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Lifelong Learning

Partnership for


Partnership for Lifelong Learning

Sustainable Customer Outcomes Relationally Empowered (SCORE)

Š 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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“Where to start? Since higher education doesn’t have its own industry “czar,” I visited with a handful of its most thoughtful leaders, starting with Molly Corbett Broad, who spent decades on several public and private college campuses as a professor and administrator before assuming the presidency of the American Council on Education. An economist by training, she took over the helm of the nation’s principal higher education group a year ago, just as the economy began to unravel. Her advice today:

“Think big.” “This is a time when the game is changing,” she told me. “Hunkering down is not a smart option, particularly when other institutions around the world are hardly standing idly by.” Blumenstyk, G. (May 1, 2009). In a time of crisis, colleges ought to be making history. Chronicle of Higher Education, 55 (34), A1.

© 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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Partnership for Lifelong Learning

Contents 4 SCORE Project Implementation Process 6 SCORE Project Overview 9 SCORE Project Benefits 21 SCORE Project Premises 41 Bibliography 45 Projected Timeline

Š 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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SCORE Project Implementation Process

BACKGROUND: The Partnership for Lifelong Learning (PFL3) was established to develop collaborative projects that will enhance the effectiveness of educational institutions in producing positive and measurable outcomes for all stakeholders. The initial project of PFL3 is the Sustainable Customer Outcomes Relationally Empowered (SCORE) project in response to a recognized need in educational institutions for a sustainable model that will ensure stakeholder outcomes that promote and maintain healthy and viable organizations for the long-term. The specific goals and objectives of the SCORE project are contained in the previous segments of this report. The purpose of this segment is to outline the project’s implementation process to provide potential partners with a sense of the staffing, timeline, and deliverables associated with the project. LOCATION: The Partnership for Lifelong Learning will operate within the offices of Scotti and Associates, Incorporated, located at 2266 N. State College Boulevard, Fullerton, California. STAFFING: Robert Hayden and Frank Scotti are co-founders of the Partnership for Lifelong Learning. The staff will consist of the following personnel for the duration of the development of the SCORE model, estimated at nine to twelve months: 1. Research assistant/clerical, full-time 2. Grant writer, contracted position Other required services will be sourced on a contracted, part-time basis in the following areas: 3. Accounting services: contracted, part-time 4. General counsel: contracted as needed 5. Graphics & production work: contracted as needed ADVISORY BOARD: PFL3 will seek the participation of people committed to its mission, vision, and values, who have the desire, ability, and passion to support the organization in an Advisory Board capacity which will provide input and insight to the leadership, staff, and constituents of the organization.

Š 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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Implementation

RESOURCES: The financial budget required to support the implementation of the SCORE project through PFL3 is included in this binder as “Appendix B.” This budget outlines the minimum requirements to fund the development of the SCORE model in the first nine to twelve months of operation, herein referred to as “Phase One.” The full implementation of the model will require continuing financial support from there forward and depends on the number and breadth of the partnerships that PFL3 may establish with institutions seeking to work with the organization. DEVELOPMENT OF SCORE MODEL: The development of the SCORE model that will ensure sustainable customer satisfaction for an educational institution will require completion of the following components in an approximate nine to twelve month period: – Letter from institution president introducing PFL3, announcing the project, and asking for cooperation in its completion (10 –15 days) – Interviews with key stakeholders of the institution (30 – 45 days) – Research and data gathering (45 – 55 days) – Development of stakeholder surveys (30 – 45 days) – Dissemination of stakeholder surveys (15 –20 days) – Communication motivators to solicit response to survey requests (15 –20 days) – Compiling of survey results into usable data (30 – 45 days) – Development of common organization goals for implementation of improvement strategies (45 – 55 days) – Development of improvement strategies (45 – 60 days) – Delivery of sustainable customer satisfaction model ready for organization implementation (2 – 5 days)

© 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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SCORE Project Overview

OVERALL GOAL: To develop a sustainable customer satisfaction model that will allow colleges and universities to increase their level of satisfaction with primary and secondary customers. Primary customers are defined as: Students — both traditional and adult learners, parents, and prospective employers. Secondary customers are defined as: Administration, alumni, donors, faculty, staff and regulators such as accrediting bodies and federal and state government entities and the local community near the campus.

