There is only one science, a universal one with a universal method. This single system is a deductive system resting on a small number of causes or principles.19 For Giambattista Vico, science is the individual’s cognitive access to the environment and to learning. So a person can have a “scienza” of whatever he makes or does. Vico said: The inner structure of this existence is accessible and open to the human mind because the human mind is the creator. Myth, language, religion, poetry—these are objects to which the human mind is truly commensurable.20 Vico’s allusion to an “inner structure” of existence of reality as well as the “human mind” which creates it marks a progression from an understanding of man as a corporal natural entity to a non-corporal, metaphysical entity. Our former discussion of man suggested a monism of human nature, as we presume for other creatures. Our assumption of man with a mind takes us to an acceptance of dualism of human nature. Natural man is tangible but the mind of man is not. According to Vico, what we recognize as content or heritage of knowledge are products of the mind. It therefore follows that we can suppose that man knows with the mind— or perhaps another component of the mind. No matter what portion of the tree of philosophy is our specialization (roots, trunk, or branches), we all know to varying degrees, due to another peculiar human attribute. This is the attribute of intelligence. It is necessary to examine this attribute now in order to facilitate a clearer understanding of knowledge, which is our focus of discussion in this lecture.
Ibid p. 46. A. R. King Jr. and J. A. Brownell, op. cit p. 50