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June 2014

Constant Progress:

Welcome to another issue of PTW magazine. It has been a very busy period since we last met, however, in the age that we now live in, it seems as though time is always busy.

We are currently in the process of reviewing our projects in India and Kenya, and communicating with the managers to determine how best to develop the projects. Meanwhile, we are also drawing up our ideas to start projects in Brazil and Australasia. In La Trobe, Bendigo we have started a second fitness class, allowing our enthusiastic members to workout Mondays and Wednesdays during the university year. We have also held our very first “Project Third World– World Cup” event in Bendigo which was a success. A special thanks to all who participated. The winning team “The Gimps” captained by Daniel Kocoski, were our overall winners and received the prizes generously donated by Bendigo Sports Co, Bendigo Health Food Store and Colgate. In Melbourne we have held our first Movie Night, hosted by Camberwell Grammar, which raised several hundred dollars– a great achievement by our supporters. The movie screened was Nelson Mandela’s Long Walk to Freedom and gave our supporters an insight into the history and understanding of why the African continent has become they way it is, and also gave our supporters an insight into the reality of the people we are trying to help. Project Third World is expanding slowly, and part of that is taking some steps in expanding our reach. We hope to have fitness/bootcamp classes starting in Melbourne’s Western Suburbs, Melbourne’s Southern Suburbs and another of Melbourne’s Eastern suburbs by the end of 2014. We have much bigger

and engaging events lined up for this year and far more opportunities to develop your own health and education for a cause, but as always, our efforts can only mirror the help and commitment of our followers and our supporters. As we stated in our movie night, your attendance and your will to develop your own health and education, along with those around you, is far more valuable than any amount of money that could be donated without attendance-which is why Project Third World does the utmost to ensure that we lead the world by example and constantly develops our own health and education in the busy world which we live in. We are always looking for old and new faces to our many events and activities, and if you enjoy being apart of the work we do at Project Third World, please subscribe to our website to stay up-to-date. Above all, we hope that we can help everyone become role models for health and education and can help in their own way to making a better and more prosperous future for all walks of life.

-Project Third World

Special Thanks to our ongoing sponsors for their ongoing and constant help and support @projectthirdworld June 2014

VOL. 1, NO. 5 |2014

5| What is health and what does it involve? We show you the overall picture of health

12| Cover Story: Mariam Hernandez is one of Spain’s healthiest actresses. Find out from her how to keep life healthy regardless of your job.

6| Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Australia. What can we do about this?

17| “Super Foods” are the new trend on the supermarket shelves. We take a look at what makes these products so ‘super’ and if there is any scientific backing for them

10| Soccer, or Football is considered ‘The World Game’. Find out some of the more under identified skills that it takes to be one of the World’s greatest. 8| Brazil will host the World Cup this month, but why are they up in arms about this?

20| Marketing , big slogans and colourful labelling can make it hard to see what’s truly healthy for us, and what’s just a play on words. We break it down to show you what some of these common phrases mean.

June 2014

When we think of health, we probably only think of image, but the world of health lies far more in what we cannot see, rather than what we can. We take a look at all the various factors that attribute to health, as well as where society is struggling most in the pursuit of health

June 2014

Health– It is hollistic. Health…what does it mean to you? Is health something you feel when you have an energy peak, when you’re not sick, or during a yoga class? Generally in the Western world, we think of health as both physical and mental. With the increasing awareness of the significant role physical health plays in our lives, and the increasing prevalence of depression, it is only logical that health is generally viewed in these two ways. In actual fact, health, is not just limited to the physical or mental components, it encompasses a much larger, holistic approach, to the wellbeing of individuals. The definition of health has been disputed for many years, across cultures and among academics. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. Although this definition has been adopted internationally, it fails to capture three other important components of health: emotional; environmental and spiritual.

~Rebecca Meldrum

include air quality body art (piercings, tattoos), food safety, housing and toxic chemical exposure. Spiritual: Spiritual health refers to the maintenance of harmonious relationships with all living things and having spiritual purpose and direction. It includes living according to one’s ethics, morals and values.

We all want to be healthy and achieve wellness, but often we are not mindful of the interrelation between the components of health. Any component of health can be affected by another component of health. For example, an individual who has been diagnosed with depression may be prescribed antidepressants or antipsychotic medication. While the medication may enable the individual to manage their mental health, these types of medications can often influence the development of significant physical health issues. It is not uncommon for an individual living with depression to gain weight or suffer from ‘dry mouth’ (saliva in the Firstly, to give you an idea mouth reduces signifiof what each component encantly and can affect compasses, a brief explanaspeech or chewing). Such tion is provided: physical health issues can result in decreased confiPhysical: Physical health dence in regards to their refers to the level of funcappearance or develop tional or metabolic efficieninto social anxiety and cy of a living organism. Exisolation. Feelings of disamples of optimal physical connection with reality health includes; consuming and all living things are nutritious foods, engaging in also common outcomes. regular physical activity, beDespite the complications ing a healthy body weight presented there are of and avoiding drugs and tocourse things the individual can do to reduce the debacco. velopment of these issues, such as increasing physiMental: Mental health involves the ability to realise cal activity or using an oral health product that reone’s abilities, recognise reality and cope with the lieves ‘dry mouth’. This example used is a common occurrence and demonstrates that when one compodemands of daily life. of health is out of balance, all components can Social: Social health refers to the quality of your re- nent be affected. lationships with family, friends and others you are in contact with. Emotional: Emotional health involves the ability to The most effective way of ensuring you’re holisticalunderstand the value of emotions, expressing your ly healthy is to check in with yourself on a regular feelings in positive, non-destructive ways and under- basis. This doesn’t need to involve a deep analysis of standing how to use emotions to support your life each component every day, but it does involve being mindful of what being healthy or balanced means to decisions. and ensuring that you are working towards Environmental: Environmental health refers to all you, achieving It is only from being mindful towards aspects of the natural and built environment that may our health that. that we can make the changes in our lives affect human health. Environmental health concerns to rebalance the harmony with our health. June 2014

