Courtyard Type, The Architecture of Collective Living

Page 1

Courtyard Type Studio Term 1 Parts, Units and Groups: The Architecture of Collective Living

Projective Cities: MPhil in Architecture and Urban Design Architectural Association School of Architecture in London


Projective Cities: MPhil in Architecture and Urban Design Architectural Association School of Architecture in London Projective Cities is dedicated to a systematic analysis of, design experimentation for, theoretical speculation on, and critical writing about contemporary cities. At the core of its research enquiries are multi-scalar and interdisciplinary questions arising at the intersection of architecture, urban design, and planning, but also the possibilities between design research and traditional modes of research. The programme’s aim is to challenge existing disciplinary boundaries and contribute to new architectural practices. Dr Sam Jacoby Dr Platon Issaias Dr Mark Campbell Dr Hamed Khosravi Spyros Efthymiou

Programme Director Programme Director Course Master Course Master Design Studio Consultant


Parts, Units and Groups The Architecture of Collective Living

Students from the Projective Cities programme examined precedents of the Architecture of Collective Living through their formative diagrams – in relation to different organisational, programmatic, social, economic, cultural, political, and material diagrams. The Architecture of Collective Living opens up a discussion of how the urban can be understood through specific architecture and its design, and how its urban effect is not only of spatial importance, but equally part of larger political and social discourses. The spatial organisation of the Architecture of Collective Living reflects informal and formal relations between subjects, between spaces, between structural and non-structural elements, between objects, and between protocols of use and occupation. Any form of collective living is characterised by particular multi-scalar power relations that are particular to each social group or collective. These shape architectural typologies and relate distinct social and formal diagrams. Typically, collective forms of living organise hereby part-to-whole relationships that set levels of interaction between individuals: rooms, dwelling units, horizontal and vertical circulations, spaces of shared activities and programmes, complexes, and larger groupings. Collective living and its politically, historically, socially, economically, and culturally specific characteristics have the capacity to challenge the dominant diagram of modernity: domesticity. The domestic is a spatial and social diagram with very specific hierarchies and relations: gender, age, and functional use. Today, the single-family dwelling is questioned by the realities of contemporary urban environments. New subjectivities have emerged: many outside traditional family structures and many increasingly collective or shared. Thus, one of the questions arising from collective forms of living is how architecture can respond to changing political, cultural, economic, and urban contexts and how to propose new effective design ideas and models?

3



Courtyard Type Dimitris Chatziioakeimidis, Wojciech Mazan

Projective Cities: MPhil in Architecture and Urban Design Architectural Association School of Architecture in London

5


6


Dimitris Chatziioakeimidis

7


8


Familistère, Guise (FR) Jean-Baptiste André Godin, 1859

9


One of the four corner staircases

10

Previous page source: Brauman, Annick, and Michel Louis. Jean-Baptiste Andre Godin, 1817-1888. Brussels: Editions des Archives d’architecture moderne, 1980. source: same


top: Tower on central block, bottom: Children’s festival in courtyard

source: Brauman, Annick, and Michel Louis. Jean-Baptiste Andre Godin, 1817-1888. Brussels: Editions des Archives d’architecture moderne, 1980.

11


0

12

10m

Plan of the ground and typical floor


Section

0

10m

13


0

14

10m

Courtyard & Interior Facade


Plan and axonometric of the unit

0

5m

15


top: Axonometric, bottom: Courtyard

16


top: Threshold Zone, bottom: Unit to Courtyard

17


18


Occo hofje, Amsterdam (NL) Jan Luyten, 1774

19


Regent’s room

20

Previous page source: http://www.hofjesberaad.nl/occo-hofje/ source: https://www.monumenten.nl/monument/2733


top: Courtyard, bottom: Chapel

source: https://www.monumenten.nl/monument/2733

21


0

22

10m

Plan of the ground and typical floor


Section

0

10m

23


0

24

10m

Courtyard & Interior Facade


Plan and axonometric of the unit

0

5m

25


top: Axonometric, bottom: Courtyard

26


top: Threshold Zone, bottom: Unit to Courtyard

27


28


Roosenberg abbey, Waasmunster (BE) Dom Hans van der Laan, 1975

29


Cloister

30

Previous page source: https://dom-hans-van-der-laan.divisare.pro/projects/368522-roosenberg-abbey source: same


top: Refectory, bottom: Courtyard

source: Jeroen Verrecht. https://www.domusweb.it/en/architecture/2017/10/09/a-house-for-the-mind-explores-the-worldsurrounding-the-philosophy-of-the-dutch-architect-monk-dom-hans-van-der-laan.html source: Orsenigo Chemollo. https://divisare.com/projects/343767-dom-hans-van-der-laan-orsenigo_chemollo-roosenberg-abbey

