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NCA 2009 President’s Award Recipient


Living in the Now, Preparing for the Future For many of us, our goals in life remain constant: financial independence and providing for family. Striking a balance between saving for goals, such as education and retirement, and allocating money for daily expenses can be challenging. But you can do it.

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In this Issue... Nevada Cattlemen’s Assn..........pgs. 3-4, 8

Coloring Page...................................pg. 23

Nevada Rangeland Resource Commission................... pgs.5, 7

Fire Information................................pg. 24

Eye on the Outside........................... pgs. 6 NV Land Management Task Force....pg. 8

Nevada’s Priority Agricultural Weeds: Hoary Cress...............................pgs. 26-27

Obituary: Wayne Wilfred Cline.......pg. 10

Look Up: The Joy of the Lord..........pg. 28

Ramblings of a Ranch Wife............. pg. 11

Range Plants for the Rancher: Alkali Sacaton..................................pg. 29

Seeking Clarity on Water Rights in Nevada....................pg. 12 Fumes from the Farm.......................pg. 13

2213 North 5th Street Suite A Elko, NV 89801 775-738-8811

Characteristics of Sustainable Agriculture Producers......................pg. 14 Foothill Abortion Vaccine................pg. 16 Beef Checkoff...................................pg. 18

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Member SIPC

Using Fire to Save a Toad................pg. 25

Nevada Grown: Slanted Porch.........pg. 20 ENLC Summer Kids Workshop.......pg. 22

NVSRM: Rehabilitation of CheatgrassApplications and Practices........pgs. 30-31 HWCWMA: Tamarisk.....................pg. 33 Edward Jones: Financial Focus........pg. 34 Horse Processing: Two Steps Forward, Two Steps Back.........pgs. 36-37 Fort McDermitt Horses....................pg. 38 Pearls from the Past: Once A Pioneer Always A Pioneer................pg. 39

The Progressive Rancher Owner/Editor/Publisher – Leana Stitzel progressiverancher@elko.net

Graphic Design/Layout/Production – Julie Eardley julie@jeprographics.com

Cover Photo: “The Crew” by Jessica Merkley Olsen Jessi is from Northern Nevada & Northern California, and the Winner of The Progressive Rancher’s Summer Photo Contest.

America’s greatness is the greatness of her people. —Barry Goldwater / George W. Romney

Mailed to approximately 7,000 individuals with approved addresses each month. The Progressive Rancher is published monthly. The views and opinions expressed by writers of articles appearing in this publication are not necessarily those of the editor. Letters of opinion are welcomed by The Progressive Rancher. Rates for advertising are available upon request. Advertising in The Progressive Rancher does not necessarily imply editorial endorsement. Liability for any errors or omissions in advertisements shall not exceed the cost of the space occupied by the error or omission. The Progressive Rancher is free to people working and active in the livestock industry. The Progressive Rancher is donated to the agricultural industry. If you are not currently receiving this magazine on a regular basis, and would like to be a part of The Progressive Rancher family, contact us by e-mail at progressiverancher@elko.net, today, so we can include you on our mailing list. If you have moved or changed addresses, please notify us, by e-mail, so we can keep you informed. All requests for the magazine must be made by e-mail.

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2 September / October 2013

The Progressive Rancher

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A

A

s the calendar moves into August and September, we are still battling the effects of a second consecutive hot and dry summer. The number of cows going to town this year has already been tremendous, and I see no end to the deep culling that is to come. The current weather pattern most of Nevada is experiencing quite possibly may lead to an additional twenty percent (20 %) reduction in mother cow numbers in our state. This two-year drought may very well cut the number of commercial beef cows in Nevada in half. In a time when our economy is still limping along, it is tough to accept the fact that we are closing fifty percent of our “factories” associated with the Nevada beef industry. It is even harder to swallow the fact that years of progressive management in the areas of genetics and disease control are often shipped to the auction barns along with the cows. I have stated many times in the past that Nevada ranchers are tough and resilient. We, as an industry, will survive. There have been devastating weather patterns in our past, and yet we are still here. While I am confident that the beef industry in the Silver State will continue to provide a highly sought after product, I am troubled by how many of our friends and neighbors may not endure this drought. There are many challenges we are facing besides the conditions on our rangelands. Most of these originate from flawed policy and regulations, but we are working www.progressiverancher.com

no longer feed itself. They have seen economic meltdown as a result of no private sector business. Russia has learned a valuable lesson, perhaps as a nation we should look behind us to find a path forward as well. Now let us take a glimpse at our situation in America today. As a nation, we are chipping away at our private sector industries and agriculture. In the case of today’s United States of America, we have elected to overburden industries with continued regulations in an attempt to somehow save our nation. What are we trying to save our nation from? Do we not realize that if we do not grow it, build it, or mine it, we won’t have it? If we are trying to protect ourselves from prosperity and future growth, we are rapidly achieving our goal. If we are trying to protect ourselves from economic meltdown and repeating the mistakes of nations before us, we had better reevaluate what we are doing as a nation. If this country is going to turn the tide on our increasing regulatory burden, we are going to have to do it collectively. Today, we have an increasing number of citizens who honestly have no idea where their food comes from and what it takes to get it to their table. They also don’t understand the importance of private sector production. It seems that as long as Wal-Mart has isles full of groceries and Chinese made house wares, they have nothing to worry about. They go home, ignore the fact that our private sector unemployment rate is still high, they ignore the fact that part of the reason we pay four dollars a gallon for gas is that the dollar isn’t worth much anymore, and they ignore the fact that without some sustainable stable economic base, we cannot survive. We can’t fund our local governments on the sales tax off of iPads and cell phones. We can’t continue to pay an increasing number of government payrolls and subsidies all the while shrinking pool from which we draw. I understand the need for regulations. What I don’t understand is the need for more and more regulations, all the while continuing to curtail development and growth of our economy. We can’t have a complete hands off approach to management and conservation, but we also must balance our actions with future productivity. I don’t want to carry a sack of dollars to the store to buy some flour. I damn sure don’t want to get to the store and not have any flour on the shelf or need to read a foreign language to understand what I am looking at. Our nation is rapidly approaching a major decision point. Do we continue to squeeze the private sector with regulations and taxes while borrowing money we can’t pay back, or do we let off on the reins a little and let this horse run a bit? I for one am ready for a good horse race, I don’t know about anyone else.

on those as an association. As the dry pattern continues, and we patiently wait for Mother Nature to recharge our ground water basins, keep in mind the industry has been fortunate enough to have strong advocates for us working at all levels of government. Because of the work done in our State’s Capital this spring, you can apply for emergency livestock ground water. SB 134 (Senator Goicoechea) was passed during the 2013 legislative session and offers some relief to producers who seek to drill stock water wells on private property. This bill created an emergency permitting process that is available when state or federal officials declare a drought emergency in a region. The process could be completed within a week, but the permit is temporary and is only valid for a year. During that year, the land owner could go through the normal permitting process and attempt to secure permanent rights to the water. If the request for permanent water rights is not granted, however, the well must be plugged after a year. While there is a risk associated with not being able to obtain permanent stock water rights on an expensive well, the process in place before this bill was passed could take months to complete. At that point the ————————— Continued on page 8 The Progressive Rancher

UPDATE UPDATE

few nights ago, my oldest daughter and I went to clean the bubblers and check the pivot after supper. As we pulled up to the bubbler, a large group of sage hen was making its way up the creek. When I stepped out of the truck, a couple of hens flew off a short distance. My daughter inquisitively asked from the truck, “What are those birds daddy?” I instantly responded, “sage hen sis” and went on about wiping the mud and moss off the bubbler screen. It wasn’t until I got back into pickup and saw her studying the sage hen on the creek that I evaluated my answer. What are “sage hen” today? When I was a kid, I can guarantee my dad never thought twice about telling me what they were. Now, I wonder if they are just sage hen or if I need to further describe what the bird has come to represent. They are still plentiful here, just like they were before. Maybe not quite as numerous as once, more abundant than other times, but they are here. What they now represent is another tool some have chosen to use to further regulate and curtail private industry. I recently had a good conversation with multiple leaders of other industries very much dependent on federal land use. Agriculture is not alone in its fight to stay afloat. A never ending barrage of new regulations continues to suppress our economic stability. I am amazed that, as a nation, we cannot look at the struggles of those before us and learn from them. Let us take Russia for example. In the 70’s Russia didn’t have wheat enough to feed its nation. There were multiple reasons for this, but the country actually had to reach out to the United States and broker a deal to allow citizens to leave the oppressed nation and come to America in order to secure wheat from us. Then came the Cold War and Russia was a super power that the United States strived to stay in step with and surpass all through the 80’s. Our rival at the time, they threw everything they had into the military and arms production. Their economy was not sustainable and inevitability it folded. Today, Russia is actively trying to rebuild from the ground up. In order to build a strong economic foundation, they are starting with fundamentals. What is one major sector of their economy that they are desperately trying to get back on track, first? Agriculture. Russia is importing hundreds of thousands of live cattle and paying industry leaders from the United States to build breeding programs for them, develop needed infrastructure, and secure some preliminary trade agreements. The government of Russia has seen its own people haul wheel barrows full of nearly worthless currency to a market in an attempt to buy bread. They have seen the hardships that result when a nation can

J.J.

Goicoechea DVM

Nevada Cattlemen’s Association President

September / October 2013 3


Nevada Cattlemen’s Association By Desiree Seal, Nevada Cattlemen’s Association Executive Director

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ell friends, summer is almost over and many of you are finishing putting hay up. While many of you are finishing farming for the year and summer projects, Nevada Cattlemen’s Association has been looking towards our 78th Annual Convention and 48th Annual Fallon All Breeds Bull Sale. This year’s convention will be November 14-16, 2013 in Sparks NV held in conjunction with California Cattlemen’s Association. We are looking forward to hosting this event with our neighbors from the Golden State. In preparation for convention, we have been reserving speakers and coordinating meetings and events with CCA. Soon enough, we will begin committee meetings to discuss new issues or resolutions to be proposed at convention and review past resolutions. Committee meetings are open to all voting members of the Association and we welcome anyone who would like to participate. Please stay tuned next month for committee meeting times and dates. For more information on each committee, please contact the Committee Chairs or NCA Executive Director. Consignments for the 48th Fallon All Breeds Bull Sale opened to members of the Association on August 1, 2013 and non-members on September 1, 2013. We have put on a great sale for consignors and buyers and are expecting another great sale this year. Bulls ranging from yearlings to two-year-olds of different breeds are encouraged to consign. Last year, the sale average for yearling bulls was $3,192 on 34 bulls and 2-year-old bulls was $3,775 on 72 bulls. For consignment information, please contact the NCA office. As fire and drought have taken a toll on livestock, wildlife and wild horses, NCA has been active in both issues. The fire liaison program has proven very beneficial in the Elko District. This program has one rancher from each area serve on the fire response team as

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a liaison to the neighboring ranching operations. Attending morning meetings, coordinating with agency personnel on livestock movement and location, and keeping the ranchers informed as just some of the tasks the liaison completes during a fire. They have been busy this month and quite possibly will be even busier this next month. Drought has been a front burning issue to NCA. Many ranches have already taken voluntary non-use due to drought, but we continue to see overpopulated wild horses. This summer, NCA participated in rangeland tours of areas of concern to gather wild horses, as well as participated in the public input process to support four gathers to be completed to date. (I expect as soon as this is sent to print, we will have more “escalating concern gathers” come up.) We will continue to monitor the wild horse issue and keep you informed. NCA has also begun working on partnerships to complete educational workshops for producers in conjunction with University of Reno-Cooperative Extension and Nevada Rangeland Resource Commission. This fall and into winter, please watch for workshops of interest to you. We will have a Cooperating Agency Status and Coordination workshop featuring Andy Rieber. Also available to producers will be drought management workshops and risk management strategy workshops developed with UNCE. That’s all folks! Stay cool out there. If you are not currently a member of Nevada Cattlemen’s Association we encourage you to join. Become part of an association that is working to protect the future or ranching in Nevada. To learn more about the association or to become a member, please call the office at 1-775-738-9214 or visit our webpage www.nevadacattlemen.org. We look forward to hearing from you! If you are currently a member, thank you for your continued support.

I

Thank You

J.J. Goicoechea, DVM, Nevada Cattlemen’s Association President

wanted to take a few minutes to give everyone an update on the near miss that our Nevada brand laws experienced recently. I am sure most of you have heard about the gather of private horses and the McDermitt Indian Reservation. These horses were private domesticated horses and their population needed to be reduced to improve the ecological conditions on the reservation and surrounding lands. As I have said often times in the past, horses are livestock and we cannot lose sight of that fact. Our state brand laws apply to horses in this manner as well. Advocates managed to obtain a temporary restraining order that halted the sale of all unbranded horses. The ensuing “re-inspection” of the horses was unwarranted in my opinion. We have qualified brand inspectors that had identified the horses and had documentation. The running of these horses through a chute for a third or fourth time so that the “advocates” themselves could determine the branded status of the horses was inconsistent with state law and placed undue stress on the horses. The hearing to determine the status of the unbranded horses remaining at the sale yard revealed the true intentions of the groups behind the temporary order. They stated that they were proposing that all unbranded horses in Nevada be considered protected under the wild and free roaming wild horse and burro act until proved differently. This is absurd and inconsistent with state law. Thankfully, the representatives of the Nevada Department of Agriculture were able to provide the needed testimony and documentation to defend our brand laws. The federal judge ruled that the horses were not protected by the Wild and Free Roaming Horse and Burro Act and they were in fact domesticated horses for sale. I want to personally thank Director Barbee, our new Animal Division Administrator Flint Wright, and everyone from the brand department that worked so hard on getting this situation resolved. Nevada’s livestock industry must have a strong brand department supported by state law. There should never be an instance where federal courts or agency actions can supersede Nevada law. Without individuals to defend our laws and stand up for what is right, we would have long ago been run over. Thank you all.

More on the McDermitt Horses on page 48

The Progressive Rancher

www.progressiverancher.com


Nevada Rangeland Resources Commission

Public Land Ranchers Fund Most-Awarded Stewards of the Rangeland Series

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by:Rachel Buzzetti, Executive Director

he “Stewards of the Rangeland” documentary series funded by the Nevada Rangeland Resource Commission (NRRC) has received its 5th international award for production, making it the most awarded series in the 29 year history of KNPB, the PBS member station serving central and northern Nevada and northeastern California. The Endangered West, the third hour-long program in the “Stewards” series had been awarded a Silver Telly Award. In 2010, the first documentary in the series won a bronze Telly and in 2011, “Rangeland Water” was awarded the silver statue. The series has also received two International Communicator awards for a total of five. KNPB produces the documentaries in partnership with Golden Productions; a Reno based video production company. “These documentaries are the result of a true partnership in every sense of the word” stated Dennis Golden, the on-air host who also wrote and co-produced with partner, Gabe Golden. The production crew logged over 8,000 miles on location gathering video footage and interviews for the documentaries. Chairman Hank Vogler, who chaired the Commission when they made the decision to go forward with production in the first series, stated “Every rangeland rancher that pays his dues to the commission can rest assured that the money is well spent. KNPB and Golden Production Company have found a symbiotic relation of presenting the true story of rangeland ranching and who the real stewards are.” The first “Stewards of the Rangeland” documentary focused on five Nevada ranch families, their challenges and success stories as they raise cattle and families on Nevada’s ranches and public lands. The second in the series “Rangeland Water” explored the issues anticipated if a proposed pipeline were approved to transport eastern Nevada Hank Vogler, headed the water to meet the needs of a growing Las Vegas. Nevada Rangeland Resources The future allocation of the water could determine Commission that made the whether rancher’s rural lifestyle and wildlife will decision to promote Nevada give way to urban growth and development. rangeland issues thru PBS This “Stewards” series runs continually

documenaries. The decision was controversial in 2010.

Nevada Ranchers Caretakers of our

Rangelands

Cowboys and sheepherders produce food and fiber for the nation. Growing food on Open range is a natural biological process.

Grazing actually benefits the land with hoof action and natural fertilization. Plants are healthier and regenerate faster after the herds move to a new range.

Antelope and other game animals and birds take advantage of the improvements made by ranchers.

Grazing cattle and sheep coexist peacefully with native wildlife and, in fact, make a friendlier habitat for many species.

————————— Continued on page 7

Rancher Dean Baker played a crucial role in the development of the “Rangeland Water” documentary. Here he expains water draw down on Baker Ranches as filmed by Dennis Golden and KNPB Videographer Alex Muench.

Sheep often graze on steep terrain and can control cheatgrass, a major fuel for wildfires.

Nevada Rangeland Resources Commission was created by the State of Nevada to promote responsible public land grazing. Representatives come from Nevada state grazing boards, Nevada Woolgrowers, Nevada Farm Bureau, and Nevada Cattlemen’s Association.

4780 East Idaho Steet, Elko, NV 89801 • 775-738-4082 WWW.NEVADARANGELANDS.ORG This ad is funded through the NRRC’s assessment of 10 cents an AUM paid by public land ranchers.

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The Progressive Rancher

September / October 2013 5


By Joe Guild

W

ithout fire where would we humans really be right now? A recent book makes the point the human brain would not have developed without the ability for us to cook our food. Other primates spend most of their waking hours just finding and chewing their food. This leaves little time to use the brain creatively and think through problems- one of the keys to developing a bigger brain. If fire had not been tamed and man able to start and keep fires going at will, perhaps there would have been no civilization and certainly no populating the ends of the earth. Fire has been much on my mind and in the news this summer, just as it has been in most recent summers. The largest wildfire in recent western Nevada history, the Bison Fire, burned over 28,000 acres in June. The Yarnell Fire in Arizona tragically killed 19 elite wild land firefighters. An incident in Nevada resulted in a rancher arrested during a fire for disobeying an order to not get closer to a fire while he was doing all he could to protect his threatened livestock. As I write this, there are 37 large wildfires (more than 3000 acres) burning across the west. A fire about 100 miles to the west in California has been sending choking smoke to western Nevada for almost a week. The smoke is so severe people with breathing problems are being warned not to exert themselves outside. According to the Chief of the US Forest Service, on average, the fire season is now two months longer than it was in the early 1970s. Moreover, six of the worst fire seasons in the last 50 years have occurred in the last 12 years. Fire suppression now consumes almost half of the USFS budget. Fire fighting has become a big business. In the last 10 years an average of 3 billion dollars a year has been spent on suppression of fires. Saying that, there are also indications from Washington D.C. fire budgets for the federal agencies will no longer grow progressively and indeed, may be cut. Some experts in fire science say the two major contributors to the increase in larger, more intense and number of fires is the warming climate and the increasing efforts to suppress fires in the last 100 years. These suppression protocols have resulted in a significant fuel load increase. This has meant when there is a fire it is almost always hotter and more severe. Native Americans used fire for millennia to control their environment. Contemporary accounts from colonial European settlers tell of being able to drive a carriage through “highways” in the Eastern hardwood forest with no hindrance from thick underbrush or low hanging tree branches. The eastern natives used fire to rid areas of brush and branches so they could travel in large bands at an easy foot trot with no interference. Colonial settlers brought horses and coaches that could easily travel these same pathways until suppression efforts and the curtailment of prescribed burning brought back choking underbrush and canopied forests. On the Great Plains, natives also routinely set fire to the grassy prairies not grazed by Bison to promote vigorous growth of the plants the Bison liked to forage. Nowadays, farmers, ranchers, local governmental and federal land management agencies use prescribed burns to try and control the spread of noxious plant species to promote more vigorous growth of desired species and to thin areas of high fuel load and deadfall or disease in forests. Is it enough? There is another important factor when discussing the current fire situation. It is estimated 9% of the national land mass represents the so-called wild land/ urban interface. Put another way, 16% of the west’s wild land/ urban interface is now developed. This represents an estimated 45 million homes. Smokey the Bear is the iconic symbol of fire suppression. Even though the motto is “Only you can prevent forest fires”, we all know some fires are caused by the ignorant

6 September / October 2013

activities of man, but Mother Nature also has a huge role to play in creating fires. When dry storms hit the west and the only thing raining down on the landscape is lightning, Smokey’s admonition has very little relevance. We all grew up thinking that it was noble to stop every fire, every time, everywhere. I do not disagree with this position, to a point. If it is my winter range being destroyed, I want to stop the fire as quickly as possible. I know the federal agency will make me stay off this burned range for at least two years and I will have to find a home for my livestock during the recovery period even though a limited use of the range within one year might be beneficial. The rigid policy of the agency dictates that I try everything possible to quickly suppress the fire. But, if the fire is burning in a 100% canopied pinion/juniper monoculture forest, maybe the best course is to let it burn. The result will eventually be a return of brush and grass species once there is sufficient water added to the growth equation. All of you who have walked or ridden through such a forest know exactly what I mean. There is no biodiversity in such a forest. The understory is non-existent. The trees keep water in the form of rain or snow from reaching the ground in significant amounts. The water that does reach the ground is soaked up and transpired at a rate of 15 to20 gallons a day per tree by every tree in the forest. Multiply this by thousands of trees per acre in a forest that should have at most a hundred or so trees per acre and you have what can only be described as an ecological disaster. So I say as long as no lives or structures are involved, let it burn. If that offends, here’s an idea- before the lightning strike hits and money is spent on suppression, cut thousands of trees down, leave the historic number of old growth and some new trees and let Mother Nature take over. In a few short years there will be biologic diversity that will astonish even the most diehard skeptic. But I get ahead of myself. Do the same thing with a cheat grass infested range site. Be creative with prescribed grazing that is different from past practices and let livestock reduce fine fuel loads. Professor Barry Perryman and other University of Nevada researchers have proven they can change a cheat grass dominated landscape with prescribed grazing. The agencies are afraid to think and act outside the box for fear of litigation from ignorant “environmental” groups who claim to be advocates for the environment, but whose goal is simply to rid the west of livestock grazing. Scientists have proven what I advocate works, but people are afraid of the elephant in the room’s shadow so nothing gets done. Shame on us! For as many as 50 or 60 years the dominant thinking by wildlife biologists is livestock and wildlife does not eat cheat grass. As I state above, science now proves this wrong. In all these 100 or so years have we all been looking at the same thing the wrong way? We have spent years and money and lives in trying to suppress fires. What do we have as result? We have more fires; we have bigger fires; we have more intense, hotter fires. You all know the definition of insanity- doing the same wrong thing over and over and expecting the same result! What if we spent 3 billion dollars a year for the next ten years on fire prevention? What if we seriously used prescribed burns, chaining and selective logging, grazed more livestock at different times of the year to reduce fuel loads. What if we turned overgrown diseased forests into bio-char factories? What if we really educated those who build in the wild land/ urban interface? What if we mandated certain fire resistant building materials and the creation of no fuel load space around all structures? Maybe the Granite Mountain Hot Shots would not have been put in harm’s way to protect buildings that were already pretty safe. Fire is a positive tool harnessed by man and a source of tragic destruction. Let’s put our money into creating a more useful tool and helping that tool to be more effective. We should not wait until the tragic destruction tool is let loose to kill people and destroy improved property if we can help it. I’ll see you soon.

