BLOCK PRINTING TECHNIQUES ON INDIGO DYED KHADI ( N A T I O N A L
C E N T E R
F O R
T E X T I L E
D E S I G N )
ACKNOWLEDGMENT This project has not been possible without help from so many people in so many ways. It is also the product of a large measure of serendipity, the fortuitous encounter with people who have given a positive direction to academic career. My deepest appreciation to National centre for textile design (NCTD) and Mr Vikash Kumar, Assistant Director Design, NCTD, for introducing me to the graceful world of Indian Handloom, traditional dyeing and block printing, and for his continuous support and guidance in my project during my internship. I would also like to thanks, other members of Weavers Service Centre, Mr Mahinder Kumar and Mr Asif for their help and support in the development of samples. My vote of thanks to Mr Gulam Navee, owner of Navee block printing unit and Mr Dhananjaye, printing manager of Anupam Printers Pvt Ltd. for their support and guidance in the development of block printing samples. It gives me immense pleasure to acknowledge with gratitude, the esteemed guidance, constructive criticism, the ever willing help of Dr Varsha Gupta, my internship mentor, National institute of fashion Technology, New Delhi.
Bhawna Chauhan Master of Design National Institute of Fashion Technology New Delhi 2015-17
ABOUT ORGANIZATION ........................................................................................... 1) METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................. 2) OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................... 3) INDIGO DYEING BACKGROUND ..................................................................................................... 4) SHADES OF INDIGO................................................................................................... 5) BLOCK PRINTING BACKGROUND ............................................................................................ 6) EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS ............................................................................... ( BLOCK PRINTING ) 7) CONCLUSION .......................................................................................................
The present research is descriptive and experimental research. it is primarily based on experiments carried out to develop te sample of block printing and shade development of indigo dye with the help of processing units like Anupam printers Pvt Ltd, Gulam Navee block printing unit and weavers service center to understand the feasibility of process using block printing technique. Primary research has been conducted through interviewing Mr. Dananjaye (Printing Manager of Anupam Printers Pvt Ltd.) to understand the present trend of screen printing techniques and Mr Gulam Navee shared is experience in block printing technique and its market. A secondary research has been done in order to understand origin and traditional block printing techniques practice by versatile craftsmen all across India and data has been collected from news articles, journels, books, documentary movies and documented craftsmen â€˜s interviews. The analysis as has been done on the bases of experiment conducted to produce block printing sample and shade developed of indigo dye, to understand the feasibilty of proposed contemporary printing techniques.
OBJECTIVE Research Title: Experimental research on contemporary Block printing techniques on Indigo dyed Khadi. General Objective : The broad objective of this research is to understand each and every aspect of hand block printing, its origin, techniques, people related to this art form and geographical location where this art form is ďŹ‚ourishing. The study has been carried out to understand the present techniques those are practices by the various artisan in different parts of the country and how contemporary techniques can be integrated with traditional block printing techniques to create a new expression of block printing in the market without damaging its traditional authenticity. Specific objective: 1) To understand the traditional block printing techniques practising in a different part of India. 2) Experimentation with indigo dye and development of shades. 3) Experimentation and analysis of the feasibility of contemporary techniques of printing using blocks and development of samples.
