Page 1

regional edition

LONDON

The regional market perspective for the London rental housing industry

2021


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FOREWORD

2 – theANNUAL London

what makes them trend! •  Understanding Parcel Lockers, Patrick Armstrong of Snaile, Canada’s Smart Parcel Locker Company, shares his insight on how to select the right parcel locker supplier for your building. Need to know information with parcel deliveries at an all time high. •  Five Things You Should Know, some interesting tips and tools for managing key aspects of your buildings provided by EVSTART, Yardi Canada, RJC Engineers and PAC Building Group. • The industry’s first vetted report of the Top Ten, Owners, Managers and REITs for each region. This has been a labour of love. As Canada’s national voice for the apartment industry, RHB Inc. prides itself on always delivering the latest news and information that help our industry maintain a competitive advantage. Therefore, we’d like to acknowledge the following people and companies for their help gathering the information and data which enabled us to deliver this comprehensive guide: John Dickie, CFAA and Eastern Ontario Landlord Organization (EOLO); Tina Novak, Hamilton District Apartment Association, (HDAA); Shane Haskell, London Property Management Association (LPMA); James Craig, Waterloo Region Apartment Association (WRAMA); Kyle Church, Principal Interest Multifamily Investments, Royal LePage Grand Valley Realty; Patrick Armstrong, Snaile, Canada’s Smart Parcel Locker Company; EVSTART, Powered by Wyse Meter Solutions and Elexicon Group; Peter Altobelli, Yardi Canada; Stephen Epp, BSc, P.Eng., RJC Engineers; and David Petrozza, PAC Building Group. RHB Inc accepts responsibility for accurately delivering relevant news to the rental housing industry. As well, we always want to hear from you, the people who make up the rental housing industry. Let us know your thoughts on what you’ve read and what you’d want to see next year in theANNUAL, both at the National and Regional levels. All the best,

Nishant Rai

Associate Publisher

Associate Publisher Nishant Rai Associate Publisher Debbie Dollar-Seldon Contributing Editor John Dickie, President CFAA Art Director Scott Clark Office Manager Geeta Lokhram Owner Marc Côté

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Opinions expressed in articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of the CFAA Board or management. CFAA and RHB Inc. accept no liability for information contained herein. All rights reserved. Contents may not be reproduced without the written permission from the publisher. P.O. Box 696, Maple, ON L6A 1S7 416-236-7473 Produced in Canada All contents copyright © RHB Inc. Canadian Publications Mail Product

INC.

Welcome to the 2021 Regional editions of theANNUAL. Not unlike our National edition, theANNUAL, is a special industry specific periodical, delivering relevant, timely information and data with a single-minded approach; “What does the Apartment industry need to know!” With that as our goal, our research team reviewed extensive data from numerous sources to bring you the regional editions of theANNUAL. From CMHC, Stats Canada, association executives, Government sources and apartment owners, managers & REITs, we bring you the most complete and thorough industry guide that delivers region specific information and data. Produced by RHB Inc., creators of RHB Magazine, RHBTV, RHB Newsreel, Perpetual Media Group (PMG) and Boldtv in collaboration with the Canadian Federation of Apartment Associations (CFAA), theANNUAL delivers a complete market perspective for the rental housing industries of Ottawa, Hamilton, Waterloo and London. Developing a standalone resource guide with vital and practical information is never an easy undertaking. There are reasons why in-depth, analysis and forecasting aren’t done in this form and on this scale for our industry! Time, resources and industry knowledge are required to deliver a comprehensive report respecting individual regional apartment owners and managers while allowing them to respond to market needs, size and competition. What you’ll find in this Regional Edition of theANNUAL: •  The State of the Industry Report, an in-depth look at the individual cities’ market conditions, based on CMHC and Stats Canada data. • Realty Check, a look at multi-family sales and purchases in each of the four regional markets, with a special showcase of notable transactions and analysis from Kyle Church, Broker, Principal Interest Multifamily Investments, Royal LePage Grand Valley Realty • Association Report, from our partners at HDAA, LPMA, WRAMA and EOLO, an overview of what we need to know about each city and association. •  Neighbourhood Trends, information and stats you need to know showing

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 2 – FOREWORD

STATE OF THE INDUSTRY – 8

15 – REALTY CHECK

ASSOCIATION REPORT – 21

4 – theANNUAL London


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

29 – NEIGHBOURHOOD TRENDS

TOP 10 – 35

47 – UNDERSTANDING PARCEL LOCKERS

5 THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW – 55

6 – theANNUAL London


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Brooke, Adelaide-Metcalfe

Thames Centre Middlesex Centre AVR: N/A 2BR: N/A

AVR: N/A 2BR: N/A

4

3

2 8

1 6

5

AVR: 1.9% 2BR: $1270

AVR: 1.2% 2BR: $1149

AVR: N/A 2BR: N/A

London South Strathroy-Caradoc

London Zone Statistics

Southwold AVR: N/A 2BR: N/A

9

Central Elgin AVR: N/A 2BR: N/A

1. Downtown North: AVR: 5.9% 2BR: $1404 2. Northeast: AVR: 2.9% 2BR: $1022

current population

3. North London: AVR: 2.7% 2BR: $1474

545,441

4. Northwest London: AVR: 4.2% 2BR: $1292 5. Southwest London: AVR: 2.0% 2BR: $1282 6. Central South London: AVR: 3.6% 2BR: $1208 8. East London: AVR: 5.4% 2BR: $944 9. St. Thomas: AVR: 1.0% 2BR: $988

AVR= Average Vacancy Rate at October 2020 2BR= Average Rent of 2 Bedroom Suite

AVERAGE IN SENIOR’S RENTAL IN 2020 average rentRENT in senior’s rentalHOUSING housing in 2017

$3150 8 – theANNUAL London

per month


29.4% Percentage of housing units are apartments

12.3% Percentage of housing units are part of a condominium

$64,724 Median household income before taxes

RENTERS STRUCTURE TYPE 55.9%

Single-Detached

10.5%

Semi-Detached

3.8%

Row

2.4%

Duplex

10.1%

Low-Rise Apt

16.9%

High-Rise Apt

0.4%

0

10

20

30

Other

40

50

60

theANNUAL London – 9


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State of the Industry London (CMA)