Cardiovascular Health is the leading cause of death in Australia. Find out what it involves and how you can keep this important body system healthy ~Lauren Simionato Keeping your heart healthy is an important part of a healthy lifestyle. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Australia, and the main cause of hospitalisations. Keeping your heart healthy doesn’t just prevent heart attacks but also prevents strokes, peripheral vascular disease, arrhythimias and heart failure. In addition, most the things you can do to maintain your cardiovascular health will make you healthier in lots of other ways too.

style goes a long way to reducing your risk of cardiovascular disease, but is also likely to make you live longer, have more energy every day and feel happier, more relaxed and more confident.

A healthy diet and exercise go a long way to tackling our list of lifestyle factors, but one still remains: Smoking. Smoking is the largest single preventable cause of death in Australia, and doesn’t just cause Even though we heart disease, but a think of heart attacks myriad of other conas a sudden event ditions including that can strike out of strokes, peripheral the blue, there are in vascular disease and fact signs that a heart cancer. One of the attack or other cardisingle greatest things ovascular condition you can do for your is likely. There are health in general is to many factors that reduce or quit smokcontribute to cardioing. Unfortunately, vascular disease. smoking does not just Some of them we involve yourself, but cannot control, such also those around as age, ethnicity and family history, but there are far you, and second-hand smoking (or passive smoking) more which we can. The most significant lifestyle also contributes to the health of those around you. factors that contribute to cardiovascular disease are: Smoking The good news is, you’re not alone in improving High blood cholesterol your cardiovascular health and there are many resources out there to help you stay healthy, such as the High blood pressure Australian Heart Foundation. Friends and family are invaluable, whether it be through motivating you Diabetes to stick to your goals, or making regular exercise Physical inactivity with friends a part of your lifestyle. Being overweight or obese Seeing your doctor regularly, even when you are Although that sounds like a tough list to beat, just a not sick, is an important part of staying healthy. few simple things can reduce our risk of cardiovascu- Some diseases, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes can have no signs or symplar disease dramatically. toms in the short term, and regular visits to your GP can ensure they are diagnosed earlier. In addition, Eating a healthy balanced diet and regular exer- your GP can help you achieve all your healthy lifecise will reduce your blood cholesterol, help maintain style goals, quit smoking, and supplement your a healthy body weight, reduce your blood pressure healthy lifestyle with medications if necessary. and reduce your risk of diabetes. This healthy lifeJune 2014

What Makes It The World Game? They’ve scored, the atmosphere here is electric – I’ve never felt anything like it. It’s impossible to hear yourself breathe, let alone trying to gather your thoughts. Truly amazing scenes here. <Power out>. The Playstation turns off & the room is dead silent. For a moment there you truly thought you were the Nation’s Hero. Mum comes barging in. “Clean your room, and can you do the vacuuming!” It’s not long until you realize you’re not so special – the player you created on FIFA is not actually you. You’re not getting paid in the millions to play the greatest game in the world – the world game: Football. Life’s actually pretty basic. You’re doing alright but not quite “living the dream”, until of course you are back in front of the TV with the controller in your hand. You see, Football is an amazing game. Globally recognized and played by ages as low as two. If there were a sport that brought a group, city, state or nation together – it’d be Football. Oh, did I mention the World Cup is this June? It’ll be one of the very few months in a year where I actually watch a nation vs nation without a controller in my hand (and somehow it’s just better). No pressure. Brazil 2014 – the countdown begins. Before we sit back late at night in front of the comfort of our TV’s we’ll have a quick look at what the players will need to endure to “Live the Dream” while we sip on our coffee & cheer aimlessly at players we’ve never heard off. Football is a demanding sport emotionally, physically & mentally. Here are three aspects you may not first consider that a Footballer must have: Aerobic capacity: Having the ‘engine’ to run out a Football match is quite impressive in itself. 90 minutes of non-stop movement. Walking, jogging & sprinting – intensity changes like none other. One moment you could be flatfooted the next taking a strike for goal from a pass you weren’t expecting. Football players can travel a distance of up to 15km in a 90-minute match – that’s inclusive of 100% intensity sprints to slow walking after a goal. A common practice on the training ground is