Indigo Dyeing Background England. Spain imported the dye from its colonies in South America. Many indigo ndigo is among the oldest dyes to be used plantations were established by European powers in tropical climates; it was a major crop for textile dyeing and printing. Many Asian in Jamaica and South Carolina. Indigo countries, such as India, China, and Japan, plantations also thrived in the Virgin Islands. have used indigo as a dye for centuries. However, France and Germany outlawed imported indigo in the 1500s to protect the local India is believed to be the oldest center of indigo dyeing in the Old World. It was a primary woad dye industry. Indigo was the foundation of centuries-old textile supplier of indigo to Europe as early as the Greco-Roman era. The association of India with traditions throughout West Africa. The use of indigo here pre-dated synthetics. From the indigo is reﬂected in the Greek word for the dye, which was indikon. The Romans used the Tuareg nomads of the Sahara to Cameroon, clothes dyed with indigo signiﬁed wealth. term indicum, which passed into Italian dialect Women dyed the cloth in most areas, with the and eventually into English as the word indigo. Yoruba of Nigeria and the Manding of Mali The Romans used indigo as a pigment for particularly well known for their expertise. painting and for medicinal and cosmetic Among the Hausa male dyers working at purposes. It was a luxury item imported to the communal dye pits were the basis of the wealth Mediterranean from India by Arab merchants. of the ancient city of Kano, and can still be seen Indigo remained a rare commodity in Europe plying their trade today at the same pits. throughout the Middle Ages; woad, a dye derived from a related plant species, was used In 1865 the German chemist Johann Friedrich instead. Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer began working with indigo. His work culminated in the ﬁrst synthesis of indigo in 1880 from o-nitrobenzaldehyde and acetone upon addition of dilute sodium hydroxide, barium hydroxide, or ammonia and the announcement of its chemical structure three years later. BASF developed a commercially Fig 1 (A)(Above): Woad Plant feasible manufacturing In the late ﬁfteenth century, the Portuguese process that was in explorer Vasco da Gama discovered a sea use by 1897, and route to India. This led to the establishment of by 1913 natural direct trade with India, China, and Japan. indigo had been Importers could now avoid the heavy duties imposed by Persian and Greek middlemen and almost entirely replaced by the lengthy and dangerous land routes which synthetic indigo. In had previously been used. Consequently, the 2002, 17,000 tons importation and use of indigo in Europe rose of synthetic indigo signiﬁcantly. Fig 1 (B)(Above):Johann were produced Much European indigo from Asia arrived Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer through ports in Portugal, the Netherlands, and worldwide.
Properties of Indigo Dyestuff
Indigo dyestuff which is classiﬁed as vat dye is insoluble in water and has no afﬁnity to the ﬁbre. They have poor washing fastness which lets the color of denim fabric to change naturally. Indigo creates living colours on fabrics. Indigo dyestuff can never fully penetrate into the ﬁbre, since its molecule is so big and it only adheres to the surface and remains at outer surface of the ﬁbre. The inside stays white. It abrades or fades continually. This character of indigo lets denim fabric to have its ﬁnal look with different types of washing and ﬁnishing applications. It enables denim fabric to response to ﬁnishing applications that gives a real life to the fabric. Indigo dye should be classiﬁed into two different chemical forms:
In order that indigo is able to dye the ﬁbre, it needs to be activated (leuco-form). In other words, indigo should be converted into soluble form and the afﬁnity to ﬁbre should be increased. Some chemical reactions are necessary for converting indigo to leuco form. These reactions are called "reduction". Reduction takes place in certain conditions with the presence of hydrosulﬁte ini alkaline medium. To keep the solution alkaline (basic), caustic (NaOH ) is used.
1. Natural form, insoluble in water (cannot dye the ﬁbre) 2. Leuco form, soluble in water (can dye the ﬁbre) In natural form, indigo dyestuff has a color of blue but after reduced to leuco form, the color of the solution turns to yellow.
After reducing and dyeing, dyed ropes have to be aerated so that the dye and ﬁbre can be ﬁxed together. This process is called "oxidation". However, the reduced, leuco form of indigo, has low afﬁnity for the ﬁber. Therefore, more number of dips are required to achieve good indigo dyeing. Vatting is the chemical reduction process which is the origin of vat dyes. Penetration is the ability of dyestuff to diffuse or get into the ﬁbre. Afﬁnity is the attraction or force between dyestuff and ﬁbre that causes them to combine.
Fig 1 (C)(Above): Dyeing process of Indigo Dye.
shade indigo - 07
shade indigo - 04
o0 ig e
ig d in
shade indigo - 01
dig n i de a h s
Indigo Dyeing Main Parameters · · ·
Reduced indigo concentration :- Effective on color depth and darkness. Hydro concentration: - This chemical helps in reduction of indigo dyestuff. The amount of hydro in the dye bath has a great importance. The amount of hydro effects penetration of indigo dye into the ﬁber. pH (the alkalinity of the solution) :- The typical feature of indigo dyestuff is that pH should be higher than 11.5. The best dyeing is achieved between 11.5 – 12.5. As penetration of indigo dye increase with increase in pH value and consistent shade can be achieve.