London’s primary and secondary rental market universe totals

Primary

48,279

Secondary

25,996 Total: 74,275

65%

LONDON’S Senior Housing

Vacancy Rate

Average Rent

Total number of spaces

Residents

35%

13% $3150 2332 2153 theANNUAL London – 11


State of the Industry Important things to know about London’s primary rental market 2019

2020

Vacancy Rate

1.8%

3.4%

Average Rent

$1,107

$1,207

Median Rent

$1,024

$1,120

Important things to know about London’s secondary rental market Vacancy Rate - Condo Apt

0.6%

Total Condo Units Used for Rental 2020

2,618

Total Condo Units in 2020

7,724

Percent of condo units used for rental

33.9%

Average Rent

$1,571

The remainder of the London CMA

Middlesex Centre

Thames Central

Info

Bachelor

Central Elgin

1 Bedroom

Brooke, Warwick & Metcalfe 2 Bedroom

Southwold

3 Bedrooms +

Survey Date

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Average Vacancy

N/A

N/A

0.0%

0.0%

N/A

N/A

0.0%

N/A

Average Rent

N/A

N/A

$919

$822

N/A

N/A

$930

$785

12 – theANNUAL London


Info Downtown North

Survey Date

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Average Vacancy

N/A

N/A

2.1%

5.2%

1.3%

6.6%

N/A

N/A

1.8%

5.9%

Average Rent

$693

$745

$920

$1,064

$1,311

$1,404

$1,434

$1,542

$1,083

$1,210

Survey Date

Total

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Average Vacancy

0.0%

N/A

1.9%

6.0%

2.4%

4.8%

N/A

N/A

2.1%

5.4%

Average Rent

$580

$607

$819

$850

$890

$944

$917

$907

$853

$894

Survey Date

Bachelor

1 Bedroom

2 Bedroom

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Average Vacancy

N/A

0.0%

4.6%

4.5%

3.4%

2.0%

Average Rent

$692

$687

$820

$891

$940

$1,022

Survey Date

Bachelor

1 Bedroom

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

0.0%

N/A

3.8%

2.9%

$1,123

$1,257

$897

$973

3 Bedrooms +

3.5%

3.7%

1.3%

3.8%

1.1%

4.3%

0.6%

N/A

1.2%

4.2%

$804

$865

$992

$1,080

$1,193

$1,292

$1,335

$1,336

$1,098

$1,191

2 Bedroom

Oct-19

Oct-20

Total

Average Rent

1 Bedroom

Oct-19

Oct-20

Average Vacancy

Bachelor

Oct-20

2 Bedroom

Oct-19

Total

Oct-20

Survey Date

Oct-19

Oct-20

3 Bedrooms +

Oct-19

3 Bedrooms +

Oct-19

Oct-20

Total

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Average Vacancy

0.0%

N/A

2.9%

3.9%

1.6%

3.1%

1.4%

2.1%

2.1%

3.6%

Average Rent

$687

$782

$862

$945

$1,082

$1,208

$1,423

$1,432

$980

$1,067

Bachelor

1 Bedroom

2 Bedroom

3 Bedrooms +

Total

Survey Date

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Average Vacancy

11.8%

N/A

1.2%

1.0%

1.0%

1.1%

N/A

0.0%

1.3%

1.2%

Average Rent

$744

$859

$923

$959

$1,038

$1,149

$1,215

$1,323

$999

$1,084

Survey Date

Bachelor

1 Bedroom

Average Vacancy

0.8%

3.7%

0.9%

1.5%

1.3%

2.2%

1.9%

1.7%

1.2%

2.0%

Average Rent

$707

$803

$936

$1,059

$1,166

$1,282

$1,308

$1,368

$1,084

$1,200

1 Bedroom

Oct-20

2 Bedroom

Oct-19

Oct-20

Total

Oct-19

Bachelor

Oct-19

3 Bedrooms +

Oct-20

Survey Date

Oct-20

2 Bedroom

Oct-19

3 Bedrooms +

Oct-19

Oct-20

Total

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Average Vacancy

N/A

7.7%

1.2%

1.7%

1.9%

2.8%

3.1%

N/A

1.7%

2.7%

Average Rent

$749

$828

$1,028

$1,132

$1,304

$1,474

$1,846

$1,878

$1,202

$1,346

Survey Date

Bachelor

1 Bedroom

2 Bedroom

3 Bedrooms +

Total

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Average Vacancy

N/A

0.0%

2.6%

2.2%

0.6%

0.3%

0.0%

0.0%

1.6%

1.0%

Average Rent

$568

$643

$725

$799

$957

$988

N/A

N/A

$863

$912

Info StrathroyCaradoc

3 Bedrooms +

Oct-20

Info St. Thomas

2 Bedroom

Oct-19

Info North London

1 Bedroom

Oct-20

Info London Southwest

Bachelor Oct-19

Info London South

Total

Oct-19

Info London Central South

3 Bedrooms +

Oct-20

Info London Northwest

2 Bedroom

Oct-19

Info London Northeast

1 Bedroom

Oct-20

Info London East

Bachelor Oct-19

Survey Date

Bachelor

1 Bedroom

2 Bedroom

3 Bedrooms +

Total

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Oct-19

Oct-20

Average Vacancy

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

1.3%

1.9%

N/A

N/A

1.8%

1.9%

Average Rent

N/A

N/A

$857

$938

$1,081

$1,270

N/A

N/A

$990

$1,168

theANNUAL London – 13


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UNITS SOLD

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SOLD

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SOLD IN 2021

Recent Transactions

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Kyle Church

Andrew Macallum

Broker

kyle.church@royallepagecommercial.com

Contact us: 519.745.7000 Top 2% in Canada

Royal LePage Grand Valley Realty, Brokerage 15C-370 Highland Road West, Kitchener, N2M 5J9 www.principalinterest.ca

Sales Representative andrewmacallum@royallepagecommercial.com

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MULTI FAMILY INVESTMENTS

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Realty Check

The transactions of note in:

