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System Development Process Computer Programming Assignment Help

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1. Estimate hard, soft and agile approaches to software development in comparison to their organizational contexts. Justify, select and apply appropriate techniques from each approach.

These days’ firms are getting pressurized from globalization to gain competitive advantage. Firms try to improve business processes as products become commoditized. Firms are fighting to become agile, have gained efficiency by improving their processes, faster than their competitors. They are in continual race to become better and thus have embarked on business process management to become effective and gain efficiency. Agile Software Development Approach – Agile is a software development life cycle model in which software is divided into small rapid incremental cycles. Each small cycle results in a release which is built from previous functionality. Agile approach is used for time critical applications testing where each release is tested thoroughly to ensure that software is up to mark and of utmost quality.

Figure: Agile Model In this kind of model each task has to be completed in defined time frame. The output of each release is called build which is incremental in terms of features and enhancements as required by customer. The final build will contain all the features defined by customer. Popular Agile Methods are:



Rational Unified Process

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     

Scrum Crystal Clear Extreme Programming Adaptive Software Development Dynamic Systems Development Method Feature Driven Development etc.

Main advantages of agile methodology are:

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Customer remains satisfied through continuous delivery of valuable software. Changes can be accommodated at even later stages of development lifecycle. Every build that is delivered is in working condition.

(sdlc/sdlc_agile_model.htm, 2015) (what-is-agile-model-advantages-disadvantages-and-when-to-use-it/, 2015)

Soft Systems Methodology – This approach is used to solve real world complex and unstructured problems in large organizations. In traditional software development methodologies, objective is defined first and then developers move backwards to achieve that objective. In such cases if objectives are not properly defined this may lead to confusion. Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) was developed as a result of failure of traditional approach. This is a rational approach and used to solve problems where there are no predefined set of objectives and outcomes. To deal with complex organizational problems, an organized SSM intervention is employed which involves evaluation of following points:

  

The situation or problem to be solved is to be evaluated. The systems to be involved in problem solving are to be included The systems that are involved in problem solving are to be compared from other systems exiting in real world.

SSM are a seven stage model which involve a process to accomplish some task. To bring about some goal, one might have to go through these seven stages many number of times, therefore this is a process of mutual learning. We can learn from our mistakes done in previous stages and might never repeat them and prevent them from occurring in future stages. Read more about Java Programming Assignment Help SSM is a combination of outcome of making use of conceptually derived models and real world models. (2005/09/seven-stages-of-soft-systems.html, 2015) (areol/areol-session13.html, 2015) (strategicProblems/m_s_3frs.htm, 2015)

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SSM are used to analyze problems whose final objective is very complex to achieve or is not clearly defined. For example, SSM can be applied in construction industries. This technique allows the exploitation of socially constructed and individual groups knowledge and experience. It is potentially more effective if applied in early stages of project which will allow stakeholders to understand the problem in a better way. SSM tries to integrate the design, skill of people and service management processes by including them through rich pictures, root definitions, identifying responsible actors, key transformations and knowledge resources those are appropriate to the needs. Hard System approaches are also called as System Analysis Structured Methods. It is known as systematic and scientific method to solve problems as problem is well defined with set objectives and an ideal solution. This is a more traditional way of viewing systems in computer science as compared to Soft Systems Methodology which deals with messy or poorly defined systems whose objectives are not defined and outcome is not fixed. In hard systems approach, well defined data leads to unambiguous solution. These are focused on computer implementation. Soft systems approaches are focused on improvements to organizational problems. An example of Hard Systems Approach can be a virtual resource management system in which resources can be booked and managed online. This system will be developed so as it will send reminders when the item is due for return. Resources can be books, journals and cd’s etc. Users of this system can be staff, students and administrators. Web based system has a web server (platform) and web client (browser) and web application associated with it. After we have defined our requirements for development of this system, the next step will be analysis of the problem which will include understanding the scope of the problem, identification of the parts of the problem that will be required for coming at solution, connection of parts (integration) in proper manner. Analysis and design of the system will involve identification and decomposition of various components, flow of control and flow of data within the system. After analysis and design each identified component will be required to be transformed into source code. After implementation the system will be required to be tested, whether it meets the customer requirements or not. Read more about computer Network Assignment Help

Subject-Specific skills d) Apply interpretive analysis techniques commonly employed in soft systems studies to a professional standard.

