On the ramp at DMK (Bangkok, Thailand) with a Gulfstream V are (Lâ€“R) DOM Mark Styles, Captain James Stamps, Founder & S Chairman William Heinecke, Captain Khanin Pekanan, and Air OT C & Ambulance Pilots Wanusnun Chaninyuthwong and Captain Phalawut Phatthanasuk. ter Ch
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Vol 52 No 4
8 POSITION & HOLD Déjà vu all over again? by Bob Rockwood Used bizjet prices are rising. That should encourage new aircraft sales. 30 PIREPS Dassault introduces Falcon 6X by Pro Pilot staff First flight will be in early 2021 with initial deliveries expected in 2022. 32 EVENT COVERAGE Heli-Expo 2018 by Brent Bundy HAI convention shows diversity of vertical lift applications that assure continued growth for the rotorcraft industry.
36 UP & AWAY Top execs use helos and spend less time on highways by Pro Pilot staff Rotary-wing improvements along with more landing sites spur growth. 44 OPERATOR PROFILE MJets of Bangkok by Grant McLaren Thai-based flight dept flies Gulfstream V, Citation X, Bravos and CJ3 to support the company’s businesses worldwide.
50 INTERNATIONAL OPS Hong Kong Business Aviation Centre by Grant McLaren Consistent winner of the Best Asian FBO category in Pro Pilot’s PRASE Survey depends on well-trained people to deliver excellent customer service. 54 SPECIAL MISSION AIRCRAFT Versatile business aircraft designs by Don Van Dyke Acquiring and suitably modifying and updating commercial off-the-shelf airplanes yields lower costs and performance gains for civil government, law enforcement and military users.
60 COMFORT & STYLE Outfitting the cabin by Shannon Forrest Embraer’s design center at MLB allows aircraft buyers to select personal luxury surroundings. 66 WEATHER BRIEF More info on fog by Karsten Shein Limited visibility eliminates safety margins. 74 FORECASTS Pro Pilot Technology Timeline 6.0 by Owen Davies Predictions for your career and your life.
80 OMI Highest, farthest, fastest: The extraordinary life of Jacqueline Cochran. by David Bjellos
4 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018
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Vol 52 No 4
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12 VIEWPOINT Editorial opinion from Bryan Burns, president of the Air Charter Safety Foundation. 18 TERMINAL CHECKLIST Quiz on procedures when flying into PHL (Philadelphia PA). Answers on page 20. 22 SID & STAR Star uses smartphone apps for flight planning, checking weather enroute and ordering lunch from Tony’s for Oscar Lugnut. 24 SQUAWK IDENT Pro Pilot readers say whether they tip and how much when visiting FBOs. 72 AL LOOKS BACK Steady introduction of new Citation products resulted in many successive years of Cessna industry leadership.
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On the ramp at DMK (Bangkok, Thailand) with a Gulfstream V are (L–R) DOM Mark Styles, Captain James Stamps, Founder & Chairman William Heinecke, Captain Khanin Pekanan, and Air Ambulance Pilots Wanusnun Chaninyuthwong and Captain Phalawut Phatthanasuk. Photo by Vinai Dithajohn.
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POSITION & HOLD an editorial opinion
Déjà vu all over again? Prices for used business jets are going up which should encourage new aircraft production. By Bob Rockwood
Chart 1: Corporate jets for sale as % of ﬂeet
Managing Partner, Bristol Associates
% of ﬂeet for sale
ETNET (those demons of data develop20% ment) recently announced that the used 18% jet market has transitioned from a buyer’s 16% to a seller’s market. This proclamation is pred14% icated on the fact that, as of January 2018, the number of corporate jets available for sale has 12% dropped below 10% of the number in the fleet. 10% Historically, when this occurs, prices increase. 8% As Chart 1 shows, we have been above 10% 6% availability for at least the past 8 years. During this same period, prices have been decreasing. 4% The inverse is assumed to be true, or at least 2% has been so in the past. 0% JETNET also announced that used business jet transactions increased by 7.1% in 2017 versus 2016. So, we should all anticipate that prices for new and used business jets will increase in 2018, and so too, perhaps, will trading activity increase. If you polled 10 aircraft sales and brokerage people right now, 9 would say “hell yeah” and the 10th would be like me, too old and deaf to have heard the question. But hold on. All is not roses and kittens. To start, the sales of new business jets in 2017 dropped 6% from 2016’s activity. In addition, the percentage growth of the world’s business jet fleet was lower in 2017 than in 2016, as shown in Chart 2.
% ﬂeet growth
4% 3% 2% 1% 0%
Series 1 When the number of planes for sale, as a percentage of the fleet, is above 10%, prices decrease. When availability drops below 10%, historically, prices have increased.
Wait a minute, though. Let’s put those rose colored glasses back on. The FAA’s data on business jet flight operations shows a slightly better than 3% growth from 2016 to 2017. The problem here is that, as is shown in Chart 3, there’s not a real steady growth pattern over the past 8 years, subsequent to the 2008 melt down. So Chart 2: World business jet ﬂeet growth % – Year over Year how much stock do we put in the 2017 figure? Oh, and here’s another thing about the growth in operations numbers. That 3% overall growth seems pretty significant. But when you factor in the increased number of planes flying these operations, the increased growth in operations on a per plane basis is less than 1%. In other words, we are not increasing the use of the assets. And here are a couple more issues that could cause rain to come down on our parade. First, will the price increases, which will be attempted by both new and used aircraft sellers, 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 produce more sales resistance than sales? And since prices on brand new and newer used Year planes will be the first to go up, the owner Series 1 looking to trade up will face a greater price delta than before. Will this dampen spirits? Year over year fleet size growth, when expressed as a percentage, will tend to be flat, Last, look at Chart 4, which shows the year or go down, as the total number of aircraft in the fleet increases. Flat to increasing to year percentage change in business jet sales. numbers would depict a healthier market than those shown here. 8
PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018
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Chart 4: New & used jet sales % change year over year
As with business jet operations, there is no real trend line. So, again, how much stock do you put in the 2017 numbers. Switching to sunny day mode, history tells 8% me the concerns expressed above are a bunch of hoo–ha. 6% Short of a major economic or political upheaval, history tells us we are on the cusp of 4% another sales run for business aircraft. The price of used planes will go up and drive ac2% tivity to the new aircraft manufacturers. In turn they will raise prices and become even more 0% profitable. This will encourage product development which in turn increases sales. -2% To add to this confidence, I’ll point out that JETNET’s numbers reflect actual sales, not -4% pending sales. During some recent research into the Gulfstream V and 550 markets, I found that, of the 39 listed for sale, 10 were under contract. This represents a whopping 25% reduction in availability in this market beyond what you have seen reported. I very much doubt these numbers would hold across the board. But let’s suppose for just a moment that the overall reduction based on pending sales was only 1%. This brings JETNET’s number down from 9.9% to 8.9%. It doesn’t take much imagination to see that the supply/ demand numbers have inverted from what they’ve been these last 10 years–and perhaps dramatically so. Our market is driven by psychological factors to a great degree. Product shortage is a huge driving force in generating sales. Not only are we soon to experience these shortages in the used market, but it won’t take long for these shortages to show up in the new plane market as well. All of the manufacturers have reduced their capacity to make planes, trying to match production to sales. In addition, they have been negotiating sales prices dramatically below list to try and keep their production levels as high as possible. Just as we can’t create more availability of used planes, we can’t suddenly increase the manufacture of new planes by any significant factor. Chart 3: Business jet operations growth year over year 12%
Annual % growth
Year Series 1
There are 2 things inhibiting this. The 1st is marketing 101. The Gulfstreams of this world aren’t going to crank up their assembly lines until they are convinced the increased sales are a trend, not a blip. Recall that overall sales picked up in 2014, only to fall back for the next 3 years. The 2nd level of inhibition comes from the simple fact that building planes is a very complex undertaking. Increasing–or decreasing–production is like turning an oil tanker. Your input takes a long time to take effect. So, even as management becomes convinced that the increased sales picture isn’t a blip, the production increase is quite some way downstream. So before we see production increases from the manufacturers we will see them firm up and increase their prices. They will then increase production, and therefore sales. This will increase profitability, which will encourage product development, which in turn increases sales. Heavens. It’s like a treadmill. Here’s the formula, take notes: Increased demand - decreased supply = higher prices. The fear of higher prices = higher sales and order activity. Greater sales = profits + product development = even greater sales. And this formula is 100% accurate until you read, as I did just yesterday, that Embraer’s business aircraft group is forecasting flat sales in 2018. Happy days are here again. I think. Maybe.
6% 4% 2% 0% 2010
Year Series 1 Growth in flight operations, or lack thereof, is a key indicator of future aircraft sales. If we’re not flying them, we don’t need them.
Bob Rockwood has been in the aircraft brokerage business since 1978. During his tenure at Omni Intl Jet Trading Floor he began writing The Rockwood Report, which discusses the corporate aircraft market. In 1986 he joined Bristol Associates as a managing partner.
10 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018
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HondaJet is thankful to be the most delivered jet in its category in 2017. With the accolades and accomplishments collected over the years, we are proud to announce yet another milestone: the HondaJet is the most-delivered jet in its category in 2017. This deserves extending our thanks to all who had the vision to make this possible, including our customers who we are proud to have welcomed into the HondaJet family over the past year. And now we look forward to 2018. ÂŠ Honda Aircraft Company
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VIEWPOINT an editorial opinion
Photo courtesy ACSF
Photos by Jose Vasquez
Air charter industry growth requires a common standard, a unified voice
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University’s Scott Shappell, PhD, talks about expert decision-making. Upper right: Textron Aviation’s Mike Graham, MITRE Corp’s Jeff Mittelman and FAA AFS-280’s Randy McDonald discuss the ACSF-ASAP program. Lower rightphoto shows NTSB Chairman Robert Sumwalt and ACSF President Bryan Burns.
By Bryan Burns President, Air Charter Safety Foundation
he enormous growth of the charter aviation industry is unprecedented. Just this past July, the business data and market research organization, IBISWorld, reported that demand for nonscheduled air transport services has grown substantially since 2012, and is expected to continue apace over the next 5 years. With current estimated revenues of $23 billion and an annual growth rate of 2.3%, the charter industry is poised to continue growing unabated. What’s more, ARGUS’s “TraqPak” aircraft activity reporting tells us that, in 2017 alone, business aviation flights eclipsed 3 million for the first time since 2008. In particular, Part 135 flight activity was up 9% from 2016, and flight hours increased by 11.5% over the same period. And, with the following comment, Alasdair Whyte, editor of Corporate Jet Investor, has set the stage for continued growth of the charter industry. He said, “The global population of people worth $10 million or more is expected to increase by 41% between 2016 and 2025. These people may think they are not rich enough to buy their own aircraft, but they increasingly want to fly privately, forcing up the number of 1st-time users. This, coupled with improved technology and digital platforms, and more flexibility from private jet owner in terms of how they charter out their aircraft, is making private aviation accessible to more people.”
So, of course, the prospect for improving safety in this burgeoning segment of the aviation industry has been a chief priority.
Tragic roots To help shed some light on the criticality and importance of safety in this and any other aviation-related enterprise, a little history is in order – some of it unarguably tragic. • On the morning of October 25, 1999, celebrity pro golfer Payne Stewart boarded a chartered Learjet in Orlando FL for what was supposed to be a routine flight to a golf tournament in Houston. Stewart and the others aboard were killed when the jet suddenly depressurized in flight and crashed. • In November of 2004, Dick Ebersol, the president of NBC Sports, barely survived a crash in a chartered jet. On board were Ebersol’s sons Charlie, who also survived the crash, and Teddy, who tragically did not. Although it’s unfortunate that it often takes highly public deaths and injuries to spark attention and generate some corrective regulatory action, these and other incidents prompted the FAA to look much more closely at the flourishing charter flight industry. In the wake of these and other accidents, the FAA reached out to James Coyne, the President of the National Air Transportation Association (NATA), and told him in no uncertain terms: “Your industry better get its act together.”
12 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018
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Air Charter Air charter Industry statistics Industry statistics
The enormous growth of the charter aviation industry is unprecedented. In 2017 IBISWorld reported that demand for nonscheduled air transport services has grown substantially since 2012, and is expected to continue apace over the next five years.
23bn estimated charter industry revenues
Growth in flight hours from 2016 to 2017
industry growth rate from 2012-2017
Industry Audit Standard: A common standard
Increase in charter flights from 2016 to 2017
The global population of people worth $10+ million is expected to increase by 41 percent between 2016 and 2025, according to Corporate Jet Investor.
700% Growth in members since the ASCF was founded in 2006
Reports of suspected illegal commercial activity have come into the ACSF’s Illegal Charter Hotline
aviation. To achieve that goal, the ACSF wanted to provide a systematic approach for employees of on-demand charter operators, fractional program managers and Part 91 flight departments, with the objective of promptly identifying and correcting potential safety hazards. The group got its start with a mere 20 members culled from the NATA. Since then it has grown exponentially, swelling 700% to include more than 160 aviation-related members. As the ACSF’s president these past 7 years, I can say unequivocally that the organization works diligently to accomplish our mission: To promote and facilitate strategically designed risk management programs; to advocate for the charter industry’s adoption of a common audit standard; to disseminate pointed safety information; and to create additional programs that advance the goals of ACSF. As we often say, “We work to protect what really matters by supporting the highest levels of safety.”
Aviation organizations are ACSF members
Safety events reported by 90 operators through ASAP, the Aviation Safety Action Program
Since the ACSF launched its Industry Since the ACSF launched its Industry Audit Standard (IAS) in 2008, 32 operators have completed and Audit Standard (IAS) in 2008, 32 passed this onsite, 3rd-party audit. operators have completed and passed Sources: IBISWorld’s July 2017 Charter Flights - US Market Research the rigorous onsite, third-party audit. Report and ARGUS International’s 2017 TRAQPak Business Aviation Aircraft Activity Review and the ACSF. Sources: IBISWorld’s July 2017 Charter Flights - US Market Research Report and ARGUS International’s 2017 TRAQPak Business Aviation Aircraft Activity Review and the ACSF.
Thus, in 2006, the Air Charter Safety Foundation (ACSF) was born, founded as a 501(c)(3) non-profit with just a handful of members to chart its course.
Evolution of the ACSF The ACSF was organized to provide programs to establish the highest levels of safety in personal and business
Over the years since ACSF’s founding, one of the most significant challenges we’ve faced is developing a standardized safety measure by which all operators can be evaluated. In other words, “a common industry standard.” Our membership realized from its very inception that this would be among its most pressing goals. We also knew that one of the main hurdles to accomplishing that goal was the recognition of how diverse the charter industry is. Many operators have a very small number of aircraft in their fleet and, on the other hand, larger fleet operators have several. The charter operators fly passengers, cargo, or a combination of the 2. They have different agendas and modus operandi. Thus, the ACSF membership was faced with the challenging, but necessary, task of developing a standard that could be embraced by all. So after some arduous efforts on behalf of the membership, what eventually emerged was the ACSF Industry Audit Standard (IAS). Painstakingly developed with the input and guidance of leading safety auditors, charter operators, shared aircraft ownership companies, and charter consumers, the IAS is a revolutionary program built from the ground up by ACSF members. The IAS sets the standard for independently evaluating an air charter operator’s and/or shared ownership company’s safety and regulatory compliance. It was crafted to help reduce the substantial costs and redundancies associated with today’s auditing environment – an environment in which operators are subject to multiple audits every year that consume precious time and resources. One of the most important jobs the ACSF handles, as a nonprofit, is to serve as the de facto “keeper of the IAS standard.” In addition to the standard itself, we provide guidance on how the audits should be conducted and what the operator should expect. Not only do we provide the standard, but we explain why each recommendation exists in the context of safety best practices and/or regulation. As such, we end up providing accreditation to 3rd-party experts who actually conduct the audits. Since the IAS launched in 2008, 32 organizations have completed and passed the rigorous onsite, 3rd-party audit.
14 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018
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Photo courtesy ACSF
NTSB Training Center Technical Officer Jill Demko provided attendees a briefing and viewing of TWA 800.
(L–R) ACSF Director Safety Management & ASAP Program Manager Russ Lawton, MS Management President Marti Smith, NATA Compliance Services Bailey Wong, ACSF ASAP Administrator Alyssa Sleight and ACSF President Bryan Burns.
Illusion of safety It took yet another tragedy to spur an additional, more recent challenge to the charter industry and its safety standards. In November of 2015, A Hawker 700 operated by Execuflight crashed after stalling during a landing approach at AKR (Akron OH), killing both pilots and all 7 passengers aboard (read report in Pro Pilot, Feb 2018, page 76). Upon completion of the investigation, NTSB Chairman Robert Sumwalt issued a February 2017 statement that was critical of the charter operator, the FAA and the charter industry at large. In his remarks, he shared that, “Those charter customers did not get what they expected or deserved... Their expectations were based on a house of cards that created an ‘illusion of safety.’” The following month at ACSF’s Air Charter Safety Symposium, Sumwalt repeated his concerns about the “false sense of security” that ratings and assumed audits can give both operators and their customers. The ACSF was drawn into the controversy because, as I mentioned, our organization produces an industry audit standard which helps 3rd-parties audit charter organizations. The Hawker 700 crash provoked further questions regarding industry-wide safety standards, and redoubled the ACSF’s efforts to work together with commercial auditing organizations like Wyvern and ARGUS. Our goal is to develop a common industry safety standard to protect the traveling public as well as the crew members and organizations who serve them.
(L) ACSF Chairman & EJM Sr VP Dennis Fox and Honeywell Sr Manager Technical Sales Steve Gomez.
plement of safety-focused programs and initiatives that are available to virtually anyone in the industry. These programs are designed to mitigate further accidents, crashes or tragedies of the very kind that gave rise to the ACSF in the first place. Selectively among them: • ACSF Air Charter Safety Symposium. Each March, we bring in several keynote speakers to discuss challenges in our industry. The event has grown such that we now draw approximately 125 attendees each year. • Illegal Charter Reporting Hotline. This toll-free hotline exists to enable operators and others to report suspected illegal commercial activity. Over the past 5 years, approximately 80 reports have come through this channel and been investigated. • Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP). In cooperation with the FAA, the ACSF offers ASAP, a voluntary, self-reporting resource that identifies and reduces possible flight safety concerns, and mitigates risks. The growth of this program over the past 2 to 3 years is nothing short of remarkable as we now have 90 operators enrolled with more than 1600 safety events reported. And we’re working with more than 40 of the 77 Flight Standards District Offices (FSDOs) on the event review.