London

London Surrounding areas Brooke, Warwick, Metcalfe Strathroy-Caradoc Middlesex Centre Thames Central Southwold St. Thomas Central Elgin

theANNUAL London – 15


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London

Realty Check Investors looking for reasonable cap rates and per unit prices found great opportunity in the London multi-family market in 2020. With rents very much in line with the larger Ontario markets, London offers a compelling investment strategy with affordable properties and higher cap rates which allows for greater leverage on financing. The year also saw a considerable number of multi-family development land transactions, foreshadowing the development of

new rental supply coming to the market over the next few years. It will be interesting to see how the market absorbs new rental supply, with vacancy rates already increasing compared to 2019. Kyle Church, Broker Principal Interest Multifamily Investments Royal LePage Grand Valley Realty

Summary Table Average $/Unit

Highest $/Unit

Lowest $/Unit

Vacancy Rate

Average Rent

$159,904

$235,075

$104,000

Increased at 3.4%

$1,119 up by 7.0%

Source: Realnet, Realtrack and CMHC

492 Springbank Dr, London Purchaser:

CAPREIT Apartments Inc

Units:

107

Price per Unit:

$186,916

Date Closed:

09/21/202031

527 - 531 Gordon Ave, London Purchaser:

InterRent International Properties Inc

Units:

78

Price per Unit:

$175,641

Date Closed:

09/21/2020

Sold at:

$20,000,000

Sold at:

$13,700,000

theANNUAL London – 17


Realty Check 22 Marley Place, London Purchaser:

2406606 Ontario Inc

Units:

12

Price per Unit:

$127,083

Date Closed:

02/28/2020

356 Dundas St, London

$1,525,000

Sold at:

Purchaser:

Indwell Community Homes

Units:

67

Price per Unit:

$235,075

Date Closed:

02/21/2020

$15,750,000

645 Victoria St, London Purchaser:

Foundation Capital Holdings Ltd

Units:

14

Price per Unit:

$142,786

Date Closed:

02/18/2020

24 Brookside, London Purchaser:

2563239 Ontario Inc

Units:

10

Price per Unit:

$104,000

Date Closed:

12/04/2020

18 – theANNUAL London

Sold at:

Sold at:

$1,040,000

Sold at:

$1,999,000


Recent Realty Transactions 433 Dufferin, London Purchaser:

PH London Holdings Inc

Units:

23

Price per Unit:

$141,304

Date Closed:

12/01/2020

390 Grey St, London

Sold at:

$3,250,000

Sold at:

Purchaser:

Pier 4 Real Estate GP Ltd

Units:

17

Price per Unit:

$152,353

Date Closed:

06/21/2020

$2,590,000

22 Langton, London Purchaser:

Lifetime Vision Capital Inc

Units:

6

Price per Unit:

$166,667

Date Closed:

04/06/2020

131 Elmwood, London Purchaser:

The Crosswoods Inc

Units:

17

Price per Unit:

$155,882

Date Closed:

04/01/2021

Sold at:

$1,000,000

Sold at:

$2,650,000

theANNUAL London – 19


Kristin Ley, Partner, Cohen Highley, has joined RHBTV News as an on air legal analyst. Kristin will be answering questions from YOU our viewers. Send your questions to info@rhbtv.ca and Kristin will answer them on upcoming shows


Association Report

theANNUAL London – 21


Association Report

Introduction: LPMA is a non-profit organization that has been offering reliable information and mentoring to landlords since 1967. We educate our members and advocate on behalf of large and small landlords at the municipal and provincial levels on issues that affect the rental housing industry. While many of LPMA’s members are large landlords, more than 70 per cent own and manage 10 or fewer residential units. Our board of directors and staff contribute much of their time to improving our organization on a continual basis to better suit our members’ needs. History: LPMA is one of the longest-standing landlord associations not only in Ontario but also in Canada. The organization was formed when LPMA’s founding members came together to share ideas and information on the price of electrical work and other services. As a result, large and small landlords learned about operating costs, dealing with tenants and addressing common issues in running their buildings. That sense of co-operation and desire to help other members continues to this day. LPMA member benefits: One of LPMA’s strengths is the willingness of our members to work together and share ideas. At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic,

22 – theANNUAL London

board members began discussing ways of adding value to memberships to compensate for suspending the meetings and cancelling the annual trade show in April. The board also wanted to retain members since some had left LPMA to reduce their expenses. The decision was made to hold webinars; the first one took place in August 2020. The webinars will continue to replace the monthly dinner meetings until we can once again hold them in person. Members will have the option of attending in person or watching online as meetings will be recorded and made available for future viewings on our website. Our website is currently in the process of being updated to improve its appearance and functionality and we expect it to be ready by 2022. The new version will build on the present website, which offers many tools and resources for the landlord community. Associate members are listed in alphabetical order according to their profession, allowing landlords to find suppliers easily. The resources section includes links to government offices and departments, as well as other landlord organizations. Our online presence has evolved to include our closed Facebook group, which allows landlords to ask questions and share their ideas in real time. It also helps new landlords connect with those who have more experience and expertise in specific areas.


Education: LPMA’s strength lies in our mix of small and large landlords, and the exchange of information between the two — all for the price of a membership. There is an education component as part of each monthly meeting/webinar to foster best industry practices and risk management. Special seminars are presented to members when major legislative changes, such as the introduction of the Rental Fairness Act and the Standard Lease Form, are introduced by the province. Legal forms: LPMA has always led the industry in the development of rental applications, tenancy agreements and related leasing documents. Documents authored by lawyer Joe Hoffer of Cohen Highley Lawyers and produced by LPMA are used by large landlords and organizations such as the Federation of Rental-housing Providers of Ontario (FRPO), the Greater Toronto Apartment Association, and the Waterloo Landlord Association. Even though LPMA is a non-profit organization, we generate income from the sale and licensing of the legal forms to cover the cost of creating and producing the forms and administering their use by the industry. Editorial projects: LPMA’s goals include educating and informing small landlords. We wrote and published our own 16-page newsletters for more than 10 years and we currently contribute regularly to RHB Magazine’s Rental Association Voice. Through RHB, we we are able to shine a light on our organization across the province. Trade show: The annual trade show features 60 to 70 exhibitors who have information and services that are beneficial to the rental housing industry. Due to the pandemic, the show was cancelled in 2020 and 2021, but we hope to see it return in 2022. Charitable activities: Our annual golf tournament, held in September, is our main fundraiser. Recipients of our donations have traditionally been housing-related and include St. Paul’s Social Services, My Sisters’ Place, Ronald McDonald House Charities Southwestern Ontario, Merrymount Family Support and Crisis Centre, and the London Children’s Museum.