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SSM are used to analyze problems whose final objective is very complex to achieve or is not clearly defined. There are many problems to be solved, goals are not measurable, there is emphasis on what as well as how of the system to be developed. It has unpredictable, non-deterministic, non-definable complexity. SSM are a seven stage model which involve a process to accomplish some complex, nondefined task. 1.

Unstructured Problem – In Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), the problem is analyzed. As there are no defined objectives, presumptions of situation are made.

2.

Problem is expressed – A detailed definition or a rich picture of the situation is developed. This is diagrammatic representation of the problem to be developed.

3.

Root definitions – The important root definitions or CATWOE list is defined for the system. This includes:

     

Customers – those are system beneficiaries Actors – who convert inputs into outputs Transformation – from inputs into outputs Weltanschauung – the relevant world views Owner – the persons with power of rejection Environmental constraints – that are needed to be considered

4.

Implementation and Testing of conceptual model – Is it an ideal system which meets customers requirements?

5.

Comparison of conceptual model with real world – How the relevant systems might work and what can be their implementations

6.

Identify feasible and desirable changes – Is it a technical improvement and fits the culture or not.

Also Read: Programming in Java Assignment

In our problem, we have to set up a structured distance learning unit. Right now, tutors are sent to far off areas to deliver courses, which are called flying faculty. It is required to make this system more systematic and organized and the course material quality is also to be increased. Academics might only be needed for mentoring and grading. Some students prefer distance learning programs as they can work flexibly through it while others want tutor interaction therefore they do not prefer such programs. They also see opportunity in relocating to university. In step 1, we have to find out as many different views as possible, as this is the unstructured problem situation stage. Here, our problem is to send faculty to far off area to deliver courses or to deliver online courses via distance learning unit. Some students want face to face interaction with tutors while others are comfortable learning the courses online. In step 2, express the problem in form of diagram (rich picture).

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In step 3, usage of CATWOE technique is to be done to define the cultural and human aspect of the problem. This will involve:

     

Customers – those are system beneficiaries Actors – who convert inputs into outputs Transformation – from inputs into outputs Weltanschauung – the relevant world views Owner – the persons with power of rejection Environmental constraints – that are needed to be considered

Here: Customers will be students of the course, Actors will be tutors who will deliver course online, Transformation will be – now tutors do not have to go far to deliver the courses. Students have to get enrolled and connect to tutor online for pursuing a course, Weltanschauung – There are two student views: Some students wish to have interaction with tutors to get their problems solved real-time, other students are comfortable with online course and working and graduating at their own pace flexibly. Owner – There will be some administrators of the system who will coordinate the course online. Environmental Constraints – Internet connectivity is required on both tutor as well as students’ end for successful running of course. In step 4, conceptual model of this system has to be developed which will involve all the customers, actors and owners of the system along with the transformations. In step 5, this conceptual model built in step 4 will be compared with real world models and any deviations with be incorporated.

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In step 6, the final model will be tested for feasibility. The model that we have developed is both feasible and convenient and can be implemented in real world successfully. Read more about Principles of Java Programming Assignment Help

e) Apply a range of techniques to elicit, validate and specify user requirements for a variety of system types (e.g. database and safety-critical) to a professional standard. In our system, some students are willing to opt for distance learning course as they wish to find greater opportunities to find paid work, they wish to work at their own pace, do not have to relocate and can review course material as and when they wish. Other students who are not willing to opt for distance learning course say that they do not want to miss social interaction and the opportunity to get their answers real time. To validate user requirements one has to identify the problem to be solved, the actors and customers and probable transformations. After analyzing user requirements one has to analyze the database that will be developed and the security requirements for building the system.

Summary of Project Introduction – In this project we have to design a distance learning unit and encourage students and staff to move towards adopting distance learning as an option. This learning centre will save tutors time and encourage students to get courses flexibly and to also get their problems resolved online. Some students agree to this structure while others feel that by this setup they won’t be able to get personal interaction with tutor.

Rich Picture (25%) This diagram explains that there are two actors in the system, student and tutor. While tutors teach course, students are involved in asking their queries real time. After the setup of distance learning unit, students will take course online while tutors will impart online classes.