The Progressive Rancher

www.progressiverancher.com


NNRC Continued from page 5 Pioche rancher, Kevin Lister was feature in “Rangeland Water” His comments on Washington’s role in getting approval for the Las Vegas pipeline were very insightful.

UPCOMING SALES MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 9 Ogallala, NE

Dennis Golden wrote and co-produced the “Stewards of the Rangeland” series with his son and partner, Gabe Golden. The series, done in partnership with KNPB Channel 5 in Reno was funded exclusively by the Nevada Rangeland Resources Commission over a 4 year period. through a schedule, approximately eight times a year with about 3,000 viewers each time. KNPB also provides the series to other stations across the Western states, multiplying its views by thousands. In addition, a copy of each series has been given to each of our state legislators and Nevada’s Congressional Representatives. KNPB and Golden Productions are currently working on the fourth documentary in the “Stewards of the Rangeland “series. The program will air in February 2104 and will focus on the challenges that wildfire, drought, environmental and political issues present for agriculturists in their efforts to feed our nation. “Congratulations to one and all that have worked on these worth while projects,” Chairman Vogler added. All of the documentaries in the series can be viewed online at ww.nevadarangeland.org They are also available for purchase at NRRC by calling (775)738-4082

FRIDAY, OCTOBER 11 Internet Video Sale Consignment Deadline: Thursday, October 3rd

FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 1 Internet Video Sale Consignment Deadline: Thursday, October 24th

TUESDAY, DECEMBER 3 Silver Legacy, Reno, NV WATCH & LISTEN TO THE SALE on the Web at:

Left: Ely rancher Gracian Uhalde contributed his view on the Snake Valley/Las Vegas pipeline in the 2011 documentary, “Rangeland Water” Below: Golden Productions, Gabe Golden, lines up a shot with KNPB videographer, Alex Muench.

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The Progressive Rancher

September / October 2013 7


American Lands Council Nevada Land Management Task Force by Rachel Dahl, Special Assignment

The 17-member Nevada Land Management Task Force, named after Governor Sandoval signed AB 227 into law after the 2013 Legislative session, recently met in Eureka, Nevada. During the August meeting of the Task Force meeting John McLain of Resource Concepts Inc., and Mike Baughman of Intertech Services Corporation presented a review existing research that shows states can and do manage public lands profitably. According to a comparison between several states and the BLM in a study commissioned by Eureka County in 1996, “Alternatives for Management of a Expanded State Land Base in Nevada”, the average management revenues for the states was $6.28, as opposed to a loss for the BLM management strategies of $1.86. Chaired by Elko County Commissioner Demar Dahl, the Task Force continues their work of completely fleshing out the concept of how to go about the in-depth process of transferring and managing some of the public lands that are now owned by the federal government to the State of Nevada. The 17 members are County Commissioners, one from each Nevada County, and administrative, support activities are provided by Jeff Fontaine and Dagny Stapleton of Nevada Association of Counties (NACO). The Task Force has taken time early in the process to establish some ground rules to facilitate productivity, and Dahl says it has paid off. “This is a group of people who are used to being seen and heard, so we have taken some time to establish a level of consideration and it has happened, the group has taken that seriously and we have really pleasant meetings.” Each member has also been asked to speak up when they have a specific interest or level of expertise that can be helpful for providing more information to the group. Which becomes important when dealing with the vast number of interests involved when dealing with public lands and each intricate issue of multiple use. According to Dahl, the group intends to engage in a real grassroots effort and educate the members, staff, and public on each of these issues. “Normally these kinds of groups hire a consultant or professional of some kind and turn over the process to them and just show up,” he said. “We are

not going to have any planners we are going to do this work ourselves and work through all the details.” The Task Force will meet once a month for 12 months and then report back to the Legislative committee on Public Lands which will then prepare a Bill Draft Request for the 2015 Legislative Session. “This should be the most well-vetted bill to hit the State Legislature,” said Dahl. To that end, the committee has agreed to work through four issues each month, and work through a list of concerns that has been established through the legislative and public processes. According to Dahl the first question that always comes up in any discussion about this idea is “how can the State afford to manage these lands?” That question was answered at the August meeting with the presentations of McLain and Baughman. Dahl says future meetings include presentations by Tim Crowley of the Nevada Mining Association, and Larry Johnson of Nevada Bighorns Unlimited. “We are inviting anyone we can with information or opposing views to work through these issues,” said Dahl. At the conclusion of each meeting a report of the meeting is sent to each member so that they have accurate information to take back to their County Commission. The Task Force rules have asked that each member place an agenda item on the official County agenda so people can give input at County Commission meetings and the member can bring all those concerns back to the Task Force. Dahl says this makes the process one continuous public process with input to the Commissioners which gets brought to the Task Force meetings and input from the Task Force that gets taken back to each Commission. “Assuming everyone is fair and honest about what they discover,” said Dahl, “and we all learn everything we can in the end we can come to the conclusions that will be best for the state.” He says this process is a great opportunity to make a difference for the state and the people who rely on public lands, from hunting, mining, and livestock, and for the state as a whole. “For everyone who is affected by the role of the Federal Government in our state this will be a benefit.”

UPDATE continued from page 3——— livestock would be dead or moved to another location. I encourage everyone who has the need for additional stock water on private land to call the State of Nevada Division of Water Resources immediately. A stock water well on private property can be in place within days, providing a driller can be secured in short order. You will notice that I did not mention public land water development above. As we are all aware, the process to get water sources and improvements constructed on federally managed lands is a different game. This bill does not alleviate the need to go through the process of securing the mandatory permits and the signing over of at least a portion of your water rights in order to obtain the permission needed for water development on federal lands. In order to provide immediate sources of water on most federal lands, you must be watering

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wild horses or burros. I know this sounds callous, but it is the truth. Numerous expensive water hauls have sprung up across Nevada in order to provide water for horses and burros. In almost every case, these animals are over AML or outside an HMA. Never mind the livestock producer who has taken voluntary steps to reduce the potential impacts to rangelands. The real emergency is the mismanagement of “wild” horses and burros. We must continue to provide an artificial environment for these equids to continue to thrive. Now don’t get me wrong, the animals must be cared for; we cannot stand by and allow them to choke to death, but damn it…everyone else using federal lands plans for and makes changes to cope with these times. Why do we allow the agencies to hide behind special interest groups? I am so tired of hearing there isn’t sufficient capacity in holding facilities, and that the advocates were promised something different. Maybe our mistakes all along have been signing documents and trying to abide by laws and regulations. It seems we could get further with a camera, a microphone and tears. It doesn’t seem to matter than AML has become a number that is sort of aimed for and not really applied. The boundaries of an HMA seem to be lines on a map that represent “fill first” areas rather than active management areas. The most frustrating part for many of us is that temporary fire closures on rangelands only apply to permitted livestock. Whether inside or often outside an HMA , many of our rehabilitated burn areas in Nevada are being overgrazed by wild horses immediately behind seeding. I am encouraged that there has been a slight shift in some media coverage. While the big boys of the national media outlets haven’t starting asking questions yet, there are a few reporters and film makers that want to know the truth and are willing to investigate resource damage and the effects that mismanagement is having on the long term health of wild horses. I am relieved to see that the American public is starting to ask why the horse program is costing so much and why with all that money, the problem is worse than it has ever been. Perhaps we can make some real changes in management soon….armed with a camera and if need be, tears.

The Progressive Rancher

www.progressiverancher.com


OFFICE: 775-423-7760 JACK PAYNE

Cell: 775-217-9273 Alt: 775-225-8889

Email: nevadalm@yahoo.com

Full-Service Cattle Sales & Marketing serving the Fallon, Nevada and Outlying Areas.

S A LE

Sales Results from

August 21, 2013 Regular Butcher Cow and Bull Sale City

# Head

Desc.

Type

John Uhalde

Ely

1

BLK

HFRTT

885

$108.00

John Uhalde

Ely

8

BLK

HFRTT

866

$103.00

Harold Rother Farms Inc Spring Creek

1

RD

COW

1070

$94.50

Harold Rother Farms Inc Spring Creek

1

BLK

COW

1310

$89.00

Jerry & Nancy Harper Paradise Valley

1

RD

HFRTT

1220

$94.50

Jerry & Nancy Harper Paradise Valley

1

RD

COW

1260

$93.00

Joe & Sam Harper

Paradise Valley

1

BLK

HFRTT

1210

$94.50

Joe & Sam Harper

Paradise Valley

1

BLK

HFRTT

1250

$91.00

Fallon

1

BLK

COW

1480

$94.00

Lucas Livestock

Winnemucca

1

BLK

COW

1740

$92.50

Lucas Livestock

Winnemucca

1

RD

HFRTT

1325

$92.00

Lucas Livestock

Winnemucca

1

BLK

COW

1395

$91.00

Nevada First Land & Cattle Winnemucca

1

BLK

COW

1190

$92.50

Nevada First Land & Cattle Winnemucca

1

BBF

COW

1260

$85.00

Nevada First Land & Cattle Winnemucca

1

BLK

COW

1245

$84.50

Elko Land & Livestock Battle Mountain

1

BLK

COW

1565

$90.50

Elko Land & Livestock Battle Mountain

1

RDRN

COW

1300

$88.00

Elko Land & Livestock Battle Mountain

2

BLK

COW

1533

$84.75

James Estill

Lovelock

1

RBF

COW

740

$90.00

James Estill

Lovelock

1

RBF

COW

1110

$90.00

Troy Adams

Fallon

1

BLK

HFRTT

1145

$90.00

Bert & Jill Paris

Battle Mountain

1

BLK

COW

1060

$87.00

Bert & Jill Paris

Battle Mountain

1

RD

COW

1080

$86.50

Tawny Little

Fallon

1

BLK

COW

1145

$85.50

Michael & Claudia Casey

Fallon

1

BLK

COW

850

$85.00

Harriman & Son

Fallon

1

BBF

COW

1560

$80.00

Hi-Test Products

Fallon

1

HOLSTEIN

COW

1445

$82.00

Seller

Wesley Viera

Weight Price CWT

Every Wednesday Small Barn at 10:30 AM Butcher Cows at 11:30 AM Feeder Cattle at 1:00 PM

Feeder Sale

Sales Results from

August 21, 2013 Regular Butcher Cow and Bull Sale City

# Head

Desc.

Type

Weight Price CWT

Hi-Test Products

Fallon

1

HOLSTEIN

COW

1870

$82.00

Hi-Test Products

Fallon

1

HOLSTEIN

COW

1795

$79.00

Jessie Rose Dairy

Fallon

1

HOLSTEIN

COW

1055

$82.00

Jessie Rose Dairy

Fallon

1

HOLSTEIN

COW

1510

$78.00

Jessie Rose Dairy

Fallon

1

HOLSTEIN

COW

1740

$76.00

Desert Hills Dairy

Yerington

1

HOLSTEIN

COW

1510

$75.50

Desert Hills Dairy

Yerington

1

HOLSTEIN

COW

1740

$75.50

Desert Hills Dairy

Yerington

1

HOLSTEIN

COW

2045

$75.25

Oasis Dairy LLC

Fallon

1

HOLSTEIN

COW

1430

$75.00

Oasis Dairy LLC

Fallon

1

HOLSTEIN

COW

1740

$72.00

Oasis Dairy LLC

Fallon

1

HOLSTEIN

COW

1710

$70.00

Slagowski Ranches

Carlin

1

HOLSTEIN

COW

1315

$73.00

Seller

in conjunction with our Regular Wednesday sale

Carolyn & Stacy Drayton

Ely

1

BWF

BULL

1550

$100.00

Carolyn & Stacy Drayton

Ely

1

MIX

BULL

1465

$99.50

October 16th & 17th

Harold Rother Farms Inc Spring Creek

1

RBF

BULL

1750

$98.50

Harold Rother Farms Inc Spring Creek

1

RD

BULL

1860

$94.00

John Uhalde

Ely

1

BLK

BULL

1690

$98.50

John Uhalde

Ely

1

BLK

BULL

1620

$95.50

James Estill

Lovelock

1

WF

BULL

1630

$94.50

Tory Pomi

Fallon

1

WF

BULL

1990

$94.00

Richard & Lilla Allegre

Fallon

1

BLK

BULL

1670

$91.00

Bartell Ranch LLC

Orovada

1

WF

BULL

1800

$89.75

Bartell Ranch LLC

Orovada

1

BLK

BULL

1565

$89.00

Fallon

1

BLK

BULL

1840

$88.00

Battle Mountain

1

MIX

BULL

1640

$86.75

Jerry & Nancy Harper Paradise Valley

1

BLK

BULL

1740

$85.50

Butcher cows on Wednesday Feeder cattle on Thursday starting at 11 AM

CafĂŠ Open on Sale Days Stop by and have a Homestyle Burger

Bob & April Oakden Bert & Jill Paris

Look for Weekly Market Reports at www.nevadalivestock.us

We have 4 cattle trains available for your cattle hauling needs. We can haul approx. 80,000# of cattle per load either to our sale or in the country. Give us a call for pricing.

TO ALL OF OUR CONSIGNORS & BUYERS www.progressiverancher.com

The Progressive Rancher

September / October 2013 9


Wayne Wilfred Cline

1931 — 2013

JEROME, IDAHO

Beef Sales Every Tuesday Selling Stocker and Feeder Cattle Slaughter Cows/Bulls Sale-time: 9:30 AM

Friday Sale Selling Slaughter Cows/Bulls Sale-time: 11:00 AM

Round the clock yard service Call for consignment information Office: (208)324-4345

Dan Schiffler: (208)539-4933

Wayne Wilfred Cline, long time Fallon resident, passed away on July 26, 2013 at Churchill Banner Hospital after a short illness. Wayne was born in Yerington, Nevada on August 23, 1931 to Wilfred and Jean Cline. Wayne did many things in his life but his friends summed it all up, Wayne was born a cowboy and he spent his whole life in the cattle industry. Wayne married Barbara “Bobbie” Holmes in June of 1970, she preceded him in death several years ago, as well as his parents and a sister, Karen. He is survived by his son, Todd Cline, brother-in-law and sister-in-law, Bill and Marlene Holmes and many, many friends. A celebration of Wayne’s life was held on Friday, August 2, 2013. Arrangements were under the direction of The Gardens in Fallon, NV

plmajerome@hotmail.com

RANCHERS SELECT Bred Heifer Sale

10 September / October 2013

The Progressive Rancher

www.progressiverancher.com


Sonya Johnson of Fallon Receives National Ag Advocate Award

Sonya Johnson of Fallon was awarded the National Ag Advocate Award on June 28 during the 2013 National Agriculture in the Classroom Conference in Minneapolis, MN. Johnson has worked tirelessly as an advocate for agriculture for more than 30 years. Johnson, along with other volunteer leaders created a formal Ag in the Classroom program in Nevada with efforts through the USDA. Nevada’s Ag in the Classroom program is one of the few programs in the state that has sustained with all volunteer leaders. Johnson has logged many miles Photo caption: Sonya Johnson receives the 2013 traveling throughout Nevada; her efforts have been statewide and not just bound National Ag Advocate Award from National Grange within the boarders of Churchill County. Executive Member Duane Scott during the National Johnson has been involved in educating Ag in the Classroom Conference. youth and the public via workshops, at the Farm Festival in Las Vegas, at schools (including a remote school serving an Indian reservation), and to children of mine workers. Johnson is the former President of Churchill County Farm Bureau and currently serves as the county’s Ag in the Classroom Chair. During her tenure as President, Johnson reached out to Churchill County High School culinary students and implemented the “mini-contest.” The contest allows for the students to create a series of posters that promote locally grown food and provide recipes and nutritional information. “I was fortunate to be involved in our state and to work with all the dedicated volunteers like Dennis Hellwinkel and our teachers and administrators. You can’t work on projects like this without gaining true appreciation of our teachers,” said Johnson.