31


0

32

10m

Plan of the ground and typical floor


Section

0

10m

33


0

34

10m

Courtyard & Interior Facade


Plan and axonometric of the unit

0

5m

35


top: Axonometric, bottom: Courtyard

36


top: Threshold Zone, bottom: Unit to Courtyard

37


38


Deir-e Gachin Caravanserai, (IR) -

39


Interior view of entrance

40

Previous page source: Scohokoohy, Mehrdad. ‘The Sasanian Caravanserai of Dayr-i Gachīn, South of Ray, Iran’. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 46, no. 3 (1983). source: same


This content downloaded from 95.145.131.214 on Sat, 10 Nov 2018 11:05:15 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms

top: Common representation of courtyard activities, bottom: Fortified walls

source: Coste, Pascal-Xavier. Monuments modernes de la Perse. Paris: A. Morel, 1867. source: Scohokoohy, Mehrdad. ‘The Sasanian Caravanserai of Dayr-i Gachīn, South of Ray, Iran’. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 46, no. 3 (1983).

41


0

42

10m

Plan of the ground floor


Section

0

10m

43


0

44

10m

Courtyard & Interior Facade


Plan and axonometric of the unit

0

5m

45


top: Axonometric, bottom: Courtyard

46


top: Threshold Zone, bottom: Unit to Courtyard

47


48


Cowan court, Cambridge (UK) 6A Architects, 2016

49


Columna en el nuevo edificio y en el existente Column of new and existing college

148

Cloister

50

Previous page source: Benyei, Jaime, and Liliana C. Obal Díaz, trans. ‘Cowan Court, Churchill College’. El Croquis, no. 192 (2017). source: same


top: Courtyard, bottom: Student unit

source: Benyei, Jaime, and Liliana C. Obal Díaz, trans. ‘Cowan Court, Churchill College’. El Croquis, no. 192 (2017). source: https://www.architectural-review.com/buildings/into-the-woods-cowan-court-university-of-cambridge-uk-by-6aarchitects/10028345.article

51


0

52

10m

Plan of the ground and typical floor


Section

0

10m

53


0

54

10m

Courtyard & Interior Facade


Plan and axonometric of the unit

0

5m

55


top: Axonometric, bottom: Courtyard

56


top: Threshold Zone, bottom: Unit to Courtyard

57


Charterhouse General view

58

source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Vue_gĂŠnĂŠrale_de_la_chartreuse_de_Port-Sainte-Marie.png


Port St Marie charterhouse, Clermont (FR) Dom Hans van der Laan, 1975

59


top: General map of the charterhouse, bottom: Map of the surroundings

60

source: AbbĂŠ Mioche, La Chartreuse du Port Sainte-Marie en Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand : L. Bellet, 1896. source: Library of the city of Clermont-Ferrand, online archive, https://www.bibliotheques-clermontmetropole.eu/overnia/notice. php?q=theme_path_id%3A%28101%3B150%3B151%3B155%29&spec_expand=&start=7


Plan of the charterhouse top: 1st version, bottom: 2nd version source: Jeroen Verrecht. https://www.domusweb.it/en/architecture/2017/10/09/a-house-for-the-mind-explores-the-worldsurrounding-the-philosophy-of-the-dutch-architect-monk-dom-hans-van-der-laan.html source: Orsenigo Chemollo. https://divisare.com/projects/343767-dom-hans-van-der-laan-orsenigo_chemollo-roosenberg-abbey