THE BENEFITS of achieving the above outlined goal include the following: 1. Increased perception of degree and institution value to all stakeholders. 2. Increased student retention. 3. Increased parent satisfaction and likelihood of recommending institution to others and providing donor support in the future. 4. Increased alumni giving due to greater connectedness to institution and perception of continuing value with connection to it. 5. Greater faculty and staff engagement and loyalty due to higher recognition and addressing of issues and trends affecting the institution serving its primary customers. 6. Closer connection and participation in the local business community through more focused and directed programs for adult learners and their needs in business and industry. 7. Greater alignment and partnership with prospective employers of students through development and implementation of joint needs assessments for ongoing student internships and proper student skills preparation for clearly identified post-degree employment opportunities.

Š 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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Overview

8. Development of world-class marketing and collateral materials that clearly communicate the mission, vision, values, and purpose of the institution and provide compelling opportunities for donors to partner with the institution financially and socially. 9. Development and packaging of institution information for accrediting purposes that is first-rate, informative, and consistent. 10. Development of programs to appeal to federal, state, and private entities offering grants and research donations to support graduate and post-graduate programs and further the academic growth and standing of the institution. 11. New program development that is more closely aligned with the needs and demands of the changing stakeholder population (i.e., adult learners, technology-based learners, employers, parents and families, etc.) 12. Development of flexible educational programs that meet the pricing and convenience needs of a changing student population who will not live on campus and experience a traditional four-year degree experience. 13. A stronger ability to attract donation monies from multiple sources as a result of widespread recognition of new programs and policies that are responsive to more stakeholder and community needs. 14. Increased new student attraction due to more flexible degree programs, improved affordability options, close alignment with employers and skill set requirements in the job market.

PREMISES upon which the compelling need for the (SCORE) project is based: …That colleges and universities do not have sufficient resources (time, money, personnel, etc.) to develop a customer satisfaction model that will enable them to produce the quality end product that employers need to significantly improve their businesses’ ability to meet the demands of a global economy. …That Christ-centered colleges and universities must find a way to cultivate, recruit and retain students through improved customer satisfaction. They cannot compete with public institutions on price. …That colleges and universities often fail to meet or exceed a significant number of stakeholder expectations and needs with the end product (i.e., graduates).

© 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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Overview

…That for colleges and universities to excel they need to develop partnerships with all stakeholders in order to co-produce a comprehensive learning experience that will produce graduates who can excel in the workforce. ...That students and parents are placing an increasingly greater emphasis on a college or university’s ability to provide career-oriented internships during the course of education and reliable employment opportunities at graduation. …That there are currently no metrics by which employers can properly compare graduates from similar degree programs from different institutions to determine who will be the best candidate for a job. …That a significant percentage of college graduates lack necessary skills in writing, critical thinking, strategy and interpersonal communications to meet the demands of the business world. …That all Christ-centered colleges and universities are fishing out of the same pool of potential students. Few, if any, Christ-centered colleges are trying to expand the overall potential pool of students. ... That by defining outcomes and relationally improving stakeholder connectivity at all levels, the intellectual, social and financial aspects of the college/university community will be enhanced and sustained. ... That alumni donor rates are a small percentage of the total living graduate population at most colleges and universities and enhanced cultivation of alumni will increase overall institutional support. …That because of a declining birthrate, the pool of potential traditional undergraduate students is shrinking. …That currently, nearly 40% of postsecondary students are twenty-five years of age or older. There is the potential to expand the number of adult learners. …That close to 90% of the fastest-growing jobs will require some postsecondary education. …That to compete in the global marketplace it is imperative that all Americans have some postsecondary education.

© 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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SCORE Project Benefits

Benefit 1 …Increased perception of degree and institution value to all stakeholders.

“Universities everywhere are being forced to carefully reconsider their role in society and to evaluate the relationships with their various constituencies, stakeholders, and communities. In this article, ‘stakeholder analysis’ is put forward as a tool to assist universities in classifying stakeholders and determining stakeholder salience. Increasingly universities are expected to assume a ‘third mission’ and to engage in interactions with industrial and regional partners. While incentive schemes and government programmes try to encourage universities to reach out more to external communities, some important barriers to such linkages still remain. To fulfill their obligation towards being a socially accountable institution and to prevent ‘mission overload,’ universities will have to carefully select their stakeholders and identify the ‘right’ degree of differentiation. For the university, thinking in terms of partnerships with key stakeholders has important implications for its governance and accountability agreements.” Jongbloed, B., Enders, J., & Salerno, C. (September 2008). Higher education and its communities: Interconnections, interdependencies and a research agenda. Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning, 56(3), 303-324.