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Root Definition including CATWOE (10%) To define the cultural and human aspect of the problem, we define CATWOE in following way: See also: Business and Computing Assignment Help Customers will be students of the course, Actors will be tutors who will deliver course online, Transformation will be – now tutors do not have to go far to deliver the courses. Students have to get enrolled and connect to tutor online for pursuing a course, Weltanschauung – There are two student views: Some students wish to have interaction with tutors to get their problems solved real-time, other students are comfortable with online course and working and graduating at their own pace flexibly. Owner – There will be some administrators of the system who will coordinate the course online. Environmental Constraints – Internet connectivity is required on both tutor as well as students’ end for successful running of course. Conceptual / Activity Model (40%) Each root definition defines the characteristic of potential system. Business activity model is an expansion of root definition. The root definition shows a distinct view of what the business activity model of future will be like, who will operate it, the main transformation activity, the world view (aim of system), who owns it and what the constraints are (CATWOE). 5 typical stages of Business activity model are: Plan, Enable, do, monitor, control.

   

Plan – We have to plan what needs to be done. Enable – We need to do activities to acquire the resources. Do – We need to determine how we have to employ these resources for development of the model. Monitor and Control – In a well defined model, there will be activities to monitor and control these activities.

Measures of performance (10%) We have used the three E’s here to measure the performance of the system are Economy, efficiency and effectiveness. We have applied SSM in this project as there are no clear objectives and there is no numerical data. Efficiency – We have to measure that the profits that we will get by the setup of distance learning unit are more than, equal to or less than the cost in building up the distance learning unit. Economy – We have to check overall cost and revenues applied in development of distance learning unit.

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Effectiveness – We have to see that have we achieved the desired objective in limited time, with limited manpower and defined cost. Are we getting desirable results? We must not get too focused on any one of these three measures. These must be applied in moderation taking into consideration other environmental factors also.

Conclusion As the problem of development of this system is not well defined and human aspect is dominant therefore soft systems methodology is applied. SSM allows us to deal with complex unstructured problems and forces the user to look for a solution that is more than technical. It is a rigorous tool that is use in messy situations. It allows us to investigate the unstructured problem, express the problem situation through rich picture, allows us to make root definitions of relevant systems including CATWOE (Customers, actors, transformation process, weltanschauung, owner and environmental constraints), making of conceptual model, comparison of conceptual model with rich picture, implementation of the feasible solution and testing it against expected results, some action to improve problem situation. This project defines the interaction between people or actors involved and the technology used to make the project and system. In this problem there are no strict rules for university classes. There must be a defined rule for taking regular classes as well as correspondence classes. There must be strict admission procedure for regular students as well as for correspondence students and fees must be defined accordingly. The scope of this system must be increased to make this problem more structured. Right now there is no defined objective of the system and no aim or mission of the system. Therefore a flow diagram cannot be prepared. Although a rich picture is developed, based upon which we have defined root definitions and CATWOE, but that is not sufficient to understand the workflow of the system. We must include more modules, more parameters, more actors so that the system may become easy to understand and easily modifiable. This model has lot of scope of improvement. This can be structured and organized in a way so that students can have dual benefits from tutors. Tutors will also teach in university and take online classes in weekends. This way both regular as well as correspondence students will be benefitted. Leaves for tutors can be organized at pre-defined dates. There must be separate lecturers for taking correspondence classes as well as for regular classes. There must be doubt solving sessions and university off days must also be recorded. In case of online classes there must be personal doubt discussion sessions, group discussions in form of live chat, video conferencing, phone calls etc. Every student must get their problems redressed real time. There must be a system so that students can get their problems redressed via email conversation also so that need for personal interaction is reduced to minimum. We can also introduce role of social media groups here like facebook, twitter, linkedin, whats app. Communication through these mediums is quick and efficient and nearly all the people (students and tutors) are connected on them. Read more about Computer Programming Assignment Help

Bibliography

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2005/09/seven-stages-of-soft-systems.html. (2015, feb 27). Retrieved from http://qeynotes.blogspot.in: http://qeynotes.blogspot.in/2005/09/seven-stages-of-softsystems.html

areol/areol-session13.html. (2015, FEB 28). Retrieved from http://www.aral.com.au: http://www.aral.com.au/areol/areol-session13.html Cairns, D. (n.d.). Hard versus Soft Systems Methodology. 7.

essays/information-systems/soft-systems-methodology.php. (2015, mar 2). Retrieved from http://www.ukessays.com: http://www.ukessays.com/essays/information-systems/soft-systemsmethodology.ph

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System development process  

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