Carson High Student Receives Dave Fulstone II Scholarship

SPARKS, NV, July 19, 2013 – Congratulations to Rachel Andersen of Carson City on receiving the 2013 Dave Fulstone II scholarship. Andersen has shown excellence in both the classroom and the community. Andersen received this award for her merit in the classroom and her dedication to agriculture. Andersen was instrumental in creating the new Capitol FFA Chapter at Carson High School and served as the President and Secretary for two years. In addition to being active in FFA, Andersen has been actively involved in the High Sierra Riders 4-H club and Arrowhead Livestock 4-H club. Other clubs and activities include National Honor Society, NJROTC Rifle Team, NJROTC Academic Team, Carson County Leadership Group, and served on the youth advisory council for the Nevada Junior Livestock Show. Andersen grew up on her family’s cattle ranch in Carson City and enjoyed helping her dad on the ranch. “I love working with animals and spending time outside,” said Andersen. “There is no greater feeling of satisfaction than the one gained from a long day’s work on a ranch.” Andersen will attend Montana State University in Bozeman and will major in Agriculture Business. www.progressiverancher.com

Andersen plans on using the skills she learns at Montana State to start her own ranch and raise registered Herefords for show and commercial cattle. “The skills I learn through the classes required for an Agriculture Business degree will prepare me for the logistical and financial aspect of this endeavor, while the skills gained from work experience will prepare me for other aspects of the business.” The Dave Fulstone II Scholarship was created in remembrance of Dave Fulstone II. Dave Fulstone II was a past president of Nevada Farm Bureau who dedicated his life to the well being of Nevada agriculture. He was passionate in his support of a sustainable agriculture industry in Nevada and was never afraid to tackle the tough issues or face strong opponents in defense of the agriculture industry and producers. The scholarship is part of the Nevada Heritage Foundation Scholarship Program and is funded through donations from COUNTRY Financial, county Farm Bureaus, and individual contributions in memory of David Fulstone II. From everyone who served on the scholarship committee, the Nevada Heritage Foundation, and the Nevada Farm Bureau, we wish Rachel the best of luck at Montana State University. The Progressive Rancher

J. B. Wh i te l e y

of a Ranch Wife

Roots and Wings Our ranch kids are tomorrow’s leaders. They will know how to work, and they will want to work. This will be done by getting up before the sun, saddling a horse and riding with us to move cows. It is by spending 8 hours on a tractor raking hay under a clear blue sky. It is by mucking out stalls, and by taking a shift in the middle of the night to walk through a calving barn or lot. It is by helping rebuilding a stretch of fence that has been torn down. We take our boys with us everywhere. We don’t ask them to do anything that will hurt them, or that we wouldn’t or haven’t done ourselves. When they go to bed at night, they sleep, and they sleep well because they have had an active day. In the morning when they wake up, they ask, “What are we going to do today?” I wish that people understood that our cattle have to eat first. It doesn’t matter what the occasion is, we need to get wells started to pump water in the summer, or hay loaded and pitched in the winter; other activities can’t be done until this is done. If we have a sick animal, we take care of them before taking care of ourselves; we take pride in knowing our animals are well cared for. Farmers and ranchers miss special occasions if something on the ranch needs to be done first. We don’t sleep in, we wait to enjoy dinners until our livestock are taken care of. It isn’t an 8-5, Monday through Friday job. We don’t take sick days or even vacations in some cases. It is 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The pay isn’t great in terms of money, but worth more than all of the silver and gold in the world for pride and satisfaction of a job well done. Even though today might be the worst day ever, we are up again tomorrow morning before the sun rises, ready to do it all again. We want our boys to be passionate. Passionate about doing a job and doing it well. Passionate about life. We want them to have respect. Respect for themselves, each other, and life. All life. We want them to feel wonder at the miracle of birth and sorrow with death. Any death, but understand that it is the cycle of life and just as animals are born they also die, like people, and plants. As hard as that may be, it is essential for the order of things and a part of life. We want them to love life and live it to the fullest. If they choose to follow in their parents’ footsteps, wonderful. If not, that is okay too. We hope that we are teaching them the skills they will need to succeed in any life they choose for themselves. We want them to be confident, self-assured, assertive, and just and to stand up for themselves and for others when they see injustice. I sincerely hope that when my boys are adults they look back on their childhoods and fondly remember the hours spent on a horse moving cows, pitching hay, calving cows, raking hay, and even fixing fence with their parents and know that we chose this lifestyle to raise them the best way we knew how. Knowing that their parents loved them more than anything else and chose a lifestyle that included them. That we didn’t wait until they got home from school at night or weekends to do cow work for the free labor, but because we wanted to spend time with them doing things we love and hope that they do too. September / October 2013 11


Seeking Clarity on Water Rights in Nevada

By Thomas K. Gallagher, PE recently attended a hearing before the Nevada State Water Engineer to consider public ditional underground water supply wells to support and expand my operations? Can I move comment on the proposal to formally “designate” one of the large groundwater basins forward on the permits I have but have yet to fully develop? These are some of the questions in northern Nevada, and I was reminded of the confusion and concern that arises in the eye that come up and there seems to be a lack of clarity on what the answers really are. of the ranching community and the general public of this notion to “close” a valley to any The state engineer is the administrator of the Division of Water Resources (DWR) and further development for water wells. Does it mean there is no chance at all of obtaining ad- regulates the appropriation of all of the waters of the state. In Nevada, like many western states, all water, whether above or beneath the surface, belongs to the public and may be appropriated for beneficial use by filing with the state engineer and not otherwise. Groundwater Basin Designation is the first of a number of administrative tools that the DESIGNATED GROUNDWATER BASINS OF NEVADA State Engineer uses when it appears that the basin is approaching or over the limit of water available to appropriate for beneficial use. It is only to further administer underground water sources, not surface water. The easiest way to remember the distinction between a nondesignated basin and a designated basin is that in the former, you can hire a licensed drilling ELKO HUMBOLDT contractor and install and flow test water wells all over the quiet land and file for and obtain a permit to beneficially use the water at some later date. In a designated basin, you have to obtain the appropriation permit first before drilling and developing a water source well. It does not necessarily mean that there are no more permits allowed, just that the chances of PERSHING getting any new water are becoming smaller and smaller. Any permit you have can still be WASHOE fully developed or perfected, to a certificated right. Certificates are the last step in the water right process and once attained are solid and can only be lost by forfeiture for five consecutive years of non-use. A fully appropriated groundwater basin is analogous to a fully appropriated stream or EUREKA LANDER WHITE CHURCHILL spring where the state engineer or, in many cases an adjudication judge, has determined that PINE STOREY all of the rights on the stream cannot be satisfied based on the available water supply except in an exceptional water year. That system is shut and appropriators can only change the point _ Carson City ^ of diversion, manner and place of use of existing water rights, but not get any additional DOUGLAS LYON water. A groundwater basin being fully appropriated is initially based upon estimates of annual natural recharge and discharge (perennial yield) vs. the sum-total of valid underground MINERAL water rights. The notion of all of the water rights being satisfied in an over-appropriated basin in other than an exceptional water year is a little more nebulous. All the rights can still be NYE satisfied but the water levels are dropping. The state engineer monitors water levels in wells each year to determine the condition of the resource in these basins. If water level declines ESMERALDA are consistent and getting worse each year, it is definitely a case for further administration by the state engineer, as it is his job to protect existing rights and to do so by priority if necessary. The answer to new appropriations in some cases is, summarily, no. LINCOLN So, can there be any additional groundwater developed in designated basins? Maybe. The state may consider the location of the new well, the permanent vs. temporary nature of the proposed water development and the size of the new appropriation and may allow some continued development. They will consider the consumptive use portion of irrigation rights as “counting” against the basin yield and whether or not all of the rights are being CLARK fully pumped. I know “maybe” does not provide much clarity for Nevada ranchers, but it is often the Designated Basins case that stock water wells are green-lighted by the state engineer in Nevada designated Non-Designated Basins basins because they are small appropriations and the approval of those permits do not tend to impair existing rights. However, you have to get the permit approval first before you can County Boundaries drill a new well, or deepen or replace an existing water source well in a designated basin. To keep it in perspective, I recall a conversation I had, back when I was at the DWR, with a prominent Nevada rancher who wanted to deepen or replace a well and I had to tell him “no” and inform him that it was one of those things that I could not fix because, even though the well had been there for years, nobody ever bothered to file on it. He said “well Tom, in the mean time I got dry cows out there!” Hopefully, none of you will be in that predicament and I trust you are all transitioning well enough in this, another dry year.

I

Winnemucca

Elko

Ely

Las Vegas

Nevada Water Solutions LLC

Water Rights / Resource Permitting Expertise

Thomas K. Gallagher, PE Hydrologic Engineer

Over 31 years of experience with the Nevada State Engineer’s Office 775•825•1653 / FAX 775•825•1683 675 Sierra Rose Dr., #109 / Reno, NV 89511 tomg@nevadawatersolutions.com 12 September / October 2013

Author’s note: Senate Bill 134 did just pass this past legislative session and provides some expedited process in areas declared in drought. “Section 1 of this bill authorizes a person to apply for a temporary permit to appropriate groundwater to water livestock if the point of diversion is located within a county under a declaration of drought,…” The purpose of my article is to keep things on a straight track on a somewhat complicated issue to educate the readership and general public and to not further complicate matters with exceptions. The fact remains that you still have to file on it and receive the permit before drilling or deepening a well but the permitting process has just been shortened by exempting those applications from the public notice and comment process, thereby saving 60 +/-days. Tom Gallagher is a first time contributor to The Progressive Rancher and is manager of Nevada Water Solutions LLC in Reno. After over 31 years of public service with the Nevada State Engineer’s Office, and after a brief respite in retirement, he is assisting clients with getting and managing water for their projects. You can email him at tomg@nevadawatersolutions.com

The Progressive Rancher

www.progressiverancher.com


Fumes From The Farm by Hank Vogler

T

his summer has been all about the drought. It is hard to ignore the dry anywhere in Nevada. If you feel sorry for yourself, just drive down the road, and you can find parts of Nevada that are uglier. Poor prices are better to deal with than poor pasture. Last year’s drought cleaned out all the old, open, and crippled cattle. This year the nucleus of the herds is about to be dug into. A statistic that is on the conservative side says that one cow, or five sheep, for one month on the Nevada range is worth fifty dollars to the economy of Nevada. If you take those numbers times twelve months, it means that one cow, or five sheep, in the state contributes six hundred dollars to our economy. If you take those numbers times the total livestock numbers in the state, public grazing creates for the state coffers around twenty five million dollars. If you add what it contributes to local rural economies it really gets huge. The argument to allow ranchers to stay on the public lands is much larger than the critics wish to admit. You can’t tell Ma Nature to straighten up. You just have to get by. For most of rural Nevada, using renewable natural resources i.e. grazing, you create new wealth. For the two populated counties, Clark and Washoe counties, agriculture is a yawner. Seventy percent of the revenue stream for Nevada comes from Clark County from gambling and the service industry that gambling supports. Washoe County’s revenue stream from the service industry by comparison would be small, but larger than the more rural counties. Mining, at present, has mesmerized the rural counties during the last few years during the mining boom. Agriculture is the engine that just keeps chugging along. In today’s world, it is kind of the “Rodney Dangerfield, I get no respect”, part of the Nevada economy. “Towards morning the farmer gets lucky”; this is an often-used quote from my grandfather, when he would win a hand in a card game. Yes, it might be about to dawn on our citizenry here in Nevada that we are at the dawn of a new era. Some form of gambling has been authorized in forty-six different states of the United States. The largest casino floor is said to be at Foxwood in Connecticut on tribal ground. Many of the gambling establishments in Las Vegas have mined billions of dollars from Nevada and reinvested that money in the Far East and around the world in other mega casinos. Mining is a natural resource industry, and it creates new wealth also. Minerals can be used over and over again with recycling. The difference between mine life and agriculture is simple. A mine has a finite amount of recoverable mineral at any mine site. Minerals are not perishable and when the price goes down below the cost of production for an extended period of time, leaving it the ground and laying off the miners until the price recovers has been well -documented time and time again in the history of Nevada. Agriculture on the other hand can go on until the sun burns out if you nurture the soil,

water and animals. In defense of the mining industry, I have never met a miner that lived on Tofu, or ate soy meat products. Watch a miner at the meat counter, and beef is still the king. For some misguided reason, people all over America have forgotten that the greatness of our country is based on surplus agriculture production. Even the timber industry in the Northwest was duped into thinking that tourism was better than the lumber industry. Mill towns are gone and the renewable forests are diseased and burning. Fire fighters are like the circus coming to town. Everybody gets a bump for a few days, and then they are off to another catastrophe. Far be it that a common- sense approach of using the lite fuels for grazing and the harvesting of trees for bio-fuel or building houses would ever replace the seasonal fury of activity during fire season. This enigma can be even further dissected in favor of public land grazing. The peak in hunting occurred during the time period that grazing was at its zenith. Mule deer were nearly a plague like rabbits. Sage chickens were everywhere. Fires were so small compared to today that many of the small fires were controlled by ranchers who put them out with little fanfare or expense to the federal treasury. The grazing contributed to new wealth. We still had drought, poor prices and change but agriculture constantly adapted and persevered. I cannot figure out why my education was a platform that started my learning curve, and I really began to learn after I received the diploma whereas a degree in environmental sciences is set in stone and never needs revision. The cadre of federal employees must be required to sing from the same hymnbook, and always on the same page. Nothing startling or new here on the Nevada desert, even if the federal workers want to help or think outside the noose, they are jerked straight by the far off Fantasy Land called Washington D.C. The special interest groups purchase their favorite congressional caucus and hand out favors based in dollars and political expediency rather than what’s best for the wee folks in the hinterland. This is a good argument for local control of Nevada. The federal employees that can think outside the Stonehenge’s pagan rituals will be able to apply for state jobs. The federal employees that are droning on about desertification of a desert and global warming or cooling or climate change, will be welcomed in North Korea. North Korea is so twentieth century and willing to stay the course with the old way verses developing a learning experience, these folks should be quite comfortable with the regimentation. The politicians in Washington D.C. will be replaced by politicians in Cartoon City but at least you wont have to drive so far with the money sack to buy favors, and just maybe you might be at a meet and greet with the local lemmings and be able to communicate with them one on one. The more I am around politicians, the more I like my horse!!!!!!!! Hang and Rattle. Hank

Vance Vesco retires from State Conservation Commission

Joe Sicking (left) and Retiring Vance Vesco www.progressiverancher.com

CARSON CITY, Nev. – State Conservation Commission Vice-Chair, Vance Vesco, has retired after 12 years on the Commission, and his contributions were recognized during the body’s June 27 meeting. “It’s hard to walk away, but it’s time,” said Vesco. “We’ve gotten a lot accomplished and have kept the conservation districts funded and alive. Those guys, serving throughout the state, are the real unsung heroes.” The State Conservation Commission is comprised of seven commissioners appointed by the Governor, as well as the Dean of the University of Nevada, Reno’s College of Agriculture, Biotechnology & Natural Resources (CABNR) and the Director of the Department of Agriculture or their appointees. The Commission is charged with carrying out policies on renewable natural resource programs by guiding and regulating Nevada’s 28 conservation districts. Conservation districts work for the conservation and proper development of the state’s natural resources, including land, soil, water, The Progressive Rancher

vegetation, trees, natural landscape and open space by taking available technical, financial and educational resources and coordinating them to meet the needs of landowners and land users. Also during the June 27 meeting, Commissioners approved a resolution in support of the 2013 Nevada Agriculture Analysis and Opportunities Report. The report shows Nevada’s agriculture industry sector as a major contributor to the overall economy of the state. “Agriculture has been a stable economic sector in Nevada ever since statehood,” said Joe Sicking, Chairman of the State Conservation Commission. “It’s good to see this report recognizing agriculture’s contributions. Nevada exported more than $114 million in food and agriculture products in 2012.” More information about the State Conservation Commission can be found at dcnr.nv.gov and additional information about the 2013 Nevada Agriculture Analysis and Opportunities Report can be found at http://agri.nv.gov/uploadedFiles/ agrinvgov/Content/Home/Features/2013nvagreport.pdf. September / October 2013 13


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION: Bringing the University to You Reno

Fact Sheet-05-57

Characteristics of Sustainable Agriculture Producers Steven R. Lewis, Extension Educator Introduction Sustainable agriculture is a term that seems to generate a great deal of discussion and confusion. Ikerd (1990) describes sustainable agriculture operations as ones that are “capable of maintaining productivity and usefulness to society indefinitely. Such systems must be resourceconserving, socially supportive, commercially competitive, and environmentally sound.” Agriculture in Nevada has undergone changes over the last several decades that suggest it might not meet the definition above. From 1974 to 2002, total Nevada farm area declined from 10,814,000 to 6,330,622 acres and the average farm size decreased from 5,209 to 2,266 acres (Census of Agriculture, 2002). However, there seems to be a development that casts an encouraging light on this downward trend. A new breed of producer has emerged, which appears to possess the ability to overcome hurdles the agriculture industry faces today. Although it might be too early to tell, since sustainability denotes an indefinite time period, these producers may represent the next generation for agriculture. What do these sustainable agriculture producers have in common? This fact sheet describes common characteristics exhibited by six innovative Nevada agriculture producers. Characteristics contributing to sustainability were observed and documented by professionals from University of Nevada Cooperative Extension, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washoe Tribe, and Bureau of Indian Affairs on a sustainable agriculture tour in western Nevada in 2004. These characteristics were summarized and organized under three aspects of sustainability - social, economic and environmental. Other agriculture producers may find these characteristic descriptions helpful, as they have contributed to the sustainability of six fellow Nevada producers. Social aspects of sustainability Actively communicate with others – Producers proactively share their philosophies, practices, and lessons learned with others. These conversations occur on the phone, via e-mail, and in person across the fence, and at farmers’ markets, conferences and other gatherings. Their agricultural operation is often on the top of their mind and thus the topic of discussion. Producers often seek information and ask questions in conjunction with describing their trials and tribulations. As a result of these active communications, they build and maintain many relationships. Are hungry for education – Sustainable producers exhibit an insatiable hunger for educational materials. Trade journals, Internet sites, and educational seminars are sought after in search of new information to help grow their busi-

ness. Continuing education through self teaching seems to become second nature as producers are naturally drawn to information. Producers do not view education as laborious or painstaking. Rather, they look forward to it and seek it. Are motivated, determined, and passionate – Producers are tenacious in making their business succeed. This trait is demonstrated by consistent, focused attention to critical business aspects. A genuine passion that hinges on obsession is apparent. Others find this characteristic to be attractive and infectious to some degree. Are not broken by regulation – Rather than complain about and be stifled by regulations, sustainable producers are willing to work with government, community groups, and regulatory agencies to meet red tape head-on, despite the pain and suffering. Willingness to forge through regulation barriers may be a result of intense motivation and passion to excel. Producers hold their tempers in check, systematically investigate regulation details, learn the intended purpose, discuss alternative solutions with authorities, and craft a means of working through regulation obstacles. Producers do not often look back at these difficult moments fondly but they do recognize them as growth opportunities. Are prideful, yet open – Sustainable producers feel good about the job they are doing and the direction they are going, but always make room for improvement. They are open to alternative approaches and ask many questions, because they are not stuck in the quagmire of tradition. There seems to be pride, particularly in progressiveness. Economic aspects of sustainability Make the pie bigger – More consumers, more producers, more diversity, and more profits for all is the philosophy of sustainable producers. This stems from having an abundance mentality, as opposed to a scarcity mentality. Rather than focusing on what is in it for them and only them, sustainable producers are conscious of a bigger world, larger market, higher demand, and opportunity for all. As they share information with others, they are helping others to succeed and sharing their success. Take calculated risks – As business decisions are made and actions are implemented, some degree of risk is present. Sustainable producers understand that in business, making no changes is often more risky than making incremental changes. Doing business as usual, the way granddad did it, is not an option. Thus, producers take premeditated or calculated risks to address changing conditions. Changes must be made, and risks must be taken, but these actions are thought through and not made haphazardly. Start small – Sustainable producers take risks on a

small scale to ensure economic viability. They continually test new ideas, but rather than risking the farm, so to speak, they institute costly ideas and new practices in small doses to test the water. They might lease expensive equipment until a time when profits prove it wise to purchase the equipment. Sustainable producers avoid accumulating unmanageable debt. Goal oriented – When asked what they would like to accomplish this year for their business, sustainable producers can rattle off a number of goals without thinking twice. Typically, the goals are realistic in size and scope, and efforts are underway to meet those goals. Status quo is not in the vocabulary of sustainable producer. When asked to describe what their business will look like in five years, they never balk, but rather begin to describe a business with a different complexion. Use dream polish – Dream polish is a combination of business pride and attention to detail. Logos, brands, and customized work clothes add an enhanced level of professionalism to the business. This attention to detail adds a certain spit shine that customers recognize and appreciate. With wild creativity and over active passion, dream polish ideas are continually flooding the minds of sustainable producers. Everything must generate income – Sustainable producers constantly contemplate how to convert costs to income. Anything on the farm or ranch that is not earning money is thought of as a liability. Making best use of all resources is critical to sustainable producers. Nothing should go to waste. Waste is a red flag word. This is not to suggest that all waste is put to profitable use, but sustainable producers are continually stewing over ways to do so. Use innovative marketing strategies – Not content with traditional market outlets, sustainable producers are continually learning about new markets and ways to perfect their marketing. They have a keen understanding of market details and finely tune product preparation, presentation, and distribution. Typically, are not highly profitable – Sustainable operations typically do not produce vast wealth. Most often, profits cover expenses, owners earn a decent wage, modest investments are made back into the business, and debt is reduced or properly managed. Sustainable producers work very hard and dedicate considerable energy, but in return, they are compensated with enough profit to support a family, pay the bills, and grow the business. Environmental aspects of sustainability Are stewards of natural resources – Sustainable pro-

The University of Nevada, Reno is an Equal Opportunity/ Affirmative Action employer and does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, creed, national origin, veteran status, physical or mental disability, or sexual orientation in any program or activity it conducts. The University of Nevada employs only United States citizens and aliens lawfully authorized to work in the United States.