Looking ahead Despite some of the foregoing evidence to the contrary, I’m hopeful that it isn’t merely tragic events that help move important agendas forward, and that an understanding of the need for a common voice with regard to charter industry safety is taking root once and for all. Because the IAS was modeled after the IATA Operational Safety Audit (IOSA) standard for the airlines, we’re hopeful that the IAS – like the IOSA – will eventually be recognized as the one common standard for safety in the charter industry. I do recognize, happily, that for the first time since our founding, there seems to be some traction in moving forward toward that goal, which, after so many years and so much work, is validation for the ACSF and its critically important goals. Bryan Burns has served as president of the Air Charter Safety Foundation since 2010. He was former president of Vail Valley Jet Center and vice president of Jackson Hole Aviation.
One of the ways that the ACSF is helping to advance the cause of safety for all is to establish and offer a full com-
16 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018
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Terminal Checklist 4/18 Answers on page 20
5. A visual descent at an angle of 3.0° may not clear obstacles in the approach path to the runway past the waypoint 1.2 nm to Rwy 26. a True b False
4. Select the true statement(s) regarding flying the initial approach segment. a Regardless of the IAF, a minimum altitude of 3300 ft MSL applies. b The initial approach segment from ALBEK requires a descent at CIBOP. c The procedure is not authorized for an arrival on V312 westbound at ALBEK. d Arrivals on V123-157-123 northeast bound may not fly the procedure from MENGE.
3. Select all that apply. The approach may not be flown to a DA of 513 ft MSL if_____ a RAIM is unavailable. b The MALSR is inoperative. c The GPS equipment is not WAAS-certified. d A NOTAM for PHL states that “WAAS LPV AND LNAV/VNAV MNM UNREL.”
2. Select the true statement(s) regarding simultaneous operations. a Simultaneous operations may occur at any time without ATC notification. b Use of a flight director or autopilot is required during simultaneous operations. c Using lateral guidance only to fly to an MDA of 500 ft MSL is not permitted during simultaneous operations. d An aircraft must have WAAS-certified GPS equipment to fly an approach when simultaneous operations are in effect.
1. The temperature is −15° C. Select the true statement(s) about the cold temperature operations that apply to this approach. a The approach is not authorized. b Cold temperature altitude corrections are required. c The approach may be flown to LPV minimums with an uncompensated baro-VNAV system. d The approach may not be flown to LNAV/VNAV mini mums with an uncompensated baro-VNAV system.
6. Select all that apply. When flying the approach to LNAV minimums_____ a The VDP at 1.2 nm to Rwy 26 applies. b The aircraft must remain at 1040 ft MSL until passing ZOKAR. c The GPS receiver performs a RAIM prediction at least 2 nm prior to the IAF. d Simultaneous approaches are authorized with use of a flight director or autopilot providing RNAV track guidance. 7. Flying a continuous descent final approach (CDFA) to LNAV minimums requires special authorization. a True b False 8. The LPV landing minimums are lower than the LNAV landing minimums. a True b False
Reproduced with permission of Jeppesen Sanderson. Reduced for illustrative purposes.
Refer to the 12-4 RNAV (GPS) Rwy 26 for PHL (Philadelphia PA) when necessary to answer the following questions:
Not to be used for navigational purposes 9. Select the true statement(s) regarding the landing minimums. a The circling MDA is 640 ft MSL regardless of aircraft speed. b An inoperative PAPI increases the LPV minimum visibility by 1/4 sm. c With inoperative runway alignment indicator lights, the LPV minimum visibility increases by 3/8 sm. d The MDA for aircraft circling to land at a maximum speed of 90 kts is 33 ft lower than the LNAV/VNAV MDA. 10. The missed approach procedure requires_____ a 4 nm legs in the holding pattern. b A direct entry to the holding pattern. c 1 minute legs in the holding pattern. d A climb to 3000 ft MSL direct to FROSE and hold. e A climb to 800 ft MSL before turning direct to FROSE.
18 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018
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FLIGHTSAFETY ADVANTAGE AD - PROPILOT - JUNE 2017 ISSUE - Trim: 8.375” w x 10.875” d Terminal Checklist 4-18 lyt CS.indd 19
Bleed: 8.625” w x 11.125” d 3/28/18 11:03 AM
Answers to TC 4/18 questions 1.
d Procedural note 1 in the Briefing Strip indicates that flying the approach to LNAV/VNAV minimums is not authorized for uncompensated baro-VNAV systems when the temperature is below −12° C. A procedural note would state if cold altitude corrections were required for the airport. In that case, the FAA NOTAM Cold Temperature Restricted Airports indicates that pilots must calculate and make manual cold temperature altitude corrections. Regardless of the temperature, baro-VNAV equipment may not be used to fly an approach to LPV minimums.
2. b, c Procedural notes 3, 4, and 5 in the Briefing Strip apply to simultaneous operations. Simultaneous approaches are authorized but only to LPV or LNAV/ VNAV minimums. Baro-VNAV may be used to fly to LNAV/VNAV minimums; WAAS-certified GPS equipment is not required. Use of a flight director or autopilot providing RNAV track guidance is required during simultaneous operations. AIM 5-4-13 indicates that pilots will be advised when simultaneous approaches are in use. This information may be provided through the ATIS. 3. c To fly the approach to the LPV minimums – a DA of 513 ft MSL and minimum visibility of RVR 60 – the aircraft must have WAAS-certified GPS equipment under TSO C145/C146. If the RAIL or ALS (in this case, a MALSR) is inoperative, the DA remains at 513 ft MSL. According to the AIM 1-1-20, the term UNRELIABLE in a WAAS-related NOTAMs is an advisory to pilots indicating that the expected level of WAAS service (LNAV/VNAV, LPV) may not be available. Upon commencing an approach at locations NOTAMed “WAAS UNRELIABLE,” if the WAAS-certified GPS equipment indicates LNAV/ VNAV or LPV service is available, then vertical guidance may be used to complete the approach. 4. a, c As shown on the plan view, the minimum altitude for the initial approach segment from any IAF is 3300 ft MSL, including the segment from CIBOP to FERIN IF. Each IAF has limitations regarding the arrival at the fix—the procedure is not authorized for an arrival on V479 northbound at MENGE (ballflag note 1), V123-157-123 northeast bound at ENZEW (ballflag note 2), or V312 westbound at ALBEK (ballflag note 3). 5. a The note “34:1 is not clear” in the profile view section indicates that the 34:1 OCS (obstacle clearance surface) is not free of obstructions. The 34:1 slope is
Terminal Checklist 4-18 lyt CS.indd 20
a 3.0° visual descent angle (VDA). The absence of this note indicates that a normal descent at a 3.0° angle from the VDP (in this case 1.2 nm to Rwy 26) can be made clear of obstacles.
6. a, b Ballflag note 4 in the profile view section indicates that both the stepdown fix of ZOKAR and the VDP of 1.2 nm to Rwy 26 apply to the LNAV approach. Procedural note 4 states that “LNAV procedure not authorized during simultaneous operations.” According to the AIM 1-1-17, when flying an approach procedure with non-WAAS GPS equipment, the receiver performs a RAIM prediction at least 2 nm prior to the FAF to ensure RAIM availability before it enters approach mode. 7. b AC 120-108, Continuous Descent Final Approach, provides guidance for flying the final approach segment of a nonprecision approach as a continuous descent. A CDFA requires the use of a published VDA or barometric vertical guidance (in this case, the glidepath angle of 3.00°). No specific training or aircraft equipment (other than that specified by the title of the approach procedure) is required. However, operators should provide flight crews with appropriate ground training before performing CDFA operations. 8. b As shown in the profile view, the LNAV MDA of 500 ft MSL is lower than the LPV and LNAV/VNAV DAs of 513 ft MSL and 573 ft MSL respectively. In addition, the required visibilities for all aircraft categories flying an approach to LNAV minimums are lower than those for both the LPV and LNAV/VNAV approaches. The lower LNAV minimums are due to the fact that performing the approach to the LNAV MDA brings the aircraft closer to the runway before reaching the missed approach point (as shown in the profile view) and different obstacle assessment areas apply to each approach type. 9. c, d A circling MDA of 540 ft MSL applies to 90 kts and 640 ft MSL applies to all other circling approach speeds. The LNAV/VNAV MDA for a straight-in landing is 573 ft MSL. Inoperative runway alignment indicator lights increases the LPV minimum visibility from RVR 60 or 1 1/4 sm to 1 5/8 sm—a 3/8 sm increase. An inoperative PAPI does not affect the landing minimums. 10. a, e The missed approach instructions and icons indicate at climb to 800 ft MSL prior to a climbing right turn to 3000 ft MSL direct to FROSE. According to the plan view, a parallel entry is appropriate with 4 nm legs in the holding pattern.
3/28/18 11:03 AM
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22 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018
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No hassles, no red tape. You can always count on us to get â€˜er done for you. Eric | Assistant General Manager | Clay Lacy BFI
Our policy and procedures manual has one sentence - Take care of the customer. Most folks find it pretty darn refreshing. Give us a call if you need anything. Line Service | Aircraft Management & FAA Certified Part 145 Repair Station Complete Jet Services | Aircraft Sales | Global Jet Charter 8285 Perimeter Road South | Seattle WA 98108 206.762.6000 | www.claylacy.com/BFI Gateway USA, LLC dba Clay Lacy Aviation, LLC
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enerally I tip line crew for good service, although at some locations I have to tip to get service at all. I always tip for lav service. This is a tough job, especially on a cold soaked aircraft. I tip in 5 dollar increments, but at international locations I give handlers at least $20 for all their help in making everything go as a smooth process. Ryan Duchene ATP. Gulfstream IVSP & Hawker 850XP Captain Onex Flight Mississauga ON, Canada
Do you tip at FBOs? If so to who? For what? How much?
ormal tips are anywhere from $4-5 each for lav, potable water, fueling, bags, etc. International handlers get $25, and my company allows a 20% tip on cabs. Terry Tripp ATP. Global 6000/5000 Captain NetJets Canton GA
e always tip for service. Flying a GV means we usually have quite a few bags. As long as the ramp guys help and are courteous to our passengers, we tip a minimum of $20, up to $100 on holidays. We also take care of the CSRs since they usually help with pax transportation and crew car needs and hotels. It makes a huge difference in busy places like IAD where the line guys take good care of us. Joe Champion ATP. Gulfstream V Chief Pilot DTI Huntsville AL
ain or other unpleasant weather means I tip the fueler and ground crew. I always tip the cleaning staff. Their jobs may not be romantic but they’re indispensable. I appreciate all the unsung work they do. Larry D’Oench ATP. Falcon 2000 & Cessna Chancellor Dir of Aviation USAC Aviation Montville NJ
ips run from $20 to $100 depending on what we have done and the quality of the service. And we buy fuel at every stop. Our tips usually go to line service. Bill Underhill Comm-Multi-Inst. Cessna Latitude Owner Underhill Aviation Grand Cane LA
f service is good I always tip. Always ask the CSR or line crew how tips are distributed because it varies across FBOs. I’ve found that most FBOs divide tips with the team. But you do want to ensure the right member gets what is deserved. I tip $20-50 for normal service including quick turns...get me in a hangar at the last minute at busy events such as the Final Four or Super Bowl and it’ll be $100-200. Rod Smith ATP/Helo/CFII/A&P. Grand Caravan & Bell 206L4 JetRanger Dir of Transportation Kinzer Drilling Pikeville KY
lways tip (to insure promptness) if it’s earned. Amounts are $3-5 for deliveries to airplane, $10 for fueler and lav service, $5 each for luggage, $100 to the tip pool for lots of pax, bags, cars, and general help. More is expected on international trips. And when it’s freezing and we need a quick turn and lav service, that lineman gets $20. Katha House ATP/CFII. Falcon 900EASy Owner BJ Aviation Services Manchester NH
ostly I tip the line crew for help with pax bags and cars. I also tip for hustle. Tips range from $5-10. Pierre Melcher ATP. Challenger 300 & Learjet 45 Captain Cockrell Resources Houston TX
or normal services I don’t usually tip. But when I receive extra services such as loading bags, cleaning windshields on a ladder, defrost, etc, I’ll give around $20. Pat Newton Comm-Multi-Inst. King Air C90 Chief Pilot Newton Brothers Stratford CA
ay the line person about $20. I always ask them to treat my airplane as if they owned it. Mike Matetich Comm-Multi-Inst. Daher TBM700C2 Owner Jupiter Equipment Leasing Plano TX
uelers and line techs get $5-20 depending on services performed, time spent and quality of the job. Cliff Lemke ATP/CFI. Global Express & Citation X/CJ4 Captain Williams Intl Waterford MI
ine crew get my tips for installing engine covers after cool down. Usually around $20. Jack Silva ATP/CFII/A&P. King Air B200 Owner Silva Aircraft Services Salmon ID
tip whoever is doing an exceptional job. Sometimes CSRs, line people and fuelers. In nasty weather the fuelers and line get tips. Always tip the person doing lav duty. The amount of tip varies. I start with $20 and go up from there. Robert Gerker ATP/Helo/CFII/A&P. Hawker 800XP Captain Contract Pilot League City TX
24 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018
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bsolutely give tips, generally to line service. It’s very rare when we don’t. Often I’ll ask if they share the kitty or each keep their own and adjust accordingly. For great service I make sure the CSR is taken care of as well. How much is widely variable–great hustle in cold snow and wind gets more than “just good” on a casual warm sunny day. Jim McIrvin ATP/CFII. Phenom 300 Chief Pilot McIrvin Aviation Warrenton VA
e frequently operate from multiple FBOs on an annual basis for weeks at a time. They’re like a 2nd home. Hence, we often buy them breakfast or donuts to start their day with an occasionally pizza lunch for those on duty. Roger Johnson ATP/Helo/A&P. Bell 407GX Chief Pilot for Utility Aviation Duke Energy Charlotte NC
ring me coffee, ice, papers, remove trash, install gear pins, help passengers with bags, etc, and a line person will get a tip, usually $5 per task. Bigger jobs such as driving over to the airline terminal or hotel get $10. My average total tip per FBO stop is $20, but I’ve done as much as $60 on some stops. Chris Anderson ATP/CFI. Hawker 900 XP Captain KMI Management Indianapolis IN
es, I’m a tipper! I worked line service in the late 1970s for Epps Air Service and always did my very best to make sure the crew and pax were happy. Tips were always appreciated. Today I make sure everyone is tipped nicely and sometimes I even buy them all lunch. My late father and Pat Epps told me to smile and treat people fairly. I’ve found that if you treat the FBOs fairly, buy fuel and tip folks, 99% of the time they’ll treat you the same. James Anastasia ATP. Gulfstream III Chief Pilot CLA Aviation Atlanta GA
ost of my tips start at $5-20. As a pilot who began my aviation career working as a line service tech, I always try to tip. Amounts are based on the level of service provided. As a general rule, most FBOs we utilize have been selected based on previous service, amenities and price. Line service teams that marshal you in, help with luggage, collect trash, coffee, ice, and take pride and care while servicing the aircraft will always receive a tip from me. The same applies to CSRs who make you or your passengers’ experience feel world class. Darren Rogers ATP/Helo/CFII. Learjet 45 Captain Jet Linx Claremore OK
ine folks get $20 for support (luggage, help, golf cart, ice, coffee) while fuelers get $5. International handlers receive $50-100. Gary Nickell ATP/CFII. Sabreliner 65 Chief Pilot Fitness Management West Bloomfield MI
BO personnel will get a tip when warranted. Great line service includes marshaling into parking, chocking the nose gear immediately after shutdown, notifying me the aircraft is secure, greeting the pax with a carpet at the airstair, assisting with baggage, and providing a shuttle to the pax terminal. Lineman usually get $10-20 each. If the CSR has a requested rental car available for immediate passenger departure and is ready to take my fuel order, I will then usually give a tip of $10. Charles Hackett Comm-Multi-Inst. King Air B200 Chief Pilot Seagull Management Denton TX
e always tip for lav service, depending on how much cash we’ve got between the crew. Typically we give them a tip of $20. Jodi Novak ATP/CFII. King Air B300 Captain GAMA Aviation Fowlerville MI
es, I always tip. I used to work for Butler, Signature and AMR Combs in SFO and really appreciated any tips I received. So I make it a point to tip, usually between $1020 depending on the service. Phyllis Manning Comm-Multi-Inst/CFI. Pilatus PC12NG Captain Aircalm Mill Valley CA
don’t tip for routine services such as fuel or GPU. I’ll tip $20 for lav service. The boss takes care of tipping for baggage, and on trips with lots of luggage he tips handsomely ($100-300) for excellent service. James Averett ATP/CFII. Learjet 60/35 Captain RJ Machine Fredericksburg TX
egularly I tip at most FBOs we visit. I’ll tip line service techs for help loading/unloading passenger luggage, quickly uploading fuel and especially for any lavatory servicing. I usually tip in denominations of $20 bills. Tim Anderson ATP. Hawker 800XP & King Air 350 Captain Gulf Coast Aviation Pearland TX
or good service, a good attitude and a parking location that isn’t miles away from the office. I’ll tip the person who services our aircraft 10% of fuel cost up to $200. Michael Harrington Comm-Multi-Inst/Helo/CFII. Leonardo AW119Ke/AW109E/S Owner & Manager Koala Mike Mesa AZ
nusually good service $5-20. And I try to tip fuelers in really cold weather. Line crew get $5 each for lots of baggage. And CSRs who make last minute logistics and arrangements for crew or passengers get tips too. Dennis Hartsell ATP/CFII. Learjet 60 & Beechjet 400 Pilot Hartsell Hangar Services Edwardsburg MI
26 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018
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EVERYTHING MATTERS. You feel it the first time you walk in. Thereâ€™s a passion here, driven by a 68-year legacy of aviation expertise, craftsmanship and hospitality. From pristine refurbishment to routine maintenance, every square inch of every aircraft gets our uncompromised attention and commitment to flawless precision. Itâ€™s simple, really. We love what we do.
