2 | Attitude surveys In all of the study countries with the exception of Azerbaijan there have been surveys of attitudes towards women. In some cases there is evidence that the attitudes of those surveyed towards women in society is changing and is in advance of the politicians making policy. Armenia The 2015 Armenian Gender Barometer38 survey found 60% of respondents think men and women are unequal in Armenian society. Fifty-five per cent think this is due to the low level of awareness of women’s rights in society. Men are more interested in politics than women but more women voted in the last elections. Belarus In 2010 the Independent Institute of Socio-Economic and Political Studies (HSEPS) conducted a survey on the attitudes of Belarusians to women in politics. It found that 55.6% of respondents were against women being candidates for president but younger people and those with greater levels of education were more likely to support a woman candidate for the presidency.39 In 2011, the World Values Survey found 76.1% of men and 55.9% of women thought that men made better political leaders than women. In 2014, another survey40 by HSEPS asked respondents if there were enough women in parliament. It found that 27.2% were happy with the situation while 8% thought a law should be adopted to increase the number.
Moldova Attitudes to women as leaders and elected representatives are slowly changing. The Gender Barometer Moldova found in 200643 that 50% of those surveyed thought that men were more capable leaders than women. By 2014 this had fallen to 20%. In answer to the question of who was preferred to be elected to the local councils the percentage for men fell from 28.6% in 2006 to 22.1% in 2015 and for women it rose from 8.6% in 2006 to 14.8% in 2015. Of those surveyed in 2015, 62.3% thought that gender did not matter. Ukraine The National Democratic Institute conducted research in 201544 looking at attitudes towards women’s political participation in Ukraine focusing on the local elections in October 2015. When asked what the reasons were for their being fewer women than men in politics 76% agreed that it was because political parties are more likely to nominate men than women, and 60% disagreed that there were not enough qualified women for elected office. The gender of the candidates was only important for 4% of those surveyed, the most important issue being the honesty of the candidate. Almost every respondent said they did not feel any negative attitudes towards female candidates. This was tested by showing a randomly generated picture of men or women candidates with the same information and asking how likely they were to vote for this person. There was no significant difference in the ratings for male or female images.
Georgia The Caucasus Barometer “Attitudes towards gender issues in Georgia in 2014”41 found that family responsibilities are seen as the greatest obstacle to women getting involved in politics – this was mentioned by 28%. In response to the question: “In Georgia women are not as good in decision making as men,” 74% of respondents either fully agreed or agreed. 51% of respondents either agree or fully agree that men prevent women from engaging in politics. 39% thought politicians talked about women’s rights too little – 37% about right and 2% too much. 64% of respondents support Georgia adopting mandatory quotas in parliament to increase women’s participation. The National Democratic Institute Public Attitudes in Georgia survey carried out in 201442 found 68% of those surveyed support mandatory quotas in parliament to increase women’s participation.
38 - Available at: www.ysu.am/files/Gender%20Barometer.Armenia.English.pdf. 39 - Available at: www.iiseps.org. 40 - Available at: www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSDocumentationWV6.jsp. 41 - Available at: http://caucasusbarometer.org/en/no2014ge/HHASIZE/. 42 - Available at: https://www.ndi.org/files/NDI%20Georgia_October%202014_Gender%20poll_Public%20ENG_ Final_0.pdf.
Women’s political representation in the Eastern Partnership countries
43 - Gender Barometer: Study on Public Opinion in Moldova Chisinau Moldova Institute of Public Policy http://www.ipp.md/lib.php?l=en&idc=156. 44 - Available at: www.ndi.org/ukraine-gender-research-2016.
Findings of the study