Process A : Dyeing with natural indigo
Process B : country vat dyeing
The O v a l earthen container is taken, of about 10-12 ft. deep, 2ft. circumference at top and bottom and approx 3 – 4 ft. in the middle, put in ground keeping the mouth ﬁrst above the ﬂoor. 2. The vat is prepared initially with about 1500-2000 liters water, 5-6 kg. indigo, 4-5 kg. calcium carbonate. 3. This mixture is kept for approx 30 days for vatting. 4. The material is dipped in the vat for dyeing, taken out, squeezed and opened in the air for the development of shade.
The indigo dye cake is grounded into powered form. 2. As indigo power is not soluble in water, hence it is dissolved with caustic soda and sodium hydrosulphite and turkey red oil. The amount of indigo dye powder is taken as per shade requirement standard. 3. Once the paste is prepared, warm water is added. The mixture is treated for 15 minutes at 50 degree Celsius, when the dye is reduced to leuco form and dissolved, this process is known as vatting. 4. 20 times of water to the weight of the fabric is boiled at 50 degree Celsius. The vatted dye is added to dye bath and dyeing is continued for 30 minutes for pale shade. 5. For darker shades, the process is repeated 3 to 4 times. 6. The material is taken out of the bath squeeze and immediately dipped in cold water before exposed to air for oxidation and color development.
0o 2 AS PER METHOD 1* DYE : 8% FABRIC WT. SODIUM HYDROSULPHITE : 10% FABRIC WT. CAUSTIC SODA : 10% FABRIC WT. TEMPERATURE : 40’C TIME : 60 SECONDS DIPS : 2
0o 3 AS PER METHOD 1* DYE : 15% FABRIC WT. SODIUM HYDROSULPHITE : 15% FABRIC WT. CAUSTIC SODA : 15% FABRIC WT. TEMPERATURE : 40’C TIME : 60 SECONDS DIPS : 2
*Three different methods are used to prepare dye bath. Method 1 : Similar to process A (as mentioned on Pg 9) Method 2 : The dye bath is prepared as per process A, and then left untouched for two days. Method 3 : The dye bath is prepared as per process A, and then left untouched for 4-5 days.
AS PER METHOD 1* DYE : 8% FABRIC WT. SODIUM HYDROSULPHITE : 8% FABRIC WT. CAUSTIC SODA : 8% FABRIC WT. TEMPERATURE : 40’C TIME : 30 SECONDS DIPS : 2
0o 4 AS PER METHOD 1* DYE : 15% FABRIC WT. SODIUM HYDROSULPHITE : 15% FABRIC WT. CAUSTIC SODA : 15% FABRIC WT. TEMPERATURE : 40’C TIME : 2 MINUTES DIPS : 2
indig shade o 08
AS PER METHOD 3* DYE : 15% FABRIC WT. SODIUM HYDROSULPHITE : 15% FABRIC WT. CAUSTIC SODA : 15% FABRIC WT. TEMPERATURE : 40’C TIME : 15 MINUTES DIPS : 2
shade indigo 07
AS PER METHOD 2* DYE : 15% FABRIC WT. SODIUM HYDROSULPHITE : 15% FABRIC WT. CAUSTIC SODA : 15% FABRIC WT. TEMPERATURE : 40’C TIME : 15 MINUTES DIPS : 2
shade indigo 06
0 e indigo 5
s ha d AS PER METHOD 1* DYE : 15% FABRIC WT. SODIUM HYDROSULPHITE : 10% FABRIC WT. CAUSTIC SODA : 10% FABRIC WT. TEMPERATURE : 40’C TIME : 10 MINUTES DIPS : 1
AS PER METHOD 1* DYE : 15% FABRIC WT. SODIUM HYDROSULPHITE : 15% FABRIC WT. CAUSTIC SODA : 15% FABRIC WT. TEMPERATURE : 40’C TIME : 20 MINUTES DIPS : 2
BACKGROUND Since ancient time men invested in textile in one or another way to protect his body from climatic changes. But with human growth and development textile made its signiﬁcant identity in human‘s life and now textile is not only about protection of the body from the climatic condition but it has become an epitome of personality. They not only reﬂect individual‘s personality but they can also use as markers of groups, community, family, region, religion, and geographical location. With an increase in interest, demand and competition various processes of the decoration of fabric has been introduced by which more attractive textiles can be produced. The different mediums to make the fabric more attractive are dying, printing, embroidery and etc. The discovery of dyed cotton fabric back date 5000 years, shows that Indian dyers of Indus valley civilisation knew the technique is responsible for making India famous all around the world for it's dyed and printed fabric. Thousands of years after Indus valley civilisation, with the development of technology and increase demands of market various printing techniques, has come in the market like screen printing, digital printing, roller printing and etc. The decoration of textile is an ancient art. Among the wide variety of decorative techniques honed by craftsmanship was the patterning on textiles through stamping with blocks. The art of block printing is a labour intensive and painstaking procedure that has survived till date, because of the beauty of handmade products. Scraps of cloth found in the ruins of Mohenjo Daro, an ancient city of the Indus Valley Civilization, provide evidence that block printing was practiced in India as long ago as 3000 BCE.(Hobbins 2007) . The stone bust of the Priest-King at Mohenjo-Daro [Fig 1 (a)], his left shoulder draped in a robe with a trefoil design, signaled a long developed tradition of patterning and decorating textiles. The art ﬂourished in the 12th century under the patronage of the rajas. The 17th century