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Now, or in years past, what aircraft have you especially enjoyed piloting? Why?
ow, been flying 50 years, and I have a few I really enjoyed. For single engine, it’s the Bonanza, Beech T34, North American T28D and the Hughes OH6 because being a scout pilot in a Cav troop is the best. Multiengine favorites include the Falcon 2000 because I loved the way it handled. The Gulfstream G550 is a do-everything, reliable airplane. Just put gas and oil in it and go. Love the G650 at M.924, the fastest corp jet on the planet. David Cassalia ATP. Gulfstream G650 Director of Aviation Warner Chilcott Monroe CT
ell UH1 (Bell 205) Huey series are my favorite aircraft. They are, without a doubt, the most wonderful flying helicopters out there. Truly the DC3 of helicopters. The most predicable handling of any helicopter I’ve flown, more forgiving of poor airmanship and as easy to fly as riding an old postal bicycle. William Page ATP/Helo/CFI. MD500D/E/530F/ 520N/600N/900 series Production, Test, Trng & Demo Pilot MD Helicopters Mesa AZ
peed, range and comfort of the Citation Latitude and CJ3 make these tops in my book. Walter Bradshaw ATP. Citation CJ3 Owner ATR Inc Punta Gorda FL
he Hughes 500 helicopter felt like I strapped it on my back and flew as I wished. Loved the Sabre 60; a GA plane on a fighter wing. Practiced a dead stick approach every time I was VFR. Gulfstream IVSP is a solid, dependable chariot of the sky. And the Sikorsky S76 is a dream to fly, especially IFR. Timothy Kavanaugh ATP. Falcon 7X Captain United Technologies Eagle River AK
asy choice for me, it’s the fast and sexy Learjet. Mike Edwards ATP/CFII. Citation 560 & Learjet 31 Chief Pilot H Company Conroe TX
riginally trained in Piper aircraft since I was working for their distributor. I eventually flew all the Piper models before moving on. I also had occasion to fly most of the Cessna piston aircraft. While an aviation accident investigator for insurance companies, I piloted some Beechcraft, Bellanca and Mooney singles too. In my current job flying a King Air B200. I have flown the A90, A100, C90, and B200 for 16 years and developed quite a love for the B200. It’s by far the safest aircraft I have flown, and I appreciate its multitude of back-up systems. It’s very comfortable and fits our mission envelope perfectly. For our purposes, I would be hard-pressed to recommend any other aircraft. Charles Hackett Comm-Multi-Inst. King Air B200 Chief Pilot Seagull Management Denton TX
efinitely the Lockheed JetStar and of course the DC9. Maybe not the prettiest but certainly they were well designed platforms. JetStar was fast, reliable and stable. Steve Cirino ATP/Helo/CFII/A&P. Eclipse 500, Citation 550 & Falcon 10 Dir Pilot Training Rocky Mountain Sport Jets Desert Hills AZ
eally enjoyed the Shrike Aero Commander 500S. What a delight. You opened your own door to step into the cockpit. Excellent visibility up front and the same light, sensitive flight controls as a P38. She wanted to loop and barrel roll, and on deck you steer her with your toes. No hands! No wonder Bob Hoover flew her for so long. Dave Tennesen ATP/CFI. de Havilland DHC2 Beaver/DHC3 Otter Captain Kenmore Air Seattle WA
’ve enjoyed many aircraft over the years. Loved flying the AH64 Apache in the military, and the Sikorsky S76 is also great. B737 is really nice to fly, excellent performer with economy of scale. Have loved flying the Hawker the last 22 years. Challengers are good as well. Alan Farrington ATP. Citation 550 & King Air 350/200 Dir of Operations Triton Air Georgetown TX
essna 208 Caravan is a good, solid craft, like a C172 on steroids. And Pratt & Whitney’s PT6 is just an amazing engine. Chris Phillips ATP. Pilatus PC12 Pilot Allies Air West Yarmouth MA
or piston aircraft it’s the Bonanza V35 that gets my vote for its responsiveness. Also like the Cessna 421 for the comfort factor. For turboprops the King Air F90 is a very sporty ride. For jets I like the Beechjet because of its dependability and comfort. I also like the Cessna CJ because it’s so forgiving and the Premier because it’s very fast. LJ Martin ATP. Premier IA Chief Pilot JetLag Rockport IN
elicopters have provided me the greatest enjoyment. I’ve flown many aircraft (twin and single), but helicopters offer the most utility to meet the missions of our county government. Terry Sanders ATP/Helo. Bell 407 Dir of Operations Volusia County Govt New Smyrna Beach FL
y vote goes to the Mustang. It has great avionics and is just plain fun to fly. I’ve also enjoyed the Baron, it’s both fast and economical. Charles Gregg ATP. Citation CJ3 Owner Trans Northern Airways Sanford FL
28 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018
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IT RAISES THE BAR WIDER.
Get ready to experience the largest, tallest and widest cabin in business aviation. The Falcon 6X has a 5,500 nm (10,186 km) range and a top speed of Mach .90. In setting a higher, wider standard, it truly stands alone. Falcon 6X.The roomiest, most productive 5,500 nm youâ€™ll ever experience.
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Dassault introduces Falcon 6X This 5500-nm aircraft will make its first flight in early 2021 and begin deliveries in 2022.
Flightdeck is equipped with a 3rd generation Primus EASy III avionics suite by Honeywell and also features the FalconEye Combined Vision System with dual Head-Up Displays showing enhanced and synthetic vision imagery. New Dassault Falcon 6X promises a 5500 nm range and is powered by 2 Pratt & Whitney PW812D turbofans producing between 13,000-14,000 lbs of thrust.
By Pro Pilot staff
Images courtesy Dassault
assault Aviation recently launched the Falcon 6X, an ultra wide body, 5500-nm business jet powered by Pratt & Whitney Canada PurePower PW812D engines. The 6X is largely based on the aerodynamics and system features of the Falcon 5X, and has been further optimized to take advantage of the new P&WC engine, offering a greater range and larger cabin. The 6X cabin sports the highest and widest cross-section in a purpose built business jet, measuring in at 6 ft, 6 in (1.98 m) high, 8 ft,
6 in wide (2.58 m) and 40 ft, 8 in long (12.3 m). The cabin can accommodate 16 passengers in 3 distinct lounge areas, affording room for multiple configurations including a large entry way/crew rest area and a spacious rear lounge. It also features 31 extra-large windows including a unique galley skylight – the first in business aviation – all of which provide significantly more natural light. The 6X cabin is the largest, quietest and most comfortable of any aircraft in its class and has more volume than any other Falcon ever designed. Dassault’s 6X utilizes Pratt & Whitney Canada PurePower PW812D
A few inches can make a big difference in overall comfort. The 6X features the tallest and widest cabin in business aviation, measuring a spacious 6 ft, 6 in tall and cross section that is 102 in wide providing more space for sitting, standing, dining, and sleeping.
Falcon 6X features a large, spacious cabin, yet a modest ramp presence. It measures 24 ft, 6 in tall, 85 ft, 1 in wide, and 84 ft, 3 in long.
30 PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018
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Falcon 6X range from New York with 8 passengers and 3 crew members cruising at M .80.
Cabin features the highest and widest cross-section in a purpose built bizjet and can accommodate up to 16 pax in 3 distinct lounge areas.
engines, rated between 13,00014,000 lbs of thrust. These engines share a common core technology with the Pratt & Whitney Geared Turbofan, which is installed on 16 different engine applications and has amassed over 585,000 flight hours. Equipped with a low maintenance, single piece fan and emission reducing Talon combustor, the PurePower PW800 engines offer the highest efficiency, reliability and maintainability in their class.
Like other Falcon wings, the 6X wing features leading edge slats as well as flaps. But in every other way, the 6X airfoil is brand new. The fast, ultra-efficient wing has a moderately swept leading edge, an innovative, curved trailing edge along with integrated winglets and a multipurpose flaperon that further improves performance.
Come into the Falcon 6X cockpit and you’ll see that it’s packed with technology, including the 3rd generation of the award winning Primus EASy III flightdeck. It also features a next generation digital flight control system that controls all moving surfaces, including a novel surface called a flaperon. The 6X is the first business jet to use a flaperon, which considerably improves control during approach, especially on steep descents. Other pilot friendly
features include Dassault’s FalconSphere II electronic flight bag and the revolutionary FalconEye Combined Vision System–the first headup display to combine enhanced and synthetic vision capabilities. “There is a strong market today for a brand new, long range aircraft with a very large cabin. The Falcon 6X will be best value for the money in the 5000 nm segment, a class all its own,” declares Chairman & CEO Eric Trappier.
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Heli-Expo 2018 Diversity of vertical lift applications assures continued growth for the helicopter industry. Pilatus may not offer a helicopter, but the PC12 turboprop is a favorite for operators of a mixed fleet including EMS, LE, and corporate. On hand were (L–R) Prod Mktg Mgr Jordan Bronshtein, Proj Engr Jim Saxon, and Demo Pilot & Sr Mgr Govt Prgms Bryan Anderson.”
Photos by Brent Bundy
MD Helicopters CEO Lynn Tilton announced 2017 as their “best year ever” with much of the success hinging on military contracts. She expects an even better year in 2018 with continued advancements across the entire MD product line.
HAI board of directors prepares to cut the ribbon officially opening the Heli-Expo 2018 exhibit floor. Holding the scissors are (L–R) Chairman Daniel Schwarzbach and Pres & CEO Matt Zuccaro.
By Brent Bundy
Phoenix Police Officer-Pilot AS350, AW119, Cessna 210/182/172
he biggest week in the helicopter industry returned to fabulous Las Vegas this year as the Helicopter Association International held its annual trade show and exposition Feb 26 – Mar 1. This year’s event welcomed 17,312 attendees and 705 exhibitors to the Las Vegas Convention Center, where 320,500 sq ft of space was occupied by companies from every aspect of vertical lift, including 51 helicopters on static display. While attendance and display numbers weren’t at record levels, they were nearly identical to last year, showing continued strength and improvement for the industry. As the rebound continues from recent challenging times, this year saw the debut of new aircraft, the nearing of completion of previously announced projects, continued rapid advancements in avionics and other technologies, and a noticeable uptick in helicopter orders. Several manufacturers celebrated large-contract orders including Airbus with 25 EC145e helos going to Metro Aviation for $125 million along with 17 other company orders, Leonardo secured a $147 million 26-ship order to Chinese
operator Sino-US, and Kopter (formerly Marenco Swiss Helicopter) announced $119 million in 23 firm orders to their multiple launch customers. MD will soon deliver 5 of 30 MD530F Cayuse Warriors to the Afghan Air Force, Sikorsky sold another S-92 to Era and the entire Schweizer line to an outside group. And Robinson delivered 305 of their various models in 2017. Bell continues to sell 505s, including the first law enforcement model to Sacramento PD. All of these sales seem to confirm the recent prediction from Honeywell of a 10% increase in helicopter sales in the upcoming years. On the announcement front, in addition to their new name no longer incorporating “Helicopter,” Bell originated with the new 407GXi, a generational step forward for the 407GX with Air Methods as the launch customer. The 525 Relentless is back on track post-accident, and the military V280 tiltrotor is moving ahead. Airbus brought a prototype H160 for its North American debut, delivered the 1300th EC135/H135, and looks to be stepping back from the X6 heavy twin program. Leonardo revealed Era would be the AW609 tiltrotor launch customer and reported strong medium-twin sales. Robinson finally has their cargo hook available, showed new Garmin displays, now has heat-
Robinson Helicopter Pres & Chairman Kurt Robinson with their turbine-powered R66. Robinson said 2017 was a rebound from a challenging 2016.
ed seats available, and is working on flight data recorders. MD moved airframe production back to the US from Mexico and is increasing production of 500-series models with new glass panels. Garmin also unveiled their 3-axis flight control system along with new avionics and displays. The only somewhat negative news could be viewed as a boost for pilots. HAI announced a recent study that shows a shortage of 7649 pilots just in the US over the next 18 years. HAI continued their help in this deficit by providing many hours of training courses during the week for 807 registrants. They also brought back the Rotor Safety Challenge. And 2368 attendees signed up for the dozens of safety sessions which included certification credit. All involved felt this to be another great recovery year showing a strong helicopter industry. HAI hopes to continue the momentum next year in Atlanta GA, March 4–7.
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FlightSafety International offers a vast catalog of training programs for the rotor wing field. Meeting customers were (L–R) Rgnl Sales Mgr Woody McClendon and Asst Center Mgr Matthew DeFoe.
At the JSSI booth were (L–R) Biz Dvlp Dir Grégory Krulic, Mktg Mgr Susy Uribe, Sr Dir Helo Sales Raymond Weiser, and Biz Dvlp Dir Francisco Camoes.
Concorde Battery was well represented by (L–R) Area Sales Mgr Dave Vega, Dir of Sales Walter Heine, Mktg & OEM Sales Mgr Noga Holck, Area Sales Mgr Dave Schiavone, VP of Sales Lynda Gardiner and Tech OEM Mgr Bob Burkel.
Kopter (formerly Marenco Swisshelicopter) secured $119 mil in orders for 23 SH09 light singles. FAA certification is expected in 18 months with deliveries to begin by the end of 2019.
The latest version of the venerable RollsRoyce M250 will power Bell’s just-announced 407GXi. (L–R) VP Cust Biz Roy Griffin, Sr VP Helos & Lt Turboprop Engines Jason Propes, VP Cust Biz Civil Helos & Lt Turboprops James Payton, Chief Engr Chris Molnar and VP Mktg & Comms George McLaren.
Conklin & de Decker assists aviation programs in many areas including mgmt software, purchase planning and more. (L–R) Nel Stubbs, David Wyndham and Paige Velie.
Airbus and Safran continue their long-standing relationship. The 2 companies announced several partnerships including the use of the new Safran Aneto engine in the Airbus Racer demonstrator as well as the Arrano engine to be powering the upcoming H160.
True Blue Power’s lithium-ion battery was recently chosen to power the Robinson R66, saving 26 lbs over the standard version. With the new battery were (L–R) Pres & CEO Todd Winter and Div Mgr Erik Ritzman.
Honeywell’s products are advancing while being reduced in size and weight. Showing some of their many items were (L–R) Sr Mgr Media Relations Adam Kress and Sr Dir SATCOM Steve Hadden. Wearing Lightspeed’s latest headsets are (L) PS Engineerings Sr Tech Supt Greg Ledbetter and customer Rhonda Ahrens.
Metro Aviation completed the first medical interior on the upcoming Kopter SH09 light single-engine helicopter.
Bell’s fly-by-wire 525 Relentless super-medium twin has resumed flight testing. At this time there has been no predicted price nor certification date offered by the company.
PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018 33
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Duncan Aviation provides a wide variety of services from their locations all across the US. Discussing their offerings were (L–R) Prog Mgr Govt & Sp Progs Terry Stovall, Component Contract Admin Marty Lincoln and Rotor Acc’s Repair Coord Kenneth Hurd.
The GlobalParts.aero team at the show were (L–R) VP Biz Dvlp & Intl Relations Brad Vieux, Sales & Biz Dvlp Execs George Canale and Bill Vickers and LoPresti Aviation VP David LoPresti.
Universal Avionics continues to upgrade their helicopter products. With their products were (L–R) West Rgnl Sales Mgr Greg Potter and Airline/Mil Sales Dir Scott Campbell.
World Fuel Services exhibit was staffed by (L–R) Sales Mgr Kerry Bangert, Sales Dir Steve Highet and Trade Show & Events Mgr Kassidy Gala.
Representing Avfuel were (L–R) Avsurance Pres Edmund Underwood and Avfuel Contract Fuel Sales Rep Steve Montgomery.
Showing the connectivity offerings from Satcom Direct was OEM Prgm Dir Howie Lewis.
Rockwell Collins showed off their next-gen displays that incorporate moving maps, engine info, synthetic vision and more. Available for questions were (L–R) Biz Dvlp Dir Sales & Mktg Greg Leis, PR Mktg Analyst Heather Stansberry and Engineer Tracy Miller.
Probably every pilot has worn a set of David Clarks. Displaying their many models was Av Mkt Mgr Dennis Buzzell.
Avidyne VP Biz Dvlp Ed Paulsen (R) demoes their avionics system to customer Blake English.
Showing the Astronautics line of displays, flight controls, EFBs, and more were (L–R) Biz Dvlp Dir Robert Koelling and Biz Dvlp Mgr George Gruebling.
Bose brought their entire lineup of aviation headsets. Onsite were (L–R) Av Major Acct Mgr NA John Mackie, Acct Spclst Michelle Donaldson and Tech Prod Mgr Denny Huang.”
Greeting attendees at the CAE display were (L–R) Tradeshow & Event Coord Susana Glad and Mktg & Comms Kara Gardner.
Garmin recently unveiled many new products including a 3-axis flight control system. Demoing the new items was Av Rgnl Sales Mgr Joe Stewart.
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UP & AWAY
Top execs are using helicopters, spending less time on highways Rotary wing improvements along with more landing sites spur growth.
Jerry Jones, owner of the Dallas Cowboys, and his Airbus H145. Jerry uses his H145 like an airborne SUV, flying business associates and family all over the Dallas Metroplex. He’s been known to show up at his grandson’s high school football games in his H145.
Photos courtesy Airbus Helicopters
Highly touted Airbus H160 5-bladed main rotor has double-swept shape reducing noise, raising effective payload and improving cruise speeds. H160 also is the first civilian helicopter to have a canted fenestron anti-torque tail rotor. It’s powered by 2 Safran Arrano turboshaft engines. Helionix avionics system reduces pilot workload and enhances safety. H160 is a fast mover with claimed cruising speeds of up to 155 kts.
PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018
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Fast and flexible Leonardo AW119Kx is a spacious and powerful light single-engine helicopter for a wide range of missions. Powered by a single Pratt & Whitney PT6B-37A, the AW119Kx can carry 1 or 2 pilots with 7 or 6 passengers. Cockpit has Garmin G1000H(TM) integrated flightdeck with synthetic vision system (SVS) and highway in the sky (HITS).