14 September / October 2013

The Progressive Rancher

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Visit our web site: www.unce.unr.edu

ducers understand the importance of natural resource health for today, tomorrow, and all concerned. They routinely test soil and give much attention to soil health. They use practices that protect water quality and prevent soil erosion. Develop an observant eye – “Are you seeing what you are looking at?” one sustainable producer asks. This means that there is more to be seen if one thinks differently or learns to look from a different perspective. To the average agricultural producer, the presence of weeds triggers a typical “get-thespray- rig” response. To sustainable producers, weeds suggest an environment out of balance and a need to evaluate the practice or goals. Essentially, an observant eye enables one to read environmental health indicators and make ecologically sound decisions. Conclusions How many of these characteristics fit your business style? If agriculture sustainability is a concern, it might be worthwhile to read through this fact sheet again to identify ways you could change. Nevada agricultural producers may reverse the trend of declining sustainability by adopting these characteristics. References Census of Agriculture. (2002). Retrieved on September 13, 2005 from http://www.nass.usda.gov/QuickStats/ Gilbert, L., Teasdale, J.R., Kauffman, C., Davis, M., & Jawson, L. (2003). Characteristics of sustainable farmers. Small Farm Success Project, Future Harvest – CASA, retrieved on June 22, 2005 from http://www.smallfarmsuccess.info/Characteristics.cfm Ikerd, J. (1990). “Sustainability’s promise.” Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 45 (1) Sell, R.S., Goreham, G.A., Youngs, G.A., & Watt, D.L. (1995). A comparison of sustainable and conventional farmers in North Dakota. Miscellaneous Reports 175, North Dakota State University Department of Agricultural Economics, retrieved on July 15, 2005 from http://agecon.lib.umn.edu/cgibin/ pdf_view.pl?paper id=98&ftype=.pdf Western Region SARE, Utah State University, retrieved on September 3, 2005 from http://wsare.usu. edu/about/index.cfm?sub=sustag

www.progressiverancher.com

U.S. Trade Representative Froman, Secretary of Agriculture Vilsack Announce Continued EU Market Access for American Producers of High-Quality Beef

Washington, D.C., August 8, 2013 – Today, United States Trade Representative Michael Froman and Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack announced that the European Union (EU) will continue to provide U.S. beef producers with significant access, at zero duty, to the EU market for high-quality beef produced from nonhormone-treated cattle. The United States and the European Union are planning to extend for two years Phase 2 of the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed in 2009 in connection with the United States’ long-running dispute with the European Union over its ban on beef from cattle treated with certain growth-promoting hormones. In the year since Phase 2 began, U.S. beef shipments under the quota were an estimated $200 million, up 300 percent from the value of exports in the year before the MOU entered into force. Under the extension, the EU would maintain until August 2, 2015 its duty-free tariff rate quota for high-quality beef, established pursuant to the MOU between the United States of America and the European Commission Regarding the Importation of Beef from

Animals not Treated with Certain Growth Promoting Hormones, at the Phase 2 quantity of 45,000 metric tons per year. “I am very pleased that American ranchers and meat processors will be allowed to ship substantial quantities of high-quality U.S. beef into a market worth millions of dollars to their bottom lines,” said Ambassador Froman. “Before the memorandum of understanding was signed, the EU’s beef market had been largely closed for far too long. The substantial market access that we have achieved since 2009 shows what we can accomplish with practical, problem-solving approaches to trade barriers.” “Since 2009, this agreement has greatly expanded opportunities for U.S. beef producers to export high-quality products to the European Union,” said Vilsack. “By working together with our EU partners to extend this agreement, we have maintained access to a key market for beef products, and set the stage for further progress. USTR and USDA will continue working closely with our trading partners around the world, including the EU, to further expand trade access for U.S. agricultural products.”

USDA Announces Ongoing Efforts to Assist Ranchers Impacted by Drought

WASHINGTON, Aug. 5, 2013 – As severe drought conditions persist in certain regions throughout the country, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Farm Service Agency (FSA) Administrator Juan M. Garcia today announced temporary assistance to livestock producers through FSA’s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Under limited conditions, farmers and ranchers affected by drought will be allowed to use certain additional CRP acres for haying or grazing under emergency conditions while maintaining safeguards to the conservation and wildlife benefits provided by CRP. In addition, USDA announced that the reduction to CRP annual rental payments related to emergency haying or grazing will be reduced from 25 percent to 10 percent. Further, the sale of hay will be allowed under certain conditions. These measures take into consideration the quality losses of the hay and will provide needed assistance to livestock producers. “Beginning today, state FSA offices are authorized, under limited conditions, to expand opportunities for haying and grazing on certain additional lands enrolled in CRP,” said Garcia. “This local approach provides both the appropriate flexibility and ability to tailor safeguards specific to regional conditions. States must adhere to specific guidelines to ensure that additional haying and grazing still maintains the important environmental and wildlife benefits of CRP. These safeguards will be

determined through consultation with the state conservationist, state fish and wildlife agency and stakeholders that comprise the state technical committee.” CRP is a voluntary program that provides producers annual rental payments on their land in exchange for planting resourceconserving vegetation on cropland to help prevent erosion, provide wildlife habitat and improve the environment. CRP acres enrolled under certain practices can already be used for emergency haying and grazing during natural disasters to provide muchneeded feed to livestock. FSA state offices have already opened haying, grazing or both in 432 counties in response to natural disaster this year. Given the continued multi-year drought in some regions, forage for livestock is already substantially reduced. The action today will allow lands that are not typically eligible for emergency haying and grazing to be used with appropriate protections to maintain the CRP environmental and wildlife benefits. The expanded haying and grazing will only be allowed following the local primary nesting season, which already has passed in many areas. Especially sensitive lands such as stream buffers are generally not eligible. FSA also has taken action under the Emergency Conservation Program to authorize additional expenditures related to drought response to be eligible for cost share, including connection to rural water

The Progressive Rancher

systems and installation of permanent pipelines. In addition, given the limited budgetary resources and better long term benefits, FSA has increased the maximum cost share rates for permanent practices relative to temporary measures. FSA encourages all farmers and ranchers to contact their local USDA Farm Service Agency Service Center to report damage to crops or livestock loss. In addition, USDA reminds livestock producers to keep thorough records of losses, including additional expenses for such things as feed purchased due to lost supplies. For further information about CRP program benefits and regulations, go online to www.fsa.usda.gov/crp.

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September / October 2013 15


Foothill Abortion Vaccine Development: LIGHT AT THE END OF THE TUNNEL

U

Mike Oliver1, Glenn Nader2, John Maas2, Myra Blanchard 3, Jeff Stott3, Mike Teglas4 and Robert Bushnell1

niversity of California-Davis researchers with virulent bacteria at the peak of fetal susceptibility in the School of Veterinary Medicine, J (100 days gestation). Stott and M Blanchard, co-authored their first peerVaccine field trials that combined USDA-required Maximum awareness of reviewed scientific article on foothill abortion in 1991. field safety trials with field efficacy were then initiated in cattlemen in California, One of the punch-lines of the paper was that the spiroboth University and producer-owned beef herds in Califorchete suspected at the time of causing foothill abortion, nia and Nevada with the assistance of Dr. T. Talbot of the Nevada and Oregon as to the Borrelia coriaceae, might in fact not be the causative Bishop Animal Hospital. Over 1600 heifers were enrolled distribution and potential impact agent; it was not! in these trials in 2011 and 2012 with animals divided Over two decades later (2005), Dr. Stott’s laboratory equally between vaccinates and controls. Studies were also of foothill abortion will play a published the true identity of the causative agent of foothill conducted during this period to establish a 90-withholding abortion (commonly referred to as epizootic bovine aborperiod, pending USDA approval. major role in the successful tion; EBA), a bacteria belonging to a very unusual group Additional funding for such a massive effort was prodebut of a commercial product… of “slime” bacteria; the “agent of EBA” (i.e. “aoEBA”) has vided by a “Proof of Concept Grant” from the UC Systemyet to be officially named. Other breakthroughs followed wide Discovery Grant Program. While the results of these quickly. The cultivation of the bacteria in immunodeficient studies are currently being assembled, preliminary assessmice gave new life to research efforts. A vaccine development phase was initiated with fi- ment of the experimental vaccine indicates complete protection against foothill abortion nancial backing from the California Cattlemen Association’s Livestock Memorial Research with minimal injection site reactions, i.e. a foothill abortion vaccine has been successfully Fund and the UC School of Veterinary Medicine. developed! In 2009, a small group of heifers were protected against experimental infection after All of the successes realized to date have been complimented by active collaborations they were immunized several weeks prior to breeding with a candidate vaccine which was with California’s Diagnostic Laboratory for Animal Health and Food Safety at UC-Davis both live and infectious. The success of a second and larger trial in 2010 prompted Dr. (M Anderson), researchers at the University of Nevada-Reno (M Hall & M Teglas), the Stott to pursue product licensing with the USDA’s Center for Veterinary Biologics (CVB). UCD Animal Science department and the Sierra Foothill Research and Experimental Vaccine efficacy experiments were conducted in accordance with USDA regulations; Uni- Center (SFREC). versity-owned heifers were immunized, followed by breeding and then artificial challenge Optimistic vaccine developers at UC-Davis are in the process of establishing a USDArequired vaccine “seed,” determining if production can be scaled-up to a commercial level and identifying viable space that meets necessary criteria for a federally licensed production facility on the UC-Davis Campus. As the commercialization efforts proceed, researchers are fine-tuning the vaccination regime to address concerns over the prolonged persistence of the vaccine bacteria and potential impact on embryonic mortality in animals bred within weeks following vaccination. These studies are being conducted using a combination of University and private producer replacement heifers. The vaccine dose is being adjusted downward and the time from vaccination to breeding is being extended. The fact that the vaccine is live and infectious poses several unique challenges. Shipment and storage of the cryopreserved bacteria must be similar to that in which semen is transported (liquid nitrogen) and the vaccine cannot be administered to pregnant cattle. Skin reactions following vaccination suggest that the live bacterial pathogen can persist for up to two months, so the vaccine label will likely warn against vaccinating less than 60 days prior to breeding. On the positive side, this bacterial persistence induces a AI’d with Angus bulls Final Answer 2 and Cedar Ridge solid immunity that likely lasts through the next breeding cycle and possibly much longer. Studies are underway to begin to address length of immunity. (both calving ease) Some obvious questions Western beef producers will ask is “When will this vaccine be available?” and, if so, “What will it cost?”. Additional work is underway to comply with the Will ultrasound June 2nd. For sale immediately after. Federal Virus-Serum-Toxin Act requirements associated with licensing a vaccine for use in food-animals. As these requirements are met, the cost per dose can be better addressed. A foothill abortion vaccine must be considered an “orphan” based upon limited distribution of the disease in CA, OR and NV. Maximum awareness of cattlemen in California, Nevada and Oregon as to the distribution and potential impact of foothill abortion will play a major role in the successful debut of a commercial product by ensuring sufficient sales. While ranchers should not expect to find this vaccine at their corner market, we are working with the California Cattlemen’s Association to develop a regional distribution system for the foothill vaccine that we hope will become available within a couple of years if the current momentum can be maintained!

— 600 Black Heifers —

The authors would like to acknowledge the University of Nevada, Reno for their important role in Foothill Abortion research and the California Cattlemen’s Association’s Memorial Livestock Research fund for financial support. 1 –UC Cooperative Extension Retired; 3 – UCD School of Veterinary Medicine;

16 September / October 2013

The Progressive Rancher

2 - UC Cooperative Extension; 4 – University of Nevada -Reno www.progressiverancher.com


Ship ’Em To

LLON A F

MARKET REPORT August 20, 2013

Weight

TOP OFFERINGS Steer

300-400 162.50-195.00 400-500 148.00-181.00 500-600 146.00-173.00 600-700 138.75-148.00 700-800 127.70-144.50 800-900 131.50-135.00 Lite Holstein (under 600#) Heavy Holstein (over 600#)

Heifer

125.00-156.00 128.00-156.00 124.00-140.00 122.50-130.00 110.50-119.50 100.00-117.00 75.00-80.00 70.00-80.00

*Single, Small Framed or Plainer Cattle 15.00 to 20.00 less than top offerings

BUTCHER COWS & BULLS

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SPECIAL BUTCHER COW and BULL SALE

Tuesday, October 8, 2013

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Saturday, October 19th, 2013 Expecting Over 1500 Head Marketing should be Number One! That’s what we do here at Fallon Livestock Exchange, Inc The way to know what your livestock are worth, is to let top buyers from across the country bid on them here at Fallon Livestock Exchange, Inc., where we work for you, the consignor, each and every day!

Buyer’s will be on the seats The entire crew at Fallon Livestock Exchange would like to thank all the consignors and buyers alike for your business.

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Breakers (Fat Cows) Boners (Med Flesh) Cutters (Lean) Holstein Cows Butcher Bulls Shelly (Thin) Bulls Shelly Cutters (Thin) Young Feeder Cows Heiferettes Holstein Heiferettes Holstein Bulls Feeder Bulls Cutting Bulls Used Roping Steers Preg Tested Cows (3, 4, 5 yr. old solid mouth) Pairs (solid mouth) 3-6 yrs Pairs (older)

75.00-83.00 83.00-94.75 65.00-75.00 35.00-74.75 88.00-100.00 40.00-60.00 20.00-40.00 68.00-75.00 82.00-95.00 80.00-89.00 NT 70.00-80.00 80.00-95.00 72.00-85.00 NT 1190.00 NT

TODAY’S COWS Top Cow Top 10 Cows Top 50 Cows Top 100 Cows Top Butcher Bull Top Holstein Cows Top 10 Holstein Cows

Avg. Wt 1680 1420 1370 1273 2080 1460 1393

Avg. Cost 94.75 93.50 90.00 83.50 100.00 74.75 68.81

CALVES-SHEEP-GOATS-PIGS-HORSES

Beef Calves (HD) Dairy Calves Feeder Lambs Fat Lambs Ewes (CWT) Bucks (CWT) Small Goats (under 65 lbs.) (HD) Large Goats (over 70 lbs.) (HD) Weaner Pigs Feeder Pigs Top Hogs Butcher Sows Horses (under 1100 lbs.) Horses (over 1100 lbs.)

60.00-300.00 2.00-35.00 90.00-98.00 80.00-90.00 20.00-90.00 22.00-35.00 20.00-90.00 95.00-170.00 45.00-95.00 60.00-130.00 60.00-75.00 20.00-45.00 8.00-15.00 24.00-33.00

MARKET TREND: Feeder cattle were 2.00 to 10.00 higher with very strong buyer demand on same kind and quality depending on fill. Butcher cows $5-$10 higher. Very good buyer attendance. Top cow 94.75 - Top Bull 100.00 Fallon Livestock is a key market for the livestock industry, where buyers and sellers meet each week with a professional staff with over 50 years of experience in marketing livestock. PLEASE call us ahead with your consignments. It helps us market your cattle. We talk to buyers all the time–they want you to know what’s coming in.

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The Progressive Rancher

September / October 2013 17


CHECKOFF NEWS News From the Nevada Beef Council

NBC Partners with Guerrero Tortillas and Food4Less The Nevada Beef Council (NBC) partnered with 15 Southern Nevada Food4Less stores and Guerrero Tortillas during the month of March to promote beef. Food4Less featured beef all four weeks during the month in their weekly ad circulars, and Guerrero Tortillas provided shoppers with a consumer sweepstakes. The sweepstakes was promoted through in-store point-of-sale and offered consumers one month of free rent or mortgage payment. Additionally, $1.00-off beef coupons were available on select packages of Guerrero Tortillas during the promotion. To enhance the promotion and draw attention to Food4Less’ beef case, the NBC sponsored in-store beef demos during the last two weeks in March in conjunction with the other elements. During the demo weeks, Food4Less saw a 73 percent increase in beef pounds moved compared to the

two weeks prior to the demos taking place in-store.

Slice ’n Save Program Launches at WinCo Foods Seven state beef councils, including the NBC, in conjunction with the national beef checkoff partnered with WinCo Foods to launch the Slice ‘n Save program in May at their 88 locations across these states. The Slice ‘n Save program offers price-conscious shoppers the option to buy boneless middle meat subprimals and slice their own steaks

Grilled Steak Tacos with Poblano-Mango Salsa • Total Recipe Time: 50 to 55 minutes • Makes 4 servings INGREDIENTS 1. 1 pound beef Top Sirloin Steak boneless, cut 3/4-inch thick 2. 2 medium poblano peppers 3. 1 medium onion, cut into 1/2-inch thick slices 4. 2 cloves garlic, minced 5. 1 teaspoon ground cumin 6. 1 medium mango, diced 7. 1/4 cup chopped fresh cilantro 8. 1/4 cup fresh lime juice 9. 1/4 teaspoon salt 10. 8 small corn tortillas (6 to 7-inch diameter) 11. Fresh cilantro sprigs, lime wedges (optional) INSTRUCTIONS 1. Place peppers and onion slices on grid over medium, ash-covered coals (over medium heat on preheated gas grill). Grill, covered, 15 to 20 minutes or until onion is tender and pepper skins are blackened, turning occasionally. Place peppers in food-safe plastic bag; close bag. Set peppers and onion aside. 2. Meanwhile combine garlic and cumin; press evenly onto beef steaks. Place steaks on grid over medium, ash-covered coals. Grill, covered, 7 to 11 minutes (over medium heat on preheated gas grill, covered, 8 to 13 minutes) for medium rare (145°F) to medium (160°F) doneness, turning occasionally. Remove; keep warm. 3. Remove and discard skins, stems and seeds from peppers when cool enough to handle. Chop peppers and onion. Combine chopped vegetables, mango, chopped cilantro, lime juice and salt in medium bowl. Set aside. 4. Place tortillas on grid. Grill, uncovered, 30 seconds on each side or until heated through and lightly browned. 5. Carve steaks into slices. Season with additional salt, as desired. Top tortillas with equal amounts of beef and mango salsa. Garnish with cilantro sprigs and lime wedges, if desired. NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION Nutrition information per serving, using Top Sirloin steak: 331 calories; 7 g fat (2 g saturated fat; 2 g monounsaturated fat); 49 mg cholesterol; 229 mg sodium; 39 g carbohydrate; 5.2 g fiber; 3 g protein; 8.8 mg niacin; 0.9 mg vitamin B6; 1.5 mcg vitamin B12; 2.9 mg iron; 34.4 mcg selenium; 5.7 mg zinc. This recipe is an excellent source of fiber, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, selenium and zinc; and a good source of iron. Nutrition information per serving, using Ranch steak: 336 calories; 9 g fat (3 g saturated fat; 3 g monounsaturated fat); 65 mg cholesterol; 231 mg sodium; 4 g carbohydrate; 6.7 g fiber; 27 g protein; 6.3 mg niacin; 0.9 mg vitamin B6; 4.2 mcg vitamin B12; 3.6 mg iron; 39.3 mcg selenium; 6.9 mg zinc. This recipe is an excellent source of fiber, protein, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, iron, selenium and zinc.

18 September / October 2013

The Progressive Rancher

and roasts at home to save money. The program launch included consumer brochures near these beef items, onpack cutting guide labels to show shoppers how to cut these larger subprimals at home, as well as on-pack $4-off Instant Redeemable Coupons (IRC) for these items. The IRC also included a Quick Response (QR) code that if scanned with a consumers’ smartphone, linked to videos on how to cut, package and store these Slice ‘n Save beef subprimals. WinCo had more than a 49 percent increase in their beef pounds moved for this “beef in a bag” category during the May beef promotion compared to the same weeks the year prior.

Las Vegas Chef Joins Pasture to Plate Tour in California Chris Mahoney, chef at the Tender Steak and Seafood at the Luxor Hotel & Casino in Las Vegas, joined 19 foodservice professionals from 16 companies on a chef-focused pasture to plate tour in California’s Central Valley. The tour, which began and ended in Fresno, California and spanned two and one-half days, included trips to an auction yard, cow-calf ranch, seedstock operation, dairy farm, calf nursery, feedyard and processing facility. In addition to the tours conducted by the owners and key staff of each business, the tour group also enjoyed demonstrations targeted to their profession. Bridget Wasser, Senior Director of Meat Science & Technology in the Department of Research, Education & Innovation at the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association (NCBA), joined NCBA executive chef Dave Zino for a beef cutting (carcass fabrication) demonstration and a discussion of NCBA’s Beef Alternative Merchandising (BAM) program, which provides new ways to utilize and feature beef on restaurant menus. The discussion also included menu and culinary ideas and information for new beef cuts. The tour group had an opportunity to ask questions throughout, and they took part in an open discussion about beef choices, consumer needs and some of the challenges faced by the beef industry. Mike Smith, manager of Partnership for Quality & Marketing Programs for Harris Ranch, discussed issues such as growth hormones, antibiotics, efficiencies developed to meet the needs of a growing population, and concerns about animal activist groups and their tactics.

Relaunch of “Beef. It’s What’s For Dinner.” Website Have you been to BeefItsWhatsForDinner.com lately? Consumers sure have, and what they’re seeing is a new look and functionality that continues to help educate them on how to purchase, prepare and enjoy the safe, wholesome, nutritious beef you produce. The re-designed website has a more contemporary appearance, simplified interactive navigation and content, and compelling beef images. Log on at www.beefitswhatsfordinner.com and take a look! Better yet…forward the link to your friends and help them see how easy, delicious and healthy it is when they make beef “what’s for dinner!” www.progressiverancher.com


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The Progressive Rancher

September / October 2013 19


Slanted Porch by Rachel Dahl, Special Assignment

Owner and chef Steve Hernandez and chef Kelli Kelly, of the Slanted Porch Restaurant, show off the prime rib of Nick Behimer’s 4-H steer.