“Institutional Effectiveness is a process in which an Institution demonstrates its success in accomplishing its mission and meeting its goals. The Institutional Effectiveness process requires the University to establish outcomes based on its mission. Faculty and administrators align the University mission statement to academic programs and administrative units’ missions. Program and learning outcomes that are the most important and meaningful are identified, assessed and reported to constituents. Continuous improvement is accomplished using assessment results that are reported to the assessment coordinator. Ultimately, the result of this process is the closing of the learning and service delivery gaps.” Collins, D. R. (Fall 2008). A practical guide to assessment planning for institutional effectiveness and assessment. Lamar University Electronic Journal of Student Research.

© 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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Benefits

“In this paper, we examine the factors that influence the reputation or prestige of universities. We first develop a model of university behaviour which indicates how the decisions made by university officials would be chosen in order to maximize their respective reputations. In doing so, we assume that reputation is enhanced by the quality of students produced, the caliber of research and the service provided to the community in terms of the provision of publicly funded education services. We argue that the relative weights placed on these intermediate outputs may vary by university type as well as the means of producing them.” Cyrenne, P., & Grant, H. (April 2009). University decision making and prestige: An empirical study. Economics of Education Review, 28 (2), 237-248.

Benefit 2 …Increased student retention.

“Research and retention interventions have been primarily targeted towards the freshmen, first-year experience (Gardner, Pattengale, & Schreiner, 2000; Pattengale & Schreiner, 2000) and yet, sophomores are a uniquely vulnerable group with increasing levels of dissatisfaction and attrition (Boivin, Fountain, & Baylis, 2000). This article describes the programmatic development and evaluation of the Sophomore Peer Counseling Program which was initiated in an effort to increase retention, academic performance, and college satisfaction for sophomores during their critical second year.” Sanchez-Leguelinel, C. (June 2008). Supporting “slumping” sophomores: Programmatic peer initiatives designed to enhance retention in the crucial second year of college. College Student Journal, 42(2), 637-646.

“Data mining provides both systematic and systemic ways to detect patterns of student engagement among students at hundreds of institutions. Using traditional statistical techniques alone, the task would be significantly difficult — if not impossible — considering the size and complexity in both data and analytical approaches necessary for this task. This study presents a step-by-step review on how the data mining technique is utilized to develop an institutional typology based on student behavioral data. The result provided a fresh angle to understand the similarities and differences among four-year undergraduate colleges and universities, shifting away from previous institutional typologies, such as those based on institutional mission, resources, and reputation. The institutional engagement typology is derived through student behavioral data, and therefore, is advantageous in that it retains one of the most important components in understanding higher education — student behaviors. (continued)

© 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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Benefits

This data mining-based study broke new conceptual and methodological ground, and its resulting institutional learning engagement typology offers new perspectives on peer institution comparison, congruence between students and their institutions, as well as policy development regarding educational quality.” Luan, J., Zhao, C-M., & Hayek, J. C. (February 8, 2009). Using a data mining approach to develop a student engagement-based institutional typology. IR Applications: Using Advanced Tools, Techniques, and Methodologies, 18, 1-19.

“The purpose of the study was twofold, first the need to determine the extent to which college students indicated that at least one significant faculty relationship had made a difference in their ability to persist in school and second, the need to examine some of the characteristics of those relationships to determine if they were caring behaviors. Using survey methods, this study looked at 203 college students who persisted and graduated. Using a thirty-item Likert type survey, with one-open ended item, students were asked to identify the existence of a significant faculty relationship and determine the extent to which the faculty exhibited behaviors that were caring in nature. Sixty-six percent of the students indicated the presence of at least one faculty member that made a difference in their ability to graduate. In addition, those students also indicated that the faculty member demonstrated characteristics along 13 dimensions of caring. The implications of this research are that significant faculty relationships are important factors in student retention and those relationships can be developed and nurtured. Faculty development seminars related to student support and retention can be an important addition to the scholarship of teaching and impact the retention of college students.” Miller, A. S. (June 24, 2007). Students that persist: Caring relationships that make a difference in higher education. [Rec. # ED497500]. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov.

“Implementing effective student retention strategies is important for all institutions of higher education. This is especially true for smaller, private colleges as resources for higher education are stretched and the dependence on tuition revenue to maintain fiscal viability increases. This longitudinal study focuses on the utilization of retention strategies at Council Christian Colleges and Universities member institutions. The results indicate that institutional selectivity and the utilization of a student retention program over a long period, as opposed to the utilization of any individual student retention strategy in particular, positively correlate with student retention to graduation. Conducting an annual evaluation of the effectiveness of enrollment management also showed statistically significant results. Implications for student retention at private colleges are discussed and considerations for future research are also highlighted.” Vander Schee, B. A. (2008). The utilization of retention strategies at church-related colleges: A longitudinal study. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 10 (2), 207-222. © 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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Benefits

Benefit 3 …Increased parent satisfaction and likelihood of recommending institution to others and providing donor support in the future.