Fig 1 (a)(Above):The stone bust of the Priest-King at Mohenjo-Daro
saw a revitalization of the art. And still, here in the 21st century, block printing of fabric by hand is an art practised by Indian artisans for the enjoyment of owners of those fabrics throughout the world. The process of block printing demands time, hard work, teamwork and especially skills. The process involves three main tools that are dye, block and fabric. The tools used were seemingly simple yet technologically evolved – blocks carved with patterns and motifs, intricate or complex. It takes around 3 to 4 days to carve an intricate design on a teak wood block. The more the number of blocks used in a design more will be it’s uniqueness and beauty. The artisan may use up to 30 blocks in a single design, using different colours for different blocks and it is not unusual to have ﬁve to six colours in a professional design. With the increase in the intricacy of design number of people involved and total time taken for production will increase. It can take twenty people, each doing a separate task, up to eight hours to prepare a single block printed garment. Dyeing and printing agents also play an equal signiﬁcant role in this printing technique. Understanding of plants and minerals led to the development of advanced technologies of laying on multiple colours. The knowledge of fastener agents, adhering colours binding them to textile
ﬁbers, developing shades and spectrums of colours and hues, processes of resist and Over the ages block printing had the versatile type of clientele and who covered the spectrum from courts and courtiers to peasants and tribal's, from textiles created for places of worship to trade goods coveted the world over. And hence block printed textile did not remain limited to only garments, was used for home furnishing, hangings, tents, animal trappings to book covers or any other used in which textiles can be used. The process of the block printing starts with the selection of wooden block‘s design. The shape of the wooden block is designed in such a way that it is convenient for the printer to use it. On the top of the block, there is a handle for the printer to grasp and each block has two to three cylindrical holes for passage of air and allow the excess dye to squeeze out. To make block usage more comfortable there are various points carved into the block, those act as placement indicators. After carving of design on the block each block is soaked in oil for one and a half weeks to two weeks to soften the wood. The next step of the process is the arrangement of fabric. Artisans stretched the fabric and ﬁx it tightly using pins on block printing special table; this table has 24 layers of jute taut over the table. The jute taut serve as a pad to provide resiliency to the printing surface. When the printers are ready to do the printing, they select the approach of printing technique. For example in direct printing technique base fabric is ﬁrst bleached and then dyed in the desired colour. The background colour remains the same as printer proceeds to print designs onto the dyed fabric using the wooden block. Printing is done from left to right. In direct block print methods, the printer dips the block into the dye then presses it onto the fabric. The printer slams the back of the block hard with the ﬁst to create a clear impression. Then the printer moves the block to the next portion of fabric to be dyed, using points on the block to serve as a guide for the placement of the block. The printing trays are the square wooden receptacle in which thick layers of absorbent
felt material is spread. The printing paste is evenly spread over the felt material. These trays are put on wooden trolleys provided with wheels to facilitate easy movement of the printer from one place to another. Different colours can be used to create more interesting and unique patterns. Each colour in design is done by a different printer, coming behind the one before and repeating the process. Once the printing process gets over on the whole fabric, the fabric is dried and treated to ﬁx the dyes and printing. After drying and treatment, fabric achieves rich and vibrant colours. This process of block printing has been used for centuries but each center is stamping their own unique cultural identity. The huge diversity of traditions leads to adaptation of technologies and techniques to suit their local geographies, leading to speciﬁcation and differentiation. .Below are few diverse traditions those are still practised by artisans in centres across India:
Bagru Clay Resist Hand blocks printing: Bagru, a small town contiguous with Jaipur, the capital city of Rajasthan, has long been known for its clay resist dabu process of patterning on textiles. The art of Bagru resists printing is practice by printers of Chippa community. Main ingredients use in preparation of print paste are Black clay from ponds, Bidhan (Wheat powder), Gum Arabic, and Lime water. The recipe of preparation of Dabu paste is vary from printer to printer, as it is considered as a secreted recipe which is only passed by one generation to their next generation wit in their family. This paste is applied on fabric using wooden block. Blocks for Dabu are ingeniously carved, the motifs deeply engraved are a hairbreadth smaller that the ﬁnal dimensions required, keeping in mind the slight diffusion of the Dabu paste as it is stamped on.(Sethi,2013). Once the application of Dabu is done on the fabric, sawdust is sprinkled manually on wet Dabu print and left for few hours to dry. Once the Pasted dried off, extra saw dust Is brushed off. After printing and drying the fabric is then dyed in the cold dye solution. Indigo (4)
Fig 1(b) (Above) : Bagru clay resist print sample and set for blocks of block printing.
mixture of camel dung, soda ash and castor oil and kept for overnight. This process is repeated for 7-8 times. When the solution turned frothy that indicates that starch has been removed from the fabric. After removal of starch, fabric is treated with 'harda powder solution in water, which act as the mordant for colour fastness. Once the fabric gets dried then the process of block printing started on the fabric. Quicklime, Gum Arabic and ( babool tree resin) is mixed with water to make resist paste for block printing. By using this paste block printing is done on both sides of the fabric to resist dying colour. Then the fabric is dyed in Indigo dye, the process of Indigo dye is repeat 2 -3 times depending upon the depth of colour required. Leaving the resist area, the cloth is dyed blue in the exposed area and the resist part will remain white. Similarly, a black colour paste is prepared with the breakdown of rusted iron and jaggery in water which is decomposed for around 20 days and it becomes ferrous. This ferrous is then boiled with tamarind seeds (kachula) to prepare the black colour paste. This paste gives dark grey colour after washing. Another colour which is mostly used in Ajrakh block printing is prepared with the mixture of Alum, Arabic gum and clay which is kept for three to four days. After washing clay and Arabic gum remove from the fabric and presence of alum results in yellow
ﬁber dyeing is quite common. This would produce white print effect against the blue background. The social signiﬁcance of the printed textile, the colours and motifs printed indicated marital status and distinguished the ethnic identity of the wearer. While much has changed the print technology followed and the colour palette of deep red, indigo-blue, green, iron-black and marigold yellow remains the same even though chemical dyes have largely replaced the natural dyes of the past. Ajrakh block printing of kutch Ajarkh block printing is practised by Muslim Khatris, these Khatri's artisan came from Sind around 400 years ago and settled in the village of Dhamadka. But later they moved from Ajarkpur after 2001 devastating earthquake in Kutch. In the wake of this tragedy, the Khatris were brought closer together and a new village was created to rebuild their lives and their craft production, aptly named Ajrakhpur (‘place of Ajrakh'). The whole process to develop a fabric using Ajrakh block printing takes a lot of time as each process is done on separate days. The traditional process of printing is in fourteen sequential stages, each comprising several steps that are accomplished over several days. Traditionally Ajrakh printing is done on both sides of the fabric. The ﬁrst step of the process is to remove starch from fabric which is done by soaking fabric in the
Fig 1© (Above) : Stages of Ajrakh hand block printing
The stamping tool of khari printing is different from other block printing. Khari stamping tool is derived from wooden block printing tool but its has different functionality. The tool has a close ﬁtted structure ﬁtted in to each other. The outer sancha is made of brass and at bottom of it the design is perforated. The sancha can be of any shape, square, rectangle or any other shape depending on demand of design. . The inner component of the sancha is the hatha wooden mallet, ﬁtting perfectly into the metal sleeve. The hatha performs the task of a plunger. Operating on a principle similar to an extrusion used for savouries or pasta, the hatha forces
colour. Similarly, if fabric is dyed in Alizarine than alum will result in red colour. Gold and Silver Dust khari hand block printing . Traditional Khari printing is form of hand block printing which gives precious look to the garment as dust of expensive metals is used to ornamented plain or printed fabric. This fabric is mostly preferred to wear on special occasion, festivals or weddings. This form of art can also be considered as alternative of high priced Zardozi metal thread embroidery.