T

he restaurant that saved dinner in Fallon, Nevada is also the restaurant that owner Steve Hernandez and Chef Kelli Kelly are hoping will save local farms. The Slanted Porch is their vision of farm-totable sustainability of local agriculture—and that vision has come to life in a beautifully restored 1912 farmhouse at 310 South Taylor Street in Fallon. A “Nevada Grown” restaurant, the Slanted Porch vision is to highlight local agriculture producers—helping them promote their products, and serving the freshest, safest food available. Nevada Grown is a non-profit organization that supports and promotes Nevada farms, ranches, restaurants, and retail outlets. “I can tell you the names of the every person who touched that steer before it became your steak,” said Chef Kelly, “and much of what we serve has traveled less than 100 yards from seed to serve.” Kelly refers to the beef she is serving in the restaurant as the steer purchased from Nick Behimer, a local 5thgrader who sold his 4-H project to the Slanted Porch this

spring during the Fallon Livestock Show. Nick and his brothers, Bob and Ethan also sell eggs from their 3B Egg Company to Kelly for use in the restaurant. “We do prefer to buy from kids,” said Kelly. “This is a really good way to teach kids about business.” Explaining the unique position of the Slanted Porch to promote local agriculture, Kelly says that it’s the relationships between the restaurant and local ranchers and producers, similar to the mission of the Nevada Grown program, that work to make everyone more successful. Through interactions between Kelly, Hernandez, and various producers in the setting of the small farm conferences sponsored by local cattlemen and dairy organizations, the Slanted Porch has become a bit of a marketing exchange and promoter. “I’ve learned through working with Steve how to market local producers at the restaurant, I’ve learned that language,” she said. “We always highlight local producers when their products are on the menu,” said Kelly. “It’s a selling point.” According to Kelly, she uses cheese from the Sand Hill Dairy, pork from Bryant Behimer, lamb comes from other 4-H kids, and produce from several small farmers in the area. She buys chicken from Rise and Shine Farms, which owns the first poultry processing facility in Nevada. “We traded 48 pounds of carrots to Workman Farms for squash, next week we’ll have beans from Lattin Farms, Scott Goodpasture at Pioneer Farms has cabbage and snow peas for us, Salisha’s Delicious is part of the Farmer’s Collaborative as well,” said Kelly. And on top of all that, Kelly uses Churchill Vineyards brandy in her cooking and serves their wine in the restaurant. The local producers featured at Slanted Porch are also part of the Nevada Grown program. This fervor for local agriculture comes naturally to Hernandez who grew up in Fallon and fell in love with the culinary life watching his Grandmother cutting parsley from her garden to use in homemade recipes. He is a graduate of the California Culinary Academy in San Francisco and worked in prestigious restaurants there before moving closer to home to become the Executive Chef at the Bistro Roxy in Reno. He has always had this idea for a farm-to-table restaurant in Fallon, so when the opportunity presented

Nick Behimer shows off, then happily enjoys, a hamburger The Slanted Porch Chef Kelly made for him using Nick’s own home-grown 4-H steer, which The Slanted Porch purchased. 20 September / October 2013

The sign at The Slanted Porch. he moved home and spent three years restoring the 1912 farm house on South Taylor Street that five years ago became the charming Slanted Porch Restaurant. Kelli Kelly grew up in Southern California, studied Political Science and was a sailor on tall ships. She said became a cook and a deck hand all for the love of a boy. “I met a boy and ran off to the Caribbean.” She became a relief cook in Florida on one of three boats, working five weeks on and one week off. Responsible for three meals a day, along with three desserts, snacks and “the obligatory five-gallons of rum punch,” she cooked in a galley the size of a walk-in freezer. Eventually she attended culinary school at the Art Institute of California in San Diego, and moved to Fallon in 2010, following her husband Neil Kelly who was an instructor at the Top Gun School at NAS Fallon. They stayed in Fallon when Neil retired because Kelli had her job at the Slanted Porch. “We retired and bought our house here to settle down and invest ourselves in this community,” she said. She says that she has found her calling melding her Political Science background with her love of the restaurant. “People can say the choices they make about food aren’t political, but they’re fooling themselves.” “Our whole vision is to make honest, straight-forward food out of great ingredients that were grown a few miles from the restaurant.” Kelly said she wants to bring that political mindset into the industry. “You can have three ingredients in a beautiful dish and honor that idea—we don’t need the pistachio crust or the fancy plum sauce.” With that idea in mind, the Slanted Porch once again will be participating, along with local producers in this year’s Tractors and Truffles event that is sponsored by the City of Fallon and held on September 14th at Oats Park. According to Kelly the celebrity guest chef will be Ryan Scott from the TV show Food Rush, and will focus on a variety of cooking methods. Hernandez and Kelly are watching the growth of the local food movement from the Slanted Porch with excitement and some pride in their part of that growth. “If we can be the location, the connection between the rancher, the farmer, and the consumer and ignite the community,” said Kelly, “that has the ability to encourage self-sustainability in all of us.” Be sure to check this space in the next issue for another feature on a Nevada Grown producer.

See the Behimer Family Beef Story in the next issue of The Progressive Rancher.

The Progressive Rancher

www.progressiverancher.com


PINENUT

LIVESTOCK SUPPLY INC.

Farmer’s Market at the Slanted Porch by Rachel Dahl, Special Assignment Every Tuesday evening in Fallon from 5 p.m. to 8 p.m. the Fallon Farmers’ Collaborative hosts a Farmers’ Market at the Slanted Porch, 310 S. Taylor Street. During Labor Day weekend the Market will be moved from September 3rd, to the Monday the 2nd, and held from 9am to 2pm. Listed on the Nevada Grown website, and gaining in popularity and fun, there is always plenty of food and beverages for purchase by The Slanted Porch as well as music provided by local bands. Farmers include: Sand Hill Farmstead Cheese, Salisha’s Delicious Organic produce (kale, spinach, arugula, radicchio, salad, chard, radishes, turnips, green onions, kohlrabi, garlic and fresh herbs); Pioneer Farms’ has watermelon, cantaloupe, onions, garlic, cabbage, kohlrabi, green garlic, snow peas, lettuce and flowers; Lattin Farms ( organic asparagus, rhubarb, canned and baked goods); Sweet Farm with freshly picked, Fallon-grown Elberta peaches, Fallon-grown seedless grapes (Glenora and more), freshly made jams, mini breads, hot and sweet peppers; Workman Farms with an abundance of produce including tomatoes and summer squash; and Allen Road Harvests with tomatoes, cucumbers, and various lettuce. Other vendors at the Market include Starlight Jewelry, Susie’s Tie One On Aprons, body art by Sidney Ludwick, and face painting by Ivy the Artist. For a market application or for more information, please email your request to fallonfarmers@hotmail.com. The Market Facebook page can found at “Market at the Slanted Porch.”

263 Dorral Way Fallon, Nevada Reno Highway across from A&K Earth Movers

Stop by and see us, we look forward to seeing you! Fruit is abundant, fresh-picked the day of the Farmer’s Market, held every Tuesday night during the growing season at The Slanted Porch parking lot.

PHONE: 775-423-5338 john@pinenutlivestocksupply.com

————— Continued on page 22 www.progressiverancher.com

The Progressive Rancher

September / October 2013 21


Photos courtesy Betsy McFarland

Participants display freshly created plant presses.

ENLC Workshop Offers Science and Summer Fun For Kids

The Great Basin Kids Workshop, hosted annually by the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC), enjoyed its fourth year of ecological exploration and adventure at Cave Lake State Park on Friday, July 19. This year’s event focused on the botany of the Great Basin, with a special emphasis on native and non-native plant species. “The best way to teach young people about important ecological issues is to actually take them outside and engage them in an event that’s both fun and educational,” said Betsy Macfarlan, executive director of ENLC. “By increasing their knowledge and appreciation of this region, we have the opportunity to inspire lifelong enjoyment of and stewardship to the land.” The group of eleven participants made plant presses, created simple peat pots to plant native sunflower seeds in and decorated canvas tote bags by using hammers to transfer chlorophyll to cloth during the workshop’s popular “Whack-A-Weed” activity. “This was a very fun morning, both for the kids and for me,” said Workshop Leader and ENLC Board Member Carol Ferguson. “We are always so pleased by how enthusiastic and eager to participate the kids are. I think they learned a lot and had a great time with the activities.” This year’s participants additionally went on a nature walk to learn about seed dispersal and exchanged hugs and high fives with Smokey Bear while Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest Ranger Todd Hink gave a presentation on fire prevention. The morning concluded with an exploration of the Cave Lake shoreline to find out how biodiversity illustrates the health of an ecosystem

“Every year we do this, I always wish there was more time at the end of the day, particularly when you have such a bright group,” Ferguson said. “It’s especially nice to see the younger kids learning from the older kids and to see the older kids taking the time to teach the younger ones.” Since its establishment in 2010, the Kids Workshop has aimed to facilitate safe outdoor experiences that engage youth physically, psychologically, intellectually and socially with the Great Basin ecosystem and their peers. Participants in this free, half-day field trip explore a variety of subjects including geology, archaeology and plant and animal biology as they relate to the yearly theme. For more information about signing up for or getting involved with next summer’s workshop, please visit the ENLC website or contact Kalie Swails with ENLC at 775-289-7974 ext. 0#. The Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition is a nonprofit conservation organization dedicated to restoring the dynamic, diverse, resilient landscapes of the arid and semi-arid West for present and future generations through education, research, advocacy, partnerships, and the implementation of on-the-ground projects.

“Workshop Leader Carol Ferguson illustrates the difference between native and invasive plants found in the Great Basin. 22 September / October 2013

The Progressive Rancher

Junior ecologists transfer macroorganisms like caddisfly larvae and scuds into specimen jars for examination

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The Progressive Rancher

September / October 2013 23


Fires and Acres Year-to-Date

Fire Update

“Nationally, federal agencies have spent more than $1 billion so far this year, about half last year’s total of $1.9 billion, according to the National Interagency Fire Center located in Boise, Idaho. There have been 33,000 fires that have burned more than 5,300 square miles — an area nearly the size of Connecticut.” —FoxNews.com The $1 billion should have been used to put people on crews to go into areas early in the spring and clean out ill-managed forest with hand tools, prescribed burns and allow the lumber to be used for other means rather to have it burn up in smoke, go out into the atmosphere and cause more destruction to our O-Zone that the enviros are so worried about, ie., cow shit causing to much Co2 and reducing the layers of said Zones.

Current Large Fires, August 26, 2013

— As of August 26, 2013 —

AREA Alaska

BLM

FWS

NPS

ST/OT

TOTAL

USFS

FIRES

2

43

37

28

477

9

596

ACRES

0

250,617

186,068

177,263

709,617

2

1,323,567

FIRES

Northwest

ACRES

147

275

45

40

928

1,002

2,437

53,466

131,037

509

248

26,232

7,889

219,381

Northern California

FIRES

129

37

20

2,650

696

3,532

ACRES

126

633

21

21,180

70,687

92,647

Southern California

FIRES

27

122

21

25

2,790

461

3,446

ACRES

89

2,798

532

774

53,609

96,539

154,341

Northern Rockies

FIRES

492

52

5

16

714

727

2,006

7,525

425

1,038

6,301

14,221

118,032

147,542

Eastern Great Basin

FIRES

66

669

1

37

569

537

1,879

ACRES

314

306,385

0

250

40,013

364,182

711,144

Western Great Basin

FIRES

9

415

6

9

70

118

627

24,470

106,024

1

3

10,294

46,585

187,377

498

181

31

82

532

1,047

2,371

ACRES

ACRES FIRES

Southwest

47,349

6,822

3,335

1,808

41,883

210,793

311,990

FIRES

595

431

14

32

629

424

2,125

ACRES

774

9,273

501

1,071

38,477

178,821

228,917

FIRES

331

39

27

4,836

173

5,406

7,199

996

87

33,252

1,148

42,682

ACRES

Rocky Mountain Eastern Area

ACRES FIRES

Southern Area

ACRES FIRES

TOTAL

ACRES

153

72

17

8,498

331

9,071

11,144

4,987

1,445

88,384

11,075

117,035

2,449

2,225

271

333

22,693

5,525

33,496

152,456

814,014

197,967

189,271

1,077,162

1,105,753

3,536,623

Ten Year Average Fires

54,133

Ten Year Average Acres

5,778,022

Prescribed Fires and Acres Year-to-Date — As of August 26, 2013 —

AREA Alaska Northwest

BIA

• • • •

• •

Current fires and past fire incidents for 2013. http://www.inciweb.org/

National Geographic Area Coordination Center Website http://gacc.nifc.gov/ Fire Danger Forecast: http://firedanger.cr.usgs.gov/viewer/viewer.htm National Interagency Fire Center (education on fire and historical prescribed burns): http://www.nifc.gov/prevEdu/comm_guide/ch2.html North American Forest Fire Incident Display System http://fires.globalincidentmap.com/home.php Forest Service Active Fire Mapping: http://activefiremaps.fs.fed.us/index.php

24 September / October 2013

FWS

NPS

ST/OT

TOTAL

USFS

FIRES

1

2

13

16

ACRES

5

22

5,150

5,177

7

33

7

3

121

171

2,066

8,857

395

67

28,812

40,197

FIRES ACRES

Useful Links for Fire Information:

BLM

Northern California

FIRES

2

12

16

21

126

177

ACRES

35

780

15,998

254

5,472

22,539

Southern California

FIRES

5

5

1

5

141

157

ACRES

38

603

150

165

4,875

5,831

Northern Rockies

FIRES

Eastern Great Basin

FIRES

Western Great Basin

FIRES ACRES

Southwest

FIRES

ACRES ACRES

ACRES Rocky Mountain

FIRES ACRES

Eastern Area FIRES ACRES Southern Area

FIRES

TOTAL

FIRES

ACRES ACRES

11

13

24

2

93

149

292

1,583

2,904

6,747

156

1,004

9,742

22,136

4

18

1

5

21

50

99

696

1,354

1

693

1,357

14,110

18,211

2

1

12

7

22

103

300

462

82

128

24

35

17

23

5

1

19,320

11,826

1,372

10

18,387

50,915

12

37

33

10

32

94

218

1,691

3,317

3,956

616

5,090

24,916

39,586

22

245

52

774

160

1,253

23,169

31,061

4,790

31,497

15,727

106,244

52

106

11

10,762

887

11,818

15,130

60,834

5,872

576,080

850,596

1,508,512

127

143

444

108

11,712

1,817

14,351

63,690

29,100

121,007

12,630

620,446

972,937

1,819,810

The Progressive Rancher

www.progressiverancher.com

Background Photo: Rim Fire, Stanislaus National Forest California. Courtesy inciweb.org

Map courtesy of USDA Forest Service Active Fire Mapping http://activefiremaps.fs.fed.us/index.php

BIA


Emergency Stabilization and Fire Rehabilitation Planning Underway for the Bison Fire

Carson City, Nev. – The Bureau of Land Management, Carson City District and Bureau of Indian Affairs Western Nevada Agency are leading an interagency planning effort to address fire impacts caused by the Bison Fire in the Pine Nut Mountains east of Minden and Garnerville, Nev. Additional partners include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Nevada Department of Wildlife, Nevada Division of Forestry, the Sagebrush Ecosystem Technical Team, Nevada Department of Agriculture, and the Washoe Tribe.

Allie Bear

Burned area assessments are being conducted with the intent of identifying suitable areas for fire rehabilitation and stabilization activities. The assessment and planning process must be completed 21 days from the fire containment, which occurred on July 13. The lightning caused Bison Fire started on July 4 and at time of containment was 24,136 acres. Over 11,000 acres of Bi-State Greater Sage-Grouse habitat were impacted by the fire. For more information contact Ryan Elliott at 775-885-6167.

Real Estate

Spec ializing in hunting, ranching, and horse properties Davis Ranch

Great little ranch north of Elko about 14 miles out. 157.19 acres. Fenced, cross fenced, large barn, stalls, tack room, corrals, round pen, arena. 3 Bedroom / 2 bath home with covered deck, 4-car garage. $500,000

Diamond Springs Ranch

Using Livestock and Fire to Save a Toad This Wyoming toad has been outfitted with a backpack containing a radio transmitter to help biologists track it in the wild. The Wyoming toad, now the most endangered amphibian in North America, once flourished in the wetlands and rivers of southeastern Wyoming. Photo courtesy of America’s Great Outdoors (americasgreatoutdoors.tumblr.com/). America’s Great Outdoors shares photos from America’s public lands. A project of the U.S. Department of the Interior.

by Karen Miranda Gleason Public Affairs Specialist, Refuge System Branch of Fire Management, National Interagency Fire Center, Boise, Idaho

“I never thought I’d be burning prairie to help a toad,” Felix Valdez said last spring. But that’s exactly what he was doing. Valdez, a U.S. Forest Service fire management officer, is working with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service managers and biologists, the multi-agency Wyoming Toad Recovery Team, and other partners at Mortenson Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming, to conserve the last known population of the Wyoming toad (Bufo baxteri). The Wyoming toad, now the most endangered amphibian in North America, once flourished in the wetlands and rivers of southeastern Wyoming. This species is especially small for a toad, averaging just over two inches in length. By the mid1970s, the population was in decline likely due to a combination of insecticide use, changes in climate, agricultural practices, predation, and disease. In 1984, the toad was listed under the Endangered Species Act, and in 1993, The Nature Conservancy helped establish the refuge to protect the species. In April 2012, Valdez was the burn boss for a prescribed burn project designed to give the native toad what it needs to survive: water and warmth. Studies show the Wyoming toad requires pockets of warm, shallow water to breed. Historically, livestock grazing kept rushes in check, allowing plenty of sunwww.progressiverancher.com

light to warm the waters. Over time, grazing declined, requiring prescribed fires to keep plant growth in check. Without the prevention of overgrowth on this high plains prairie, biologists are concerned that Wyoming toads won’t survive in the wild. So, prescribed fire, along with prescribed grazing, is part of a collaborative recovery plan to achieve self-sustaining populations and ultimately delist the species. Another part of the recovery plan includes a captive breeding program at Saratoga National Fish Hatchery in Wyoming and the University of Wyoming’s Red Buttes Biological Lab, and various zoos. To date, almost 40,000 tadpoles and toadlets have been released into the wild. Researchers continue to study the toad’s habitat requirements and the best strategies for releasing captive tadpoles and toadlets. Nearly 30 years after it gained federal protection, the Wyoming toad is still with us today. While the toad has been extirpated from much of its historic habitat and is still a federally endangered species, there is great hope for the species’ future thanks to these ongoing coordinated conservation efforts. “Most important “In my experience, this is the best way to deliver conservation on the ground, and the only way to get this toad recovered.” The Progressive Rancher

Beautiful private ranch located at the North end of Diamond Valley, 45 miles from Eureka, Nevada. Fully fenced. 995± acres of land, with 220 acres under pivots. 35,000 acres of BLM land, with 2124 AUMs. 2 natural spring fed ponds. 1 million gallon reservoir. 3 Houses. Beautiful views of mountains all around. $1,600,000

Flying M Ranch

Great ranch, Just minutes from I-80 (Imlay, NV) & not far from Winnemucca. Approx. 23,000 acres of deeded ground with more than 23 miles on the river. Winter outside-no feeding. One of the oldest water rights along the river. $15,000,000

J and M Farm

Very nice farm just minutes from Battle Mountain, Nevada. 169 acres of which 130 are in production. Feedlot, corrals, new shop & equipment shed. New 3 bed, 2 bath mobile with mature landscape.

Starr Valley Pasture

Unique fenced 1,104 acres on Boulder Creek bordering U.S. Forest Service in Starr Valley, Nevada. Water-righted with nice meadows. $1,400,000

South of Eureka (Duckwater) 830± head cattle ranch operation with 4,851.52 deeded acres. Irrigated meadowland, rangeland in undulating and mountainous native land. Elevation 5,300’ to 6,300’ at highest point. BLM and Forest Service grazing permits.