At our annual Christmas party, we ask that members bring a toy for the Salvation Army’s toy drive. We also contribute to the province-wide Spring Hope Food Drive held annually in April in apartment buildings across Ontario. Lobbying: As a powerful voice in London for rental housing, we have good working relationships with city officials, and fire and police services. We lobby the city over issues, such as landlord licensing, that affect small landlords. We also attend council meetings where new policies or bylaws that may adversely affect our members are on the agenda. Our goal is to watch for issues that may have an impact on landlords and how to represent their best interests. We are also an active member of FRPO and the Canadian Federation of Apartment Associations, and we support those organizations during policy discussions and decision-making.

LPMA’s Mission Statement LPMA’s purpose is to provide education that helps landlords operate their businesses professionally, mitigate risk, and attract and retain good tenants. Our membership rates are affordable and they include monthly meetings where landlords learn from expert speakers, share ideas and obtain advice from others in the industry. We offer useful tools, such as access to legal forms and credit checks through our website, as well as mentoring and advocacy by representing the interests of property owners and managers at the municipal, provincial and federal level. Our membership culture is inclusive and welcoming, and we encourage members to be open to tenants from all backgrounds. Above all, we aim to help members compete successfully in London’s highly competitive rental housing market.

Milestones Throughout the Years Legislative input LPMA is known as an advocate for its members and for Ontario landlords. Lawyer Joe Hoffer was part of a legislative committee, along with fellow LPMA members Paul Cappa and Brenda Trineer, that made recommendations to the provincial government for two years in Toronto while the Tenant Protection Act was being drafted. They provided the government with the industry’s position and pointed out the practical implications of the implementation of the government’s policy.

theANNUAL London – 23


Association Report LPMA helped to unite other associations in lobbying the government to make the laws fairer for all Ontario landlords.

Rent control Introduced in 1975, the legislation united LPMA members and encouraged them to work together. Because there was no provincial rental housing association at the time, LPMA helped to unite other associations in lobbying the government to make the laws fairer for all Ontario landlords. The current vacancy decontrol/recontrol system has been influenced by years of intensive lobbying and support by organizations such as LPMA. It allows landlords to set rents on vacant suites based on what the market will bear which, in turn, permits landlords to upgrade their suites and command higher rents for them. Even today, LPMA continues to educate its members about rent control legislation and to lobby the government on making it more equitable. Property tax LPMA was involved in trying to ease the gap in the property tax rate for single-family property owners and owners of multi-residential properties; the disparity was particularly unfair to London tenants who were being taxed at twice the rate of private homeowners. Because the government made it illegal for landlords to pass the increase to tenants as a separate charge, tenants had no idea their rent was climbing as a result of municipalities shifting more of the tax burden to them. LPMA lobbied for a change and, due to that effort, the government put a freeze on the disparity between the residential and multi-residential rates. The freeze went into effect in 2001, which prevented municipalities from shifting the tax burden to multi-residential tenants.

24 – theANNUAL London

Recent political issues Standard lease When the province drafted its standard lease, LPMA suggested changes to streamline it and make it easier for landlords to complete while decreasing their chances of committing errors that could lead to more disagreements with tenants at the Landlord and Tenant Board. LPMA, through a 20-person committee, made four submissions in response to the drafts the province released. As a result of our recommendations, the province streamlined the document significantly and included details that assisted landlords. LPMA also pressed the province to allow landlords to include additional terms and conditions to reflect their specific operations and clientele. An LPMA committee compared the standard lease to its own lease, which lawyer Joe Hoffer originally drafted in the early 1990s, and created the permitted additional terms and conditions which incorporated crucial provisions that are not in the province’s standard lease. LPMA licenses the standard lease and the terms and conditions as part of a 27-page package to other landlord associations for their members’ use. The documents that can be signed and completed electronically include the assignment and sublet forms, amended rental application, guarantee form and a two-page notice that landlords must give to tenants. Landlord licensing LPMA fought the attempt by some city council members to impose licensing fees on all rental properties. In challenging the issue, lawyer Joe Hoffer worked with legal counsel for the City of London, focusing on what the bylaw would mean to landlords who were required to pay a licensing fee to operate a rental property. The Residential Rental Units Licensing Bylaw was passed in 2009 but, because LPMA


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Association Report fought so hard, the city restricted the fees to properties with four or fewer units and converted dwellings. Unlike other municipalities, the city has kept the licence fee at a moderate level. Affordable housing London continues to struggle with an affordable housing crisis. In 2019, local data showed there was a 3,000unit gap in affordable housing in the middle and lower range of the rental market. According to the Housing Stability for All Plan, which was presented to city council in May, the crisis resulted from an increasing number of households that were paying at least 50 per cent of their income on shelter costs, or that experienced unstable housing conditions or homelessness. Since the start of the pandemic, the housing needs of Londoners in the low to medium earning range have grown due to income loss and a lack of available affordable housing options. London is considered to be relatively affordable compared to other Ontario cities and is attracting investors as well as buyers who are relocating. However, London has a large service sector and the incomes of residents have remained flat as home prices and rents continue to rise. The vacancy rate in the London region increased last year to 3.4 per cent, the highest since 2012, but the rental market survey conducted by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC), indicated that it was due to a larger increase in rental supply, which grew by 746 units between fall 2019 and fall 2020. Rents increased across all bedroom types and less expensive units were in short supply. Only 2.3 per cent of the region’s rental units were considered affordable to households with the lowest income. (Affordability is considered to be 30 per cent of household income.) This group can afford a monthly rent of less than

$625. According to the survey, bachelor units saw the greatest increase at 8.5 per cent to $774 a month. For households with the highest income, a monthly rent above $1,850 can be considered affordable. Because only a small number of units is available in this rent range, “this suggests that many higher income renters find accommodation in lower rent ranges, which may crowd out renters with fewer affordable options. This belies the importance of creating options across the housing spectrum,” stated the survey. In 2020, the Housing Development Corporation (HDC), which works with private, non-profit, and government sectors to advance the development of affordable rental housing, completed two affordable housing developments, resulting in a total of 95 new units. HDC is currently focusing on four prioritized urgent apartment sites. One, a four-storey, 61-unit building at 122 Base Line Rd. W., is being constructed using prefabricated modular panelized construction methods. It incorporates universal accessibility features and includes offices for support services staff. Providing housing supports is a priority of the Housing Stability for All Plan. Also in 2020, city council launched a pilot head lease program of up to 25 units. The City enters into lease agreements with landlords and tenants who are then matched to units in an effort to create transitional housing with supports for those who have barriers to accessing permanent housing. The Housing Stability Table is a new partnership with the Canadian Mental Health Association, Elgin-Middlesex that allows community agencies, housing providers and residents to work together to save high-risk tenancies within the social housing community in London-Middlesex. It also provides services such as counselling and personal care support, and works with landlords to prevent evictions.