~Jay Himat

‘Interval training.’ This type of training includes short bursts of sprinting followed by rest periods. This practice takes place in an attempt to emulate game situations and prepare players for what to expect come match time. Awareness: It may not seem like an important aspect of the game but awareness for a footballer is everything. To be aware of your surrounding on the pitch could be the difference between making the simplest of passes to taking the longest of strikes for goal. When receiving the ball a few ‘awareness’ factors will come into play. These include; distance from nearest opponent, space to run forward & vision of best pass. Once a Footballer gets the ball, there is so much more to consider than just connecting the foot with the ball. Furthermore, at all times players must know where they are on the field as their positions relate to the location of the ball, their teammates and the opponents. Mental Strength is common practice for any athlete. They say ‘hard work beats talent when talent doesn’t work hard.’ How true and how relatable to the mental commitment of athletes. To endure big match losses then to recover and come back stronger while having the support and same mindset as the rest of the team is harder than ever. Mentality within the team is crucial to a Footballer’s personal mental strength. If surrounded by hard workers – you’re automatically pushed. Behind the lavish lifestyles and larger than life paychecks a lot of hard work goes into being a professional athlete. From early mornings in the freezing ocean for recovery, to late nights in the gym, along with the pressures of coaching staff, teammates & most importantly us – the supporters. This June, Football’s FIFA World Cup will be played out in Brazil- a country which lives their life by the sport. Sit back, relax and enjoy the quality of sport displayed in front of us because it truly is the best in the world.

June 2014

Editorial: Brazil is a country that lives by the sport of Football, so why is this country, well known for their Carnival attitude to life, so against footballâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most prestigious event coming to them? ~Chirag Lodhia June 2014

This release of PTW magazine nouncement of Brazil holding the racy with relatively low youth unhas shown numerous examples of how looking at the surface is a very crude method of measuring what is truly happening, and Brazil is no different. For most, the thought of Brazil will develop imagery of highly-tanned skin, bikini beach bodies, Amazonian landscapes, clear skies and carnival dance festivals. For most, the thought of a Brazilian person would bring about thoughts of exotic accents, funloving and relaxed personalities and a group of people who live and die by the game of football. On the surface, it would make Brazil the most ideal and symbolic location to hold the largest sporting event behind the Olympics: The FIFA World Cup. The reality is, that this stereotypical and very superficial view now has very little to do with the objectives of the people who live in Brazil. In fact, this is probably one of the only times when the people of a country have actually held such dismay for holding the prestigious event, despite being one of, if not the most passionate country in the world for the sport. Since the an-

2014 world cup, and more-so following the closure of the 2010 South Africa World Cup, the people of Brazil have engaged in various strikes, riots and protests in a desperate attempt to have the world hear their issues, and to re-

verse the Government’s failure to address the concerns of its citizens. Whilst there is no coincidence that all this heat and attention has escalated on the premise of Brazil holding the world cup, the countries problems lie in their long-

term struggle to have the government justify their work in developing the country. Having said this, Brazil is developing relatively well for a country in the developing world. They have a stable democJune 2014

employment, low accounts of racism and suitable evidence of the rise of living standards across the country as a whole. Furthermore, Brazil is also a country of Brazilians, with more than ninety-nine percent of the country being born in the country. In addition, Brazil’s development rose to a historic milestone when they had more than half the population being considered middle-class, and within the past decade, had approximately forty-million people escape absolute poverty. So, it would be wrong to say that the government is neglecting the needs of the people absolutely, given their ability to progress where many others are failing, however; the people of Brazil certainly aren’t complaining over nothing. They are currently the highest taxpaying country outside of the developed world and receiving very poor public services, suffering an endemic of crime and the country has an illicit drug problem so uncontrolled that you can buy drugs including cocaine in an open area of the country’s biggest cities without consequence. Political corruption and allegation is almost an

accepted reality in the country and access to sufficient healthcare and satisfactory education is scarce. For Brazil, education should be at the forefront of their priorities. With the evolution of their society, education will have a fundamental role in providing opportunities to the country, but schools in Brazil are now having to educate their students to break from many aspects of the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s past and history in order to progress. Analysis suggest that the current Brazilian model for education focuses to heavily on literacy and numeracy, and needs to move into a more cognitive, challenging and creative model of education. Brazil might be one of the fastestgrowing economies in the world, and is currently the fourthlargest democracy in the world, but with a large mix of wealth and extreme poverty, it is still struggling to progress smoothly. It is suggested that the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s poor health system might be partly accountable for this. Whilst the staffing might be there, the abilities of the healthcare staff in the country are often coming underpar. The healthcare system is government-funded and free at pointof-use. However, Brazil is the most expensive country in Latin America to seek private health care, with costs well-and-above the neighbouring countries. As

such, the rich can afford the highquality and high-service of the private sector, whilst the poor must make-do with the struggling public sector. With this difference, the rich are becoming healthier whilst

the poor are often lingering in sickness. Over the past few years, Brazil has been suffering widespread destruction of its infrastructure. Everything from transport, airport, health and education. To the Bra-

zilians, it makes no sense for a country that is relatively sufficient in GDP, and has such high taxes, to have such poor infrastructure. The costs of the World Cup, being covered by the Government and therefore, the Brazilian taxpayers, rises over the three billion dollar mark (U.S). These are being met June 2014