Fig 1 (d) (Above): Set of blocks for Khari hand block printing and khari application process.
With the change in time though the printing process remained the same but expensive metal dust is replaced by its low price available substitute in market like crushed mica – chumki and other affordable metals. Jaipur – the royal capital of Rajasthan has vibrant communities those are practicing their oral hereditary tradition of khari hand block printing
the thick viscous roghan paste through the perforation to form the motif on the textile. Application of Khari on the fabric surface is initial step of printing process. While the Roghan paste is not set, the metal dust or mica abrakh power dispersed on the applied roghan surface. One the khari and metal powder gets dried then extra powder is removed and save for further use. This process gives a scintillating surface ornamentation to the fabric. The wide range of motifs can be created using khari printing but the only constrain of these heavy dots or lines or ﬁlled motifs patterns, stiffen the surface and reduce the drapability of the fabric. But the ﬁnished product replicates the luxury ,metal thread embroidery. While demand for sparkling motifs on textile products continues unabated both from both traditional and new clientele, the numbers of artists engaged in this old age technique of Khari
Unlike other block printing techniques khari paste in this technique don't penetrate the surface of the fabric, though it gives 3dimensioned hand feel. Its usage is extending to plain, dyed, printed, embroidered or otherwise ﬁnished textiles. This technique is done on wide range of different variety of fabric but now with increase in demand it is also done on paper too, especially on hand made paper. The ﬁrst step of printing is preparation of special Roghan gum paste which is made up of a cooked mixture of castor oil that has been processed through repeated boiling till it forms a thick, viscous, gooey mass. Followed by the addition of other ingredients that include turpentine, further heated, thickened and strained till the paste achieves the acceptable printing consistency.
Fig :1 (e) (Above) : Sample of khari hand block prin ng.
process of silk-screen printing is ringing in its death knell. (Sethi,2013).
boiling indigo vat. The process of dyeing is conducted for 3 -4 and accompanied with air drying for oxidation and sun drying for development of color. This result in deep blue black colour of base fabric and Mern resist protected area remains unaltered. While much has remained the same in Akola there is also change, the Bedach River that ďŹ‚owed through the village with its mineral rich waters that enhanced the dyed colours is now dry, its sandy bed used for drying fabric.The demand for Mern resist textiles is on the wane with the young not willing to carry on the tradition and urban fashions changing the sartorial needs of the clientele. (Seth, 2013)
AKOLA MERN BLOCK PRINTING ON TEXTILE Akola Mern block printing is practices by Cheepa community of block printers and Neelgar community of indigo dyers. These two communities are working and living together in Cheepon Ka Akola, from their last ten generations. They have long established clients like Gujjar, Jat, raigar and other dwellers those belongs to these parts or near by parts. While with change in time they also extended their market beyond boundaries of Rajasthan and even internationally. The source and composition of the Mern resin is obscure; its use associated with the Cheepa printers deity Saint Namdev, who.
Fig 1(g) (Above)(left): Fabric prepared for indigo vat dye. (Right): Finished printed sample.
. India is known for its traditional textiles all over th the world, since from early 14 century. Each and every block printing technique mentioned above or apart from these techniques are glorious in their own way. The geographical condition of a location is the most signiďŹ cant cause of emergence of almost every traditional block printing technique but with change in climatic and geographical conditional, block printing and natural dying techniques are also suffering a lot and got a setback in its progress. As these traditional techniques demands huge amount of time and patience and it is labor intensive and painstaking procedure which result in low rate of production therefore upcoming generation are not willing to carry these traditional techniques forward. This results in diminution of these traditional techniques those still there in our country from almost last 600 years only on the basis of oral lore from one generation to another.