Conclusion: One of LPMA’s strengths centres on providing small and medium-sized landlords with the guidance of some of the best and most knowledgeable business leaders in the industry. We’ve never lost sight of the smaller landlord, even though the industry is driven by multi-residential high-rises. Because property management techniques are skills that individuals learn on their own, membership in an organization such as LPMA is vital to filling in the gaps in information and ensuring the professional management of their operations. 26 – theANNUAL London


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Neighbourhood Trends The latest information in London’s many neighbourhoods

theANNUAL London – 29


Neighbourhood Trends

545,441 London’s total population 30 – theANNUAL London

206,450 total private households

74,275 rental households


Tenant Household Income Distribution (before taxes) Less than $20,000 before taxes – 18,085

Less than $20,000 before taxes

$20,000 to $39,999 before taxes – 23,080

$20,000 to $39,999 before taxes

$40,000 to $59,999 before taxes – 15,480

$40,000 to $59,999 before taxes

$60,000 to $79,999 before taxes – 8,575

$60k – $79,999k before taxes

$80,000 to $99,999 before taxes – 4,495

$80k – $99,999k before taxes

$100,000 and over before taxes – 4,560

$100k+ before taxes

0

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

62.1% of rental households include at least 1 person with activity limitations

The age cohort most likely to rent is

25-34

years old

London tenant population by immigrant status

Immigrant Non-permanent resident

20.2%

3.8%

21.6%

Non-immigrant

76.0%

of private rental households have at least 1 child under 18 years old

theANNUAL London – 31


Neighbourhood Trends NEIGHBOURHOODS NEIGHBOURHOODS

32 – theANNUAL London

NEIGHBOURHOODS

STARTS (ACTUAL) COMPLETION

UNDER CONSTRUCTION

NUMBERS ARE THE TOTAL OF STARTS (ACTUAL) AND COMPLETIONS IN 2020 ACROSS ALL INTENDED MARKETS (* UNDER CONSTRUCTION INDICATES 2021 NUMBERS)

Byron & Riverbend

Hyde Park

Byron & Riverbend

East London

Strathroy-Caradoc

West London


TOTALS

Stoney Creek, Stoneybrook & Upland

Byron & Riverbend

12 row houses 0 apartments

Hyde Park

22 row houses 0 apartments

Stoney Creek, Stoneybrook & Upland

100 row houses 332 apartments

TOTALS

Stoney Creek, Stoneybrook & Upland

West London

Byron & Riverbend

51 row houses* 251 apartments*

Stoney Creek, Stoneybrook & Upland

266 row houses* 670 apartments*

East London

0 row houses* 137 apartments*

West London

36 row houses* 148 apartments*

TOTALS Strathroy-Caradoc

Stoney Creek, Stoneybrook & Upland

Stoney Creek, Stoneybrook & Upland West London

32 row houses 0 apartments

62 row houses 437 apartments

61 row houses 0 apartments

theANNUAL London – 33


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Top 10 London’s top ten private landlords by size

theANNUAL London – 35


Top 10

Owners, Managers & REITs

Drewlo Holdings

Category:

Owner

Number of suites

Website:

drewloholdings.com

4490

CAPREIT

36 – theANNUAL London

Category:

REIT

Number of suites

Website:

caprent.com

3155


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Top 10

Owners, Managers & REITs

Homestead Land Holdings Category:

Owner

Number of suites

Website:

homestead.ca

2677

Starlight Investments

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Category:

Owner/Asset Management

Number of suites

Website:

starlightinvest.com

2553


Top 10

Owners, Managers & REITs

The Minto Group Inc.

Category:

Owner

Number of suites

Website:

minto.com mintoapartments.com

2326

Boardwalk REIT

Category:

REIT

Number of suites

Website:

bwalk.com

2261

Sifton Properties

40 – theANNUAL London

Category:

Owner

Number of suites

Website:

sifton.com

1853


Top 10

Owners, Managers & REITs

Tricar

Category:

Owner

Number of suites

Website:

tricar.com

1,513

Hazelview Investments

Category:

REIT

Number of suites

Website:

hazelview.com

1176

Centurion

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Category:

REIT

Number of suites

Website:

centurion.ca

955


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44 – theANNUAL London

Honourable Mentions

Bradel Properties Ltd.

Killam Apartment REIT

Q Residential

Skyline Apartment REIT

London Property Corp.

InterRent REIT

Norquay PM

Owner, Managers & REITs


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Understanding Parcel Lockers

theANNUAL London – 47


Understanding Parcel Lockers What You Need to Know About Choosing a Parcel Locker or Parcel Room Supplier in Canada

By Snaile Inc.

Remember the days when a delivery driver used to leave a package in a parcel room or a mechanical steel lockand-key depository in the lobby? If you are still using a parcel room to store deliveries, be sure to read the pitfalls here. Parcel lockers and parcel rooms have come a long way, now falling into the category of a SaaS (softwareas-a-service) model. Consumers expect a lot more from their parcel management system, such as realtime notifications, access via their smartphone, and the option to leave items in their locker for collection and return. With that in mind, Canadian companies looking for a parcel locker or room supplier are faced with a number of factors to consider. If you’re looking to choose a resident delivery management solution that can deliver the service people want and expect in 2021 and beyond, read on for what you need to know.

