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In- text Harvard Referencing Author: Kristen Stewart

In- text Harvard referencing is used when you acknowledge the research you have done, and the research of the author, and by doing so, you save yourself the hassle of being accused of plagiarism . Many people are unsure of when to create a reference in an essay. As a general rule you should create a reference anytime you directly quote from a book, even if you only quote two words ‘benign significance’; these are not your words, so you should give credit to whoever wrote them (author, date and page). The author, date, page is the standard way you should reference a direct quotation. It is also a good idea to create a reference whenever you closely paraphrase something. By closely paraphrasing you are putting someone else’s ideas into your own words – but because they are not your ideas, only your words, they should be referenced. For example , if I use the above two words ‘benign significance’ and change them to: ‘in regards to the painting above it has a sort of unthreatening quality to it, which exudes importance’ (author, date and page). I have put my interpretation of benign significance, which needs to be referenced. Another way that you can use an in-text reference is by putting the date after the name Frank (2012) wrote ‘yellow submarine sank’ in relation to a popular song performed by The Beatles (p.34). By putting the name of the author at the beginning of the sentence, followed by the date of publication, it is unnecessary to repeat what you have already established in the context of the sentence, thus the page number will suffice. Again, you could write Frank wrote ‘yellow submarine sank’ in relation to a popular song performed by The Beatles (2012, p.34). Or: the ‘Yellow submarine sank ’ was written in relation to a popular song performed by The Beatles (Frank, 2012, p.34).

The point I am trying to make here, is that the referencing throughout your essay does not need to be stagnant; there are several ways that you can present them, so be creative with them, and don’t just use one. Referencing doesn’t need to be difficult, or stressful; as long as you are consistent and precise, you can conquer the referencing beast. But as a general rule, if you are unsure if you need to reference something, just reference it, and a professional proofreader can take a look at it for you and give you feedback, if needed. For more information, visit:

In-text Harvard Referencing