with various corruption allegations that are going without trial, and are constantly thwart by government moves to reverse trials which do occur. Now, letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s take these struggles and top that by inflammation introduced in 2013. Much of the middle class in Brazil are walking a thin tightrope between staying in middle-class and falling into absolute poverty, which is thinning beyond management for many of these citizens. A huge section of this population works on the minimum wage and does not receive any workers benefits, including transportation costs (which will take up approximately a fifth of the workers income just to transport to very tough-condition workplaces on an overcrowded, insecure and dilapidated bus). Whilst this reality may not speak for every Brazilian, it certainly does for a huge portion of the population, and with an increased inflation, the governmentcontrolled transportation system rose from R$3 to R$3.20; it was the match in the powder-keg that sparked the mass protests in June of 2013. The mass protests involving over a million people erupted across 100 cities in the country, resulted in riots, tear-gas and rubber-bullet actions, lootings and wooden hoardings. Government buildings were attacked, confrontations with police and citizens occurred, and clashes developed outside many

football stadiums. The rage that had built up from inflammation, corruption, violence and repression, and a general distaste for the government’s management of the country erupted into a somewhat selfdestructive reaction from the people. How did you miss the chaos? That is probably because this was happening during same period as Egypt’s mass protests that gained the attention of all media. At this point in time, the country is now in disbelief of their government’s priorities and also inability to explain where their tax was being implemented. “Fare increases are just one of the many problems that are facing Brazil right now… Brazilians want to put a stop to the various problems that exist in the country. We see no reason to have such bad infrastructure when there is so much wealth that is so highly taxed... Some Brazilians are revolting against the fact that so much money is being spent on

ing the Wold Cup. There is no doubt that Brazil will put on a valiant, memorable and vibrant world cup , and overall, visitors can feel a sense of assurance that they are in the hands of a very hospitable and welcoming host. Whilst we share drinks and watch the captivating spectacle that the world’s best footballers put on time-andtime again, the FIFA World Cup in Brazil will be an exposing period on many levels. Whilst FIFA pride themselves on other important causes,” reported the basis of race equality, fairness, a local. supporting the poor, and having an More recently in May 2014, bus ideology that can bring the world drivers in Rio De Janeiro lead a together, they have disregarded the strike that left over two-million realities of the developing counpeople in the country’s second- tries and have either underestimatlargest city. This lead to the pro- ed their capabilities of hold such a tests of teachers, civil servants and large and costly affair, or have even police officials, placing the simply looked at the surface. It country in a very insecure predica- will also be a time for the world to ment for the World Cup. If that see the realities of Brazil and hopefully the realities of their wasn’t enough, health officials predict that a health outbreak of lives. Dengue Fever will hit Brazil durthe World Cup whilst our education and health systems are of so poor quality,' he explained. 'I see the protests as a way to fight for

June 2014

Mariam Hernandez is one of Spainâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

funniest and healthiest actresses. Apart from a busy working schedule, she takes the time to try everything from Cross-Fit to surfing, and will even turn house-cleaning into a fun physical activity. Although she has all the looks and the physique, Mariam gave us an insight into why this has nothing to do with her health, and shared what she finds to be true aspects of health. June 2014

For Mariam, health was always part of her life growing up, and living away from a metropolitan life certainly helped her. “I’m was born in the Canary Islands, on a little island called ‘Fuerteventura’, where I grew up and all my family lives. We lived in a very healthy environment on the beach and we used to typically love eating cheese and tomato. My favourite aspect about living here was the sea and having a healthy and normal life. Being far from the city, it meant I was far from all commercial influences

and allowed me to live a natural and simple life.” Whilst growing up in Fuerteventura, Mariam aspired to becoming a journalist, before steering her life in a new direction. “When I was 18 years old, I moved to England for one year, and then I moved to Madrid to study journalism. In my second year there, I discovered dramatic arts, and I found that this was the thing I wanted to do for the rest of my life, and so I gave up my university career and went on to study drama and acting in Madrid. I have been living in Madrid since then because it is where all productions happen, but I like to come back to the Canary Islands for holidays where my family is”. It is always tough to find a first job, but as Mariam alludes, making that first break can sometimes seem impossible. “When making the first step in getting an acting job, I approached different casting directors and sent in my photos and curriculum vitae. I then made a very short film for approximately three minutes which was edited by my friends. It was quite popular online and went viral. One casting director saw it and called me in to star in a TV series. I started acting in television as soon as I completed my studies at “Christina Rota”, and also did some acting in movies too. It is always very difficult. You really have to be sure that you want to dedicate your life to this profession, otherwise it is impossible. You have to hear every day that people don’t like you or don’t want you, and even once you start acting, the second job is never sure or guaranteed. As soon as you finish one job, you have to start the process again of auditioning, casting and worrying if you’re go-

ing to get a part or not. It is a way of life more than a job. The hardest thing is having to wait. Waiting for casting, waiting to know when another role will come or when you are going to start the next job. Another factor is that your whole life revolves around your job. It’s very hard for your partner, or boyfriend to understand this life. Sometimes you are very happy and sometimes very sad, because you are constantly getting your hopes lifted and dropped, making you feel unstable emotionally. Some people say that actors are crazy and I understand why! I play different characters but I normally work in comedy. I enjoy everything about comedic roles. Every role is different because each character is different and you have to really feel the character. I often play extreme character roles. I hope to get different roles each time but it is not dependant on me; it is dependent on the director. I’d like to choose different roles and characters but that also depends on the money that I have. Sometimes you just have to take the role even if it is the worst role for you or if it is not what you are looking for. One of my toughest roles was in a movie called “Seis puntos sobre Emma and my character was a girl in a wheelchair. I was reading a lot and visiting hospitals for a month to learn about people who are restricted to wheelchairs. It was very hard for the month I was there and I had to learn what it felt like to believe that you can no-longer walk anymore; that was the most important part for me- to learn what it feels like to be restricted to a wheelchair after an accident.” Despite the difficulties, Mariam would not give up her job for anything else. “Hearing the word “Action!” is the best feeling about being an ac-