Parcel lockers and rooms in 2021: What do people want? As the volume of e-commerce purchases has continued to grow, so have the number of parcel delivery companies (Amazon uses more than 12 carriers in Canada alone). Therefore, we need more sophisticated parcel delivery solutions to receive and process data from multiple sources. Multi-family residences demand seamless access to their deliveries from lockers and rooms in condominiums, apartment blocks, high-rise towers, school campuses, and student housing. Users want to pick up their parcels from a secure location when they shop online. Rather than keep a key, locker users now expect to access their items via the internet from a smart device, necessitating cloud storage for critical data and smart receptacles driven by printed circuit boards, firmware, and software. Parcel locker and smart parcel room suppliers should have:

personal details to send notifications • Software sophisticated enough to accommodate returns of e-commerce items and collection of new outbound parcels • Data hosting in Canada to protect Personally Identifiable Information (PII) Compliance with Canada’s Anti-Spam Legislation (CASL) • A multi-tiered approach to data security and privacy • Liability insurance that pays out in Canada • Commercially accepted best practices governing procedures for company-owned software upgrades, maintenance, and fixes (i.e., ISO 27001 and SOC II) • Experienced staff to offer remote and on-site support within Canada In addition, the best solutions will: • Comply with Canadian Electrical Code and Fire Code ratings • Accommodate disabilities — for example, wheelchair users and visually impaired people • Incorporate commercial-grade screens

• Established agreements with delivery companies in Canada

• Be adequately constructed to prevent theft

• Software that integrates with property management software to allow instant access to residents’

• Have motorized locks

48 – theANNUAL London

• Have some form of compartment content detection • Have child safety locks for internal release.


Let’s look at each of these factors in more detail to help you decide on the most appropriate supplier for you.

Agreements with Canadian delivery companies A key consideration for smart lockers and rooms is whether or not they will be used systemically by Canadian delivery companies. Rather than just being a case of a delivery driver electing to use a locker, the actual delivery corporation must sanction every single delivery. Established delivery agreements ensure Canadian delivery companies: • Have tested and approved the locker or room • Know in advance that they must identify a parcel locker or room at the location to complete deliveries • Will deposit the parcel in the right locker at the municipal address • Accept liability for the parcel as they would in the standard course of business • Know there are contractual recourse and remedies if the delivery driver fails to deliver to the locker.

Parcel lockers or parcel rooms? Parcel rooms appear more effective on paper than in reality. A major drawback is that carriers tend to dump parcel deliveries for multiple residents in the room without notifying each resident that their parcel has arrived. For instance, a carrier has deliveries for units 302, 407, 621, and 801. They gain access to the room using the details for unit 302’s delivery only. The carrier is busy as usual and short on time, so they leave the deliveries for 302, 407, 621, and 801 in the parcel room without entering each resident’s details into the system; this practice is easy and therefore becomes habitual. As a result, only the resident living in 302 knows to come and collect their parcel. The net effect is that packages end up piling up in the parcel room because only one resident in each batch is notified of their delivery, the person whose details the delivery person used to gain access to the room. The rest of the parcels accumulate, which then invites confusion, theft, potential damage and tenant dissatisfaction.

Parcel pickups and returns The next step in parcel locker innovation is for end users to be able to return a parcel or ship out a new package via their locker. In addition, parcel lockers are ideal receptacles for other essential services

requiring items to be collected and deposited, such as dry cleaning and laundry. To facilitate the collection of items, parcel locker suppliers need contracts in place with parcel carriers, plus software integration, so that carriers are notified of a pickup request that they need to act on.

Data hosting in Canada Cloud data hosting location is an important factor when choosing a parcel locker or smart room supplier in Canada. All countries have their own laws designed to protect Personally Identifiable Information (PII), such as names, phone numbers, addresses, and email addresses. In Canada, PII is strictly protected under the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA). However, data must be hosted in Canada for PIPEDA to apply. If PII data leaves Canada and goes to the U.S., then the U.S. Patriot Act will apply.

Data security A parcel locker company should take a multi-tiered approach to data security and privacy. This can include: • ISO-27001 information and security certification to ensure compliance with industry-leading standards set by subject matter experts •  SOC 2 compliance from a SaaS provider, an auditing procedure that ensures service providers securely manage a company’s data to protect the organization’s interests and its client’s privacy •  Ongoing third-party penetration testing in which an ethical hacking company attempts to break into the parcel locker supplier’s software; the third party then provides remediation reports according to what issues they find •  Cyber insurance to protect your company, endusers, and the parcel locker provider in the event that anything goes wrong •  A Chief Information Security Officer (CISO), who is abreast of legal and best practice requirements for data privacy and security compliance in Canada.

Integration with property management and building automation software For a parcel locker to send out pickup codes and reminders to end users, they will need access to PII. There are two options here: •  Integration with building management software. If you integrate your parcel lockers, usually by API, to your property management or building automation system, you will need to maintain your

theANNUAL London – 49


Understanding Parcel Lockers building software. Your parcel lockers will call in automatically for updates. Residents will be able to specify how they are notified when a delivery takes place — for example, whether they prefer an email or cellphone notification. •  Maintaining two separate systems. You will need to maintain two software systems — the property management software and the parcel locker resident roster — which is double the work.

Compliance with Canada’s Anti-Spam Legislation (CASL) Since parcel lockers send out emails or text messages to end users to supply locker pickup codes, those messages should follow Canada’s Anti-Spam Legislation (CASL). These laws are specific to Canada, so check that your parcel locker and parcel room supplier is compliant with CASL.

The same applies to parcel lockers. Ensure that your parcel locker supplier can supply updates as required so that your equipment can be maintained and serviced in a timely manner.

Support, repair, and expertise Choose a locker supplier that can help with installing smart lockers and dealing with issues. Ideally, they should have: • An inventory of spare parts • Experienced installation technicians • A detailed Service Level Agreement (SLA) • Locally trained and certified service technicians to support their IT team • A dedicated account manager to support administration on premises • 24/7 support.

Canadian liability insurance Your parcel locker supplier should have the following policies that pay out in Canada: •  Commercial product liability insurance: Members of the public will use the parcel lockers, and the lockers are likely to be hosted in a commercial business’s premises. Coverage should be at least $2 million. •  Cyber insurance: Parcel lockers use an SaaS model and they host PII, so they need to be protected against data breaches. A minimum coverage of $2 million is ideal. •  Professional liability: This form of insurance helps protect professional advice and service-providing individuals and companies from bearing the total costs of defending a client’s negligence claim and any damages awarded. A $2 million coverage is a good starting point.