Fig 1(f)(Above) : Akola Mern block for printing
legend has it gifted them the secret of the Mern.(Seth,2013). The blocks for stamping the Mern resist are also different from other wooden blocks; it also has metal part along with wood Fig 1(f). This printing technique has a dramatic color palette i.e. indigo-blue, blood-red and white which remains unchanged till date. The basic requirement of this technique is to protect red and white color motifs from the repeat dip in indigo dye. For resistance of indigo dye glutinous oily resinous Mern is applied on fabric to safeguards and secure these reserved areas, withstanding 8 to 12 dips in the
BLOCK PRINTING EXPERIMENTS AND ANALYSIS (12)
Experiment- 1 EXPERIMENT 1 : The aim of the experiment is to develop the sample of Foil printing on Indigo dyed Khadi fabric using block printing technique.
Introduction : The experiment is carried out using two different methods of foil printing performed at two different printing units. In ﬁrst method ‘Gold Varkh’ is used for foil printing. Foil printing by using traditional Gold or silver 'Varkh': Introduction Foil printing by using traditional Gold or silver 'Varkh': In this process traditional gold 'Varkh' is used as the foil. This 'Varkh' is manually prepared by skilled craftsmen from pure gold or silver. The 'Varkh' are of few micrometre thickness and supported by paper. Traditionally it is also used for garnishing sweets in south Asia. procedure 1(a)
The experiment was carried out with Gold varkh to understand the feasibility with block printing.
Similarly to the traditional block printing technique tray has been prepared but instead of the color adhesive tray has been prepared of thick ﬂowing consistency. Once the tray is prepared, an adhesive is applied on fabric using block.
When the application of adhesive is done on the fabric gold or silver Varkh is placed over the applied adhesive carefully, then the pressure is applied by using the ﬁst.
After few minute once the adhesive gets dried extra varkh is removed from the fabric.
Result and Analysis : Gold Varkh Sample is developed at Gulam Navee block printing unit. The base fabric is Indigo dyed Khadi. (13)
Introduction : The experiment is carried out using two different methods of foil printing performed at two different printing units. The second method to produce foil print is through using foil stamping process Foil printing by using Foil stamping : Introduction Metal Foil paper : This foil is mostly used in foil stamping process. Foil stamping is a special process in which heat, pressure and the metal paper foil are used to create shiny graphics on different material. The pneumatic (air powered) foil stamping machine is used in this process. The process is carried out with two different adhesive consistencies. procedure 1(a) [a] (with thick flowing consistency)
procedure 1(a) [b] (with thick consistency)
The experiment was carried out with metal foil paper to understand the feasibility with block printing at Anupam printers Pvt. Ltd, Faridabad
The experiment was carried out with metal foil paper to understand the feasibility with block printing at Anupam printers Pvt. Ltd, Faridabad
Similarly, to experiment 1(A) adhesive tray is prepared. Once the tray is prepared, the adhesive is applied on fabric using block. When the application of adhesive is done on the fabric than fabric is cured in curing machine to dry the adhesive
For Block printing the adhesive tray has been prepared with thick consistency. So, that a thick adhesive layer can be achieved on fabric. The adhesive is applied on fabric using block. When the application of adhesive is done on the fabric than fabric is cured in curing machine to dry the adhesive
Metal foil paper is placed on the applied adhesive .
Metal foil paper is placed on the applied adhesive .
The fabric is placed on pneumatic (air powered) foil stamping machine and pressure is applied at 180 c temperature.
The fabric is placed on pneumatic (air powered) foil stamping machine and pressure is applied at 180 c temperature.
Result and Analysis Foil does not transfer properly on the fabric as the adhesive layer on fabric is very thin. Hence for better foil transfer thicker layer of adhesive is needed. (14)
Result and Analysis Fine detailed designs cannot achieve through this process as the amount of adhesive and uniformity cannot be controlled through block printing technique.