tress. It is a profession where you work with yourself and you have to put every aspect about your own life into your characters. You also learn a lot about life and about yourself and even other people. You also get a chance to travel for filming and meet new people. I enjoy the way of life, looking at characters, looking for new people and discovering new characters- that is always

June 2014

very interesting.” Whilst Mariam focuses on her acting career, she also invests a lot of her time into living healthy and even started teaching others how to do the same. “I’m not a professional and have never been a professional sporting star but I always try different sports. Last year was bad professionally for me. I had worked 8 years consistently but last year I didn’t work much at all. I needed something to keep me occupied and not feel so stressed about not having a job. In Spain there are too many blogs and writings about beauty and fashion. In Spain there are not too many blogs about sports and wellbeing, and so I thought “why not?” I started by making a home-made blog at home with the help of my friends.” Whilst most models of fitness in society believe that their health is chiselled into their abdominals and enlarged in their arms, Mariam is a far more genuine ambassador for health. “For me, health is a part of my life and is a part of every person’s life. We are in a society where there is stress of

needing to do things quickly and in trying to do things quickly we forget to take care of ourselves. Healthy sports and healthy ways of life help with everything we want to do. If we are not healthy and don’t look after what we do, don’t take interest in the foods we eat and the sports we play, we cannot achieve any of the things we would like in our life. I don’t think that excess is healthy. Balance is healthy, and balance is important. If you become obsessed with something like exercise and do it too much every day then it too becomes unhealthy. I don’t think that health is about six-packs, toned bodies or big muscles. Health is not about image- it is about how you feel inside which is why you have to think about what you’re eating and putting into the body. Healthy for me is also about being happy and being able to cry and clear your mind and be able to be mentally healthy. Mind and body together need to be healthy. When you care for yourself, you can do everything better. For me it is good

June 2014

when I go running because I am able to disconnect from the world and my mind feels free and so when I come home I feel better and I can start preparing for my job. I feel physically better and I feel I can think better at home and in my job. Due to my blog, I am doing a lot more sports than normal but in general, each week I do very different sports and try new sports. At the moment, I’m trying Pilates and experimenting with that. Within any week though I will always go running. When I come to the Canary Islands, I go surfing or kitesurfing. When I’m in Madrid I’ll go running, skating or go to the gym. In the winter I like going to the snow. I’m used to changing my sports because it’s fun and even funnier to try different sports. My favourite sport is wakeboarding. I love aquatic sports, especially ones in the sea.” Mariam is also a great model for the saying ‘you are what you eat’. “I don’t have a particular diet. Like sports, I think about balance. I love organic food and it tastes good,

blog. My blog has moved to an important Spanish Magazine called “Glamour”. I post twice a week at the moment so I am on fire with my blog and I will continue to be very active with my blog too.” Whilst Mariam looks after herself very well, she does not forget about helping others. “I collaborate with 2 charities called “voces” which is for culture in the third world and get experience with cinematography and similar activities in these regions of the world. The other is “Sahara” which help the Sahrawi people who are alone in the desert and struggling. We try to give them opportunities to try different activities, give them different work and improve their quality of life and help motivate them to live and continue to live their life how they would like to.” For those who are afraid to pursue their ambitions, Mariam believes that you should always give it a go, even if it doesn’t work out. “My blog was originally called “surfing your life” and I believe that everyone has to surf their life and live their life how they want in the way that they would like. Obviously we can’t always do that but we have to try.” and it is healthier, but I don’t have the money to eat it all the time. I try to buy certain things which are only good when organic, such as eggs, and then the other things I will buy from farmer’s markets, and if not there then the supermarket. I still like biscuits, chocolates and sugars, so I try to get a balance and get everything that people need in their bodies. Right now living at the Canary Islands at my mum’s house I have fresh orange and strawberries in the morning with black-bread, cottage cheese, and freshly-made white cheese. I only cook with olive oil because it is healthy. I will also eat vegetables in the afternoon or ‘guiso’ with a mixture of potatoes and vegetables. When I snack I take a fruit, tea or a biscuit.

At dinner I try to eat less than what people normally eat in Spain. I will normally eat something like an omelette with tuna and vegetables, or I will eat a salad. I always eat a yoghurt too. On the weekends though I eat anything I want because I go out with friends and enjoy myself- plus I do a lot of physical activity so I can say I deserve it!” Mariam’s career has been quite adventurous and exciting, but as she tells us, will become even more-so over the next few months. “In one month I will start a new comedy TV show called “Gym Tony” about gyms and the different kinds of people who go to the gym and the everyday life in a gym. It will go well with my June 2014

Eating was once a very simple and instinctive process. Now, it has been complicated by an abundance of pre-prepared food, data and statistics, and above all, commercial and corporate influences. We feel it is time to take things back to the drawing board and learn how to eat simply in this complex world, and understand the truth about what we are eating.