Photos courtesy Leonardo
Big cabin, high cruise speed — up to 165 kts — endurance of 5 hours, and durability have made the AW139 a winner for Leonardo. Powered by a pair of Pratt & Whitney PT6C-67C turboshafts, the AW139 has been a popular offshore oil helicopter with ability to carry 15 people. But it’s clear unobstructed cabin allows for roomy executive configurations and executive transport missions of the AW139 keep increasing.
A little smaller than the AW139, the AW169 can carry 8 to 10 passengers, has a top speed of 165 knots and this helicopter has quickly become an executive transport favorite. It’s powered by 2 Pratt & Whitney PW210A turboshaft engines with FADEC. It has an endurance of 4 hrs 20 min and has a high degree of commonality with the larger AW139.
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The twin-engined MD Explorer 902 features the hot air anti-torque NOTAR or NO TAil Rotor. Safety aspects of the NOTAR are excellent as there is no spinning blade tail rotor danger. When executives take family members with no helicopter experience, the NOTAR is of great value. Most corporate configurations of the MD 902 have 2 pilot seats up forward and 4 passengers seats back aft. MD 902 has a useful load of 3125 lbs, cruise speed of 131 kts, and range of 328 nm.
Fast and versatile, the single-engine MD 500E has a 5-bladed main rotor and offers choice of either a 410 shp Rolls-Royce 250-C20B or 450 shp RollsRoyce 250-C20R turbine engine. With a useful load of up to 1519 lbs, the 500E has a 135 kt speed, can fly up to 16,000 ft and has a range of 290 nm.
Photos courtesy MD Helicopters
MD 600N is the single-engine version of the MD 902. In corporate configuration it has 2 seats up forward with 4 seats back aft. The MD 600N has a 6-bladed main rotor system, the famed NOTAR anti-torque system, a useful load of 2000 lbs, a cruise speed of 134 kts, a range of 380 nm and a max operating altitude of 20,000 ft.
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Photo courtesy Bell Helicopter Textron
Bell 429WLG has retractable nose and main landing gear with electrical cockpit actuation and braking capability. Bell 429 has standard seating of 1+7, max cruise sped of 152 kts, max range of 412 nm, and max endurance of 4.4 hrs. It offers optional rear clam-shell doors. The twin-engined Bell 429WLG has a useful load of 2764 lbs.
Photo courtesy Robinson Helicopter
The Robinson R66 is a 5-seat turbine-powered helicopter with a 2-bladed rotor system, separate cargo compartment and fixed skid landing gear. R66 is powered by the Rolls-Royce RR300 engine. The 300 shp turboshaft engine is derated to 270 shp for takeoff and 224 shp continuous. Cruise speed is 110 kts, range 350 nm, service ceiling 14,000 ft, and fuel consumption of 22 gallons per hour.
Photo courtesy Sikorsky
Sikorsky S-76D VIP options include a customized interior with seating for 5 to 8 passengers. Uniquely, the S-76D helicopter can hold its rotor system still while running an engine to power the on-board air-conditioning system for safe, comfortable loading and unloading into the pre-cooled cabin during the summer season and hot climates.
PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018
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FLIGHT DEPT PROFILE
MJets of Bangkok Thai-based flight department flies missions worldwide.
Photos by Vinai Dithajohn
MJets operates the only FBO and corporate hangar infrastructure at DMK (Bangkok, Thailand). Previously all GA movements/support had been via the main terminal. Minor International Founder and Chairman Bill Heinecke (right) developed the MJets facility along with partner and fellow Bangkok-based businessman Kirit Shah.
By Grant McLaren Editor-at-Large
angkok-based Minor International and Founder & Chairman Bill Heinecke have been taking full advantage of business aviation benefits for decades. Today the group, which operates 155 hotels across Asia, India, Africa, the Mid East and Europe in addition to some 2000 restaurants, has access to a fleet of 5 business jets to manage global business missions. And its MJets FBO at DMK (Bangkok, Thailand), which opened in 2016, serves as MJets corporate base of operations in addition
(L–R) Deputy Dir of Airworthiness Shiv Shankar Lenka, Dir FBO Roj Kulmaratana, Sales Dir Rosemalin Ongvisit, Capt James Stamps, DOM Mark Styles, Founder & Chairman Bill Heinecke, Capt Khanin Pekanan, CJ3 Pilot Parin Triratanachat, and EMS Pilots Wanusun Chaniyuthwong and Phalawut Phatthanasuk with MJets Gulfstream V on the ramp at DMK.
to supporting local aircraft charter and air ambulance activity. “Business aviation has become increasingly essential to us over the years and it has demonstrated its value to me, our company and our shareholders,” says Heinecke, who was born in the US but has lived and worked in Thailand since 1963. “Our corporate jets are indispensable business tools. As Thai-registered aircraft we can usually be airborne within an hour for domestic operations. And for international missions,
depending on the country, we can usually secure the permits we need within a couple of days.”
Bizjet fleet While the original Minor Group corporate aircraft, a Grumman Lynx, was a far cry from the capability of today’s corporate aircraft, it sold Heinecke on the unique benefits of business aviation. The current fleet, consisting of a Gulfstream V, Cessna Citation X, 2 Citation Bravo and
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Dir FBO Roj Kulmaratana is responsible for overall management of MJets FBO at DMK.
Citation CJ3, fields corporate and charter ops throughout Asia, Africa, Europe and worldwide, with the Bravos primarily tasked with local air ambulance work. “We could not have grown and managed our business as effectively without business aviation,” says Heinecke. “In the early days we’d fly all over the country, growing the business much faster and more effectively than it would have been possible by any other means. GA gave us operational flexibility to beat the competition, to make multiple business stops in a single day and to do it on our own schedule. Today we use the smaller Citations for shorter hops to USM (Koh Samui, Thailand) and HKT (Phuket, Thailand), and we’ll take the Citation X on longer trips to XSP (Singapore), HKG (Hong Kong) and the Middle East. The Gulfstream V is a perfect business tool for taking management teams to Australia, Africa, Europe or Brazil.”
Building a business Heinecke incorporated the Minor Group in Bangkok when still in his teens, with the initial purpose of providing building cleaning services. As he was still a minor in those days, he named his company accordingly. In the 1970s, Heinecke began branching out into hotels and restaurants, and today Minor International owns and/or manages 155 geographically dispersed hotels and resorts, 2000 restaurants and some 325 retail outlets. The Group does business with customers in 32 countries, with an employee base of over 6000. When Heinecke was setting out to build his first hotels, at the coastal resort towns of Hua Hin and Pattaya, Thailand, he needed an aircraft to scout properties and commute between hotel developments. In those days, however, private aircraft where not permitted in Thailand, but he
Capt James Stamps and Capt Khanin Pekanan perform final checks onboard the MJets GV prior to departing DMK. This aircraft supports Minor International corporate missions as well as outside charter services.
found a solution: purchase a Grumman Lynx, donate it to the local flying club and then make arrangements to use the aircraft for his business purposes. Still, it was not easy orchestrating those early local corporate missions. “I’d have to have the flying club apply for authorization to operate where we wanted to go,” recalls Heinecke. “This rather cumbersome permitting process took 3–4 days for every flight.”
Managing the fleet Dir Flight Ops Thanakrid Singhagapen, along with Chief Pilot Ronan Leaney oversees a team of 18 MJets professional pilots, both Thai nationals and expats. Leaney, an 11,000 hour pilot who began by flying military equipment and transitioned into the world of corporate flying 10 years ago, says he particularly enjoys the expat flying and living experience. “We operate to everything from small secondary airports in Asia and Africa to major world capitals. Our current fleet provides effective global capability. But there can be challenges in operating to some of the more remote locations. There’s a limited FBO network regionally, which means we often have to go through main airport terminals, causing occasional delays,” declares Leaney.
Fleet development Minor International and Heinecke have been in the habit of upgrading bizav capabilities every couple of
years. The original 2-seat Grumman Lynx in the early 70s was replaced by a 4-seat Mooney 201 which later gave way to a 6-seat Beech Bonanza before a Piper Malibu was acquired. The first business jet for the Group was a Citation CJ3. “Upgrading to the CJ3 gave us a significant capability boost,” recalls Heinecke. “It was practical for multi-stop local day missions in and around Thailand but we’d also use it to go to Singapore, the Maldives and Sri Lanka. Today business aviation gives us the added advantage of being able to fly to airports closer to our destinations. When we fly to Colombo, for example, it’s much more efficient to land at RML (Ratmalana Airport, Colombo, Sri Lanka) than the much more commercial CMB (Bandaranaike Intl, Colombo, Sri Lanka).” Building MJets FBO at DMK in 2016 allowed Heinecke and his partner Kirit Shah to not only better support their own corporate operations but to offer charter and transient aircraft support services in Thailand and the region. Over the years Heinecke identified opportunities to deploy private aviation assets here and there across the world, in support of his hospitality group. Today Minor International has a fleet of Cessna Caravans based in Africa along with 6 float-equipped de Havilland Twin Otters deployed in the Maldives to reposition hotel guests between the international airport and small outlying islands where Minor’s resorts are positioned. “Investing in aircraft to support local resort operations has paid off and PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018 45
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MJets Exec Chairman Jayavat Navaraj was instrumental in conceptualizing and overseeing construction of the DMK FBO. He traveled throughout the region and worldwide to ensure the new facility would be the best it could be for visiting coporate flightcrews.
Citation Bravo and Air Ambulance Pilot Thapanaphong Suntanaphan, Dir Flight Ops Thanakrid Singhagajen, Sales Dir Rosemalin Ongvisit and Dir of Flight Services Parichat Paliyawan in the lobby area of the MJets FBO. This facility includes everything from spacious private passenger meeting rooms and flight planning support to separate pilot rest facilities and showers.
given us distinct advantages over the competition,” says Heinecke. “We have a fleet of Cessna Caravans in Kenya and Tanzania to support our hotels, a Bell LongRanger based in Mozambique to support one of our island resorts, and a fleet of Twin Otters in the Maldives to give us an independent operating advantage over the local carrier.” During emergency situations, corporate aviation has been beneficial to Minor International. They have been able to manage business more efficiently and react faster than might otherwise be possible. “After the 2004 tsunami, we were one of the first to get to our staff and our impacted hotels,” says Heinecke. “At Phuket, for example, scheduled commercial operations were halted
after the tsunami but we were able to get in and land as a private aircraft.”
Bizav advantages Years ago, when Heinecke first started building resorts in Pattaya and Hua Hin, he was able to commute between multiple hotel build sites much more quickly than the alternative of multi-hour drives over roads that, in those days, were even more dangerous than they are today. By the early 90s Minor International became an early developer of top end resort properties in Vietnam and having corporate aircraft on hand made the difference. “We began developing resorts in Vietnam early on and would use aircraft to scout resort and land opportunities,” recalls
Heinecke. “Many of the hotels we operate today are a result of those early aerial scouting expeditions. Later, we took the same approach in developing resorts in both Africa and the Maldives.” Travel within Asia would be more awkward without bizav. Heinecke adds, “In this region it can be difficult getting between locations. Without GA you’re in trouble. There are no commercial flights, for example, between KBV (Krabi, Thailand) and HKT. It’s a short 20 minute GA flight but a 5 hour surface journey. Flying between HKT and LGK (Langkawi, Malaysia) is a 136 nm GA flight but the only commercial option is via a connection in Kuala Lumpur. In Australia we use our aircraft to fly point to point, rather than always having to fly back via hub airports as is often the case when flying commercial.” Minor International has almost 1000 restaurant locations just in Thailand and trying to get to them all would be difficult without bizav assets. Traveling between Pattaya and Hua Hin is a quick 30 minute GA flight, but there are no airline services on this route and only alternative is a 5 hour drive. Time aloft becomes productive time for Heinecke and his management team. “We use our aircraft for business meetings and quality management time,” he says. “There are no distractions or phones ringing and we’ve purposely not added WiFi capabilities to our aircraft. When we’re aboard our corporate aircraft, we’re able to meet and discuss opportunities. It’s a great environment to get things done.”
Pilots and operations EMS Pilots Wanusun Chaniyuthwong and Phalawut Phatthanasuk with 1 of 2 MJets medevac-configured Citation Bravos. Air ambulance missions keep MJets Bravos airborne at high monthly utilization rates.
MJets pilot group of 18 includes 13 captains and 5 FOs. 10 members of the pilot group are Thai nationals while 2 are expats who’ve relocated
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MJets GV is pushed out of the hangar and prepared for international launch. Charter demand has been growing steadily for MJets larger GV and Citation X offerings. Their missions range from within Asia to Africa, Europe and North America.
to Thailand. Currently 2 captains are dual qualified. Most recent recruit was a formerly European-based corporate pilot with 8000 hours TT. He is now PIC on the CJ3. The company hires captains with minimum qualifications of ATP, 5000 hours TT, 3000 hours multi, 1000 hours PIC in multi-engine jets and 500 hours PIC on type. For FOs minimums are ATP, 1000 hours TT and 500 hours multi-engine jet or turboprop. Leaney says that pilot hiring can be a challenge. “It’s often not easy to find qualified expat pilots willing to relocate on a full-time basis,” says Leaney. “Due to current airline expansion activity in Thailand it’s also become difficult to recruit suitably qualified Thai national pilots.” MJets Director FBO Roj Kulnaratana oversees ramp activities at DMK as well as MJets dispatch and scheduling activities. The Operational Control Center, located within the MJets facility, looks after flight planning, permits and parking as well as crew accommodations and transport requirements. With 3 pilots assigned to each aircraft crew scheduling is seldom an issue. Air ambulance crews are often very busy but for most other missions plenty of prior notice is SOP, as international flight permits can take several days to process. MJets local maintenance infrastructure and talent base provides in-house capability to handle all routine inspections/ servicing and to address AOG issues away from base. MJets is also an authorized Cessna Service Center.
MJets is an authorized Cessna Citation service center and also has in-house capabilities to maintain and support the company’s entire fleet.
Flying in the region Leaney, who has flown with MJets for 4 years, is currently PIC on the Citation X. A transplant from Europe Leaney says he enjoys the local Thai culture, the professionalism of the MJets operation and a flying experience that’s different from normal routines in Europe or North America. “Operationally, many of the challenges in this region have to do with bureaucracy,” he says. “Local bureaucracy can be overwhelming at times and patience is required.” Catering MJets flights is seldom an issue as this is often sourced directly from Minor International’s many hotels and resorts, which include 5 star properties from Brazil to Namibia, Oman, Sri Lanka, China and New Zealand.
FBO investments MJets Executive Chairman Jayavat Navaraj oversaw the process of designing and implementing the new, very spacious and welcoming DMK FBO. In addition to the DMK facility MJets also operates FBOs at RGN (Yangon, Myanmar) and DEL (Delhi, India). “For local GA markets to grow it’s necessary to have capable full-service FBOs available, otherwise it’s hard to attract locally-based and transient aircraft to the region” says Navaraj. “If you fly to Thailand with a private aircraft – whether you’re an international CEO, head of State or local royalty – your first and last im-
pression of the country may be the FBO.”
Future directions As MJets expands its fleet there will be attractive flying opportunities for both expat and Thai national flight crews. “Working and living in this region is a rewarding learning experience for any pilot wishing to expand his/her horizons,” suggests Leaney. “It is, however a cultural change that can make life both interesting and challenging.” From Heinecke’s perspective the need for bizav, both for in-house corporate purposes and local charter, will only continue its upward trajectory. “We’ve come a long way from our early days with business aviation,” says Heinecke. “Today corporate aircraft continue to be absolutely essential business tools for us. The locally based business aviation fleet here in Thailand continues to grow and I expect the same progression in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and the region. It’s hard to beat the productivity advantages of efficient, on demand, corporate transport.” Editor-at-Large Grant McLaren has written for Pro Pilot for over 20 years and specializes in corporate flight department coverage.
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Hong Kong Business Aviation Centre: 20 years of magic Consistent winner of Pro Pilot’s Best Asian FBO category depends on well-trained dedicated people.
By Grant McLaren Editor-at-Large
(Clockwise from top) HKBAC has had an important presence at HKG since the new airport opened 20 years ago. They have 3 large hangars available for customers while a generous ramp accommodates a couple of dozen large business jets. Sir Michael Kadoorie and Metrojet Dir Philip Kadoorie look forward to an early Pilatus PC24 delivery position.
ome 20 years ago, with the old 1-runway Kai Tak airport, there was just 1 Hong Kong based business jet and it was extremely difficult to arrange access and parking for transient bizav movements. But this all changed with the opening of HKG (Hong Kong) on Chep Lap Kok Island in 1998. Today the Hong Kong Business Aviation Centre (HKBAC) is an award winning shining jewel in the international FBO scene. They offer an FBO that’s both functional and gorgeous, with a large close-in parking ramp, 3 corporate hangars, and support
service for some 100 locally-based business jets and more than 20 daily bizjet movements. But it’s the people – many who’ve been here since year 1 – who really shine and make each visit here such a rewarding experience for operators. HKBAC General Mgr Madonna Fung joined the company right back at its inception. “20 years may seem like a long time but it’s really just the beginning,” she declares. “We look forward to continuing the magic, the customer service and various facility enhancements over at least the next 20 years.”
Handling increased HK traffic New features and opportunities at the BAC include access to an increasing number of night slots (available to aircraft on the approved quiet model list), new hydrant fuel facilities on the BAC ramp, additional GA parking stands midfield, dedicated parking for larger ACJ/BBJ sized aircraft, and new flight planning services for operators making onward flights within the region. A new and inviting pilot lounge perched up on the 2nd floor offers wide views over the ramp area along with pilot sleep rooms and shower facilities.
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(L–R) At the HKBAC lobby surrounded by Pro Pilot PRASE Survey Best Asian FBO award plaques are (front row) GM Madonna Fung, Head of Business Dev Minnie Kan, Dir of Admin and Business Dev Sheree Cheung and Senior Adviser Luke Cheng with (back row) Assistant Mgr Business Dev Henry Ho, Dir of Customer Relations Rita Tam and Dir of Flight Ops Chris Barrow.