Company-owned software Parcel lockers are as much about the software that facilitates their operation as they are about the hardware. If something goes wrong with the locker door or lock, most companies will be able to fix the issue without a problem. However, the software is a separate issue. The software controls the locker terminal, the cloud application where data is stored, the notifications sent out to end users, and triggering of actions at the locker (e.g., opening a specific compartment). When the software is proprietary to the company that made it, a reseller cannot service it. It would be like asking a local IT person to fix an issue with Microsoft Windows in the source code when you need a software patch from Microsoft.

50 – theANNUAL London

Support

Compliance with Canadian Electrical Code Parcel lockers are electrical devices. It’s essential that they comply with the Canadian Electrical Code and have independent certification from proper organizations (e.g., SGS, Intertek, ESA). Any electrical device that does not carry an approval is subject to a $1 million fine in Canada. Choose lockers with a cUL or CSA certification, which are more likely for lockers made in higher production volumes. Low-volume manufacturing or imported volume lockers should carry at least an ad hoc certification, such as SPM1000.

Canadian Fire Code rating Parcel lockers installed in commercial premises and as a permanent fixture must be Fire Code rated and compliant. In Canada, lockers should be tested


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Understanding Parcel Lockers by an independent lab (e.g., Element Materials Technology) to CAN/ULC S102 standards.

Accessibility consideration and compliance Accessibility laws, such as the Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act (AODA), are in place to reduce and remove barriers for people with disabilities. Consider how everyone can use the lockers, including those living with disabilities. Examples include ensuring there is a sufficient turn circle for a wheelchair in front of the lockers. For the visually impaired, have a raised home key on the keypad to help them use the screen. Have the ability to set lock compartment maximum height for those in wheelchairs and have a 24/7 bilingual call centre in place for end-user support.

Commercial screens and components Screens in high-use environments should be commercial grade. The same applies to parcel lockers and their components. Look for components rated to a high number of cycles (e.g., 500,000 to 1 million cycles).

Parcel locker construction The purpose of a parcel locker is to take custody of a delivery for a period of time. Therefore, it is vital that manufacturers build them to be strong enough to ward off any intrusion attempts and hold up in general over time. Indoor lockers should be steel construction with a powder coat finish. Outdoor lockers should be made from galvanized steel with a zinc epoxy primer or stainless steel. In colder outdoor climates, the electronics should have a heater to keep them operational even when temperatures dip.

To reduce theft, the construction of the compartment doors is key. The best designs have an inset compartment door design, which means the door is within the frame. Where there is an overlay compartment door, the door closes on top of the frame, which allows for easy prying with a crowbar. With an inset design, there is no lip to pry the door open from underneath.

Compartment content detection Some parcel lockers come with open/close door detection to determine whether a package has been delivered. The locker owner receives notification that the door was opened and closed when a package is delivered. Other parcel lockers have compartment content detection. This technology resides inside each compartment of the parcel locker. The locker tells the computer when there is something or nothing in the compartment.

Compartment motorized locks Most locker suppliers use solenoid locks, which are a type of electromagnetic lock. The force to open and close the locker comes from the minimal force generated by its magnets. If too much pressure is applied to the solenoid latch, the magnet cannot overcome the friction, and the locker will not open. Solenoid locks are prone to jamming when parcels are forced inside, which can happen when a delivery person deposits a parcel that is too big for the selected compartment. The parcel puts pressure on the solenoid lock’s latch from the inside of the compartment; this is called backpressure. Backpressure overcomes the solenoid lock’s magnetic force that usually opens the lock and releases the latch. As a result, the locker will not open. Consider a parcel locker supplier that uses motorized locks. They have a motor to open and close the lock, which has more power to release the latch, even when there is backpressure inside the locker.

Compartment child safety locks

Inset compartment construction

52 – theANNUAL London

Large parcel locker compartments can be dangerous for children, as they could become trapped inside. It’s an essential preventive measure to ensure that large compartments have a way to open them up from within, in the same way the law requires car manufacturers to have an inside trunk release latch.


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5 things you should know 5 Things You Need to Know About EV Charging – Page 56 – By EVSTART, powered by Wyse Meter Solutions and Elexicon Group

5 tech functionalities that flourished during the pandemic and are here to stay – Page 57 – By Yardi Canada LTD.

5 Regular reviews for your roof – Page 58 – By RJC Engineers

5 Benefits of a Condominium Refurbishment Partner – By PAC Building Group

theANNUAL London – 55


5 things you should know 5 Things You Need to Know About EV Charging

–B  y EVSTART, powered by Wyse Meter Solutions and Elexicon Group Government incentives, municipal requirements, and blue chip car manufacturer announcements all point to the same direction: electric vehicles (EVs). EVs have become a reality and sales will increase exponentially in the next few years. Accelerating sales also mean increased pressure on multi-family building owners, developers, and condominium corporations to provide reliable, personal EV charging stations. Here are five key aspects that should help building managers rise to this challenge:

1 EV Charging Solutions Are Cheaper

When Dealt with During Construction: Wrong choices during planning and design phases may lead to higher, if not prohibitive costs to add EV chargers in the future. During construction, it is the right time to prepare the building for future EV charging demand. As an example, running conduits to individual parking spots, and properly sizing panels and transformers will result in big future savings. An energized parking spot during construction may cost 50-70% less than a retrofit, considering the full infrastructure cost.

2 Scale Is Key to Increase Efficiency

of Retrofit Projects: There are several activities in an EV charging retrofit that benefit greatly from scale e.g., running conduits. When conducting a retrofit, it is important to plan wisely to dramatically reduce the long-term cost per charger installed. Through optimization of installation for scalable items, we can achieve up to 40% savings in a retrofit project.

3 EV Charging Is Not A Burden, But An

Opportunity For Additional Revenue: With the right turn-key partner, EV charging complexity is reduced and building owners can focus on unlocking new revenue opportunities such as (i) increased rent led by amenities (up to $100 per suite per month), (ii) collection of revenues on pay-as-you-go stations (varies depending on location), (iii) rental of parking spots at premium prices (up to $10k for EV installed parking).