June 2014

Over the past few years, supermarkets, health food stores and pharmacies have been pushing this new group of foods called the “superfoods”. With advertisements and commercials claiming health benefits as amazing as “cancer-preventative properties, it is time to review the science and research to find evidence for all these claims. ~Dr.Christine Kettle Superfoods are foods with concentrated and high levels of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants in plant form and hence can be consumed in smaller quantities than regular fruit and vegetables. So what foods are considered to be “super” and is there any evidence to substantiate these claims? Here we are going to look at some of the most commonly used superfoods and if there is any scientific evidence as to whether the incorporation of them into everyday diets has any therapeutic advantages. Algae: Seaweeds and marine algae have been consumed by some cultures for many years. They are thought to be a complete food due to their ability to sustain large marine life as the sole dietary ingredient. With their incorporation into the diets of many cultures in recent times, their nutrient composition and possible health benefits have been scientifically evaluated. Algae are a rich source of protein reportedly containing a significantly higher percentage of protein per dry weight than meat. They also contain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega 3) that cannot be synthesised by higher plants and animals but are needed for correct brain and eye development (Spolaore et al., 2006). As well as being a source of protein, algae are also rich in minerals, mainly calcium and phosphorus. Whilst algae are high in protein they are low in lipid value (Aguilera-Morales et al., 2005). Some algal species have been

found to possess polysaccharides that have been attributed to having antiviral properties, antibiotic activity, anticancer and antitumor properties, antithrombic and anticoagulant activities and antiinflammatory uses; as well as the ability to lower blood glucose levels which is beneficial to those suffering from diabetes (Smit, 2004). More recently, studies have shown a possible use in the treatment of obesity as components of algae have been attributed to preventing the maturation of adipocytes (fat cells) (Ko et al., 2013).

The polysaccharides do not attack the cancer cells directly but work by activating different immune responses within the host (Wasser, 2002).

Coconut water: Coconut water is not only a refreshing beverage; it also provides a range of health benefits. It is isotonic with much less sugar that artificial sports drinks and therefore helps with dehydration, hangovers and diarrhoea. It supplies a balanced source of electrolytes including potassium and aids in reducing acidity in the body. Calcium and magnesium absorption is improved Medicinal Mushrooms: Many with ingestion of coconut water mushroom varieties have been and it is also a source of B group linked with numerous health bene- vitamins. It is believed to contain fits as they contain polyphenolic antiprozal-monoglyceride that can compounds that have antioxidant treat lipid coated viruses such as properties that enable the scaveng- HIV and herpes strains (Yong et ing of free radicals and decrease al., 2009). lipid peroxidation. They also chelate (mop up) ferrous ions that cause the oxidation and formation of the free radicals (Mau et al., 2002). Polysaccharides found in mushrooms have been noted as possessing antitumour properties with the prevention of oncogenesis by oral consumption and preventative effects on tumour metastasis. June 2014

Coconut oil: Oil from coconut is rich in medium chain fatty acids and has been linked to reducing the prevalence of heart disease. The incorporation of phenolic compounds also provides antioxidant properties (Mau et al., 2002). As well as the antioxidant and cardio protective properties, coconut oil has been attributed as exhibiting hypolidemic, antiseptic, antibacterial, anti-viral and antifungal, anti-cancer, immunostimulatory, anti-diabetic and hepatoprotective activities (Ogbolu et al., 2007, Zakaria et al., 2011, DebMandal and Mandal, 2011). It is also heat stable and therefore can be used for cooking at high temperatures without creating dangerous free radicals.

Cacao: Raw cacao beans contain antioxidant polyphenols; roasting of the beans disturbs the structure and therefore reduces the antioxidant properties (Arlorio et al., 2008, Lecumberri et al., 2007, Othman et al., 2007), hence consuming raw cacao is more beneficial. They also provide a rich source of dietary fibre, primarily insoluble fibre that aids digestive processes (Lecumberri et al., 2007). Cacao is high in procyandinids or flavanols which further support anti-oxidant properties and reduce platelet activation to enhance cardiovascular health and anti-inflammatory activity

(Chevaux et al., 2001, Steinberg et al., 2003). The beans are a rich in minerals especially magnesium, copper, potassium and manganese, with lower levels of calcium, iron, phosphorus, zinc and sodium (Othman et al., 2007) Hemp seed: Hemp seed contains all the major macronutriens, protein, carbohydrate, oil and insoluble fibre and has been reported to be instrumental in lowering high blood pressure and high cholesterol (Sacilik et al., 2003). It is also a source of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (Oomah et al., 2002, Sacilik et al., 2003). Adjuvant to the fatty acids is the presence of Îł -tocopherol providing anti-oxidant properties. Hemp has also been attributed as possessing anticonvulsant and anti-epileptic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial potential (Leizer et al., 2000). Acai: The berries contain flavo-

noids and proteins that inhibit the activity of salivary Îą-amylase having implications on carbohydrate digestion. These are also a source of fatty acids, amino acids and sterols (Schauss et al., 2006b). Acai berries contain vitamins C, Band E and the minerals iron, potassium, phosphorus and calcium (Schauss et al., 2006a). In conjunction to their anti-oxidant capacity they also provide potent anti -inflammatory activity by the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase 1 and 2, the enzymes that facilitate the in-

June 2014

flammation response (Schreckinger et al., 2010). Noni: Noni is usually consumed as a liquid extract or powdered supplement. It is believed to possess anti-inflammatory activity. There is also some supporting evidence of possible anti-cancer potential due to enhancement of the immune response (Brown, 2012, Clafshenkel et al., 2012).

