local aviation authorities have their own way of doing things.” Although Latin America is not as structured or strict an operating environment as other parts of the world such as the European Union (EU), there are specific issues to think

about. “There are more cabotage and security issues to consider in this region than in many other areas,” notes Universal Weather Master Mission Advisor Russell Hess. “Also, if you’re flying to a smaller or secondary airport in some countries – Argentina and Chile, for example – there will be times when finding English speaking agents, ground handlers and even ATC personnel could be an issue. In some cases you’ll need to reposition a supervisory agent and/or fly with a Spanish-speaking crew member.”

Permit considerations Obtaining overflight and landing permits for Central and South America may require 1 to 3 business days. However, you will not need permits for private ops to Mexico, single stops of up to 48 hours in Colombia, or single stops of up to 72 hours in Venezuela. Note that CENAMER controls FIR entry authorization for airspace of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. So, for fights operating to or within this region, FIR flight details and planned schedule must be provided at least 1 hour prior to airspace entry, although the official requirement is 48 hours. Assuming there are no billing issues or outstanding charges, approvals are not complicated and have a 72-hour validity. CENAMER

authorization remains valid for the return trip, within the 72 hours, so long as you fill in the “additional details” section when purchasing. Going farther south, making a 1-stop trip of up to 48 hours to Colombia is a fast process. However, ITPS Ops Mgr Ben Fuller recommends to plan on 3 days lead time if you intend to stay more than 48 hours or make more than 1 stop. “Additional permit lead time should be considered if you plan to stay 5 days or longer in Colombia,” Fuller adds. He also points out that although Venezuela allows up to a 72-hour stop without a permit, operators are generally avoiding Venezuela landings these days due to civil unrest, and they’re often choosing to avoid Venezuelan airspace altogether due to overflight fee scrutiny.

Brazil considerations Setting up a 1-stop trip to Brazil can often be accomplished in 1 day, especially if you’re familiar with the operating environment. But if you’re making more than 1 stop, an AVANAC permit is required. Plan on 2 to 3 days ahead to obtain this domestic permit for Brazil and expect paperwork procedures of 1 to 2 hours upon first landing in country. “We always recommend operators to obtain a 2+ stop permit, just in case you may need to reposition,” says

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Mapiex International, a highly experienced private aviation company in Panama, provides a full range of FBO and VIP handling services.

Fuller. “We’ve had cases of operators who had planned single stops in Brazil but then had to reposition due to fog and, recently, due fuel shortage issues related to a truckers strike.” Brazil is one country in the region that requires visas for US nationals. Note that while your active flightcrew will be admitted visa-free, this does not necessarily apply to flight attendants and flight mechanics. International Support Providers (ISPs) always recommend for all crew members to have Brazilian visas, just in case. “If you land at a smaller airport in Brazil, local immigration officers may not, for example, be familiar with all the official rules,” explains Hess. “For regular operators to Brazil, it may be best practice for all active crew members to carry visas.”

If you’re headed to BOG (Bogota, Colombia), Aerosupport FBO supplies full bizav handling services in addition to overflight assistance, catering and local charter support.

Traveling to Mexico While Mexico is an easy operating environment for private flights, correct authorizations are always important for charters. You’ll be permitted a few 1-shot charter trips but then you must obtain a blanket charter permit. “It can take, in some cases, up to 6 months to obtain a blanket charter permit, considering application and application approval time,” says Jeppesen ITP Trip Specialist Jason Cornillez. “Once you have a blanket charter permit, there are monthly reporting and update requirements to consider and this can become somewhat onerous.” Be aware that when entering Mexico from the south, all operators must stop at either TAP (Tapachula, Mexico) or CZM (Cozumel, Mexico) for a security check. This procedure can take up to 2 hours to complete. Exemptions similar to US Border Overflight Exemptions may be obtained by Mexican operators but are not possible in the case of foreign-registered operators.

Ground handling

LIM (Lima, Peru) attracts consistent levels of bizjet activity and is considered one of the better options, both as a destination and for a tech stop, on the west coast of South America.

ISPs say that good FBOs and general aviation terminals (GATs) can be found scattered throughout Latin America. In some areas, however, ground services may be slower than expected and some locations will be more expensive than others. “If you go in expecting US or EUstyle ground services, you may be frustrated,” says Avfuel Account Specialist David Kang. “Be patient, show up at the airport earlier than you normally would and work your

way through your checklist – particularly if there’s no FBO on the field. In terms of costs, certain destinations in Mexico, Costa Rica and Panama can be higher-price propositions. A stop at SJD (Los Cabos, Mexico) may run you $3500 to $4000.” Fuller concurs that ground handling service standards in this region are not necessarily the same as Europe, the US and parts of East Asia. “There will be situations where service issues materialize and you may need to stay on top of ground handlers,” he adds. “We find it’s always best to build a good relationship and stick with just 1 agent/handler in country, as opposed to moving from handler to handler.” In order to avoid issues, best practice is to always work with an ISP and local ground handler, unless you’re very familiar with all local procedures and know where various offices can be found and how to pay for everything. “Going in without a ground handler to save $2000 is at your peril. You’ll be on your own,” points out Kang. “Local airport staff will chock your wheels and walk away, with no incentive to assist. The PIC may need to find a local airport office to sign forms. Also, language barriers must be considered.”

