culture. Therefore, knowledge is the culture of society learnt by its members from various perspectives. Economics is culture from an economic perspective. History is culture from a historical perspective. Religion is culture from a religious perspective. Science is culture from a scientific perspective. Realism considers vocational subjects supplementary but necessary to knowledge. Our curricula of general education at the secondary school level would reflect realist epistemology if they focus on appreciation of our culture . They would also be valuable in for a to show our learners that culture is not limited to the performing arts but that it is encapsulated in the total lifestyle of the people Pragmatism, its variants and other related epistemologies like existentialism, focus more on human experience as the source of knowledge. The major proponents like John Dewey, C. S. Pierce, Stanley Hall and other followers uphold a scientific viewpoint of knowledge that truth is part of the nature of knowledge i.e. “tested, verified, and found effective” in solving problems. According to C. S. Pierce, “The opinion which is fated to be agreed to by all who investigate it is what is meant by truth.”29 Compatible subjects with pragmatism and other related theories are the following: • •
the sciences, to explore and discover new knowledge, the humanities and languages, which enable the learner to see his/her society’s advancement in civilization, communicate in language and promote creativity, and the social sciences which enable the learner to know the way of life of his/her community and function effectively as its member.
This theory, one can say, positions man as “homo sapiens” more than others because man is the determiner of 29
J. A. Akinpelu (1981) Introduction to philosophy of education, Macmillan Publishers, London, Basingstoke, p. 146.
Published on Sep 1, 2009