Gogi: The composition of gogi berries consists of polysaccharides, B vitamins, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols and phytosterols and hence has antioxidant properties. There is some evidence to suggest potential photoprotection via this anti-oxidant activity (Reeve et al., 2010, Seeram, 2008)

Maca: Maca is a root vegetable native to mountainous Peruvian regions. It has been credited with many health benefits including enhanced sexual drive, increased vigour and energy and improving sexual fertility (Brooks et al.,

2008). The composition of maca includes alkaloids, glucosinates thought to combat pathogens and cancer, sterols providing antiinflammatory and anti-oxidant activities as well as reducing levels of plasma cholesterol; and a variety of secondary metabolites (Wang et al., 2007). Memory enhancement via the inhibition of enzymes that degrade neurotransmitters gives maca neuroprotective properties (Rubio et al., 2007). Maca is considered an adaptogen by its ability to stimulate the immune system and promote homeostasis. This is supported also by studies expressing results of hormonal balancing of post-menopausal women with maca supplementation (Meissner et al., 2005).

2013). They have been associated with improved insulin and glucose tolerance, decreased visceral adiposity, reduced cardiac and hepatic (liver) fibrosis and inflammation plus a rich source of dietary fibre (Poudyal et al., 2012). The nutraceutical composition of chia is phytosterols, tocopherols and fatty acids (Ciftci et al., 2012, Reyes-Caudillo et al., 2008) which provide anti-oxidant and free radical scavenging properties and are a source of omega 3 fatty acids which are essential components of neuronal cell membranes and neural system function (Halliwell et al., 2005, Ramadan, 2013, Kim and

Chia: The seeds from the sage Salvia hispanica, known as chia seeds are a potential source of bioactive peptides (Segura-Campos et al.,

Choe, 2012) . Hence we can see that there is supporting evidence that these super foods do contain many essential and beneficial nutrients. As with all food sources the amount of each constituent nutrient varies dependent on the environmental conditions under which it is grown. Temperature, rainfall and soil composition can all influence the final nutrient balance and this makes actual doses or portions hard to standardise. Most superfoods are used for prevention rather than to actually treat health problems. They are used to facilitate the ideal environment for the body to function at its optimal efficiency. Incorporation of these types of ingredients into any diet is simple and scientific evidence suggests that this may indeed be beneficial to promoting a general health and wellbeing of body and mind.

Choc-Energy Balls: Superfood, super taste and simple to make

So now you know about the superfoods, letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s put your knowledge into action! Here is a very simple and easy to follow recipe that uses 4 superfoods in one hit, plus several other very nutritious ingredients. Best of all, it tastes like a dessert and can be made in bulk and eaten anywhere! Ingredients: 12 tablespoons of cacao powder 1/2 a cup of almonds (or slightly less) 40 gram dates (a handful or so) 5 tablespoons of chia seeds 2 tablespoons of coconut oil (extra virgin variety) 1/2 cup of gogi berries Optional: 2 tablespoons of honey Instructions: 1. Mix the cacao powder and almonds in a bowl and grind them until they are in a powder form. You can use a food processor if you have one. 2. Mix all the other ingredients at a low speed for half a minute. Add the cacao and almond mix and mix for another half minute 3. Compress the mixture into small balls. This recipe should be enough for approximately 15, but it is up to you. This recipe takes only 5 minute preparation time, a blender, and minimum cleaning. See, it doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t take long to be healthy and it also tastes better than your typical dessert options! June 2014

Is there any truth behind some of the most alluring captions on supermarket shelves? We take a look at what some of the favourite messages and how you can source true healthy foods. ~Sonia Kaurah Eating a balanced diet is the key to fulfilling dietary recommendations and reaping the benefits of a variety of macro and micronutrients. “Balance” isn’t always easy to define, especially when recommended intakes differ based on an individual’s age, sex, weight, height, health status, physical activity and several other factors. We may not be able to obtain the “perfect” diet however, learning to understand nutrition labels can help us make better nutritious choices. How much do you notice food labels? Does a ‘fat free’ claim on a packet convince you to add it to your trolley over a packet that doesn’t state the fat content? You may notice that food packages are always labelled with the latest “buzz words”. When the media started raving about how great

are faced with an array of food options in the supermarkets? If we scrutinise every label, it would make the weekly shop go on for hours. So here are some fundamentals to make your shopping easier:

their products, but they can however easily mislead you into thinking something is healthier than it really is. They pick and choose which facts to showcase and are very good at manipulating words to their advantage. As a consumer, your best option is to disregard the claims on the front of the package and learn some quick tricks to look beyond the fancy marketing on the front and become nutritional expert!