While HKG has had issues in terms of slot and parking availability due to high demand and limited resources, this will improve and should not put determined operators off in terms of trip planning to HKG. “Available land is not one of our strongest suits, so we really need to use the space and facilities we have as well as possible,” says Dir of Administration and Business Development Sheree Cheung. “The airport has been adding more and more GA night slots and we’ve been opening up various pockets of parking opportunities here and there on the field. Our team understands the complexity of GA ops and access here, and we have ways to make the process work with as few issues as possible.” Looking forward, HKBAC would like to replicate its concept and infrastructure at other airports in the region, perhaps with the next facility inaugurating at ZUH (Zhuhai China).
The bizav contribution to HK “Business aviation makes a high value contribution to Hong Kong and the region, and we expect mainland cities to develop quickly and to attract more bizav activity,” says Metrojet Director Philip Kadoorie, a licensed pilot who also expects to see supersonic business jets (SSBJs) based in this region in the future. “Business aviation only leverages a very small proportion of airport resources but it’s very important in terms of economic impact for the region. We’re excited about extending our services, con-
Kadoorie Group Dir David Tong, a fixed-wing and rotorcraft licenced aviation enthusiast, has been involved with HKBAC and Metrojet development since day 1. Here he’s seen at the ops centre at the company’s helicopter base in Hong Kong’s New Territories.
cept and infrastructure to other locations in the Greater Bay area.” If you have a need to visit Hong Kong on business, don’t let local slot and parking challenges put you off. Staff at HKBAC know the ropes and will assist in fine-tuning your slot requests, parking and service requirements to make your trip a success. Best of all, you’ll experience the magic of this place and the committed staff who will make your visit a most memorable experience.
View from the top: Sir Michael Kadoorie From his command post high up on Hong Kong Island overlooking Victoria Harbour, Sir Michael Kadoorie takes a long view on business aviation and the region. An aviation enthusiast and pilot who was instrumental in bringing the 1st business jet to be based in Hong Kong 20 years ago, Kadoorie envisions great opportunity for GA development in both Hong Kong and the Greater Bay area. “It’s an interesting and pivotal time as the GA scene matures here and moves ahead in a number of areas,” says Kadoorie. “Today we have about 100 business jets based at HKG and increasing transient bizav movements throughout the Greater Bay area, a region made up of Hong Kong, Macau and 9 surrounding cities. While we currently have access issues at HKG, this will resolve as the area develops and both infrastructure and inter-city connections improves.” Back in 1998, at the old Kai Tak
airport, there was just 1 Hong Kongbased business jet. It was a lone Hawker 700 with no dedicated support infrastructure. Kadoorie explains, “We looked ahead to the opening of the new airport and made an investment in the Hong Kong Business Aviation Centre, realizing there would be a need to base many business jets here and to support growing transient movements.” “Being willing to invest in the future pays off,” says Kadoorie. Back in the late 1960s, his Hong Kong and Shanghai Hotel group was about to purchase a new fleet of Ford Fairlanes to shuttle guests here and there. Kadoorie, however, modified the order to a fleet of green Rolls Royce’s and this particular investment has certainly paid off over the years. “The Hong Kong market continues to mature and attract a full range of higher-end business. Today tourists from the mainland are willing to pay for 6-star hotel accommodations and over 30% of our occupancy at the Peninsula in Kowloon is now from the mainland. And so it is with GA. The market wants access, capable facilities and full-service support, so these are important investments to make,” states Kadoorie, who also points out that locally-based bizjets have matured these days into traditional business tools. Kadoorie expects low-level airways to open up for helicopter use in due course and envisions a vibrant local market for supersonic business jets. “We’ve had many locally based Gulfstream 550s and 650s and Bombardier Globals come in recently and I believe there’s a market here today for at least 5 SSBJs. We’ve reached a PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018 51
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HKG is a congested location that frequently presents slot and parking challenges to GA operators. A 3rd runway is under construction, which may boost GA infrastructure and parking opportunities.
threshold where demand for the highest and best transport capability has arrived and many in the local market can afford these business tools. SSBJs are not really exotic engineering – not compared to what Tesla is doing, for example. Even if their range capability requires a stop to/from North America or Europe, I believe the demand is here today.”
Greater Bay development The Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macau bay area development is a top national commitment and includes 9 municipalities in Guangdong: Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Foshan, Huizhou, Dongguan, Zhongshan, Jiangmen, and Zhaoqing, plus the Special Administrative regions (SARs) of Hong Kong and Macau. The Greater Bay region is about the size of France and it’s extremely economically active. Investments valued in the billions of US dollars have been made on a bridge connecting Hong Kong with Macau and Zhuhai. A high speed rail network will soon take you from Hong Kong to Shanghai in about 6 hours. And importantly, Greater Bay development will make more airports available to improve access into this area for global business leaders and their aircraft. The government is supportive of business aviation within this region to enhance business growth and spread wealth, and we’re now seeing physical evidence of what has been promoted.
HKG access issues It’s no secret that GA access to HKG has been very challenging lately, par-
Most HKBAC parking is located directly in front of the FBO. Lately, however, additional GA parking spots have been activated on other parts of the field.
ticularly in terms of acquiring runway slots that are even close to desired operating times. Many international GA operators, in fact, have been avoiding HKG stops due to access challenges and operational flexibility issues. However, Kadoorie feels the problem of slot availability will eventually be overcome, largely as a result of Greater Bay area development. “We’re looking at replicating our HKBAC infrastructure at ZUH and perhaps other locations in the region,” he says. “One day it will be possible to land at one of several airports in the Greater Bay area and move quickly, including by helicopter, throughout the region.”
VTOL opportunities Today, with the exception of flights between Hong Kong and Macau, it’s next to impossible to arrange helicopter travel within the Greater Bay region. Guangzhou, for example, would be an easy 40 minute VTOL flight as compared to hours on ground travel. But Kadoorie says this will change and, in doing so, open up greater global access to the region. “Today there’s a degree of government and military bureaucracy that makes it difficult to get from A to B in the region, particularly in terms of low-level airways, but this will improve,” adds Kadoorie. “The government, under President Xi Jinping, is looking to boost productivity of this region and to do so it’s necessary to have GA infrastructure and sufficient flexibility in the operating environment, to attract global business and to support a growing locally-based fleet of business aircraft.”
Looking to the future Kadoorie has a long term focus – he likes to look at least 20 years ahead and has always been comfortable in making strategic long-term investments. His Hong Kong and Shanghai Hotels group is currently investing close to $800 million on a Peninsula Hotel property in London while his China Light & Power group recently invested $1 billion in a nuclear power reactor on the mainland and is looking at another similar investment. “We’re looking to build infrastructure and capabilities to support the market 20 years or so into the future, and investing in GA and it’s support is equally as important an investment,” says Kadoorie. “With HKG-based SSBJs, for example, business productivity will double. And even though initial cost of equipment will be higher, it’s not outrageously higher. One day in the not too distant future I expect hundreds of business jets to be based throughout this region, along with multiple FBOs and support facilities. Evolving VTOL commuting options between various areas and airports in the Greater Bay area will allow even easier access for global CEOs coming to this region.”
Editor-at-Large Grant McLaren has written for Pro Pilot for over 20 years and specializes in corporate flight department coverage.
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SPECIAL MISSION AIRCRAFT
Versatile business aircraft designs meet demands for special missions Acquiring and deploying suitably modified and updated commercial off-theshelf business airplanes yields lower costs, faster fielding and performance gains for civil government, law enforcement and military users.
The IAI ELI-3360 Maritime Patrol Aircraft (MPA) is derived from a modified Bombardier Global 5000 platform. Designed by IAI’s ELTA Group to provide maritime domain situational awareness and maritime superiority, the MPA provides the most sophisticated ISR and armament systems to be installed on a business jet to date. Underwing stores may include weapons for antisubmarine and antisurface warfare.
By Don Van Dyke ATP/Helo/CFII, F28, Bell 222 Pro Pilot Canada Technical Editor
pecial Mission Aircraft (SMA) derived from general purpose business aircraft are distinguished by their performing specific tasks often characterized as highrisk, time-sensitive and/or requiring high-security. In order to conduct special missions, SMA are usually modified and fitted with Special Mission Equipment (SME) not typically used in the civil sector. Some special missions cannot be conducted under civil rules, but are permissible as pub-
The Saab 2000 Erieye AEW and control (AEW&C) platform provides multirole, multimission capabilities for both military and civil needs. The S-band radar is based on Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) technology which detects and tracks objects quickly and precisely with a high update rate.
lic-use aircraft operations by government agencies including the FAA. Limitations are prescribed in FAA airworthiness certification.
Certification Applicable regulatory material is available in FAA AC 20-169, Guidance for Certification of Military and Special Mission Modifications and Equipment for Commercial Derivative Aircraft (CDA). Provisions of this AC may also apply to non-military CDA operated by state or local governments under public-use or owned by a foreign government. Military CDA certification projects are simi-
This Grumman Gulfstream G550 features an IAI ELTA conformal airborne early warning (C-AEW) multimode active phased-array system which can track up to 100 targets simultaneously to a 200 nm range while guiding air-to-air interceptions or air-toground attacks. The US Navy announced it will purchase a Gulfstream G550 modified for the C-AEW system. Whether the platform will carry the same internal systems is not yet known.
lar but are conducted in accordance with Order 8110.101, Type Certification Procedures for Military Commercial Derivative Aircraft (M CDA). Military off-the-shelf (MOTS) SME may meet civil safety standards and
Bombardier Dash-8-300 Airborne Communications Intelligence Subsystem program for the US Army provides a global self-deployable ISR capability for COMINT and radar/ imagery intelligence.
The E-7A Wedgetail AEW&C features an L-band Northrup Grumman Multirole Electronically Scanned Array (MESA) surveillance radar/Integrated IFF on a platform derived from the Boeing 737NG.
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The Embraer ERJ-145AEW is a multisensor AEW&C platform derived from the Embraer ERJ-145 regional airliner. The AESA radar can detect missiles and hostile fighters at all angles. The aircraft features inflight refueling and accommodates installation of advanced mission systems.
may be fully certified. However, whenever SME or modifications don’t meet civil requirements, FAA may find that only structural or system provisions meet civil standards. SME may also pose hazards to the aircraft, other aircraft, personnel, or property that exclude consideration for FAA approval (eg, self-defense systems such as flare and chaff dispensers).
COTS procurement The rise of both perceived and real threats has accelerated procurement of SMA platforms and equipment, expected to reach $11 billion in 2018. The requirement to consider, procure and use – insofar as appropriate – commercially available hardware and software is codified in the 1994 Federal Acquisition and Streamlining Act (FASA), DoD Acquisition Policy (5000 series) and numerous directives, instructions, and statutes. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) is a formal term for items available for purchase in the commercial marketplace and used under government contract. Emphasis is placed on development at vendor expense and on compliance with selected industry standards to interface other system components. DoD directs that COTS be considered as the primary source of supply, recognizing that using COTS products to build SME systems:
GlobalEye AEW&C provides air, maritime and ground surveillance in a single solution, combing a new extended range radar with the ultra-long range Bombardier Global 6000.
• Minimizes systems acquisition costs by avoiding development costs. • Reduces time required to field new systems by evading development time. • Maintains technological superiority by incorporating technical advances more quickly. • Expands supplier base and offers new opportunities to reduce life-cycle costs.
SMA roles Advanced technology permits versatility leading naturally to flexible employment of SMA/SME within a framework of net-centric technologies known as C5ISR (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Combat Systems, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance). Command and Control (C2) is the exercise of authority in pursuit of mission objectives. In simple terms, it refers to systems, procedures and techniques used to collect and disseminate information supporting decision-making and implementation. Unlike previous generations of single-purpose air assets, modern Multi-Mission Aircraft (MMA) use compound sensors and communications systems to collect wide-ranging data and information, process it to generate intelligence corroborated across multiple sources, and disseminate it in a timely manner.
Viking Air Twin Otter Guardian 400 is used for ISR, SAR, HALO operations and critical infrastructure support in extreme environments.
Bombardier DHC-8 Dash 8 E-9A airborne telemetry support 2 in active service. Exclusively based at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, the E-9A is used to scout the Gulf of Mexico prior to missile tests and then monitor the test itself to collect data.
The Beechcraft MC-12W was developed from the Super King Air 350ER as a medium/ low-altitude ISR aircraft, equipped with infrared sensors (among others) to support USAF Irregular Warfare missions.
L-3 AT-802L Longsword ISR/light-strike platform based on the Air Tractor AT-802U, features 8.5-hr loiter, 11 hard points and the ability to carry 8200 lbs of fuel and munitions for light attack roles.
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Alliant Techsystems (ATK) AC-208B Combat Caravan, derived from the Cessna 208 Caravan, incorporates ISR upgrades including EO targeting with integrated laser designator, air-to-air/air-to-ground datalink, self-protection, and AGM-114 Hellfire missiles. Boeing chose the Bombardier Challenger 605 platform for its ISR Maritime Surveillance Aircraft (MSA) incorporating technology currently used on P-8A, 737 AEW&C and E-3 AWACS program aircraft. The aircraft is deployed in antipiracy, coastal and border security operations and long-range SAR.
Communications (C3) is the secure sharing, transmission and relay of information which is accurate, relevant and actionable. The provision of information to commanders and decision-makers is key to achieving a desired end state on the battlefield. Ultimately, it is about increasing situational awareness in support of command and control.
IAI ELTA Group modified the Bombardier Global 5000 platform to provide naval forces with ISR capabilities. This MPA can be deployed in persistent theatre monitoring and C3 applications. When armed with torpedoes/missiles, it can be used in anti-submarine (ASW) and anti-surface (ASuW) warfare as well.
The IOMAX Archangel is based on the modified Thrush Aircraft S2R-660. Archangel ISR platform is capable of long-duration missions for border security, COIN and other special operations. Archangel Strike can field precision munitions for close support of ground operations.
Computers (C4) are an essential component of modern warfare, as well as in business and government. Computers, in this context, refers to mission computers for Special Operations Forces (SOF), tracking and sensing, as well as aggregating and processing and analyzing data from sensors and monitors. Combat systems (C5) includes manned aircraft for Light Attack/ Armed Reconnaissance (LAAR) and maritime surveillance armed with a variety of stores and fitted with systems for precision interdiction, ASW and ASuW. Maritime patrol aircraft are usually equipped with dispensable aids for SAR. ISR. The term ISR, like RADAR, is more clearly understood as a word rather than as an acronym. This critically important concept is overlooked by those who see its com-
ponents as separate entities rather than as an interactive system delivering timely, relevant and assured intelligence to decision-makers. Intelligence results from collecting, processing, integrating, evaluating, analyzing and interpreting information pertaining to the mission. Surveillance is the systematic observation of aerospace, areas, places, activities, persons, or things. Reconnaissance is undertaken to obtain information about activities and resources of an adversary, or the characteristics of a particular area. The future of airborne ISR solutions is in multi-mission capability – platforms not dedicated to single sensors or single capabilities, but which overlay intelligence from multiple sensors, blending capabilities to give the decision-maker a comprehensive view of the battlespace.
The Raytheon Sentinel R.MK 1 uses a modified Bombardier Global 6000 platform for long-range, wide-area battlefield surveillance, delivering critical intelligence and target tracking information to friendly forces.
Daher TBM-MMA combines turboprop reliability and operating efficiency to meet the demands for ISR with an under-fuselage retractable IR/EO sensor turret that fully retracts when not in use. Turret mission information can be combined with a SAR/Ground MTI/Maritime radar.
The SMA market is expected to grow at a 3.5% CAGR to 2020, mainly in response to expanding demand
Bombardier 415MP combines features of a traditional surveillance aircraft with the ability to directly intervene on water, avoiding the need for dedicated vessels and aircraft.
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PERFORMS IN EXTREMELY HARSH ENVIRONMENTS. LIKE BUDGET MEETINGS. The PC-12 NG Spectre is designed to thrive in harsh situations, from the toughest procurement process to multi-role missions in the most austere operating conditions. With its low cost of acquisition and operating costs less than half of many competing aircraft, the Spectre delivers a powerful combination of efficiency and long-range, high-altitude mission capabilities, from ISR to transport to Command and Control. Pilatus Business Aircraft Ltd • +1 303 465 9099 • www.pilatus-aircraft.com
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Beechcraft C-12 (L3) is derived from the 350ER. The Enhanced Medium Altitude Reconnaissance Surveillance System (EMARSS) includes an EO/IR sensor, precision geolocation system, communications, workstations, and a self-protection suite.
for multispectral ISR. Additionally, competition for a $6.9 billion Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS) replacement will pit Boeing (Boeing 737-700IGW), Lockheed Martin (Bombardier Global 6000) and Northrup Grumman/ L3 Technologies (Gulfstream G550) against each other. In the process, Boeing revealed one military derivative study to replace aging USAF special-mission fleets with common platforms based on variants of the B737, including the B737 MAX. The plan seeks to encourage the Air Force to restructure procurement around an airline-like acquisition model and, in doing so, take advantage of associated service and support infrastructure benefits. The standard platform argument
Beechcraft RC-12X Guardrail SIGINT (Northrup Grumman) is a special electronic mission aircraft (SEMA). The aircraft can locate signals in standoff/standin modes, and includes an adaptive beam-forming antenna array capable of locating emitters in dense signal environments.
holds even with shifts to the B737 MAX because of the 71% parts commonality between models. Despite the trend toward modified business jets to lower operating costs, Boeing studies stress the life-cycle cost competitiveness of their B737, particularly in terms of maintenance. Bombardier, Embraer, Gulfstream, and Raytheon, which share significant SMA market growth, look to lighter, smaller business jet airframes as the path to lower costs. Moreover, increasingly efficient SME, in terms of size, cooling requirements and weight, supports the trend toward business jet platforms. Other SMA markets, including pursuits such as aerial survey, training, flight inspection, fishery and The U-28A is a militarized Pilatus PC-12, carrying sensors, navigation equipment, communications systems, survival aids, threat detectors and countermeasures. Aircraft accommodates up to 10 passengers or 3000 lbs of cargo for insertion, extraction and resupply of special operations.