61


0

62

10m

Plan of the ground floor


Section

0

10m

63


0

64

10m

Courtyard & Interior Facade


Plan and axonometric of the unit

0

5m

65


top: Axonometric, bottom: Courtyard

66


top: Threshold Zone, bottom: Unit to Courtyard

67


Familistère

Occo hofje

Roosenberg abbey

Threshold per unit

LIMITS

Porous 68

Non-porous

LIMITS

porous porous

non- porous non- porous

ZONES ZONES

LIMITS

Unit - Individual

unit - individual unit - individual

unit - antiroom

circulation

circulation

LIMITS porous porous

courtyard - collective non- porous

courtyard - collective non- porous

Unit -LIMITS Antiroom

unit - antiroom

LIMITS

porous porous

ZONES ZONES

Circulation

unit - individual

circulation

unit - individual

circulation

unit - antiroom

courtyard - collective

unit - antiroom

courtyard - collective

Courtyard - collective

ZONES ZONES

- individual unit -unit individual

circulation circulation

- antiroom unit -unit antiroom

courtyard - collective courtyard - collective


Deir-e Gachin Caravanserai

ZONES ZONES ZONES

Cowan court

Port St Mary charterhouse

69

unit - individual unit --individual unit individual

circulation circulation circulation

unit - antiroom unit --antiroom unit antiroom

courtyard - collective courtyard --collective courtyard collective


fam

fam

roosenberg roosenberg

Familistère

nursery theatre pool public baths shops

collective facilities

caravan caravan

courtyard surface 751 m2

washing room toilets church meeting room

collective facilities

vertical circulation horizontal circulation main entrance

vertical circulation horizontal circulation main entrance

vertical circulation horizontal circulation main entrance

Collective spaces, Circulation, Accessibility

70

roosenberg

12 Units

courtyard surface 1401 m2

toilets grocery bakery

fam

Roosenberg abbey

46 Units

courtyard surface 842 m2

collective facilities (outside building)

hofje

Occo hofje

314 Units

collective facilities (inside building)

hofje

church refectory kitchen washing room recreation area study hall atelier

hofje COW COWAN


roosenberg hofje

hofje fam caravan

Deir-e Gachin Caravanserai

43 Units

caravan roosenberg

COWAN

COWAN CHARTER

hofje

caravan

Cowan court

CHARTER

COWAN

Port St Mary charterhouse

18 Units

68 Units

courtyard surface 529 m2 courtyard surface 4754 m2

courtyard surface 4744 m2

collective facilities

collective facilities

vertical circulation horizontal circulation

bath house toilets mosque

vertical circulation horizontal circulation main entrance

meeting room store kitchens toilets

collective facilities (monks)

collective facilities (lay brothers)

church refectory cemetery

choir bakehouse chapel toilets

main entrance vertical circulation horizontal circulation main entrance

71



Wojciech Mazan

73


74


Domus Hispanica, Bologna (IT) Matteo Gattaponi, 1367

75


Arcade on the second floor. The width of the ‘cloister’ allows students to use it not only as circulation.

76

previos page source: Michael Kiene, ‘Die Erneuerung Der Italienischen Universitätsarchitektur Unter Carlo Und Federico Borromeo’, Zeitschrift Für Geschichte Der Baukunst – Journal of the History of Architecture, 18.2 (1988), p. 130. source: Gottfried Kerscher, ‘Palazzi “prerinascimentali”: la “rocca” di Spoleto e il Collegio di Spagna a Bologna. Architettura del cardinale Aegidius Albornoz, Annali di architettura, 1991, p. 25


The entrance to the front garden of the Domus Hispanica

source: Pietro Poppi, Bologna - Collegio Di Spagna - Porta d’ingresso, 1879, Pietro Poppi - Fotografia dell’Emilia, Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio in Bologna <https://collezioni.genusbononiae.it/products/dettaglio/14354#> [accessed 23.10.2018].

77


Plan of the ground floor

78


Plan of the first floor

0

10m

79


0

80

10m

Longitudinal section


Plan of the unit

0

5m

81


82


Collegio Borromeo, Pavia (IT) Pellegrino Tibaldi, 1561

83


Columns in the courtyard

source (previous page): ‘Collegio Borromeo’ <http://www.collegioborromeo.eu/portale/?p=4015> [accessed 2.11.2018]. source: Sandro Rizzi, Nel Colonnato Dell’Almo Collegio Borromeo, <http://www.cesareangelini.it/ritratti.html> 84

[accessed 11.10.2018].


top: View from the garden with a football goal, bottom: View towards the entrance

source: Michael Kiene, ‘Die Erneuerung Der Italienischen Universitätsarchitektur Unter Carlo Und Federico Borromeo’, Zeitschrift Für Geschichte Der Baukunst – Journal of the History of Architecture, 18.2 (1988), p. 129. source: Ibid.