Recanzone Ranch

Neat ranch in Paradise Valley. 900 + acres, 300 AUMs, right by town. Original Sandstone House. Easy access to Hinkey Summit & surrounding mountains. Includes Barn, Outbuildings and Corrals. $1,500,000

Ruby Mountain Ranch

31.39 acres. Beautiful 3 bed/2 bath perm. manuf. home with enclosed porch addition, 3 car garage. Fully landscaped yard. Fenced and cross fenced with metal gates. Corrals, sheds, chicken coop, shop, horse stalls, large building w/cover, fuel storage, yard light, squeeze chute and metal panels. Both domestic and irrigation well and supplement water rights. $535,000

View comple listings at:

www.ARanchBroker.com

775-738-8535 Allie Bear, Broker/Realtor 775-777-6416

September / October 2013 25


Nevada’s Priority Agricultural Weeds:

Hoary Cress

P

Brad Schultz, Extension Educator, University of Nevada Cooperative Extension, Winnemucca, Nevada.

lants commonly referred to at Whitetop or Hoary Cress are one of three different but closely related perennial species: hoary cress (Cardaria = Lepidium draba), lens podded whitetop (Cardaria = Lepidium chalepensis), and hairy whitetop (Cardaria = Lepidium pubescens). Forty-two percent of Nevada’s agricultural producers and 53 percent of the state’s public land weed managers identified hoary cress as a priority weed. Hoary cress is problematic in part because of its widespread presence, but also, because it has biological and growth characteristics that make control difficult. Whitetop is a relatively short-statured, erect species that can live for at least eight years. Plants usually range from several inches to 24 inches tall, with height reflecting the quality of the growing conditions. New whitetop plants can develop from either seed or vegetative reproduction. A single plant (defined as a distinct stem or cluster of stems) may produce up to 4,800 seeds, most of which do not survive more than about three years in the soil. Seedlings initially develop a tap root that typically reaches a depth of 30 inches. The roots of mature plants may reach depths of five to eight feet. The initial taproot develops one or more lateral roots from which new shoots arise (Figure 1). These lateral roots may reach lengths of up to 30 feet within three years, and eventually turn down and become additional vertical roots. These secondary vertical roots may reach depths greater than the original tap root. The increase in patch size of many whitetop infestations is largely the result of vegetative (clonal) reproduction, not the germination of seed and subsequent establishment of new plants. There is some research based evidence that chemicals present in whitetop roots can reduce seed germination and root growth of numerous desired species. When hoary cress plants are about three weeks old they begin to develop buds on the vertical tap root. As the lateral roots develop they also establish an extensive network of buds. These buds allow whitetop to overwinter and regrow every spring. When the roots are chopped into small pieces by tillage or other soil disturbing activities, the buds on each root fragment can initiate growth and develop into new plants. Root segments as short as two inches routinely produce one or two new plants from depths of at least five inches, and perhaps much deeper. Up to 75 percent of the living biomass of whitetop occurs below ground in the roots. The carbohydrates that form the roots are of two general types: structural and soluble energy reserves. The plant uses the energy reserves keep the buds alive during dormant periods and to initiate growth when dormancy breaks in the spring (or the fall if sufficient moisture occurs). The first few leaves that emerge after summer or winter dormancy develop from energy stored by the plant the previous growing season. The stored energy reserves of whitetop tend to be lowest in the early to mid-spring immediately after the plant has used large amounts of stored energy to grow its initial leaves, and highest around the

Figure 1. Approximately 60% of growth attained by one plant of hoary cress about 6.5 months after the seedling emerged. The arrangement of the stems and roots shows the relationship among plant parts essentially as they were found in the soil. The stars indicate points from which additional lateral roots were removed to improve overall clarity. The letters A and B represent the soil surface. Lateral roots to left of primary vertical developed under sloping ground line, which causes them to appear to grow upward from point of origin when arranged to a horizontal ground line. P, primary vertical root; L, permanent lateral of first order; S. secondary vertical of first order; H, permanent lateral of second order; J, secondary vertical of second order; M, permanent lateral of third order; N, secondary vertical of third order; 0, permanent lateral of fourth order; R. secondary vertical of fourth order. Scale in feet and inches. From: J. C. Frazier. 1943. Nature and Rate of Development of Root System of Lepidium draba. Botanical Gazette. 105:2:244-250. Accessed from JSTOR at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2472207?origin=JSTOR-pdf.

time of peak flowering to seed production. Both the stems and leaf blades of hoary cress are covered with short hairs (called trichomes). These hairs can intercept the spray droplets that carry an herbicide to the plant’s surface, potentially reducing the amount of the chemical that reaches the leaf surface. It is the leaf surface where uptake occurs, through the cuticle or stomata. Excessively small droplets are more likely to be intercepted by and stick to the leaf hairs, and not reach the leaf surface. Larger droplets that contain an appropriate surfactant typically “shatter” much easier than spray droplets without a surfactant. Some of the smaller “shattered” droplets ultimately pass through the leaf hairs and reach the leaf surface. Hoary cress plants enter the flowering growth stage from April to June, with annual variation based upon soil moisture and temperature. Many clonal patches Table 1. Active ingredients and representative products known to control hoary cress. exhibit wide variation in phenology (growth stage) among individual flowering Active Representative Soil stems. When some are at the flowering growth stage, others are either in late vegIngredient Products Selective Residual Growth Stage etative or post-flowering (seed development) growth phases. Uneven phonological development may affect herbicide effectiveness because peak movement of carboChlorsulfuron Telar and numerous Yes Yes Bud to bloom and hydrates to the roots occurs during flowering, a relatively brief growth stage. Also, others fall rosettes not all herbicides are equally effective at the same growth stage. Metsulfuron Escort, Cimarron Yes Some Pre-bloom to bloom Many of the aforementioned growth characteristics make control of hoary and fall rosettes cress difficult, but not impossible. Mechanical techniques that break the roots Imazapic Plateau and others Yes Yes Full bloom to desiccation into many smaller pieces do not work unless they are reapplied every few weeks and fall rosettes for 2 to 4 years. After each tillage treatment, buds on the root segments develop shoots, but frequent retreatment prevents the development of leaves and carboDicamba Banvel, Clarity and Yes Highly Bolting to early bud hydrate production. This eventually results in complete depletion of the energy many others variable reserves and death of all growing points. In reality, nobody has sufficient financial 2,4-D Many Yes No Pre-bud and fall rosettes resources to effectively use this multi-year approach at a large scale. The results Glyphosate Roundup and No No Early bud of this research, however, clearly illustrates why large, well established infestamany others tions with thousands of viable buds and vast amounts of stored energy are difficult to control. This demonstrates the need to treat whitetop populations, regardless Imazapyr Arsenal, Habitat, Stalker No Yes Flowering of the method used, when they are young and small, with comparatively small Sulfometuron Oust, Landmark No Yes Pre-emergent and amounts of root biomass, few perennial buds, and little stored energy reserves. and others Post emergent from Mowing the top growth of whitetop almost always leaves sufficient leaf area seedling to rapid for photosynthesis to continue; thus, carbohydrates continue to be produced. vegetative growth These carbohydrates are used develop additional leaves and roots, and increase

26 September / October 2013

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energy reserves. Mowing treatments are particularly problemabove is going to land largely on the flowers, not the leaves, atic when the soil microtopography is rough. The mower blades where uptake is highest (Figure 2). Second, is the presence of must be kept relatively high above the soil surface, which further leaf hairs (see earlier discussion). Inclusion of a surfactant in increases the amount of leaf area and subsequent carbohydrate the spray mix can partially overcome the barrier presented by production leaf hairs. Third, is the potential influence of leaf location. In Taargeted grazing of hoary cress may work in some situmany plants, the upper leaves send most of the carbohydrates ations, particularly with sheep or goats. These two herbivores they produce to the flowers and seeds, while the lower leaves typically select broadleaf plants more than grasses. If properly send most of their carbohydrates toward the root system. Getmanaged they can be used to frequently and intensively defoliate ting more herbicide mix onto the lower leaves increases the the whitetop, eventually reducing root biomass and energy repotential for more chemical being translocated to the roots, serves. Cattle are not as well suited for grazing whitetop because and possibly deeper into the root system. This can be difthey usually select grasses first, and most perennial grasses on ficult because of the upper leaves, flowers, and possibly other infested sites are the desired species that most producers want vegetation that reside above the lower leaves. Finally, since more of following weed control. Also, cattle do not graze as close an herbicide must be translocated deep into the root system to to the ground (leaving more leaf area for photosynthesis). Finally, affect as many buds as possible, one must consider the growthere is some evidence that whitetop produces glucosinolates, ing conditions likely to occur for several weeks after treatwhich at high enough levels can be toxic to cattle. Any attempt to ment. When plants are likely to reduce or stop photosynthesis use livestock to manage whitetop has to consider how the grazing shortly after an herbicide application, there is an increased regime will affect the residual desired species, as well as animal risk that only a small amount of the active ingredient will nutritional needs, and the potential effect of plant toxins. be moved to the roots furthest from the leaves. This would Figure 2. hoary cress at the optimal time for A potential cultural technique for some unique circumstancallow many buds to survive and develop new plants the next herbicide application. The leaves, the location es is long-term flooding of whitetop populations. Standing water growing season. of maximum herbicide uptake reside directly that completely covers the plants for several months has resulted Table 1 lists the active ingredients routinely used to below the dense layer of flowers. Photo by in complete mortality. Most likely, this approach is feasible only treat whitetop. For each active ingredient there are several to when water can be available much of the spring and summer, its many different products available. No single product is the Joseph M. DiTomaso, University of California depth can be easily and regularly controlled, and infiltration and best herbicide for all weed control situations. Some factors Davis, Bugwood.org soil nutrient losses will be low or absent. to consider are: 1) do you need an herbicide that is selective There are no biological control agents for whitetop and none and not going to adversely affect the residual desired species are likely to emerge. Whitetop is a member of the mustard family and numerous mustard that occupy the site; 2) are your short- and mid-term management objectives compatible species are economically important crop species. The risk of any insect or pathogen moving with a chemical that leaves a residual amount of the active ingredient in the soil; 3) what from the Cardaria species to any of the crops in the mustard family is considered too great will hoary cress’s growth stage(s) be when you have the time to fit an herbicide treatment to risk the release any potential biologic control. into your overall farming or ranching operation; and 4) can you make the commitment to For herbicides to be effective, the chemical must penetrate past the leaf hairs and reach any follow-up treatment that is needed. Dicamba, 2,4-D and glyphosate based herbicides surface of the leaf. The leaf surface is where foliar applied systemic herbicides penetrate typically result in less long-term control than the other active ingredients listed in Table the cuticle or the open stomata (structures that release water and oxygen from the plant), so 1. Treatment of hoary cress with these three chemicals is more likely to need one or more they can be transported to the “sites of action.” The “sites of action” are the specific loca- follow-up applications. Are you likely to make that commitment? If not, would a different tions in the plant where the active ingredient disrupts an essential metabolic process, which herbicide be more appropriate? subsequently results in death to the weed. Numerous characteristics of whitetop make Any weed control and management program for whitetop should consider using an herbicide uptake and translocation difficult, and these can reduce herbicide effectiveness. integrated approach that applies two or more methods of weed control. Very seldom does To control and eventually reduce whitetop, the large bank of buds on the extensive a single approach work long-term. Furthermore, all approaches, except the purposeful root system must be eliminated or dramatically reduced. The movement of a foliar ap- management of an area for bare-ground, must consider how to increase, and is some cases plied herbicide to, and then through the large root system, largely follows the movement establish, a high density of desired species on the infested site. A dense, vigorous stand of recently produced carbohydrates from the leaves to the rest of the plant. For whitetop, of desired herbaceous species provides the least risk for experiencing sudden large scale the plant moves more carbohydrates to the roots during the flowering growth stage than at establishment event from whitetop, or the rapid spread of this species should a few plants any other time. There are several factors, however, that make it hard to maximize herbicide take root. placement on the leaf surface at the flowering growth stage. First, the flowers, themselves The next article in this series will address Russian thistle, a warm season annual forb, reside directly above the leaves and any herbicide sprayed onto the plants from directly with growth characteristics very different than hoary cress

New Conservation Specialist in Winnemucca

CARSON CITY, Nev. – Steven Weaver has been hired as a Conservation Specialist for the State Conservation Districts Program. Based in Winnemucca, Weaver will work directly with the Lander, Paradise-Sonoma, Quinn River, Big Meadow, Tonopah, Vya and northern Washoe-Storey Conservation Districts. He will be involved with county and local governments, state and federal agencies, the Nevada Association of Conservation Districts and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). Weaver will coordinate local activities with the State Conservation Districts Program Coordinator and with the Sagebrush Ecosystem Technical Team in Carson City. Weaver brings a wealth of experience to this new position. Originally from Nevada, he most recently was the Conservation Science Director for A Rocha in South Africa where www.progressiverancher.com

he was very involved with invasive vegetation species issues. A Rocha is an international nonprofit organization which is engaged in scientific research, environmental education and community-based conservation projects. Previously, Weaver was the Regional Manager for Nevada State Parks based in Panaca, Nevada. As manager, he supervised more than a third of State Parks in Nevada covering more than 200 square miles in the eastern part of the state. He has also held positions as range technician, wildlife biologist and range conservationist in Nevada, Wyoming and Idaho. Weaver has been involved in range conservation, fisheries and wildlife habitat improvement and grant contracts for various federal, state and nonprofit organizations. Weaver’s office is located within the USDA NRCS office, 1200 Winnemucca Blvd East, in Winnemucca.

The Progressive Rancher

September / October 2013 27


LookUP

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oyful – Strong’s dictionary word festive; to rejoice, to get happy. #8056: happy, joyful, cheerful, Working cows in this record breaking heat is a real bummer. However, when you have a little extra help in this heat it makes all the difference in the world. And when that extra help makes you laugh and has some good entertaining stories, it makes what could be a hard dreary job a work of pleasure. The Three Cross crew found that out the other day when we needed to brand a handful of tail ender calves. We decided to invite a couple of our friends to share in the joy of being in the great outdoors in stifling heat and choking dust. Not only were our friends excellent help, but also, as always, very entertaining. Always cheerful and laughing. It made the job go fast and was fun. Notice the word joyful means to get happy. That sounds like it’s a choice to be happy and joyful, like maybe it might take some thought or effort on our part. But if we’re Christians, shouldn’t we be very serious and walk around with sour pickle pucker faces? Well, let’s look in our owner’s manual, our Bible, and see what it says about being joyful. Joyful is used more than 150 times in its verbal form, usually translated as rejoice, or be glad. Sounds like action words to me. Nehemiah 8:9-10 — And Nehemiah, who was the governor, Ezra the priest and scribe, and the Levites who taught the people said to all the people, “This day is holy to the Lord your God; do not mourn nor weep.” For all the people wept, when they heard the words of the Law. Then he said to them, “Go your way, eat the fat, drink the sweet, and send portions to those for whom nothing

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is prepared; for this day is holy to our Lord. Do not sorrow, for the joy of the Lord is your strength. NKJV Do not sorrow. In other words, be happy. Did the children of Israel have a lot to be happy about in Nehemiah’s day? Actually, they did. But like us today, they had so much to deal with in their day-to-day living (heat, shortage of water, breakdowns, government agencies on their necks – some things haven’t changed) that they forgot about their God and how He had brought them back to their beloved homeland in safety. They forgot to be thankful and joyful. Nehemiah and Ezra were cultivating (working up) and promoting the joy of the Lord as a powerful source of spiritual strength. They were reminding God’s people of God’s laws and His right way of doing things. Our Bible tells us how to live right and how to live according to God’s will. Knowledge of the Bible, along with Godly wisdom, brings joy and safety to our lives and teaches us to acknowledge and thank God for all the good things that He blesses us with. Proverbs 17:22 — A merry heart does good, like medicine, but a broken spirit dries the bones. NKJV Here the ability to laugh and be cheerful is praised, and being joyful apparently will make you live longer and be healthier, and you will be a lot more fun to be around than a sour pickle pucker face. Verse 22 says a broken spirit dries the bones. That can’t be healthy. When I think of dry bones, I think of an old dead cow out in the desert. That’s not a fun picture. Psalm 16:11 — You will show me the path of life; in Your presence is fullness of joy; at Your right hand are pleasures forevermore. NKJV In God’s presence (not presents) is fullness of joy. In the presence of our Lord we find an abundant, fulfilling life. A life of delight and joy, a life worth living in spite of all that is going on around us, in spite of the trials of day-to-day problems and day-to-day living. I dare you to live every day joyfully, happy and full of laughter. The key – seek his presence: 1. in His Word 2. in prayer 3. take His presence with you throughout the day 4. be thankful 5. get happy — I double dog dare you! Happy trails. May God richly bless you. We love you and would love to hear from you. If you would like someone to pray with, or just have a question, please give us a call at (775) 867-3100. ‘Til next time…. Scripture reading: Isaiah chapter 61 Psalm chapter 21

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Range Plants for the Rancher By Paul T. Tueller, Ph.D., CRMC

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Alkali Sacaton

his month I wish to describe to the ranching community another native perennial grass, namely, Alkali Sacaton (Sporobolus airoides, (Torr.) Torr. This is a grass of the playa edge and is of importance to those who graze livestock in the wide Nevada valleys at lower elevations. Historical research in central California and the arid Southwest indicates that alkali sacaton grasslands were once much more abundant than they are today. Pure stands of alkali sacaton grew on playas, floodplains, hills, and terraces. Today the species is found growing only on playas and low alluvial floodplains where water and excessive concentrations of soluble salts, exchangeable sodium, or both, accumulate. Sporobolus airoides is a native long-lived warm-season perennial bunchgrass forming a clump of stems reaching up to two meters tall. The stem bases are thick and tough, almost woody in texture. The fibrous green or graygreen leaves are up to 50 or 60 centimeters in length. The inflorescence is long and generally a wide open and spreading panicle, bearing yellow spikelets with purplish bases. The grass produces abundant seeds, which are often dispersed in flowing water and germinate when embedded in sediment. Panicles are nearly half the length of the plant with stiff, slender, widely spreading branches. Spikelets have 1 flower and tend to diverge from the panicles, appearing scattered. Seeds are free from the lemma and fall readily from the spikelet at maturity. Alkali sacaton has a deep, coarse and often stooling root system, sometimes giving the appearance of short, thick rootstocks. It grows in bunches sometimes 8 to 12 inches in diameter. Elevations ranges for Nevada fall between 2500 and 7800 feet. This grass germinates best in warm, sunny, wet conditions, and it can easily move into saline soils such as those in alkali flats when the substrate is wet. Plants have a broad pH and salinity tolerance, and are common in moist alkaline flats. The species can be described as a facultative halophyte, having a broad tolerance to salinity. Plants are adapted to soils containing high sodium chloride concentrations and soils containing mixtures of other salts including bicarbonate and sulfate compounds. They can grow on sites with soil salinity ranging from 0.003% to 3%, with optimum levels between 0.3% and 0.5%. This species grows in soil textures ranging from sand to clay, usually with low organic matter. In the desert shrub and grassland communities that occupy low-lying areas of the Great Basin, alkali sacaton is associated with saltgrass, galleta, Indian ricegrass (Achnatherum hymenoides), bottlebrush squirreltail (Elymus elymoides), and basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus). Though vegetation cover is often low in these sites, important shrub species include fourwing saltbush, winterfat, black greasewood, rabbitbrush, Utah juniper www.progressiverancher.com

(Juniperus osteosperma), and numerous sagebrush species including basin big sagebrush (A. t. var. tridentata), Wyoming big sagebrush (A. t. var. wyomingensis), black sagebrush (A. nova), and budsage (A. spinescens). Stands of this grass stabilize eroding soil. Alkali sacaton is a valuable forage species in these arid and semiarid regions. Plants are tolerant to moderate grazing and can produce abundant herbage utilized by livestock and wildlife. Also the saltdesert shrub communities where alkali sacaton is common support mule deer, pronghorn, carnivores, small mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles. While this grass is growing vigorously it generally rates as fair to rather good forage for cattle, poor to fair for sheep. When dry, it provides poor forage. (It makes fair quality hay when cut during the bloom stage.) As the plant matures, the foliage becomes coarse, tough and unpalatable. It does not cure into good winter feed. The grass should be grazed closely to provide good grazing use. It has been reported to cause bloat in sheep at certain stages of its development. Protein content in ranges from 4.2% in January to 8.7% in October. Calcium content ranged from 0.26% to 0.56%. Phosphorus content ranged from 0.04% to 0.17% . One study found levels of in-vitro digestible dry matter in alkali sacaton ranging from 25% to 37%. Solid stands of alkali sacaton should be grazed during the spring and summer when growth is most active. Where possible these areas should be fenced from surrounding uplands to avoid overuse of those areas. Where it grows only as scattered plants, it cannot be fully utilized or the other grasses will be overgrazed. Those of you who have allotments in these playa edge environments should be familiar with this grass and know how to graze it to your advantage. Since 1959 - Manufactured in Scio, Oregon Main Office Powell Scales NW 39120 West Scio Rd. Scio, OR 97374 Ph 503-394-3660 Fax 503-394-3502 Toll Free: 1-800-451-0787

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September / October 2013 29


SOCIETY FOR RANGE MANAGEMENT Rehabilitation of Cheatgrass-Infested Rangelands: Applications and Practices by Charlie D. Clements, James A. Young, Dan N. Harmon and Robert R. Blank.