The Piaggio Aerospace MPA is evolved from the P.180 Avanti II, incorporating the Saab Aquila mission management system (MMS). A high performance search radar and EO/IR sensors will be integrated into the MMS to conduct a variety of missions. The belly-mounted radar antennae and pedestal permit a 360° field of view without penetrating the pressure vessel.
Piaggio P.1HH Hammerhead is evolved from the P.180 Avanti II, designed for ISR missions as a medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). It aims to climb to 45,000 ft, loiter at 135 KTAS for up to 16 hours and then dash to a target at up to 395 KTAS.
wildlife monitoring, air ambulance, and a myriad of others, continue to develop. New SMA applications will emerge as capabilities are developed to meet the challenges of ongoing conflicts, territorial disputes and increases in defense spending by international state actors. Business aircraft OEMs and partners will continue to work to meet needs as they arise. Don Van Dyke is professor of advanced aerospace topics at Chicoutimi College of Aviation – CQFA Montreal. He is an 18,000 hour TT pilot and instructor with extensive airline, business and charter experience on both airplanes and helicopters. A former IATA ops director, he has served on several ICAO panels. He is a Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society and is a flight operations expert on technical projects under UN administration.
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COMFORT & STYLE
Outfitting the cabin
Lineage 1000E interior features 5 distinct zones, including a master bedroom and 2-person shower.
By Shannon Forrest
President, Turbine Mentor ATP/CFII. Challenger 604/605, Gulfstream IV, MU2B
nless the aircraft owner happens to be a pilot, he has little interest in what’s installed in the cockpit. The fact that the plane has WAAS, TCAS or synthetic vision is irrelevant as long as it can get from the departure point to the destination safely. Although the novelty of traveling on an executive aircraft eventually wanes, what remains is the pride of ownership and the comfort factor. For some the comfort is psychological, it’s the feeling that comes with a surrounding that’s insulated from irritants and distractions typical of more public spaces, while others appreciate the personalized amenities. In any respect, both of these comforts are stratospheric improvements from traveling via the airlines. The difference between the 2 is so stark that the comparison is analogous to riding in one’s own precisely engineered luxury automobile versus being a passenger in a downtown city bus at rush hour. The design of the cabin plays a pivotal role in promoting a specific set of attitudes, behaviors and emotions.
Sell on the cabin In the case of a business jet, the interior alone can sway a purchase decision and impact the willingness to retain ownership or, conversely, put a plane up for sale. To explain how important it is, we’ll continue with the automobile narrative. Dealer showrooms that house expensive automobiles make use of flow, spatial relationships and lighting to display a car in an appealing way. All the salient features – from ergonomics to performance – are drawn out. The psychology sends the message that a customer must have the product. The inside of a car should complement the outside (and vice-versa). After all, imagine how disappointing it would be if the interior was widely disparate from the stylish exterior.
Embraer VP of Design Jay Beever believes that ergonomics, craftsmanship, and design are paramount in aircraft interiors.
A myriad of negatives come to mind but cramped, outdated and poor functionality top the list. What otherwise would be a wonderful automobile is ruined because of an inadequately outfitted cabin. And the same is true when it comes to business jets. Given the similarities between the inside of luxury automobiles and aircraft, it’s no surprise that in 2012 Embraer hired Jay Beever as VP of interior design and tasked him with revamping the cabin of the executive jet product line. Beever, who worked as a design engineer for Ford Motor Co and later with Gulfstream, determined the best solution was to start from scratch rather than applying fixes to existing materials and configurations. Convincing the CEO and suppliers to toss out tooling and parts and go back to the drawing board 18 months before a jet enters service is not an easy task, but that’s exactly what happened with the Embraer 450/500.
Photos courtesy Embraer
Embraer’s design center at MLB allows the aircraft buyer to select personal luxury surroundings.
Birth of the Mustang Car aficionados might recognize that Beever’s story bears a resemblance to that of another Ford alumnus. In the early 1960s an industrial engineering graduate that had served in the sales and marketing department but was then working in product development, walked into the office of Henry Ford II. Ford, whose company had just lost 250 million dollars on the Edsel debacle, was not in the mood to write a check for a new clean sheet design. Nonetheless the late 30-something designer made the pitch: in 18 months he could produce a car from “pencil to market.” It would be a revolutionary new design based on European styling. A long hood would project an image of power (and house a V8 engine). Sporty bucket seats and a floor shifter would complete the package. Despite his reservations, the CEO of
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Legacy 450 interior is designed to be timeless even as technology changes. A new appearance can be had in as little as a day by changing modular seat components.
Ford Motor Company allotted 45 million dollars to the project and told his subordinate to make it happen. The engineer, Lee Iacocca, gave the car the name “Mustang” and delivered it on schedule just in time for the World’s Fair in New York City in April 1964. The car was so appealing that 18 months after the Mustang debuted a million of them had been sold (415,000 in the first year alone).
Timeless The fact that the Mustang still exists more than 50 years after it was introduced says it’s timeless. And that’s exactly what Jay Beever is going for when he applies elements of automotive design philosophy to Embraer’s cabins. According to Webster’s dictionary, something that is timeless means it’s not restricted to a particular time and date. It is not affected by changes in fashion or impacted by trends. The term is commonly applied to furniture, jewelry (hence the tagline, “Diamonds are forever”) and art. Unfortunately, when it comes to aircraft interiors and furnishings, designers of the past typically succumbed to what was in vogue at the time. Today, an aircraft outfitted entirely in burnt orange or lime green would be unappealing to most. But it’s not just the fabric choices that make aircraft look outdated. Historically, the design trend was to expose control systems to create a cockpit feel in the cabin and a sense of empowerment. It’s especially evident when applied to the principal chair, or where the highest ranking person or owner is expected to sit. In addition to the landscape of switches and knobs that controlled the cabin climate and audiovisual system, the chair was also home to ports and
Although the Phenom 100 is an entry-level jet, it promotes elegance with a combination of wood, metal and leather in close proximity.
connectors for external monitors and input sources. But in an era in which WiFi represents the apex of technology, nearly all of these accessories are obsolete. Just having them visible makes an aircraft look old. Jay Beever describes it as point-in-time technology. It’s the equivalent of someone walking around with a pager or bag phone while sporting a mullet haircut – it figuratively yells out, “1984.” If left unchecked, this sort of design issue would present a perpetual problem since all technology eventually improves, rendering the prior iteration undesirable. Embraer’s answer is an environmental design that adapts to new technology without compromising the aesthetics of the cabin. By hiding the controls under a decorative cover or lid, the designers ensure technology is not the master of the aircraft. Rather, long-term timelessness is achieved by an engineering architecture that can take advantage of and apply new developments without a complete retrofit of the interior.
GDT In lieu of the universally accepted practice of trim fitting – a process in which interior components are fabricated, shaped and installed with very tight tolerances and butted up against one another with little or no slack between them – Embraer employs Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GDT). Under the GDT paradigm, engineering drawings are made that describe the purpose, size and form of a specific part. More importantly, the allowable variation in orientation and location are defined. GDT allows parts to “float” to some degree rather than being constrained to a tight fit. The advantage is func-
tional and aesthetic. As the aircraft expands and contracts in flight and is subjected to vibration and temperature variation, rigid interior furnishings are more susceptible to shifting, breakage or dislodgement. To trim fit a part, a maintenance technician must remove it, machine it to a new size and then reinstall. But several trial and error sessions with repeated trips between the work bench and aircraft are inefficient. However, a part manufactured and designed using GDT would “live” within a tolerance range so that, as the fuselage undergoes changes, it remains functional and is perceived by the human eye as normal – not crooked, misaligned or out of place. Beever correlates this effect with automobile technology, pointing out on that 1 side of a car dashboard might be 6 millimeters displaced from the door whereas the other side is 10. This “floating” gap is imperceptible to the owner but serves a purpose in the overall maintenance scheme. Beever also believes aircraft interior parts should be engineered to be “face side removable.” For example, replacing a simple window shade in an older business jet can take hours. The reason is that the shade is behind the side panel, which is behind the seats. Everything else needs to come out just to reach that part. Face side removable components are free from interference and can be changed out quickly and easily without destroying or marring the material. A testament to the effectiveness of both GDT and face side removal is the Embraer Phenom 300E certification aircraft that resides in Embraer’s hangar in MLB (Melbourne FL). Despite having the interior disassembled and reassembled over 100 times, the aircraft is in showroom condition and looks brand new.
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Additional headroom in the Phenom 300 was achieved by positioning the gaspers, lighting, and media displays directly above the aisle instead of on the side fuselage.
Ergonomics, craftsmanship, design Jay Beever’s philosophy at Embraer Executive Jets can be summed up in 3 words: ergonomics, craftsmanship, and design. The most salient feature when it comes to ergonomics was a recent redesign of the cabin seats. The new seats are operated with an easy to use paddle system that engages the track and swivel movement and are designed wider at the top to offer a more generous shoulder support than seats of the past. Stow away arms add 4 inches to the aisle and an oval fuselage design that’s wider where the feet naturally rest adds spaciousness. Perforated leather on the sides of the headrests and seat bolsters allow air to flow in and out, which permits the foam to expand and contract. The seats are shorter than the predecessors but the headrest extends higher which gives the appearance of a taller cabin. If the owner decides it’s time to change seat colors or texture, the “plug and play” construction allows the seats to be retrimmed in an afternoon. The frame remains the same but the customer gets a new set of foam and leather that all clips into place; there’s no manipulating of the stitch line reminiscence of reupholstering older designs. Above the seats, Embraer garnered an additional 1 inch of headroom by redesigning and relocating the primitive looking gaspers typical of older aircraft. Instead of protruding from the ceiling or side cabin, the new sleeker air valves are flush mounted. The inspiration came from the Dyson design used in fans and vacuum cleaners. It’s pure Bernoulli, in that a wing-shaped design inside the valve accelerates the air while reducing noise and eliminating the pinch point.
When it comes to craftsmanship, Embraer wants the client to feel he’s purchasing an aircraft that’s well assembled. The conundrum is that classic materials like solid wood and stone come at a weight penalty that makes them impractical for widespread use in aircraft. So all manufacturers use a veneer that is meant to emulate the real thing. The challenge is retaining the lightweight design and at the same time delivering an elegant product. Beever notes that the use of tertiary break ups – the presence of 3 material changes (wood, metal, and leather) in close proximity – cause the end user to subliminally conclude that the product is well thought out and finely crafted. Right down to the metal inside the cup holder, he goes on to say, “The tertiary brake ups have the effect of not being veneer. We want to avoid the look that the supplier’s parts have all come together in a shotgun blast of an interior.”
Break up zones The last stage in the process is to make the customer feel like the designer. This is achieved by creating “break up zones” in the interior that allows for personal expression. To illustrate this technique, Beever suggests thinking of a unique shade of blue like the one used by Tiffany & Co to identify its jewelry boxes. Officially, the color is a light to medium robin egg blue that’s become iconic because of its association with the jeweler. Inside the Embraer 450 mock-up on the sales floor of the showroom, the color appears here and there. It’s tasteful, but not overwhelming. An aircraft interior done entirely in that color might be another matter entirely. Allowing personalization but still re-
taining a uniform appearance serves to maintain resale value and also allows for redecorating the interior without a massive tear out. The Phenom 100 has 11 pre-selected interiors that buyers can choose from. But as Director of Design Frank Chavez points out, almost anything is possible. Embraer’s customer-centric design center in Melbourne has hundreds of fabric and wood samples to choose from, as well as a unique stone veneer that Embraer was the first manufacturer to bring to market. Although the veneer is only 12 mm thick and backed by honeycomb composite, it has the look of actual stone tile. Since stone is commonly installed in wet areas and entryways in a home, it’s a great substitution for carpet in galleys, the lavatory and beyond the main cabin door, where it’s especially advantageous when it’s raining outside and the alternative is to have water soak into the carpet. Jokingly, the design center is colloquially referred to as the “emotional compromise room.”
The buyer is the ultimate decision-maker One role of the designer is to point out that what looks great in a much larger space (say a 5000 sq ft home) might not translate well if it’s the primary style in a more confined fuselage. Exotic colors and patterns might make good accent choices but can quickly devolve into 1970s Vegas if overused. Although the buyer is ultimately the decision maker, the design team can guide the stylistic choices to ensure the end result is satisfactory and matches the mental model of expectations. An in house team of 3D artists generates renderings before going into production just to be sure. Jay Beever continually points out that the Embraer line of business jets is based on a “butler with wings” model. By definition, a butler serves the needs of and functions at the behest of the principal. The interior revamp does just that; it provides comfort and enhances productivity in a noticeable yet subtle way. It’s exactly what’s expected of a proper butler.
Shannon Forrest is a current line pilot, CRM facilitator and aviation safety consultant. He has over 10,000 hours and holds a degree in behavioral psychology.
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More info on fog Eliminating visibility also eliminates safety margins.
British Aerospace HS125-700A taxiing at IAD (Dulles VA) in the fog. While fog normally doesn’t produce ground stops, it can be difficult to judge distance and maintain situational awareness in the limited visibility environment.
By Karsten Shein Comm-Inst. Climate Scientist
ith the passengers cooling their heels in the FBO lounge, both pilots were reviewing the latest weather on the terminals in the back room. This wasn’t some thin radiation fog that would burn itself out a few hours after sunrise. Instead it was a much thicker advection fog that could last the entire day unless that cold front 200 miles to the east picked up some speed this morning. An important business deal was on the line, and knowing that if they could get off the ground, their flight would be in the clear the rest of the way across the country, the pilots agreed they’d give it a go. After boarding the passengers, they fired up the aircraft and got their taxi clearance. The controller advised them against proceeding but, as it was a single taxiway to the runway and they could see the taxiway edge lights, they just thanked the controller for his concern and started rolling. Positioning their aircraft on the runway centerline, they were quick-
ly cleared for takeoff. RVR was reported to be just 400 ft, but they just had to keep the wheels straight until liftoff and then maintain their heading to 3000 ft. To best see the runway centerline lights, the crew agreed to turn off the taxi light and they released their brakes. All went well until halfway to VR, when out of the corner of his eye, the copilot saw a fuzzy cone of white light that looked vaguely like a pair of headlights ahead. In less than the 2 seconds it took to react, the darkened aircraft slammed into a maintenance truck that had been headed down an intersecting taxiway to fix some inoperative lighting. The driver had assumed that due to the fog, there’d be no aircraft moving about. He therefore wasn’t paying close attention and hadn’t realized he’d crossed onto the active runway, where, in the fog, neither vehicle had the time to avoid the collision.
Visibility zero Fog remains one of the most hazardous weather phenomena to aviation because it robs pilots of an
essential need. On and near the ground, we continue to rely on our ability to see. We have regulations that prevent us from attempting landings below certain visibility minima unless our aircraft is equipped to overcome those limitations. But many aircraft operate under regulations that prescribe no minimum of takeoff visibility, and there is never any guarantee that everyone moving an aircraft or vehicle on the ground knows exactly where they are, either on the ground or in relation to other aircraft or vehicles. Some of the most horrific aviation disasters, such as the collision of 2 Boeing 747s at TFN (Tenerife, Spain) in 1977 have been the result of operating in heavy fog. In fog, situational awareness can be as fleeting as visibility itself. Fog is often described as a cloud that is touching the ground. Like clouds, fog forms when there is enough moisture in the air that condensation exceeds evaporation and the net result is that water vapor condenses around particulates in the air to create microscopic cloud droplets. That state can be achieved in one of 3 ways: (1) cooling, (2) moisturizing, or (3) a combination of the 2. The cooling process refers to the fact that the air’s ability to hold moisture is directly tied to its temperature. Warmer air can hold exponentially more moisture than cold air. So, when air cools, such as overnight, the humidity rises–not because more moisture has been added, but because the moisture that is already there becomes a greater percentage of the amount the air can hold. At any temperature and humidity, water vapor is continually being evaporated and condensed, but when the air is unsaturated, the rate of evaporation exceeds the rate of condensation and cloud droplets don’t have a chance to form. However, as the cooling air approaches saturation, the increased condensation relative to evaporation means that condensed water has a greater opportunity to attach to aerosols
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Photos courtesy NASA
Photos by Brocken Inaglory
Radiation, or Tule fog blankets the entire Central Valley of California. While such fog is a needed source of moisture for plants in the region, it can keep nighttime and morning visibility at the region’s airports below minimums and obscure the rising terrain around the valley’s edges.
Advection fog often forms over cold bodies of water such as the San Francisco Bay when warmer and humid air moves across it at a low speed. In these situations, adjacent airports such as SFO (San Francisco CA) may experience reduced visibility for several days.
in the air and resist reevaporation. These nascent droplets can then attract more water molecules as they condense–growing the droplets, even though the air itself may not yet be fully saturated. In fact, the condensation of the water vapor releases heat that can slow the cooling and therefore slow the rate of cloud development. Moisturizing, on the other hand refers to the addition of water vapor to air without a change in temperature. This can occur in a number of ways, from evaporation over a wet surface, to rain falling into drier air, to the advection of more humid air from an adjacent region. If enough water can be evaporated or mixed into unsaturated air, it can bring the humidity level up to near saturation and initiate the process of cloud formation.