85


Plan of the ground floor

86


Plan of the first floor

0

10m

87


0

88

10m

Section

source: Michael Kiene, ‘Die Erneuerung Der Italienischen Universitätsarchitektur Unter Carlo Und Federico Borromeo’, Zeitschrift Für Geschichte Der Baukunst – Journal of the History of Architecture, 18.2 (1988), p. 130.


Plan of the unit

0

10m

89


90


Waterlow Court, London (UK) Mackay Hugh Baillie Scott, 1909

91


View towards Waterlow Court’s courtyard in 1909

92

source (previous page): ‘Waterlow Court 1909’, Hampstead Garden Suburb Archives, London Metropolitan Archive. source: ‘Waterlow Court’, Hampstead Garden Suburb Archives, London Metropolitan Archive.


top: The interior of the courtyard, bottom: View towards the entrance

sources: ‘Waterlow Court’, Hampstead Garden Suburb Archives, London Metropolitan Archive.

93


Plan of the ground floor

94


Plan of the second floor

0

10m

95


0

96

10m

Cross and longitudinal sections


Plan of the unit

0

10m

97


98


Amerikanerhaus, Zuerich (CH) Oskar Schwank, 1915

99


top: Smaller room within the three bedroom apartment on the corner, bottom: Interior.

sources: ‘Aemtlerhalle, Amerikanerhaus’, Baugeschichtliches Archiv <https://baz.e-pics.ethz.ch/index.jspx?locale=en& 100

fbclid=IwAR0fdV61t-6Z0HFovh8q3Hs8zKh7gTsdRYkQx6ZGz9r5dJ6NF3oBZEJIB1A#1544296908333_8> [accessed 21.10.2018].


top: Corridor surrounding the courtyard, bottom: Shared facilities within the corridor

source: Ibid.

101


Plan of the ground floor

102


Plan of the typical floor

0

10m

103


0

104

10m

Cross section


Plan of the unit

0

10m

105


106


Tietgenkollegiet, Copenhagen (DK) Lundgaard & Tranberg Architects, 1915

107


Bird’s eye view of the building

108

sources: ‘Tietgenkollegiet’, Lundgaard & Tranberg Arkitekter <http://www.ltarkitekter.dk/tietgenkollegiet/> [accessed 18.10.2018].


View from the shared corridor towards the courtyard

source: Magdalena Eckersberg, Nina Haeg, and Ellen Ledsten, ‘Bofellesskap: Ett Alternativ for Fremtiden [Communal Housing: One Alternative for the Future]’, Arkitektur N, 95.04 (2013), p. 89.

109


Plan of the ground floor

110


Plan of the typical floor

0

10m

111


0

112

10m

Section


Plan of the unit

0

10m

113


114


Kalkbreite, Zurich (CH) Mueller Sigrist Architekten, 2014

115


View towards the courtyard

116

sources: ‘Architecture | Genossenschaft Kalkbreite’ <https://www.kalkbreite.net/en/kalkbreite/architecture-kalkbreite/> [accessed 1 October 2018].


The entrance

sources: ‘Architecture | Genossenschaft Kalkbreite’ <https://www.kalkbreite.net/en/kalkbreite/architecture-kalkbreite/> [accessed 1 October 2018].

117


Plan of the courtyard level

118


Plan of the third floor

0

10m

119


0

120

10m

Section


Plan of the unit

0

10m

121


CITY

THRESHOLDS

COLLECTIVE WITHIN COLLECTIVE

COLLECTIVE

INDIVIDUAL

CITY

THRESHOLDS

COLLECTIVE WITHIN COLLECTIVE

COLLECTIVE

INDIVIDUAL

CITY

THRESHOLDS

COLLECTIVE

INDIVIDUAL

COLLECTIVE WITHIN COLLECTIVE

23:59

23:59

23:59

MASS DINER, EVENING ROUTINE

MASS THEOLOGY CLASS, TIME TO STUDY

DINER RE-ENTRY

DINER

DINER

RE-ENTRY

RE-EXIT

RE-EXIT BREAKFAST

0:00

Domus Hispanica

Line represents a average 24 hours from. A day of an average member of particular collective.

Lines represent number of physical thresholds dividing courtyard from the outside world.