wholegrain products are, suddenly words and logos for "whole grains" were plastered on packets of cereals, crackers, breads and even sweets! The next fad was low fat, where many manufacturers suddenly began to draw attention to the low fat content of their product, both in an effort to draw in consumers, and to show that they were keeping up with changing wants and needs. No matter what the fad is—low-carb, no transaturated fats, organic, or hearthealthy, manufacturers will try to lure you into buying their product. By law food manufacturers cannot lie to you about the ingredients in

What are calories and kilojoules? We hear the word calorie and kilojoule thrown around all the time, however; do we actually know what is meant by a “calorie”? In scientific terms a calorie is the energy required to heat 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree Celsius. What we usually refer to as “calories” is actually kilocalories (kcal). So what does this actually mean to us? Simplistically, it is an amount of energy that comes from food. The official measure of this energy is a Joule (Kj). If you see “Kj” on a packet but want to know how many calories it contains, all you have to do is divide it by 4.2. The nutrition label usually located on the back of a food packet is the best way to make an informed decision about the calories and nutritional value of foods, rather than just looking at the marketing material on the front. So what should we do when we June 2014

A nutritional information panel (NIP) displays the content of energy, fat, saturated fat, protein, carbohydrate, sugar, and sodium per serving and per 100 grams of food. The “per 100g” column is the best

way to compare similar products with each other. The figures in the per 100g column are the same as percentages. For example, if 20 grams of fat is listed in the ‘per 100g’ column this means that the product contains 20% fat. The data worth ignoring is the Percent Daily Value (% DV), as this is usually based on a 2,000 calorie diet which is the recommended calorie intake for a middle aged man weighing around 80kgs. The percent daily

value is different for everyone; therefore it is best to understand what constitutes healthy fat, sugar and sodium levels and go from there. The key to a healthy and balanced diet is not to ban or omit any foods or food groups but to balance what you eat by consuming a variety of foods in the right proportions. On average a healthy individuals diet should contain 20-30% protein, 40-60% Carbohydrates, up to 20% good fats/oils and dairy products and under 10% from sugars. Don’t be fooled by the marketing on the packets, in our health conscious age manufactures will generally try to market their product according to the latest health fad, some common examples to look out for are: Lite’ or ‘light’: Foods that are described as ‘light’ or ‘lite’ may not be light in kilojoules or fat, but instead light in taste, colour or texture. The characteristic that makes the food ‘light’ must be stated on the label so make sure to check this. Low-fat: It might say low fat or 90 per cent fat-free, however this means that the food is actually 10 per cent fat, and also if it claims to be low in fat they are usually high in sugar to compensate for the lack of taste. Fat Free: An example of an unhelpful fat-free claim is a carton of 100% orange juice. Here, a fat-free claim isn’t helpful labelling, even though it is truthful. Oranges are

naturally fat-free, so 100% orange more than 1 serving size, but who juice always has and always will is going to stop eating a mars bar halfway through? Therefore the main thing you want to note is the size of a single serving and how many servings are in the package. If the label says "one cup" per serving size and "two servings per packet," this means that there are two cups in the whole package. If you know you’ll eat the whole package by yourself, then you are going to consume two cups or two serving sizbe fat-free, regardless of whether it es. Sure, that pack of Tim Tam’s is highlighted on the label or not. you open while sitting and watchTV is bad for you; however it No cholesterol’ or ‘low cholester- ing is all balance. So if you are ol’: Only foods derived from ani- goingabout to eat them then all I ask if mals contain cholesterol, so ‘no of you is to look at the nutrition cholesterol’ or ‘low cholesterol’ panel and check the serving size claims on foods derived from and try to stay within the 1 serving plants are meaningless, because all size. plant foods contain virtually no cholesterol. Counting calories can be labourintensive, and can take all the fun Whole Grains: “Made with of eating. So instead of fixating Whole Grains” claims just need a out on calories, think food, glorious small percentage of whole grains food! Choosing foods that are high to use this claim, which means in fibre, low in sugar, salt and fat, nothing for your health. will automatically include nutrithat fill you up on fewer caloNo added sugar: This just means ents ries; is the secret to stress-free that they didn’t add any; however caloriethiscutting. by taking a it does not mean that it contains no quick look at theAnd 4 main values on sugar. The product could still con- the nutritional label we discussed tain a large amount of natural sug- earlier can help us obtain that ar, like in dried fruit, honey or fruit healthy diet, so next time you’re in juices, so check the nutrition infor- the supermarket make sure you mation panel, to check just how take a quick look at the amount of much natural sugars there are. fats, sugars, sodium and then finalSize Matters when it comes to ly serving size. portion size. It might surprise you to know that an individually wrapped chocolate bar is usually Nutrition Label Definitions = 3g of fat or less per 100g Low Fat foods = at least 25% of RDI of the vit/min per serve Good source of vitamin/mineral = at least 6g fibre per serve Very high in fibre or Excellent source of fibre foods High fibre foods or Good source of = at least 3g fibre per serve fibre foods = <80 kJ per 100 mL of liquids or <170 kJ per 100 g of Low Joule solid or semi-solid foods = 120mg of sodium or less per 100g Low Salt foods = 25% less fat than the regular product and at least 3g or Reduced Fat foods less fat per 100g June 2014 @projectthirdworld

June 2014

Project Third World: June 2014  

Spanish Actress Mariam Hernández shares her tips on what is means to be healthy. We look at the superfoods and if they are really 'super', t...

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