Experiment-2 EXPERIMENT 2: The aim of the experiment is to develop the sample of Flock printing on Indigo dyed Khadi fabric using block printing technique. TECHNIQUE
Introduction : The experiment is carried out using using electrostatic ﬂock printing technique performed at Anupam Printers Pvt. LTD. flock printing by using electrostatic flocking Process : Introduction The electrostatic ﬂocking Process involves application of short micro ﬁlament of rayon/ polyester or nylon, directly of the fabric which is previously coated with adhesive in desired design. Electrostatic ﬂock applicators charge the ﬂock particles which are then attracted to the grounded surface that is to be ﬂocked. Unlike puffer or blown application methods which merely sprinkle a ﬂock layer onto the surface, the electrostatic application ensures that the ﬁbres all end up standing at right angles to the surface resulting in a velvet ﬁnish. procedure 1(a)
The experiment was carried out using polyester ﬂock micro ﬁlament.
Similarly to the traditional block printing technique tray has been prepared but instead of the colour adhesive tray has been prepared of thick ﬂowing consistency. Once the tray is prepared, the adhesive is applied on fabric using selected block.
The ﬂock machine is prepared with selected colour ﬂock.
The ﬂock is then applied, penetrating the surface of the adhesive to create the desired velvet ﬁnish
Result and Analysis : Flock printing sample is developed at Gulam Navee block printing unit. The base fabric is Indigo dyed Khadi.The important thing to note in this process that adhesive colour should be similar to the ﬂock colour otherwise adhesive shade will be visible through ﬂock layer. (16)
Experiment-3 EXPERIMENT 2: The aim of the experiment is to develop the sample of Discharge printing on Indigo dyed Khadi fabric using block printing technique.
Introduction : The experiment is carried out using two different methods of Discharge printing performed at Anupam Printers Pvt Ltd. In ﬁrst method ‘Potassium permanganate ’ is used for Discharge printing. discharge printing by using Potassium permanganate : Introduction : In this process discharge printing is carried out by using Potassium permanganate (Oxidizing agent), Sodium bisulﬁte (Reducing agent) and Acetic Acid (Conc).Through this process Discharge printing can be done on Indigo-dyed fabric through Oxidation reaction of Potassium permanganate in acidic pH and then Reduction through Sodium Bisulfate again in acid pH.
procedure 1(a) The procedure starts with preparation of paste of potassium permanganate and Acetic acid. To 1 kg of paste 40 grams of Potassium permanganate, 10grams of Acetic acid and 35 grams of Special thickener is mixed, to maintain consistency as per block printing requirement water is added. It is very important to note that percentage of ingredients in paste vary as per GSM of base fabric as this solution is acetic in nature and it may harm base fabric if the paste is not prepared as per base fabric strength. The prepared paste is applied on Indigo-dyed fabric using selected block. Once printing is done the print is cured and dried at 100 to 120 C temperature.
After curing the printed fabric is washed in the solution of Sodium Bisulﬁte (10g/L) and Acetic Acid (0.5g /L) for 15 minutes at 70 C for reduction of fabric. Once reduction is done the fabric is washed with soap for 10 minutes for better hand feel then Rinse with warm and cold water.
Result and Analysis : Discharge printing can be done by Potassium permanganate chemical using block printing technique. But the most important aspect of this process is the concentration maintenance of all the chemicals during the procedure as per base fabric GSM. (18)
Introduction : The experiment is carried out using two different methods of Discharge printing performed at two different printing units. The second method to produce Discharge print sample using discharge printing white paste. Discharge printing by using discharge printing white paste : Introduction The chemical structure of white discharge paste is Aqueous Emulsion of Acrylic Polymer And Titanium Dioxide. It is white paste of medium viscosity and 7.5-9 pH.
procedure 1(a) The procedure is start with preparation of white discharge paste. For 1000grams of total paste, put 70 Gr Activator Into Discharging Paste and mix. Wait 10-20 Minutes to dissolve powder and mix again. Check Dissolving By Your Hand. Please note using life of prepared paste is 4-4.5 hours.
The prepared paste is applied on Indigo-dyed fabric using selected block.
Once printing is done the print is cured and dried at 170 to 180 C temperature for 3 minutes in curing machine.
After curing the printed fabric is washed with softener to increase itâ€™s hand feel.
Result and Analysis : Discharge Print Sample is developed at Anupam Printers Pvt Ltd using block printing technique. The base fabric for the sample is Indigo dyed Khadi.