122

23:59

0:00

BREAKFAST, MORNING ROUTINE

0:00

CB4 CB3 CB2 CB1

CS4 CS3 CS2 CS1

0:00

RE-EXIT BRAKEFAST

Collegio Borromeo

W3 W2 W1

BREAKFAST

WORK OUTSIDE OF THE WATERLOW COURT

STUDIES OUTSIDE OF THE DOMUS HISPANICA

STUDIES OUTSIDE OF THE COLLEGIO BORROMEO

RE-ENTRY

Waterlow Court


CITY

THRESHOLDS

COLLECTIVE WITHIN COLLECTIVE

COLLECTIVE

INDIVIDUAL

CITY

THRESHOLDS

COLLECTIVE WITHIN COLLECTIVE

COLLECTIVE

INDIVIDUAL

CITY

THRESHOLDS

COLLECTIVE WITHIN COLLECTIVE

COLLECTIVE

INDIVIDUAL 23:59

23:59

23:59

USE OF COLLECTIVE BATHS USE OF COMMUNAL STUDY ROOMS

DINNER RE-ENTRY

DINER, EVENING ROUTINE

USE OF COMMUNAL KITCHEN OR LIVINGROOM

DINER

RE-ENTRY

WORK OUTSIDE OF THE AMERIKANERHAUS

STUDIES OUTSIDE OF THE TIETGEN DORMITORY

WORK/OTHER ACTIVITIES OUTSIDE OF THE KALKBREIT

RE-ENTRY

RE-EXIT RE-EXIT

BREAKFAST, MORNING ROUTINE

RE-EXIT

BREAKFAST

BREAKFAST

USE OF COLLECTIVE BATHS

USE OF COMMUNAL ROOMS

T1

T2

A1

A2

Amerikanerhaus

Tiettgenkollegiet

Kalkbreite

K1

0:00

0:00

K2

0:00

Daily Schedule Time spent in individual rooms

Time spent in collective spaces

Time spent in shared spaces of clusters

Time spent outside of the building 123


Domus Hispanica

124

1 – Main gate to the front garden – limit of accessibility – only members

4 – Portal

2 – Portal3 – Oversight of the guard

5 – Colonnade


Collegio Borromeo

1 – Main entrance to the building – limit of accessibility – only members

4 – Portal

2 – Oversight of the guard

5 – Colonnade

125


Waterlow Court

126

1 – Main entrance to the building – limit of accessibility – only members

4 – Oversight of the guard

2 – Facade of the building

5 – Gate to the courtyard


Amerikanerhaus

1 – Main entrance to the building – limit of accessibility – only members

2 – Gate to the courtyard

127


Tietgenkollegiet 1 – Main entrance

128

2 – Entrance to the elevator – limit of accessibility – only members

3 – Entrance to the courtyard


Kalkbreite

1 – Main entrance to the building

2 – Entrance to the courtyard

129


COURTYARD

COURTYARD

COURTYARD

courtyard

courtyard

courtyard

ACCES TO UNITS

ACCES TO UNITS

ACCES TO UNITS

CONTROL

CONTROL

LIMIT

LIMIT

context, exterior to the building

context, exterior to the building

context, exterior to the building

Domus Hispanica

Collegio Borromeo

Waterlow Court

CITY

The line represents a sequence which inhabitant has to walk in order to access from the outside to the courtyard, or vice versa.

130

LIMIT

CITY

CITY


COURTYARD

COURTYARD

COURTYARD

courtyard

courtyard

courtyard

ACCES TO UNITS

ACCES TO UNITS

LIMIT ACCES TO UNITS

LIMIT context, exterior to the building

context, exterior to the building

context, exterior to the building

Amerikanerhaus

Tiettgenkollegiet

Kalkbreite

CITY

CITY

CITY

Thresholds Access to individual units

Physical – architectural threshold

Limit of accessibility

Non-physical threshold – oversight of a guard 131


Amerikanerhaus

Kalkbreite

Parti

132

Waterlow Court


Domus Hispanica

Crucial shared facilities

Collegio Borromeo

Axis of symmetry

Tiettgenkollegiet

Boundary of the plot or courtyard

133


Amerikanerhaus

Kalkbreite

Courtyard

134

Waterlow Court


Domus Hispanica

Mass of the building

Collegio Borromeo

Axis of symmetry

Tiettgenkollegiet

Entrance

135


Projective Cities: MPhil in Architecture and Urban Design Architectural Association School of Architecture in London 2018/2019

136