Fog types With fog, the cooling or mixing processes are driven by certain factors, which allow us to describe the fog in terms of those factors. There are 5 main types of fog: radiation, advection, valley, upslope, and precipitation fog. And 3 secondary types: steam fog, ice fog and freezing fog. Radiation fog is a cooling fog
that occurs as surface temperatures drop, generally overnight. Once the thermal mixing of the surface layer ceases with sunset, it separates from the free atmosphere and cools as the now cold ground draws energy from it. The time between sunset and any fog formation depends on the humidity of the air, which can be estimated by the dew point depression – the difference between the air temperature and the dewpoint. There’s also the temperature of the ground to factor in, as well as reduced cooling due to cloud cover, but a rudimentary rule of thumb under clear skies is between 1º and 3º C cooling per hour. So, if your sunset dewpoint depression is 14° C, you may approach saturation in around 7 hours. The longer the air spends near or at saturation, the thicker a radiation fog can become. If the dew point depression was close at sunset, a full night of formation may result in a fog that is several hundred feet thick, and with near zero horizontal visibility. Conversely, air that only reaches saturation 1 or 2 hours before sunrise may see only a thin fog that closely hugs the ground. Advection fog is a mixing fog in which unsaturated air flows in horizontal contact with a moist surface. The unsaturated air evaporates the
moisture it requires from the surface until it becomes saturated and fog forms. This process generally requires the air to be warmer than the ground, so the air can cool as the surface draws heat from it. The famous fogs of San Francisco Bay are advection types, which form as warm air flows in off the Pacific Ocean over the cold water of the bay. Such fogs can last for days. Valley fog is one frequently encountered by pilots. From above, it appears as a cloud deck through which snake the crests of mountain ridges. Valley fog occurs as cooling air becomes denser and drains down the sides of the valley toward its center. If there is a moisture source on the valley floor like a river or recent rainfall, the valley air quickly saturates and fog forms. The fog almost never grows higher than the ridge crests, as the air can flow out of the valley mouth. Upslope fog is another example of a cooling fog and somewhat the opposite of valley fog. Although air is being advected across rising terrain, it is not considered to be mixing with the air already there. Rather, it is flowing upward and is governed by adiabatic cooling, or cooling through expansion. As air rises, it is surrounded by lower and lower PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018 67
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Valley fog obscures the Deception Pass Bridge in Washington state. Nocturnal cooling results in the formation of radiation fog, which fills the valleys as the cold, dense air drains downward due to gravity. Fog can be enhanced when the valley is already humid from a prior rainfall or has a river flowing through it. Photo credit: docentjoyce
pressure. This allows the rising air to expand as the molecules push outward. Since pressure and temperature are related, decreasing pressure produces a simultaneous temperature drop. Eventually, the air flowing across rising terrain may cool to near saturation, creating a fog. The more moisture and the more severe the rate of rise, the thicker the fog can become. Upslope fogs can be highly localized in mountainous terrain, or can cover entire regions, such as the US Central Plains, where humid air from the Gulf of Mexico often flows northwestward across the gradually rising landscape. Precipitation fog is a moisturizing fog that forms as rain falls into drier air beneath a widespread area of nimbus clouds. This situation is most frequently encountered beneath fronts where the warmer, more humid air is being forced aloft over colder and drier air. Much of the falling precipitation evaporates into the drier air before it reaches the ground, slowly saturating it.
Secondary types of fog Steam fog is not much of a factor to aviation, but may be encountered at airports near bodies of water, or if the airport grounds have been saturated with rainfall. When cold air settles over the warmer water or wet land, heat and moisture is transferred to the air by conduction and convection, just like steam above a pot of heated water. Generally, however, the dryness of the air and lim-
Upslope fog occurs as humid air flows over rising terrain. The air cools by expansion, reducing its ability to hold moisture. Such fog often produces mountain obscuration and has resulted in many CFIT accidents.
itations of the transfer process ensure that most steam fogs remain thin. Ice fogs, though normally very thin due to the cold air involved, can impact aviation. Ice fogs may be radiative or advective, but occur at temperatures below -10° C, at which the water vapor fuses into ice rather than condenses into liquid. Thus the fog is literally comprised of ice crystals. This characteristic makes these fogs even more reflective of light, and can greatly reduce forward visibility due to backscatter even though the fog might be otherwise transparent. Freezing fog is a close cousin of ice fog, but occurs when the air is between 0° C and about -10° C. At these temperatures, most of the cloud droplets remain liquid, but are supercooled. This means that they can instantly freeze when they come into contact with an aircraft’s surface. Though accretion is unlikely to be more than a few millimeters, that is enough to significantly alter the aerodynamics and weight of the aircraft. Any fog present in subfreezing temperatures should be considered freezing fog, and appropriate deicing methods should be used. In nearly all cases, fog also requires some wind. In the absence of any air movement, there is no practical way for the fog to thicken, as that requires the moist air to be mixed in at higher levels while drier air replaces it at the surface. Conversely, if the air is moving at more than around 5 kts, the mixing will be too great and any condensed water at the surface will be carried quickly away and mixed with
drier surrounding air. Wind speeds between about 2 and 4 kts are considered ideal for fog formation.
Burning off Most cooling fogs will dissipate once the surface is heated by the Sun. The thickness of the fog will have a say in how quickly the sunlight can penetrate to the ground, as will the angle at which the light approaches the earth. In most cases of radiation fog, the air will continue to cool for an hour or so after sunrise, allowing the fog to thicken even more. In these early hours, most of the sunlight is coming in at a low angle and is simply scattered away by the fog. But as the sun rises higher, that angle increases, allowing more energy to reach the ground, heating it. As the ground heats, the formative process is reversed and heat is again transferred from the ground to the air and the fog evaporates from the ground up, leading to the saying “the fog is lifting”. Unfortunately, depending on the orientation of the valley, it may be some hours before the sun rises above the ridge crests and casts its light on the valley sides, where it can begin to generate a convective circulation that draws the valley air back up the valley and dissipates the fog. Some sheltered north-south or west-facing valleys may not clear out until well into the afternoon. Advection or moisturizing fogs may persist for days on end, and only break when the wind increases or changes direction. This often
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Annual mean number of days with heavy fog (visibility <= 0.25 mile)
Days < 5.5 5.5 - 10.4 10.5 - 15.4 15.5 - 20.4 20.5 - 25.4 25.5 - 30.4 30.5 - 30.4 35.5 - 40.4 >40.4
Average number of days with heavy fog across the United States. Regions with the greatest frequency are coastal areas dominated by cool water, and the Appalachian Mountains where topography mixes with humid air from the Gulf and Atlantic. Pilots should note that after the switch from tower observations to AWOS, the number of fog days “reported” at many airports dropped dramatically.
requires a change in the synoptic circulation over the region, such as a low or high pressure center moving in, or a frontal passage. The same is true of many upslope fog events. Precipitation fog, on the other hand, will generally lift as soon as the front passes and the colder, drier air behind it pushes in with increased wind speeds.
higher the dew point, the thicker the fog is likely to become, and valleys are prime locations for such fogs. Similarly, a steady but weak flow of humid air across rising terrain can promote areas of upslope fog, and places where warm air is gently and steadily flowing over a cold, wet surface are where you can expect some advection fog.
Operating in fog
Because the ways fog forms are governed by some well-established meteorological relationships, meteorologists and weather forecast models are normally able to forecast the presence or absence of fog with good reliability. Pilots can forecast fog well too. In places where one expects clear skies overnight, look at the winds and dew point depression. In the absence of a strong pressure gradient over the area, under clear skies, and with a depression of perhaps just a few degrees Celsius, one can reasonably expect some fog to form. Under those conditions, the
Though fogs are normally not more than a few hundred feet thick, they can have a horizontal extent of hundreds of square miles, meaning that horizontal visibility will be greatly attenuated, if not eliminated, within the fog layer. This can be deceptive to pilots on the ground who can see blue sky directly above them, or pilots on short final who can see the runway through what appears as a thin haze. Such deception has lured many pilots to ignore the information at hand and make a takeoff or landing into conditions that may obscure a host of dangers.
Consider the opening scenario. While you might have a good view of the runway directly ahead of you, can you be confident that every other aircraft or vehicle moving about the airport is where they (or you, or the controllers) think they are? Similarly, your aircraft may be equipped with autoland or other electronic landing aids to help you overcome reduced visibility, but will your system detect and automatically respond to an obscured obstacle on the runway. Enhanced vision systems and forward looking infrared systems are becoming more common aboard business and commercial aircraft, and can help pilots to see and avoid obstacles in the fog, but many of these have limitations. Some are designed to gather light and allow nocturnal operation (eg, night vision goggles), but may have a difficult time penetrating the light scattering nature of fog. In most cases, fog will dissipate a few hours after sunrise, and most pilots will elect to delay their arrival or departure until such times that the visibility allows a safe takeoff or landing. If fog is a possibility, having an alternate that is less likely to be socked in–either inland or on higher ground–is wise planning. When moving about on the ground in fog, avoid the use of strobes or forward pointing lights such as landing lights. If visible, rely on centerline and edge lights, lighted signs, and even “Follow Me” trucks. If those things are not visible, consider delaying your movement. Lastly, never move faster than you could safely stop if an obstacle suddenly materialized out of the gloom. It is far better to delay a flight than have to cancel it because you dinged a prop or wing tip on some unlighted sign or a parked fuel truck on the ramp. As always, if you encounter fog, or if fog conditions weren’t as forecast, send out a pirep to let your fellow flyers know. Karsten Shein is a climatologist with NOAA in Asheville NC. He formerly served as an assistant professor at Shippensburg University. Shein holds a commercial license with instrument rating.
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AL LOOKS BACK
Steady introduction of new Citation products results in many successive years of Cessna industry leadership By Al Higdon
Former Beech and Learjet Communications Executive Cofounder of the Sullivan Higdon & Sink Ad Agency
When the Citation 500 entered service in late 1960s, Cessna emphasized its ease of flying and reliability, compared with faster jets already in operation.
arly in my aviation career Cessna was “the competition,” beginning with my time at Beech in the early 1960s when Cessnas competed pretty much up and down the product line with Beechcrafts, except at the bottom where Cessna 150s and 172s dominated, and at the top, where Cessna had nothing to compete with the Super 18s and King Airs. In the mid 1960s Cessna seemed to be observing, but not participating, in the rush by manufacturers to enter the business jet marketplace. But that all changed a few years later when Cessna introduced the Citation 500.
Russell W “Russ” Meyer Jr served as Cessna’s CEO for more than 30 years. During that time he arguably was the industry’s most visible and widely-respected executive.
(L–R) Charlie Johnson and Gary Hay. Charlie flew USAF F-105s and was pilot for Arnold Palmer before beginning his corporate career, first with Learjet, then Cessna, where he retired as president. Gary spent his entire career at Cessna, beginning on the factory floor and, following a series of positions with ever greater responsibility, succeeded Russ Meyer as CEO.
At first, those of us in high-performance Learjet Country scoffed at the much-slower Citation speed, issuing warnings of “bird strikes from the rear.” But the reliable, easyto-fly Citation line grew each year in market acceptance. When Sullivan Higdon & Sink entered the Cessna picture as ad agency of record in 1987, Cessna’s turbine fleet numbered 4 models – the rugged, dependable workhorse Caravan turboprop, the Citation II, Citation III, and the just-introduced Citation V. Over the next 9 years by time of my retirement in 1996, Cessna’s engineering, manufacturing and marketing teams designed, built and marketed a steady stream of new products that not only stole the march in customer deliveries over all domestic and international competition – it widened the gap virtually every year. By the end of the 20th century, Cessna had become a juggernaut in all but the highest end of business aviation models.
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Photos courtesy Cessna Citation
This 1994 family photo shows 6 Citation models. From bottom: CitationJet; 2nd row: Citation Ultra (L) and Citation II (R); 3rd row: Citation VII (L), Citation X (M) and Citation VI (R). Also announced during a 1989–1994 product run up were the Citation Bravo and Citation Excel.
Roger Whyte sold Citations in Europe prior to heading up Cessna Citation worldwide sales. He also was very active in leadership positions with NBAA’s Advisory Council.
Phil Michel began his career in broadcasting and ad agency work, joining Cessna in 1975, ultimately rising to vp of marketing. In addition, he headed a variety of company entities.
To be exact, new Citation models launched between 1989 and 1994 included the CitationJet, Citation VI, Citation VII, Citation X, Bravo, Ultra, and Excel. Cessna introduced 7 new Citations in 5 years, each certified virtually on schedule and meeting announced specs. This industry dominance didn’t just happen, of course. At the top was Cessna’s Chairman, President and CEO Russ Meyer, who held that position for more than 30 years. Of all the CEOs I worked for and with in a career that spanned nearly 40 years, Russ Meyer was the best. He was the visionary for the company – and in significant measure the entire industry, as well. As an experienced jet pilot he knew the products intimately, and his intelligence and his bearing created close bonds with fellow CEOs of hundreds of America’s largest corporations, which led to and nurtured numerous sales of new Citations. Plus, his rapport with his colleagues at Cessna, from executives to rank-and-file workers, is legendary.
Cessna’s success over so long a period was not the act of one person, certainly. At Meyer’s right hand were standouts such as Gary Hay and Charlie Johnson, both of whom had a turn at leading Cessna after Russ’ retirement, and Roger Whyte, who led international sales for most of my time in their orbit. And by far the most accomplished senior management and marketing/sales team in the business. Our agency’s go-to guy was Phil Michel, vice president of marketing, who did the best job of forging and leading a client-agency relationship of anyone I ever worked with. To offer an example of Michel’s capabilities, he not only held the chief marketer title, but also was in charge of Caravan sales, oversaw the Cessna Pilot Center organization and for several years had responsibility for a company Australian-based subsidiary. He was a busy guy who never dropped the ball. The marketing team he assembled were all true professionals and their commitment to excellence, in part, allowed Phil to range far in his work for the company. So deep were the bonds of those on the front line of this client-agency relationship that to this day, long after any of us continue to draw a paycheck, Phil Michel, his highly capable director of marketing communications colleague Tom Zwemke, Joe Norris, long-time SHS creative director and former managing partner, and I have lunch regularly to share old times and talk about the industry we all love. Al Higdon spent 12 years as a public relations executive with Beech and Learjet before co-founding an advertising/pr firm that represented more than a dozen clients in aviation, including Learjet and Cessna, over a 25 year period before his retirement at 60 in 1996. PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018 73
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Technology Timeline 6.0 Predictions for your career and your life. Photo courtesy Eviation
Israeli startup Eviation Aircraft introduced its all-electric airplane in 2017. First flight is due this year with service beginning in 2021. This is just one of many innovations coming to air transport.
By Owen Davies Forecasting International & TechCast Global
t has been awhile since our last edition of the Technology Timeline (Pro Pilot, Feb 2016, page 66), and it has also been a busy period in the world of R&D. So it’s time once again to assess our performance and catch up on recent developments. As always, some of our forecasts have come true. Some are taking a bit longer than we expected. And a few items have come to our attention that we overlooked in previous editions of the Timeline. So it goes.
Winners and losers Dr Marvin Cetron, Forecasting International founder, once ran 17 research laboratories for the Navy Department. In the late 1950s, he and his team went back over their early forecasts, looking for possible lessons to guide future work. They found 2: When long-term forecasts failed, it was usually because unpredictable breakthroughs either dramatically advanced the schedule or delivered a new idea that made the original work obsolete. Look at the smartphone and consider possible technologies that were never developed because it co-opted their markets. And when forecasts 3 years or less into the future proved wrong, as they often did, it was because engineering required more time than expected. Either that, or bureaucracy slowed their development or adoption. The Timeline offers 2 short-term failures. As recently as 2016, we predicted that 3D video conferencing would appear and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) would be broadly accepted for general education. We imagined both would be seen in 2017. It was easy to be optimistic about 3D video conferencing. A team from the MIT Media Lab had been refining a 3D display since 2011. Six years seemed time enough to demonstrate a practical, business-oriented use for it. Dr Cetron’s observation about engineering clearly applies here. There have been interesting developments in this field, but lesson learned. We will push our arrival time out a few extra years. MOOCs have won any number of followers; Coursera
alone has over 26 million registered students, Khan Academy some 40 million. Yet, pre-college schools rarely incorporate them into the curriculum, for at least 3 reasons: Courses are rarely certified for classroom use. There is no guarantee that students do their own work. And in those regions of the world where general education is most needed, internet access remains slow, unreliable and expensive. We have no idea how long it will take to overcome these handicaps. For now, we are retiring this forecast. We have one qualified success to report. Our 2016 Timeline said that we would see a smartphone-based ATC system for drones by 2017. NASA last year completed testing of its Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management technology, which is designed to allow drones to fly beyond the pilot’s line of sight. With computing based in the cloud, drones will communicate with the system via cellular networks. Verizon, Qualcomm and AT&T are all working on the project. Readers can decide for themselves whether our forecast was close enough to score this as a success.
Now for some clear wins Shortly after the 2016 Timeline appeared, we learned that Dr Victor Gura of Cedars-Sinai Medical Center had created a wearable artificial kidney. And in 2017, our target date, researchers at the University of California announced an artificial kidney that can be implanted in the body and functions just as a natural kidney does. Clinical trials are expected this year. Score 1 for us. Also for 2017, we anticipated that cell phones would translate conversation among 10 languages as a standard feature. Bragi’s Dash Pro earbuds, for use with iPhones, offer real-time translation among 40 languages. So do Google’s Pixel 2 “Pixel Buds.” Both were announced last year. That makes 2. For 2018, we predicted that AI technology would imitate the thinking processes of the human brain. Since our forecast, MIT’s Ian Goodfellow has become famous among AI researchers by giving neural networks a reasonable equivalent of imagination. Something called a “spiking neural network” operates much more like natural neurons than previous technologies. And the recently-announced “memtransistor” combines memory and information processing into a
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single device that can be linked to many others, much as the brain’s nerves form dense networks. If none of these quite qualifies as imitating human thinking processes, they all are close enough that we are comfortable with our 2018 target. We also foresaw that extracting carbon dioxide from the air would become a practical way to slow global warming. Climeworks, in Switzerland, has opened 2 carbon-capture facilities that concentrate the greenhouse gas from the air and deliver it to companies that need CO2. Climeworks also markets offset credits to customers wishing to mitigate their carbon footprint. In the last year, scientists at Columbia University have found practical way to turn the gas into stone, while a team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have converted it to ethanol. We rate this forecast a success, with better still to come.
Google Waymo has swapped its toy-like concept car for minivans, SUVs, and autonomous trucks set to enter service later this year.