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Range Scientist, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service 920 Valley Road, Reno, NV 89512 charlie.clements@ars.usda.gov Range Scientist, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (retired) Agricultural Research Technician, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service Soil Scientist, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service

his is the second part of a three part series specifically addressing lessons learned in the process of applications and practices used to rehabilitate cheatgrass-infested rangelands. As we previously pointed out, suppressing cheatgrass densities and fuel loads requires the establishment of long-lived perennial grasses. Moreover, one must tailor rangeland rehabilitation practices to site-specific realities to assure success. For example, compare post-wildfire conditions between a fire occurring in a Wyoming big sagebrush community, and one occurring in a previously burned area now dominated by cheatgrass. In general, the presence of big sagebrush portends a better rehabilitation opportunity. In a big sagebrush-dominated community fires are hot and a sizable portion of cheatgrass in the seed bank is killed. Subsequent rehabilitation efforts can be more successful because newly recruiting sown seeds will face less competition from cheatgrass. Also, following these big sagebrush-dominated fires there is a decrease in available nitrogen, which is not advantageous to cheatgrass. A wildfire in a cheatgrass-dominated community, on the other hand, burns fast and is relatively cool; cheatgrass litter is not completely consumed and enormous levels of viable cheatgrass seed remain in the seed bank. We investigated the rehabilitation of big-sagebrush communities by taking advantage of a 2006 wildfire in a degraded Wyoming big sagebrush/bunchgrass community north of Reno, Nevada. The experiment was a replicated block design comparing seeding the first fall following the wildfire with seeding the second fall following the wildfire. Plots consisted of seeding A) ‘Hycrest’ crested wheatgrass, B) Bottlebrush squirreltail, C) Sherman big bluegrass, and D) a mixture of these three species with the addition of Indian ricegrass, Wyoming big sagebrush, ‘Immigrant’ forage kochia and ‘Ladak’ alfalfa. Cheatgrass above-ground as well as seed bank densities were measured annually for 5 years. Seeded species seedling densities and establishment were recorded monthly from April – September for 5 years as well. The first fall seeding was significantly more successful, with only 5.7” of precipitation that year, compared to seeding the second fall which received 9.6” of precipitation. The first fall seeding peaked at 17 seedlings/ft², while the second fall seeding peaked at 9 seedlings/ft². The introduced species, crested wheatgrass, was significantly more successful than the native species tested in this experiment as it experienced the establishment of 3/ft² compared to the best performing native species, bottlebrush squirreltail, at 0.4/ft² (Figure 1). Crested wheatgrass effectively suppressed cheatgrass above-ground densities: 2/ft², compared to bottlebrush squirreltail, 52/ft². The mix treatment was successful as all seeded species, except for Wyoming big sagebrush, established with crested wheatgrass and ‘Immigrant’ forage kochia contributing a large part to the 3/ft² establishment. Longterm success of these seedings require active and proper management. Loss of perennial grass density and cover due to mismanagement will allow cheatgrass to fill the vacuum as we measured over 150/ft² cheatgrass seeds in each seeded plot and more than 250/ft² in the adjacent unseeded control plots. In conclusion, it is very important to not miss this open window and to properly seed the site the first fall following the wildfire and to use those species that have the best inherent potential to germinate, emerge and establish in these degraded/arid environments and in the face of cheatgrass competition. How does one rehabilitate cheatgrass-dominated sites? Such sites are now the norm over much of the northern Great Basin and are most difficult to rehabilitate following wildfires. Indeed, many habitats are not even seeded and those that are, are often a waste of effort and money with little or no suppression of cheatgrass, yet they are important habitats for wildlife, grazing resources, etc.. Successful rehabilitation requires deft use of all tools available mechanical implements, herbicides, and a variety of native and introduced plant materials. Herbicide use may not always be an option, close to sensitive agricultural fields, but if applied at the correct rate, timing, and formulation, cheatgrass densities can

be greatly reduced. In addition, the rehabilitation tool box can always use a new herbicide with greater efficacy and selectivity. Discing cheatgrass in the spring before it heads out can provide an open window/opportunity to establish long-lived perennial grasses in an effort to suppress cheatgrass. What this discing effort does is kill the standing crop of cheatgrass before seed production, but at the same time bury a large portion of the remaining cheatgrass seed in the seed bank to deeper depths that decreases the active cheatgrass seed bank and germination. We have routinely measured an 80% decrease in cheatgrass seed bank densities following discing. Discing is a risky endeavor, because with large cheatgrass seed banks, 80% is simply not a high enough control to be completely effective; but with that said, it does decrease the number of cheatgrass/ft² that will be competing against seeded seedlings. Following the discing application (@ about 4” depth), the site is then fallowed all summer storing soil moisture and valuable nutrients and then seeded to the desirable selected species of long-lived perennial grasses that fall. The next spring the seedlings of seeded species are emerging and competing against a significantly lower cheatgrass population, more available soil moisture and nutrients, therefore increasing the seedling survivability and establishment of seeded species to actively suppress cheatgrass. In our replicated plots, we measured a 300% increase in seeded species, 0.4/ft² in the undisced compared to 1.2/ft² in the disced plots (Figure 2). The establishment of long-lived perennial grasses, specifically crested wheatgrass, Sherman big bluegrass and Snake River wheatgrass suppressed cheatgrass above-ground densities by 90%, 92/ft² down to 9/ft². This reduces cheatgrass fuel loads, which decreases the chance, rate, spread and season of wildfires associated with cheatgrass. Herbicides can be a very useful tool available to land owners and resource managers when attempting cheatgrass control and rehabilitation practices in an integrated approach, but using herbicides must be approached using the upmost caution; misuse of these chemicals can result in certain herbicides being taken off the market and out of the tool box. The rehabilitation of cheatgrass-infested rangelands requires as many tools available to the resource manager and land owner as possible, ”you cannot change a transmission with a paintbrush.” Our latest experiments have been focusing on the testing of three separate herbicides, 1) Imazapic (Plateau), 2) Rimsulfuron (Matrix), and 3) Sulfometuron Methyl (Landmark) and their possible effectiveness at controlling cheatgrass and improving rehabilitation success. The first thing to understand, is that these soil-active herbicides are not selective. At proper rates and proper timing these herbicides will not kill established perennial grasses, but at the seedling stage they can effectively kill annual or perennial seedlings. That is why we apply these herbicides in the fall of the year, fallow the site for 1-year, and then seed the site the following fall. The activity of these soil-active herbicides is about 15 months. This allows for these herbicides to control fall, winter, spring and the following fall cheatgrass germination and emergence on the site. The following spring after seeding desirable species of long-lived perennial grasses, the activity of the herbicide ends and the seeded species emerge and compete against minimal cheatgrass densities. Matrix did not perform well as it does not control Russian thistle, resulting in overly dense Russian thistle populations in our plots that significantly contributed to the mortality of seedlings of seeded species. In our other replicated experimental plots, however, cheatgrass above-ground densities were decreased by 95.6% using Plateau (@6oz/ac rate), and 98.7% using Landmark (@ 1.75oz/ac rate) (Figure 3) and did not experience a Russian thistle problem. Using these herbicides, along with seeding long-lived perennial grasses, we have experienced a 700% increase in seeded species success, 0.3/ft² in the control plots versus 3.5/ft² in the Landmark plots (Figure 4). Cheatgrass above-ground densities have decreased by more than 98%, 62/ ft² down to 1.8/ft². Again, it is important to actively and properly manage these seedings because cheatgrass is very fast at building persistent seed banks as these plots all averaged

The Society for Range Management (SRM) is “the professional society dedicated to supporting persons who work with rangelands and have a commitment to their sustainable use.” SRM’s members are ranchers, land managers, scientists, educators, students, conservationists – a diverse membership guided by a professional code of ethics and unified by a strong land ethic. This series of articles is dedicated to connecting the science of range management with the art, by applied science on the ground in Nevada. Articles are the opinion of the author and may not be an official position of SRM. Further information and a link to submit suggestions or questions are available at the Nevada Section website at http://www.ag.unr.edu/nsrm/. SRM’s main webpage is www. rangelands.org. We welcome your comments.

30 September / October 2013

The Progressive Rancher

www.progressiverancher.com


Figure 1. Our crested wheatgrass plot on the left, compared to our squirreltail plot on the right 2 years after wildfire.

Figure 2. Disc, fallow, seeding plot on the left; no disc, seeding on the right. Notice the green forage on the left, and the fuels danger on the right.

Figure 3. The effectiveness of the herbicide Landmark on the left, compared to the control plot on the right. Seeding into the control plot dominated by cheatgrass is doomed for failure. www.progressiverancher.com

over 200 cheatgrass seeds/ft² in their respected seed bank plots that we measured. At the end of the day, rehabilitation practices will come down to cost. Our stakeholders demand results, but results that are feasible. Seed prices, fuel charges and labor all change, but our efforts to conduct these applications have led us to conducting these rehabilitation practices at a cost of: a) wildfire followed by seeding (bluebunch wheatgrass, crested wheatgrass, Wyoming big sagebrush, and ‘Immigrant’ forage kochia) = $105.10/acre, b) disc and fallow, with same seed mix = $117.60/acre, and c) herbicide (Plateau 6 oz/ac rate and same seed mix) = $133.10. One of the most important things to understand about our research and seeding efforts, whether we are seeding following a wildfire, discing or herbicide application is that we have spent years testing plant materials to give us the best understanding of those species that have the inherent potential to germinate, emerge and compete in harsh and arid Great Basin environments. Our plant material testing is dominated by native species, roughly 95% of the plant materials we test are native species. Introduced species like crested wheatgrass, Siberian wheatgrass and ‘Immigrant’ forage kochia have contributed to roughly 93% of our successful rehabilitation efforts. For example, we go out to a site and seed 8 perennial grasses (1 introduced), 4 shrubs (1 introduced) and 4 forbs in a replicated plot design and record that 2 or 3 species are successful, we are not going to recommend a seed mix of 8-12 species. We are going to use the knowledge we have gained from our experiences to increase the chance of success (Figure 5). If you do nothing, you will get nothing. If you put a lot of hard work into a seeding project and do it wrong, you will fail. But, if you do everything right you have a chance!

Figure 4. The control plot after seeding was a complete failure, compared to the Landmark plot on the left that experienced the establishment of more than 3 perennial grasses/ft².

Figure 5. One of our plant material testing plots in northern Nevada. Crested wheatgrass and Sherman big bluegrass performed very well. Notice the cheatgrass suppression along those plants.

The Progressive Rancher

September / October 2013 31


specializedindustry industrydeserves deservesour our specialized specialized attention. attention. AAspecialized From operating lines and equipment financing to livestock purchases and real estate, we have supported Nevada’s From operating lines and equipment financing to livestock purchases and real estate, we have supported Nevada’s farmers and ranchers for over half a century. That knowledge and experience is personified by John Hays, our agricultural farmers and ranchers for over half a century. That knowledge and experience is personified by John Hays, our agricultural banking specialist. He’ll come to you, and will get to work finding the right financial solutions,* so you can plan, prepare, banking specialist. He’ll come to you, and will get to work finding the right financial solutions,* so you can plan, prepare, and grow. Bring your banking home. and grow. Bring your banking home. John Hays, Agricultural Banking Specialist John Hays, Agricultural Banking Specialist 775.525.6744 775.525.6744 nsbank.com I 53 years in Nevada nsbank.com I 53 years in Nevada Over 50 branches statewide Over 50 branches statewide *Loans subject to credit approval, restrictions apply. *Loans subject to credit approval, restrictions apply. 32 September / October 2013

MEMBER FDIC MEMBER FDIC The Progressive Rancher

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Tamarisk

H

ello from the Humboldt Watershed Cooperative Weed Management Area! This month we would like to introduce you to another state listed noxious weed, tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima). Tamarisk is native chiefly to the Mediterranean area and to central Asia. Tamarisk is one of several common names for an invasive non-native tree that is spreading rapidly through the intermountain region of the western United States, through the Great Basin, California and Texas. It is also commonly referred to as saltcedar. Tamarisk is a general term for several species of Old World shrubs and trees in the genus Tamarix with scalelike leaves on very thin terminal twigs. They have tiny, triangular, scale-like leaves that are winter-deciduous. The flowers are pink to near-white, densely crowded along branched terminal spikes; they appear from January to October. Fruit and seeds are tiny, brown and inconspicuous. Under good conditions, the opportunistic tamarisk can grow 9 to 12 feet in a single season. Under drought conditions, saltcedar survives by dropping its leaves. This ability to survive under harsh desert conditions has given the tree an edge over more desirable native species and causing a sharp decline in cottonwood populations. Tamarisks are extremely invasive in riparian communities, often nearly completely replacing native vegetation with impenetrable thickets. They are extremely competitive against native vegetation because they are aggressive usurpers of water. They also sequester salt in their foliage, and where flooding does not flush out soil salts the leaf litter increases the salinity of soil surfaces. Dense stands of tamarisks support lower biodiversity than the natural communities they displace. The tamarisk is degrading the rarest of habitats in the desert southwest – the wetlands. Salt cedar invades springs, ditches and streambanks. The tree has taken over more than 1 million acres of precious Western riparian resources. The tamarisk has an extremely rapid evapotranspiration rate. There is a fear that this rapid loss of moisture could possibly cause serious depletion of ground water. Studies have shown that a mature tamarisk can uptake nearly 200 gallons of water a day. Due to this, the West is losing from 2- 4.5 million acre-feet of water per year because of tamarisk. This is enough water to supply more than 20 million people with water for one year or to irrigate over 1,000,000 acres of land. Control Methods: There are essentially 4 methods to control tamarisk – mechanical, biological, com-

petition, and chemical. Complete success of any management program depends on the integration of all methods. Mechanical control, including hand-pulling, digging, use of weed eaters, axes, machetes, bulldozers, and fire, may not be the most efficient method for removal of tamarisk. Hand labor is not always available and is costly unless it is volunteered. When heavy equipment is used, soil is often disturbed with consequences that may be worse than having the plant. In many situations, control with herbicides is the most efficient and effective method of control for removal of tamarisk. The chemical method allows regeneration and/ or re-population of natives or re-vegetation with native species. The use of herbicides can be specific, selective and fast. Insects are being investigated as potential biological control agents for tamarisk. Two of these, a mealybug (Trabutina mannipara) and a leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata), have preliminary approval for release. There is some concern over the possibility that, due to the environmental damage caused by tamarisk, native plant species may not be able to replace it if the biological control agents succeed in eliminating it. As always, please notify the HWCWMA if you see tamarisk growing within the Humboldt River watershed. Our staff can provide the property owner or appropriate public agency with site-specific advice on how best to remove it. We have an opportunity to stop it from spreading if we act quickly. We map all known locations of regulated noxious weeds in order to help us and others locate new infestations in time to control them. The Humboldt Watershed CWMA has also developed a website to serve as a clearinghouse for information on weeds in the Humboldt Watershed. Our website (http://www. humboldtweedfree.org) contains fact sheets for state listed noxious weeds in Nevada, Board of Director’s information, funding partner’s links, and many more features including a detailed project proposal packet that you can print, fill out and mail back to us at your convenience. We are looking to expand our project area outside of the Humboldt River and always welcome new funding opportunities and partnerships. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact Andi Porreca, HWCWMA Coordinator at (775) 762-2636 or email her at aporreca@humboldtweedfree.org. Or you may speak with Rhonda Heguy, HWCWMA President at (775) 738-3085, email: hwcwma@ gmail.com.

On ProgressiveRancher.com • Van Norman & friends Production Sale Video • Rhoads Ranch Video • NRRC Stewards of the Rangeland Series www.progressiverancher.com

The Progressive Rancher

• How to Research Land & Water for Proof of Vested Nevada Water Right Claims • Online Viewing of each The Progressive Rancher Issue September / October 2013 33


Financial Focus Presented by Sonny Davidson and Jason Land, Financial Advisors, Edward Jones in Elko, Nevada 2213 North 5th Street, Suite A | 775-738-8811

I

What Do New Investors Really Need To Know?

f you’re starting out as an investor, you might be feeling overwhelmed. After all, it seems like there’s just so much to know. How can you get enough of a handle on basic investment concepts so that you’re comfortable in making well- informed choices? Actually, you can get a good grip on the investment process by becoming familiar with a few basic concepts, such as these: • Stocks versus Bonds — When you buy stocks, or stock-based investments, you are buying ownership shares in companies. Generally speaking, it’s a good idea to buy shares of quality companies and to hold these shares for the long term. This strategy may help you eventually overcome short-term price declines, which may affect all stocks. Keep in mind, though, that when buying stocks, there are no guarantees you won’t lose some or all of your investment. By contrast, when you purchase bonds, you aren’t becoming an “owner” — rather, you are lending money to a company or a governmental unit. Barring default, you can expect to receive regular interest payments for as long as you own your bond, and when it matures, you can expect to get your principal back. However, bond prices do rise and fall, typically moving in the opposite direction of interest rates. So if you wanted to sell a bond before it matures, and interest rates have recently risen, you may have to offer your bond at a price lower than its face value. For the most part, stocks are purchased for their growth potential (although many stocks do offer income, in the form of dividends), while bonds are bought for the income stream provided by interest payments. Ideally, though, it is important to build a diversified

Clover Valley Farm: 243 Acres with 160 acres with underground water rights, two irrigation wells, a stock well and a good domestic well. Large modern home with detached 5 car garage, 4000 and 5000 sq. ft metal buildings and greenhouse. All for only $500,000.

Elko Co. 10,706 deeded with BLM grazing permit: These private sections are in the checkerboard area and are intermingled with public lands. The ranch has historically been a Spring Sheep range. The BLM permit is only 29% public lands. Price includes 50% of the mineral rights on all but 320 acres. Price:$130/acre. Or $1,392,000. Considering adding the property below to it to make a year around unit.

Tent Mountain Ranch: Approx. 3500 deed acres in Starr Valley. Nice larger home on paved road plus mountain cabin. Great summer range with water from numerous creeks and seeps. This ranch is made of up of over 20 separate parcels if a buyer were more interested in Investment property vs. Agricultural property. Over 135 acres with surface water rights. Price $3.7 million based on recent appraisal.

Elko Co. Humboldt River Property: 650 acres located between the Ryndon and Osino Exits on I-80. This property has over 300 acres of surface water rights out of the Humboldt River. The BLM permit for the 10,706 acres above is a short distance from this property with a stock driveway on this property. Price: $1.2 million.

Indian Creek Ranch: 126 acre Homestead with large Spring and at the foot of the Cherry Creek Range in White Pine County. Certificated and permitted water rights on the spring for 60 acres. Price reduced to $275,000.

Steptoe Valley Farm: 1000+ acres with 6 wells and 5 center pivots. Approx. 700 acres with permits and approx. 600 acres in production. Nice manufactured home. Take advantage of the good hay market! Price: $2,750,000.

For additional information on these properties go to: BOTTARIREALTY.COM

We need more Ranch and Farm listings!

Paul D. Bottari, Broker 1222 6th St., P.O. Box 368 Wells, NV 89835

Home: 775-752-3809 • Fax: 775-752-3021

34 September / October 2013

This article was written by Edward Jones for use by your local Edward Jones Financial Advisor.