56 – theANNUAL London

4 Federal Government Incentives

Can Save Up to 50% of EV Charging Infrastructure Costs: In 2019, the Government of Canada launched the Zero Emission Vehicle Infrastructure Program (ZEVIP) with the objective of addressing the lack of charging stations in Canada – one of the key barriers to EV adoption. ZEVIP is a 5-year $280 million program ending in 2024, that will cover up to 50% of total EV charging project costs. For level 2 chargers (most common in MURBs) the rebate is capped at $5,000 per charger.

5 Finding The Right Partner Early Is

a Game Changer: There are many variables in an EV charging solution: technology, load management, number of chargers to install, visitor vs. designated, regulatory constraints and not to mention that the costs to install a charger may range from $1,500 to $10,000+. Finding the right partner early on is critical to run smoothly, find optimal solutions that buy only what you need (and nothing more), and thus be able focus on opportunities and additional revenue potential.


5 tech functionalities that flourished during the pandemic and are here to stay – By Yardi Canada Ltd.

1 Going paperless to streamline

4 Moving to the cloud and adding more

document management Electronic rent collection, invoice and payment processing (including utilities) and outsourcing manual/repetitive tasks like data entry enabled teams to transact with greater efficiency and focus on more critical tasks.

security to help refine your data management Relying on external experts to host and protect data, which may be accessed in real time, empowers teams and further enhances operations.

2 Leveraging online collaboration tools to

5 Onboarding with e-learning to simplify

strengthen team management Video conferencing and virtual document management gained momentum as a great way to feel more connected to and work more effectively with your teams.

growth management Nothing is more crucial than onboarding and training new team members with the added complexity of remote work or flexible schedules. 24/7 access to videos and training tools is the future of talent management.

3 Offering virtual leasing options to supercharge leasing and marketing management Online tours, a tool that was trending prior to the pandemic, further facilitated the lead to lease cycle. The use of CRM, texting, self-service applicant screening and electronic signatures strengthened customer service and have become the industry standard.

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5 things you should know 5 Regular reviews for your roof – By RJC Engineers

Stephen Epp, BSc, P.Eng., RRO, ARCA Accepted Inspector, is a Project Engineer with RJC Engineers. He specializes in roof assembly design, assessments and construction review. He is a Registered Roof Observer (RRO) through the Roofing Consultants Institute (RCI). Contact Stephen at sepp@rjc.ca.

1 Clean debris from the roof surface and out of drains. Look for and remove moss, weeds, excessive bird droppings, loose conduits, and abandoned equipment.

2 Identify areas of ponding water or staining away from the roof drain. Ponding water can lead to premature failures of roofing components.

3 Review main traffic routes to, and around, roof top units or access hatches/ladders. Consider providing a high-density rubber walkway in these areas, as unprotected, high traffic areas can accelerate membrane deterioration. Ensure walkways are ballasted or adhered to mitigate risk of blow-off during high wind events.

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4 Note any changes in the membrane condition between reviews including membrane ridging, blistering (air bubbles below the membrane), failures/buckling of seams, degranlation, cracking etc. and identify any soft spots or irregularities underfoot as you walk the roof.

5 Review sealants around mechanical unit and/or conduit penetrations for cracks or failures and review flashings on parapets or at penetrations if loose or missing entirely.


5 Benefits of a Condominium Refurbishment Partner – By PAC Building Group Condo refurbishment reaps benefits for owners and residents alike. Making it through the process successfully, however, is no small task. From planning to design, and project scheduling and team coordination, refurbishments can overwhelm even the most seasoned property management team. Here’s where partnering with a Design-Build General Contractor can have its advantages. There are numerous reasons why property stakeholders trust end-to-end contracting firms to quarterback a project. At a high level, they include:

1 Single point of contact: Between architects, designers, engineers, and onsite crews, there is no shortage of teams to keep track of during a refurbishment. That said, having a general contracting partner to serve as your voice and manage third-parties reduces stress, strengthens collaboration, and helps to avoid miscommunications.  “It simply comes down to having one contract, and a single point of responsibility,” says David Petrozza, Owner Principal, PAC Building Group. “The key advantage of a specialized contractor is leveraging their management process. They integrate all the moving parts necessary to complete a project, and that has tremendous value.”

2 A consistent vision: It’s difficult to see a vision from its inception to completion. Having a specialized Design-Build General Contracting firm on the team from the start ensures all parties (trades, residents, property teams) begin on the same page and remain in alignment. Here again, establishing a single point of contact between property owners/managers and their refurbishment teams keeps everyone on track and moving towards the same goals.

3 Greater accountability: With a single point of contact comes greater visibility into the progress of a refurbishment. General contractors can be the “eyes on the ground” to monitor activity, address challenges, and hold other trades and vendors to task.  “All workers are an extension of the contractor and need to represent the client accordingly,” says David.

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5 things you should know 4 Safety first: Timelines and budgets are key, but nothing is more important than keeping everyone safe. This includes the crews on the ground, building residents, and the property management team. Herein, an experienced general contractor can enforce leading safety practices at all times and ensure worker health and wellbeing is a top priority throughout all the stages – even, for example, through a worldwide pandemic. For example, says David: “As a reopened business, we adapted with new policies and procedures to operate under Ontario’s health and safety guidelines. We are positioned to approach all projects with a focus on constant sanitization and optimal physical distancing.”

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5 Avoiding surprises: A general contractor will know what to watch out for. As such, they can help tackle (or outright avoid) the common pitfalls and “surprises” that creep up during a refurbishment project. After all, says David, “It’s construction – there can always be new challenges. That’s why being dynamic and responsive is imperative to a contractor’s success in upholding their client’s best interest.”


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enbridgegas.com/affordable Start today by contacting an Energy Solutions Advisor. 1-866-844-9994 energyservices@enbridge.com © 2021 Enbridge Gas Inc. All rights reserved. * HST is not applicable and will not be added to incentive payments. All incentive offers are available to Enbridge Gas Inc. customers, including those formerly served by Union Gas Ltd. Terms and conditions apply. Visit enbridgegas.com/affordable for details.


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Profile for Marc Cote

theANNUAL London 2021  

theANNUAL, London, LPMA

theANNUAL London 2021  

theANNUAL, London, LPMA

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