Still pending We suggested that by 2018 renewable energy would surpass natural gas to become the world’s 2nd largest energy source. We cannot yet claim success here. The most recent data available from the International Energy Agency shows renewables providing 13.4% of the world’s energy, while natural gas accounted for 21.6%. However, that was in 2015. In many regions, solar and wind energy already are cheaper than coal. By 2021, they will be cheaper even in China, where vast coal deposits are available. If renewables do not overtake natural gas on schedule, they clearly soon will. We will let you know when this year’s data comes in. We also imagined that by 2019 AI would carry out half of all legal research. We may have been a little too optimistic about this technology, but the time is coming fast. According to a study at the University of North Carolina School of Law in 2016, AI then on the market could replace human lawyers in 13% of their work. More than 280 tech start-ups are currently trying to replace attorneys with intelligent software. If legal AI misses our schedule, it won’t lag very far behind. Finally, consider autonomous cars. Two years ago, we believed they would enter the market by 2019. A strong argument could be made that this forecast has already come true. Arizona has licensed Google’s Waymo to begin robotaxi service in the state this year. As of April 2, California will allow autonomous vehicles on its roads without a human driver, though for now a remote operator must be able to take over in case of trouble. Lyft already is testing self-driving cars in Boston’s Seaport District. And GM has announced that it will begin making autos without a steering wheel or pedals in 2019. Under the circumstances, we stand by our target date.
New forecasts This edition of the Timeline offers 3 new transportation-related predictions. One, almost inevitably, deals with the Hyperloop. With countries from Abu Dhabi to India expressing interest in Elon Musk’s famed super-train and China considering it for their proposed rail line from central China to Europe, this technology is now worth taking seriously. News that Musk’s Boring Company has won permission to make a largely symbolic start on a Hyperloop tunnel going north from Washington DC guaranteed it a place here. The other new forecasts deal with aviation. We long doubted that airplanes would soon fly with electric motors. Even cutting-edge battery designs have nothing like the energy-to-weight ratio of fossil fuel. Yet, 2 recent developments have brought this idea closer to realization. One is the hybrid power train. The other is progress in battery technology; it’s going faster than we imagined possible – a clear example
of why long-term forecasts so often fail. For the near term, hybrid airliners seem more interesting. It turns out that operating a turbine always at its optimum power setting gains more efficiency than is lost by using it to spin a generator and drive an electric motor. Researchers at the University of Cambridge flew a single-seat airplane with a hybrid power train as early as 2014. A few years further on, Boeing and JetBlue have invested in Zunum Aero, a Seattle-based startup designing a 12-seat aircraft, while Airbus, Rolls-Royce and Siemens are modifying a BAe 146 regional airliner to fly with a hybrid power train replacing 1 of its 4 engines. Both groups plan to be in the air within 5 years. We are not counting out all-electric aircraft, however. An Israeli start-up called Eviation says it will carry passengers in a 9-seat electric commuter aircraft by 2021. We are willing to be convinced.
Fields to watch Finally, 2 areas of development merit close attention. Today’s work on neural networks, deep learning and other cutting-edge AI is just the beginning. Business analysts IDC predict that spending on AI will grow by 50% annually, reaching $57.6 billion a year by 2021. The World Economic Forum estimates that the global economy will be $16 trillion bigger by 2030 thanks to AI. Unfortunately, there is a downside. AI may, as tech companies insist, create more jobs than it destroys. Yet, the manager right-sized out of his middle-class income will not magically become an AI specialist when his exciting new career on the McDonald’s burger line is automated out of existence. No matter how it works out in the end, there is a difficult social transition coming. We all will feel its effects. The other revolution, of course, is life extension. The gene research cited in our last Timeline is only one of many studies that now promise us another 30 or 40 years of healthy life, and perhaps many more. Scientists now are giving elderly patients blood plasma from the young, looking for the rejuvenation seen in many animal species. Others are testing drugs that selectively kill senescent cells, extending the lives of mice by 1/3rd or more. And some at last have begun to look seriously at the naked mole rat, a mammal that does not appear to age or to face a growing chance of death as time passes. We are not ready yet to choose one line of research as the work that will extend human life. Yet, this field has made the transition from scattershot experimentation to focused research. It is time to begin preparing for a much longer future than any of us expected. PROFESSIONAL PILOT / April 2018 75
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Wild cards • An asteroid strike or near-miss of the planet reorganizes life. Scientists estimate that there have been at least half a dozen such strikes throughout history and many more that would have had lesser, but still substantial, effects on the biosphere. On March 2, 2018, a bus-size asteroid called 2018 DV1 passed within 70,000 miles of Earth. If it had aimed straight at the planet, there would have been no Hollywood-style attempt to divert or destroy it. Astronomers saw it coming only 4 days in advance. • An experiment in bio or nanotechnology gets out of control, with regional or global impact. Note: In 1979, anthrax spores leaked from a military laboratory in Yekaterinburg (then known as Sverdlovsk), Russia. The incident reportedly killed about 100 people. Today, genetic engineering has produced far more virulent pathogens. • A “Carrington event,” a super-powerful solar flare, knocks out critical technologies, including computers, telecommunications, and industrial controls. In March 1989, a much less powerful solar storm knocked out the electric grid serving much of Quebec. And in 2012, one of the most powerful such eruptions ever observed missed the planet by
9 days. This is not a wild card in the usual sense. Like an asteroid strike, it will happen. The only question is when. • A natural pandemic destroys 30% of the world population. Precedent: Between 1347 and 1351, bubonic plague (the “Black Death”) killed at least 30% of Europe’s population – perhaps as much as 60%. The influenza pandemic of 1918–1919 infected 1/3rd of the world’s population, killing as many as 1 in 10. The spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria makes this again a real possibility. • Computers take over, and humans work for them. • Cyber attacks bring down a major national economy. • Intelligent alien life is discovered/encountered. • Natural DNA transfer from genetically modified crops renders most weeds impervious to herbicides. Precedents: Gene transfer of this kind already has been observed in weeds near farm fields in the United States. • Rapid climate change produces a mini-ice age. • Technology gives us control over the weather. • Wormhole space/time bending alters travel and our understanding of dimensions. • Zero-point energy provides cheap, clean and limitless power.
2018–2019 Artificial intelligence and life
AI chatbots indistinguishable from people. AI software performs 50% of legal research.
Biotechnology: Health and medicine
Thought-controlled exoskeleton lets disabled walk. Flu sufferers adopt honeysuckle tea to cure the virus. Hacker commits cyber-murder by reprogramming the victim’s pacemaker. FDA approves use of stem cells to repair damaged hearts. Dental treatment regenerates lost tooth enamel, so fillings are no longer needed. “Milk” from gene-engineered yeast reaches the market. Drug that arrests Alzheimer’s enters human trials. Designer babies born outside the US. Cure for osteoarthritis. Electromagnetic cap boosts memory, eases depression, but can be used to suppress ethics, conscience.
2018 2018 2018
AI technology imitates thinking processes of the human brain. Electro-optical computers reach the market.
Environment and resources
Carbon dioxide fixation becomes a practical weapon against climate change. Renewables overtake gas as world’s 2nd largest energy source. Bacteria to clean up oil spills produced by hobbyist gene splicer. Wave energy provides up to 8% of UK requirements.
25% of teens in the industrialized world are active citizens of “virtual worlds.” Electric extinguisher developed by DARPA puts out fires without water or chemicals, now on market.
Global sensor grid. Holographic user interface for computing and manufacturing.
Home and leisure
2019 2019 2019 2019 2019 2019 2019
2018 2019 2019
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Robotics Robots available for almost any job in homes or hospitals. 2018 Holographic TV is demonstrated. 2018 Self-diagnostic robots. 2019 Self-healing materials enter use in remote structures. 2019 Autonomous robots replace human workers in 25% of mines. 2019 Security, law, war
Artificially intelligent security cameras predict crime, accidents about to happen and alert authorities.
Space India’s 7-satellite regional GPS system is complete. 2018 Chinese probe visits moon, returns with samples. 2019 James Webb “next generation” space telescope orbited. 2019 First manned tests of private orbital launch vehicle. 2019 Travel and transportation Mitsubishi introduces business variant of its regional jet. 2018 FAA says 7500 drones up to 55 lbs are operating in the US. 2018 Autonomous cars enter the market. 2019 DOT approves unmanned robotic trucking on interstates. 2019 Airplanes 20% more efficient than in 2009. 2019 Unducted-fan engines entering use. 2019 Wearable and personal technology Smart appliances with real-time sensors reach the market Eyeglasses that translate signs, menus marketed for Tokyo Olympics.
Artificial intelligence and life Machine knowledge exceeds human knowledge. 2020 AI support for air traffic controllers demonstrated. 2023 Artificial insects and small animals with artificial brains. 2024 Nanotech smart fabrics enter mainstream markets. 2024 Biotechnology: Health and medicine Artificial liver. 2020 Nanobots in toothpaste attack plaque. 2020 Fully functioning artificial eyes. 2020 Regenerating amputated limbs. 2022 Designer baby born clandestinely in the US. 2023 Drug resistance makes antibiotics useless for most diseases. 2024 Lab-grown meat reaches the market. 2024 Stem cell transplants routinely cure age-related eye disease. 2024 Business and education
Businesses begin using smart machines to direct activities. Learning superseded by brain interface to smart computers.
Computing power All-optical computers. 2023 Exaflop computer is 5 times faster than the human brain. 2024 Desktop computer is as fast as human brain. 2024 Environment and resources Wind energy provides half of Denmark’s electricity. 2020 Cheap, high-tech filters make most water drinkable, ending 2021 water shortages in most of world. Titanium cost-competitive with steel, thanks to a new refining process. 2021 Synthetic, nonpetroleum aviation fuel (JP8) reaches 2022 commercial market. Graphene foam available for high-strength light-weight composites. 2023 Nano-rectenna arrays finally reach market; convert sunlight 2023 to electricity at 1/10 the cost of solar cells. Efficient, durable fuel cells reach the market. 2024 Generator based on low-energy nuclear reactions 2024 —“cold fusion”—available for high-end homes.
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Home and leisure 30% of appliances, cars, etc, are connected to the Internet. 2020 New coating makes cars self-cleaning. 2022 Experience-recording technology developed. 2023 Machine/human interface Thought recognition replaces the computer mouse. 2020 Constitutional amendment guarantees thought-privacy. 2021 Robotics Realistic nanotech toy soldiers. 2022 Space Suborbital flight of space tourists by private carrier. 2021 Space tugs take satellites into high orbits. 2022 NASA’s Orion “Multi-Purpose Space Vehicle” flies 1st crew. 2024 Antimatter production and storage becomes feasible. 2024 Travel and transportation Driverless truck convoys using electronic “towbar.” 2020 First fully automated “hop in and go” personal aircraft 2022 reaches the air-taxi market. Supersonic bizjet makes its 1st flight. 2022 FAA approves unrestricted flights of UAVs in US airspace. 2023 Range of electric cars passes 300 miles. 2023 Hybrid cars carry 10% of American drivers. 2024 Cockpit windows eliminated to improve aerodynamics. 2024 Flying “HUMVEE” for the military. 2024 Security, law, war
Global sensor nets make “stealth” flight impossible. 50% of ID cards replaced by biometric scanning.
Wearable and personal technology
Computer-enhanced dreaming. 2020
Artificial intelligence and life
Living genetically-engineered electronic toy/pet developed. 40% of occupations available in 2014 have been taken over by AI. 25% of tv and movie celebrities are synthetic.
2025 2027 2029
Biotechnology: Health and medicine
Life extension at 1 year per year.
Business and education Molecular manufacturing. 2025 Individual education program. 2025 Environment and resources Artificial precipitation induction and control. 2025 US Navy deploys carrier group powered by biofuel. 2025 Process based on “cold fusion” converts reactor waste to 2025 less dangerous elements. Affordable batteries with half the energy density of fossil fuel 2027 reach the market. Effective prediction of most natural disasters . 2028 Home and leisure 3-D printers bring one-off manufacturing to 10% of homes. 2025 Machine/human interface Full direct brain-computer link. 2025 Security, law, war Court crime scenarios reenacted for jury holographically. 2025 Drone bomber with global range. 2026 Space Space hotel accommodates 350 guests. 2025 Mars sample return. 2028 Single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle. 2029 First manned mission to Mars. 2029 Travel and Prototype hybrid airliner makes its 1st flight. 2023 transportation Tele-travel. 2025 3D airspace system frees aircraft from ground-based ATC 2025 for most operations.
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FAA approves autonomous drone airliners. 2026 Computer displays replace airliner windows, saving weight. 2026 First Hyperloop enters service from Abu Dhabi to Dubai. 2027 Economically practical supersonic airliners with low boom 2027 for overland flight enter testing.
Artificial intelligence and life
Robots are physically and mentally superior to humans.
Biotechnology: Health and medicine
Artificial brain. Major body parts 100% regenerated, eliminating most surgery.
2030 Computing power 108 improvement in computing power through nano/atomic computers. Environment EU emits 29% less greenhouse gas than in 2014. 2030 and resources Renewable energy replaces 50% of fossil carbon. 2035 Nuclear fusion commercially viable. 2039 Robotics Robots, automation replace 70% of humans in workforce.
Security, law, war
Emotion control chips regulate behavior of violent criminals.
Space China-Europe collaboration establishes a moon base. 2030 NASA tests nuclear fusion engine for 3-month Mars trip. 2033 Teleoperated Mars base. 2033 Space factories for commercial production. 2035 Travel and transportation First regional airline with a hybrid power train enters service. 2033 First hybrid-wing aircraft reaches market. 2034 50–100 passenger hypersonic airliner. 2038 Fully automated personal aircraft reach 300kt. 2039 Wearable and personal technology
Dream-linked technology built for night-time networking.
2040 and beyond Due date Computing power
A 1-petaflop computer, 1/20 as powerful as a human brain, fits in the space of a sugar cube.
Environment Record high temperatures set in 147 cities around the world 2047 New York, Washington, Los Angeles among them. Parts of American Midwest now subtropical. 2047 Tundra reborn as global “breadbasket.” 2048 Solar power delivers 25% of world’s energy. 2050 Security, law, war
Asteroid diversion technology used as weapon.
Space Moon base expands to size of a small village. 2040 Europa ice digger. 2042 Titan balloons. 2042 Space solar power stations. 2050 Use of human hibernation in space travel. 2052 Star travel. 2069 Travel and transportation Tele-everything replaces most physical travel. 2040 Hydrogen-fueled executive jets (cryoplanes). 2041 4D airspace system ensures automatic separation and 2050 eliminates last requirement for ground-based ATC.
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OUTER MARKER INBOUND
Highest, farthest, fastest… The extraordinary life of Jacqueline Cochran By David Bjellos
ATP/Helo. Gulfstream IV, Sikorsky S76, Bell 407 Pro Pilot Senior Contributor
orn into desperate conditions in the early 1900s, Jackie Cochran became the world’s most decorated airwoman, breaking all altitude, speed and endurance records in a field overwhelmingly dominated by men. She retains the distinction of having more speed and altitude records than any man or woman – ever. Jackie arrived into this world sometime in 1906 in a small, nondescript sawmill town in northwest Florida. Given up for adoption, she was called “Jackie” by her foster parents, and never knew her family name. When she got older, she Jackie served as a WASP officer during WWII. took her last name from a telephone book, thinking Cochran sounded sophisticated and elegant. Her rise from desperate poverty – always hungry, in her own words – to overcome strong and accomplished men in the budding field of aviation is remarkable. Those rugged and competitive individuals all admired her greatly, and she was treated as an equal among them. Jackie escaped the itinerant life of sawmills and began working in a beauty salon at age 15, mixing hair color and giving permanents. A chance meeting in Miami gave her an introduction to a Floyd Odlum (who eventually controlled Convair, builder of the B-36 Peacemaker), whom she would eventually marry. Odlum was a corporate attorney-turned-industrialist, and Jackie’s enthusiasm and vision of the boundless future was a fresh diversion from the social-conscious, predictable banter of women Floyd was constantly exposed to. When she revealed her plans to him about traveling the country to sell beauty products, Odlum offered to “help” her in distribution by using an airplane. Jackie learned to fly (and passed her pilot test verbally, because she could not read or write well enough) and the passion blossomed. Her cosmetic products were called Wings to Beauty, and were successful for the next 3 decades. Floyd financed Jackie’s growing enthusiasm for flight, and they married in 1936. She won the Bendix trophy in 1938, and began a series of goal-setting records in over 30 different aircraft types. Much like Amelia Earhart, whose husband George PutVince Bendix salutes Jackie after man promoted and profited from her exploits, Jackie had she won the 1938 Bendix race.
a visionary and supporting husband who lived vicariously through her exploits. Earhart and Cochran were very good friends, and competed often. Only a very small handful of women had the means and guts to fly those early airplanes, and fewer still successful. Earhart overshadowed Cochran in the media only because of her husband’s promotions and her eventual untimely demise in the Pacific. Cochran’s records were by far more plentiful and broader in scope, yet she never received equal attention. When WWII threatened global peace, Jackie petitioned Henry “Hap” Arnold to support a women’s auxiliary flying corps to ferry aircraft to and from the European theater to free up men to do the fighting and combat flying. Her persistence formed the Women’s Air Force Service Pilot program (WASP) and she was drafted to become an officer. She called Generals Arnold and Eisenhower close friends for the rest of her life. She successfully lobbied that women could fly equally as well as men, and despite some severe opposition from regular airmen, her girls ferried thousands of aircraft with almost no loss of life and a remarkable safety record. Jackie later joined the USAF Reserves, and retired in 1970 as a full-bird colonel. She received the Distinguished Service Medal as a Colonel in 1945, and 3 Distinguished Flying Crosses for various other accomplishments. Among her many endeavors, Jackie was the first woman to: fly supersonic (CF-86); fly at twice the speed of sound (F-104); land on an aircraft carrier; enter a Bendix race (and win in 1938); win a Harmon Jackie in the Lockheed F-104G she trophy in 1952; serve as used to fly at twice the speed of sound. President of the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (and the only female); promote women to serve in NASA on the Mercury program in the early 1960s. Jackie passed away in 1980 at her home in Indio, California. Over the course of her career, she often used nearby Thermal airport which has been renamed Jacqueline Cochran Regional Airport. Women have always been a minority in the ranks of airmen. But even as that gap narrows, Jackie’s accomplishments should remind everyone that determination, skill and some old-fashioned luck can produce extraordinary results. Our industry is fortunate to have had such a person in Jackie Cochran.
David Bjellos is the Aviation Manager for Florida Crystals, flying a GIV-SP, S-76C+ and Bell 407. He also serves on the Board of Directors for the Helicopter Association International (HAI).
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Professional Pilot Magazine April 2018