Special operating considerations While the Latin American regulatory environment has remained stable and relatively unchanged over recent years, there are regulatory tweaks to be aware of. Fuller points out that Curaçao has started to require operators to register, and

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Líder Aviação at CGH (Congonhas, São Paulo, Brazil) offers spacious hangar options, along with full GA support services for operators headed to the area.

put money on account prior to filing flight plans through the airspace. “This procedure is new for many crews and some have run into issues over recent months,” comments Fuller. “If you attempt to file a flight plan through Curaçao airspace without taking the required prior steps you’ll be denied access.” ISPs observe that Nicaragua is now requiring specific overflight permits for high-level airspace, whereas previously only CENAMER authorization was needed. “As of a few months ago, flight notification to Nicaragua is no longer sufficient,” says Kang. “Obtaining a Nicaraguan overflight permit is a simple online process, and you’ll usually get approval back in 1 day. This is really just revenue harvesting and fee collection and it’s likely other countries may do the same in future.” Jeppesen Technical Sales & Support Nancy Pierce points out that as of last year Peru was restricting fuel uplifts for international departures to just LIM (Lima, Peru). “They’re trying to ensure corporate operators depart the country out of Lima, as opposed to other locations,” she explains. Even when you feel you’re doing everything right, things can still go sideways. “There was a case in Argentina recently where the director of a smaller airport turned away a flight because he did not want guns brought in,” relates Fuller. “Fortunately, the crew found another airport some 60 nm away that did not have the same issues. All it takes is 1 person at an airport to say ‘no’ to override standard regulations usually in place.” Due to increasing high-season popularity at certain destinations, including SJD, SJO (San José, Costa Rica and LIR (Liberia, Costa Rica), we’re hearing more cases of parking

running out. “During peak periods, ground handlers experience challenges keeping up with demand. Sometimes you’ll need to push a little to stay on top of services,” says Fuller. Be mindful that Colombian permits require that you provide specific ELT details. For any landing at CUZ (Cuzco, Peru), for example, prior online approach training is mandatory. Also, there are strict service limitations for stops at the Galápagos Islands. And slot planning for trips into Easter Island can be somewhat convoluted and, at times, restrictive. When operating to Mexico, either as a private or charter flight, be aware of special insurance requirements in place. You must have a policy that specifically covers Mexico and you need to ensure the name on the policy matches exactly the details on your flight plan. In addition, Hess points out that Mexico now wants private operators to carry a letter stating the relationship of all passengers to the aircraft owner. He also reminds crews operating to Chile to be mindful of local disinfectant spray requirements upon international arrival.

Security considerations While security threat levels in much of Latin America have dropped in recent years, you still need to consider the specific locations you’ll be flying to. “Although we’re hearing of fewer security issues in the region these days, threats vary depending on the specific airport or part of the country,” says Fuller. “Border areas of Mexico, for example, often have additional security threats to consider. At some locations we always recommend secure crew transport and aircraft guards as well as tailored security briefs.”

“If you’re flying to a location for the first time, consider obtaining pre-trip security briefs and discussing risks and risk mitigation with your inhouse security department, ISP and local handers,” says Jeppesen Vendor Relations Specialist South America Jeff Rupprecht. “We recommend avoiding public taxis and transport. Even for private transport it’s always important to be aware of who’s picking you up, so have the vehicle type, driver’s name/photo and perhaps even their drivers license number with you prior to pick up.”

Heading south If you’re attending LABACE at CGH (Congonhas, São Paulo, Brazil) Aug 14–16, be mindful that you’ll need an AVANAC domestic permit for this location, as it’s not an airport of entry. Also, check with your ISP and/ or local handler on visa exemption opportunities and/or requirements for all crewmembers. With some exceptions, South America is a more affordable and friendly operating arena than many other parts of the world. “Latin America is a welcoming environment for business aviation. Trips can generally be set up within 3 business days lead time or less,” says Hess. “Working closely with an ISP and local ground handler will help ensure you avoid any potential issues, coordinate close-in parking and be aware of any local idiosyncrasies or particular requirements.”

Editor-at-Large Grant McLaren has written for Pro Pilot for over 20 years and specializes in corporate flight department coverage.

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