COWBOY LOGIC “Holding a grudge is like letting someone live rent-free in your head.” Courtesy PCC Update

NORTE TRAILERS Call Mitch, to get your Norte Horse Trailer! Mitch Goicoechea

Work: 775-752-3040

paul@bottarirealty.com

portfolio containing stocks, bonds, certificates of deposit (CDs), government securities and other investments designed to meet your goals and risk tolerances. Diversification is a strategy designed to help reduce the effects of market volatility on your portfolio; keep in mind, however, that diversification, by itself, can’t guarantee a profit or protect against loss. • Risk versus Reward — All investments carry some type of risk: Stocks and bonds can decline in value, while investments such as CDs can lose purchasing power over time. One important thing to keep in mind is that, generally, the greater the potential reward, the higher the risk. • Setting goals — As an investor, you need to set goals for your investment portfolio, such as providing resources for retirement or helping pay for your children’s college educations. • Knowing your own investment personality — Everyone has different in-vestment personalities — some people can accept more risk in the hopes of greater rewards, while others are not comfortable with risk at all. It’s essential that you know your investment personality when you begin investing, and throughout your years as an investor. • Investing is a long-term process —It generally takes decades of patience, perseverance and good decisions for investors to accumulate the substantial financial resources they’ll need for their long-tem goals. By keeping these concepts in mind as your begin your journey through the investment world, you’ll be better prepared for the twists and turns you’ll encounter along the way as you pursue your financial goals.

www.bottarirealty.com

775-224-0905 hounddogs2010@hotmail

The Progressive Rancher

www.progressiverancher.com


Department of Agriculture Urges Caution Around Feral/Estray Horses on Roadways and in Urban Areas

SPARKS, Nev. – The Nevada Department of Agriculture is urging the public to be cautious when driving on highways, public roads and in neighborhoods near the Virginia Range area. The range includes the areas east of Carson City, Fernley, Dayton, Lockwood, south Reno, Silver Springs and Virginia City. Multiple vehicular accidents with feral and estray horses have occurred in recent months. One accident resulted in a motorist’s death. The Department collects feral and estray horses near high population areas

when public safety issues arise. Eight horses were collected from Hidden Valley of Reno on Tuesday, Aug. 13, 2013 after the Department received complaints about property damage, horses crossing into roadways and public safety concerns in the area. “The horses move into populated areas where they can find food more easily, especially this time of year when forage resources become scarce in the highlands,” said Flint Wright, administrator of the Department’s Animal Industry Division. Feeding the feral/estray horses encourages the animals to enter urban areas and

Western States Wild Horse and Burro Expo a success

Carson City, Nev. - The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), the Nevada Department of Agriculture and the Nevada Department of Corrections on Saturday, August 3, hosted the third of four annual saddle-trained horse adoption events at the Douglas County Fairgrounds in Gardnerville, Nev. Eleven wild horses and one wild burro, gathered from herd management areas within administered public lands in Nevada, Idaho, California and Oregon, were saddle-trained for four months by inmate trainers in the NNCC program, and offered during a spirited competitive bid adoption. Successful bidders paid a total of $14,350 for the animals. All of the 11 offered horses and one burro were adopted after starting bids of $150. The event’s top bid of $2,500 went for a four year old gelding named “Sancho.” The average bidding price for each horse was $1,304. The successful bidders officially adopted their new horse or burro, and they must show diligent care of each animal for a year before they can apply to the BLM to receive a title of ownership. Since 1973, the BLM has placed more than 230,000 horses and burros into private ownership through the adoption program. The next saddle-trained horse adoption and competitive auction event will be held at Northern Nevada Correctional Center in Carson City, on October 19, 2013. More information about these special adoption events is available at: http://www.blm. gov/nv/st/en/fo/carson_city_field/blm_programs/wild_horse_and_burro.html

is illegal. Gathered horses are referred to the Return to Freedom, Inc. (RTF). RTF may purchase all horses collected by the Department for public safety purposes for $100 per horse on an as-is basis. The Department is also seeking to enter into an agreement with a private nonprofit for the management of the Virginia Range horse population. (See related news story: http://s.coop/1s5bf.) MORE Despite common misconceptions that these animals are wild horses, the federal Bureau of Land Management declared the Virginia Range “wild horse free area” through a land use planning process in 1986. The herd in the Virginia Range is therefore designated as estray/feral livestock and fall under existing Nevada state laws pertaining to estray/feral livestock. These include NRS 569.0075, 569.008 and 569.0085.
Although the horses do not fall under protection of the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act, the Nevada Department of Agriculture and the State of Nevada have taken precautions to ensure the estray/feral horses have been cared for in accordance with Nevada state law.

2013

Ranch Rodeo Friday, September 13TH Elko County Fairgrounds Elko, Nevada

5:30 PM FREE ADMISSION

In Conjunction with the Van Norman & friends Horse Sale

Call 775-738-5816 for Info

Snowstorm Mountains Emergency Wild Horse Gather Cancelled

WINNEMUCCA, Nev. – On August 16, 2013, Winnemucca District BLM issued a Stop Work Order to Cattoor Livestock Round-up, Inc. for the Snowstorm Mountain Herd Management Area (HMA) Water Trap Gather. The Snowstorm Mountains HMA gather was scheduled to begin on August 3. “BLM is evaluating gathers across the U.S.,” said Amy Lueders, Nevada BLM State Director. “We are identifying priority gathers in a climate of limited resources, while remaining flexible to ensure that we are able to conduct emergency gathers that may result from the ongoing fire season.” The Emergency Snowstorm Mountains HMA gather was scheduled for an area 17 miles east of Paradise Valley in northern Nevada with the intent to gather 340 excess wild horses. This gather was being conducted as an emergency gather due to the severe lack of water within and around the gather area and the overpopulation of wild horses. BLM is currently hauling water five days a week to prevent wild horse deaths due to inadequate water availability. For more information about wild horse and burro gathers in Nevada, visit http://www. blm.gov/nv For further information, please contact Mark Turney, BLM Winnemucca Public Affairs Specialist at: (775) 623-1541 or by e-mail at: mturney@blm.gov. www.progressiverancher.com

The Progressive Rancher

Cowboy Bar

September / October 2013 35


it’s in the bone Jake Telford on Nabisco Roan (full brother to Frettin)

Boonlight Dancer x Crackin

2007 Red Roan Stallion See Fret’s Lot #59 at th e Van Norman & friends Sale , September 1 4

Fret’s First Foals

Frettin

with Cory Shelman

Horse Processing: S

by Becky Lisle

ummer months have brought new developments—some surprisingly welcome and some deeply troubling— in the ongoing battle to resume humane domestic horse processing. Without action by Congress to defund the inspection of horse plant inspections or otherwise ban horse processing, the current law of the land allows it. A letter from horse industry supporter, Congressman Charlie Stenholm, offers a review: “First, the Obama Administration submitted a budget to Congress with a prohibition on funding for FSIS inspectors at horse slaughter facilities. Next, the current House and Senate Appropriations Committee versions of the FY 2014 Agriculture Appropriations bill reinstates the funding ban for FSIS inspection of horse slaughter. However, with the state of affairs in the 113th Congress, it is unlikely that the FY 2014 appropriations bill will be enacted as law by the September 30th deadline. Thus, we will likely operate on a Continuing Resolution without a ban on domestic horse slaughter inspection.” A victory came for the horse industry in late June, when the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) issued a response to a petition submitted by Front Range Equine Rescue and the Humane Society of the United States. According to the FSIS, the petition “asserts that all meat and meat food products from horses without a proven lifetime history of all drugs, treatments, and substances administered to the animal are adulterated under the Federal Meat Inspection Act and as such must be prohibited for human food.” The FSIS response completely debunks the anti-processing camp’s intentionally fallacious claim that all horse meat is tainted and therefore dangerous, stating: “After carefully considering the issues raised in the petition and the supplemental statement, the Agency finds no merit in the assertion that all meat and meat food products from a horse without a proven lifetime history of all substances administered to it are adulterated under FMIA.” With the failure of the “tainted meat” campaign, and without the likelihood of a legislative victory, animal rights activists have turned to the court systems, and even to terrorism, to thwart progress toward humane domestic horse processing. In early July, federal officials issued a grant of inspection to a Roswell, New Mexico company’s application to begin processing horses. The approval came following Valley Meats lawsuit against the USDA, which claimed that the government agency was not following the law by delaying the inspections required to begin operating. Despite the USDA’s jurisdiction over a vast and varied spectrum of food production, Secretary of Agriculture, Tom Vilsack has made clear his opposition to the processing of horses for human consumption. Vilsack has stated in the past that he would like to find an alternative, suggesting the adoption of the approximately 150,000 horses (unwanted annually) by veterans suffering from PTSD. In addition to Valley Meats, Rains Natural Meats in Gallatin, Mo., and Responsible Transportation in Sigourney, Iowa, have applied for the federal inspections necessary to start processing horses. Disturbingly, the Valley Meats plant was hit by arsonists in late July, when some-

The Monkey Story standing to a limited number of mares

PRIVATE TREATY Linda Bunch Tuscarora, NV

775-756-6508

36 September / October 2013

The Progressive Rancher

Courtesy PCC Update First, you start with a cage containing five monkeys. Inside the cage, hang a banana on a string and place a set of stairs under it. Before long, a monkey will go to the stairs and start to climb towards the banana. As soon as he touches the stairs, spray all of the other monkeys with cold water. After a while, another monkey makes an attempt with the same result – all the other monkeys are sprayed with cold water. Pretty soon, when another monkey tries to climb the stairs, the other monkeys will try to prevent it. Now, put the cold water away… Remove one monkey from the cage and replace it with a new one. The new monkey sees the banana and wants to climb www.progressiverancher.com


Two Steps Forward, Two Steps Back one was reported to have jumped the fence and poured an accelerant over the compressors to the refrigeration unit before lighting it. Without working refrigeration, the plant won’t be able to open on schedule. Some animal rights groups accused Valley Meats owner, Rick de los Santos, of setting the fire. Had it not been for the arson, Valley Meats was set to begin operation on August 5. However, political action at the state level further complicated the company’s progress. With the support of current governor, Susana Martinez, former governor, Bill Richardson, and actor Robert Redford, the New Mexico Environment Department told Valley Meats that their lapsed wastewater discharge permit wouldn’t be renewed without a public hearing because of extensive comments already received. While Richardson and Redford claim to be “standing with the Native Americans” against horse processing, in actuality, the Navajo and Yakima nations, among others, are strong supporters of reestablishing domestic horse processing because of the absolute decimation of their tribal lands by feral horses. Valley Meats attorney Blair Dunn stated that the lack of a discharge permit would not prevent the plant from opening on schedule, but would increase the cost of doing business since waste would have to be hauled to be disposed of. Dunn also noted that there are several dairies in the state that are operating with lapsed wastewater discharge permits. In an August 2 hearing, Judge Christina Armijo of the 10th District Court of New Mexico granted HSUS’s request for a Temporary Restraining Order (TRO) that prevents USDA from sending inspectors to horse processing facilities. This TRO will be in force for a short term while a decision on a Preliminary Injunction, which would be in force until the underlying lawsuit is settled, will be decided upon in about a month. Congressman Charlie Stenholm, stated: “HSUS argues that the decision to recommence horse slaughter in the United States constitutes a major federal action and, as such, FSIS was required to conduct an environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Without question, this is a desperate attempt to delay USDA from providing inspectors to the point that the financially-strained horse slaughter plants are forced to shutter… If HSUS succeeds on this matter, then FSIS will be forced to conduct an environmental assessment (EA) and possibly put together an environmental impact statement (EIS) prior to inspecting horses for slaughter. After FSIS has delivered its EA or EIS, HSUS will have an opportunity to litigate the validity of those documents too. This can draw out the NEPA process to 2 to 5 years.” Lost amidst all of the special interest puppetry and political finagling are America’s unwanted horses, who, at best, suffer prolonged transportation to Canada or Mexico to meet their ends, but are tragically more likely to face starvation, abandonment, and neglect, solely because of those who profess to love them. For an in depth look at the scale of the problem, go to youtube, and enter “Jeri Dobrowski, unwanted horse” in the search bar. The video is nearly an hour long, but is well worth your time and attention. To help in the fight to restore humane horse processing, visit www.united-horsemen.org

E L A S R Leana Stitzel’s FO AQHA

Smart Lil TR Cutter (Teddy) Sorrel Gelding Son of TR Dual Rey and Smart Lil Mary Lou I went to the 2007 Cutting Futurity in Texas and purchased Teddy as a 2-year-old. Very easy to ride on a cow, great big move, honest, quiet and easy to be around. Ted and Leana won the 2008 snaffle year-end Magic Valley Reined Cow Horse Assoc. amateur buckle. A rope has been swung on him, nothing roped he was just fine. Has a lot of speed. Good feet Great body, easy keeper and very good to shoe. Travels very well and drinks anywhere. He is bred to work cattle.

Too Cool To Shine (Coolee) 4-year-old Sorrel Mare By There Comes A Time Out of Smart Margarita Coolee is the last colt I’ve raised, she is out of a Ward Ranch breed mare who I bought as a 2-yearold. Coolee was a small 2-year-old so was started late and has been brought along slow and it has paid off, as she is good-sized now. She is very lady-like looking but is a lot of horse and likes to be busy and have fun. She is the best looking colt I have raised. Rides smooth like butter and has an enormous stop…right from the top of her hip. She will slide a mile. Lots of mane and tail to look good in the dry pattern. She is sweet with a perfect head and good teeth.

Corky May Oak the stairs. To his surprise and horror, all the other monkeys attack him. After another attempt and attack, he knows that if he tries to climb the stairs he will be assaulted. Next, remove another of the original five monkeys and replace it with a new one. The newcomer goes to the stairs and is attacked – and the previous newcomer takes part in the punishment with enthusiasm! Likewise, replace a third original monkey, then a fourth, and then the fifth. Every time the newest monkey takes to the stairs, he is attacked. Most of the monkeys that are beating him have no idea why they were not permitted to climb the stairs or why they are participating in the beating of the newest monkey. After replacing all of the original monkeys, none of the remaining monkeys have ever been sprayed with cold water. Nevertheless, no monkey will ever again approach the stairs to try for the banana. Why not? Because as far as they know, that’s the way it’s always been done around here. And that, my dear friends…is how we continue to fail finding solutions to management. www.progressiverancher.com

Blue Roan Mare Daughter of JP Rolling Thunder and Oakers Shindig She is one nice 6-year-old mare. Gorgeous and easy to be around and would make a young cowgirl or cowboy that knew how to ride a very classy t the eo do anything horse. ble a id

The Progressive Rancher

a V avail Review s e s r . e o l h e om Sa Thes friends orman.c n d an .van rman at: www o N Van

September / October 2013 37

e

onlin


C

attle are driven by nutrition, comfort, and safety, they are simple minded and often mis-understood.

If we can see things from their perspective, it can give us a better understanding of their mental process and response to situations. — Martin Black

Martin Black — Presents —

Low Stress Stockmanship on Horseback Clinic Saturday, September 14 Immediately following the Van Norman and friends Production Sale — Auction begins at 1:00 p.m. —

Elko County Fairgrounds • Elko, Nevada Cost per participant: $50 • Free to Spectators For more information and to enter contact Linda Bunch: 775-756-6508 or mrsbunch@rtci.net

Brought to you by

38 September / October 2013

Fort McDermitt Horses W

by Rachel Dahl, Special Assignment

hen members of the Fort McDermitt Tribe decided four years ago to gather and sell their excess horses, little did they know the fire-storm that would come from their efforts to respect both the land and the horses on their own reservation. Located in Northern Nevada and crossing into Oregon, the Paiute-Shoshone Reservation spans over 35,000 acres. Members have raised horses The branded horses await the sale to begin in for generations with families Fallon, Nevada. traveling to the East yearly to buy well-bred stud horses to turn out with their ranch mares. The horse business has always been good to Tribal members who sell horses for ranch work, and rodeo performance. According to Vice-Chairman Arlo Crutcher, Tribal members have been working with Bureau of Land Management and Forest Service officials for several years to prevent Indian horses from trespassing on federal lands and keep a manageable number of horses on reservation lands. A cooperative gather between the agencies and the Tribe planned for last summer was cancelled at the last minute, and then on August 9th, of this year, Forest Service officials again cancelled the planned gather. Planned for August 10th, that gather would have taken over 700 horses off of Reservation and public lands. This year, however, Tribal members went ahead and gathered their own horses, spending their own money to gather 467 horses off reservation land. Horses were shipped to the Fallon Livestock Exchange to be sold to the public at auction on Saturday, August 17th. Amid a firestorm of publicity and outcry from advocates across the country, which included two death threats to the Manager of the Livestock Exchange, wild horse advocates convinced a Federal Judge in Reno to halt the sale with a temporary injunction imposed late Friday night preventing the sale of any unbranded horses. The advocates who had involved themselves early-on in the Fort McDermitt horse issue, by negotiating through their lawyer with the Tribe for observation privileges and conditions during the gather, spent Saturday examining each horse to determine which could be sold in the auction that was postponed until 3 p.m. There were a total of 149 unbranded horses moved to a separate holding pen on the property where they were held until Judge Miranda Du heard arguments on August 21st. Katherine Meyer, attorney for the advocate groups who attended the hearing by phone maintained that all unbranded horses must be considered to be a wild horse. Deniz Bolbol, a witness for the Plaintiffs (several wild horse advocate groups), testified that the horses she examined acted like wild horses because they put their heads down and ran from humans. State of Nevada brand inspector, Chris Miller was asked by the defendant (US Forest Service) to explain how he determined that the horses were domestic and belonged to the tribe. He explained that in addition to declarations by the Tribe Brand Inspector who recognized several horses, and examining body-type and condition, there were over 25 geldings in the group and two Shetland ponies. After hearing testimony, Judge Du determined that the Tribe gather did not constitute federal action by the Forest Service and that the Plaintiffs did not prove the 149 unbranded horses were wild, and lifted the injunction. Advocates expressed their dismay in the federal government actions that pit one agency against another and create conflicting missions. “We live to fight another day,” said Laura Leigh who filed the complaint. She had attended three separate hearings in Reno on various wild horse issues that day alone. According to Crutcher, the Tribe will sell their remaining horses through private parties this time. He is working with a woman from an advocate group who has agreed to take all 149 horses for a flat price. Both parties have asked that the details of the deal not be made public until advocates are sure they have found homes for all the horses.

The Progressive Rancher

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1982 Nevada Historical Essay Contest

“A

Once A Pioneer Always A Pioneer by Syndi Rae Kane Morris, while a student at Independence Valley School

re ya ready?” yells Stanley as he walks through the back door. “Yup” Mae is always ready and willing. With suitcase in hand and a last minute scurry to find Stanley’s pills, they journey to Fish Creek where Stanley trucks out cattle from the feedyard. Mae Ellison strengthens him as his companion and is comfortable anywhere as long as she is with Stanley. Good dinners waiting and clean sheets on the bed help make problems of the day more bearable for Stanley Ellison. No history of the Spanish Ranch would be complete without talking of the courage and abilities of this ranch woman. Mae Croft Ellison surged into this world with a courageous look on November 20, 1909, in Centerville, Utah. She was the oldest of seven children. Mae often remembers her mother as being a very cheerful, ambitious, and pleasant person who had tremendous influence in her life. Mae followed in her mother’s footsteps in that regard. Mae met Stanley Ellison in 1932 and married him in the Logan Temple. They traveled on their honeymoon to Canada and on the way back home to Centerville, stopped at the Spanish Ranch, located near Tuscarora, sixty miles north of Elko, Nevada. At that time Stanley’s grandpa E.P. Ellison was the president of Ellison Ranching Company. Parley Ellison, Stanley’s uncle, was the foreman for the ranch. Due to the depression, there were no cows, sheep, horses, or livestock of any kind. The company was in deep financial trouble. Mae was very anxious to get home and wasn’t fond of being way out in the “sticks”. “When we arrived at the ranch, I didn’t want to get out of the car. I didn’t want anything to do with the ranch”, Mae recalls. “I just wanted to go home!” Mae and Stanley proceeded on to Tuscarora where he bought her a “nice candy bar”. On the way up there, Mae hid her wedding ring inside her mouth because she was afraid some robbers would hold them up. In tears from being homesick, she bit into the candy bar only to find a worm in it. “The wormy candy bar was the last straw,” Mae laughed. The

Mae’s first house at the Spanish Ranch

couple went on to Utah only to find a large flood preventing them from going on home. Then Mae did bawl, because she wanted to get home to her mother. Stanley owned a farm known as “Thirteen” about four miles north of Layton, Utah. “One day I rode out to the farm with him, and I told him, ‘Don’t you ever expect me to live this far away from town!’” she chuckles now. In 1935 the dreadful day came when Stanley had to go for a summer to the ranch to help his Uncle Parley. Of course, Mae went with him. It was just for a couple of months, but they never returned to Utah to live and are still at the Spanish Ranch after forty-nine years! At the Spanish Ranch, they made their home in a three-room house. There was no running water, electric lights, or indoor plumbing. Tar paper “decorated” the walls. Through hardships and trials, Mae always had determination and the will to go on. Then one cold March morning, she became my grandmother. She tended my twin sister and me for many long hours both day and night. She has become one of my idols, and I am very close to her. I will always remember her hot rolls that she made especially for me, and the many bandaids she has put on my knees. Yes, Grandma was a good nurse! One day back in the late 1940’s, Lolo, one of the old cowboys, fell out of the hay loft and cracked his skull. Grandma cleaned the manure, dirt, and hay out of the wound and packed it with flour. It was in the winter, and they were snowed in, sixty miles from the hospital. They took Lolo by sleigh to Dinner Station where a truck met them and took him to Elko. Very much to Grandma’s surprise, there was no infection. At seventy years old, Grandma commented to me as we sat by her cozy fireplace and beautiful shaded electric lamp, “Now I can relax and take it easy.” But then in 1977, Grandpa again dragged her down to live at the Squaw Valley Ranch, a rather isolated and desolate area. It was “just for the summer,” but they have been there for the past five years! Grandpa was up to his old tricks again. “This is the secondlongest summer I’ve Mae and Stanley Ellison spent,” laughs Grandma.

Syndi Kane Morris, the daughter of Bill and Marie Ellison Kane, was raised on the Spanish Ranch near Tuscarora, NV. She attended Independence Valley Elementary School through eighth grade, graduated from Elko High School, and received a degree in Special Education from Brigham Young University. She and her husband, Andy, have three children, Dallin, McKall, and Austin. They currently live in St. George, Utah, where Syndi teaches special ed and Andy works in the family business. www.progressiverancher.com

The Progressive Rancher

September / October 2013 39


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The Progressive Rancher September/October 2013  

Traditional Past...Embracing the Future. This month's issue cover topics affecting the agriculture industry ranging from Wildfires, Horse Pr...

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