Benefit 4 …Increased alumni giving due to greater connectedness to institution and perception of continuing value with connection to it.

“Wealthy alumni who live in states that allow charitable tax deductions are more generous than otherwise similar alumni in states without such subsidies. Alumni contributions also increase in years when the college has achieved greater athletic prestige but fall when academic prestige rises. Furthermore, recent alumni are more influenced by institutional prestige than older graduates.” Holmes, J. (February 2009). Prestige, charitable deductions and other determinants of alumni giving: Evidence from a highly selective liberal arts college. Economics of Education Review, 28 (1), 18-28.

“As the relative level of public support for higher education declines, colleges and universities aim to maximize alumni-giving to keep their programs competitive. Anchored in a utility maximization framework, this study employs the classification and regression tree methodology to examine characteristics of alumni donors and non-donors at a researchextensive university in the United States. The study suggests that levels of giving relate to household income, religious background, degree and venue in which the alum keeps in touch with the campus, alumni beliefs about institutional needs, and the number of institutions competing for alumni gift dollars.” Weerts, D. J., & Ronca, J. M. (March 2009). Using classification trees to predict alumni giving for higher education. Education Economics, 17 (1), 95-122.

© 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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Benefits

“Alumni of the Ron Brown Scholar Program, young adults selected for their intellect, leadership skills, service, and financial need, are finding success in the law, government, science, business, medicine, and the arts. Yet they remain tied to the scholarship program, contributing to its continued success by donating money and volunteer hours to create opportunities for others. Many colleges talk about instilling a culture of philanthropy in their alumni: the Ron Brown program hits on what philanthropy experts say are key ingredients, fostering a spirit of belonging, offering a way to contribute to social change, and providing continued value in graduates’ lives. Although the program is relatively young and its alumni base small, its success in encouraging a giveback culture may offer lessons for other institutions looking to strengthen alumni ties and donations.” Masterson, K. (September 12, 2008). If Kent State beats goals, professors will profit. Chronicle of Higher Education, 55 (3), A1.

Benefit 5 …Greater faculty and staff engagement and loyalty due to higher recognition and addressing of issues and trends affecting the institution serving its primary customers.

“Soon after Jamie P. Merisotis took over the Lumina Foundation for Education last year, he began talking about a ‘big goal.’ America must increase the proportion of its population with degrees or credentials to 60% by 2025, in order to remain globally competitive and meet the nation’s growing demand for college-educated workers, he said. The United States, he warned, is falling behind, and the foundation would make reversing the trend the core of its work…Under Merisotis’ leadership, Lumina has begun working with groups of faculty members, students, business leaders, and others in three states to help them draft common sets of expectations for what students need to know to earn degrees in certain disciplines.” Hebel, S. (May 1, 2009). Lumina’s leader sets lofty goals for fund’s role in policy debates. Chronicle of Higher Education, 55 (34), A1.

“Today, with few exceptions, teacher educators, school administrators and policy makers recognize the impact that great teachers have on the students they teach. Research indicates that teacher quality is the most important indicator of student performance — more than class size, economic status, or other commonly cited indicators.” Atwell, N. (February 26, 2007). Project TRREE: Teacher recruitment and retention for educational excellence. [Annual Report]. Author: Kentucky.

© 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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Benefits

“When ‘The Chronicle’ asked college employees what they value about their jobs, they put the physical environment in which they work at the top of the list. They said they were concerned not only that their spaces met their needs but also that their campuses had a pleasing appearance.” Biemiller, L. (July 18, 2008). To college employees, the work environment is all-important. Chronicle of Higher Education, 54 (45), B12.

“This article reports on a new and unusual tactic that Kent State University is trying to improve its status, retention rate, and fund raising — paying cash bonuses to faculty members if the university exceeds its goals in those areas. The bonuses are built into a contract, approved last month [August 2008], that covers 864 full-time, tenure-track faculty members who teach and do research on the university’s eight campuses. Proposed by Lester A. Lefton, Kent State’s president, the ‘success bonus pool’ will be divided among faculty members if the Ohio institution improves retention rates for first-year students and increases the research dollars it generates and the private money raised through its foundation. The message behind the institutional-performance bonuses, which are much more common in private industry and for university presidents than for professors, is that faculty members should benefit from the work they do that influences those measures of a university’s success.” Masterson, K. (September 12, 2008). If Kent State beats goals, professors will profit. Chronicle of Higher Education, 55 (3), A1.

“How can higher education inspire and reinforce greater faculty involvement in the life of the ‘whole student’ given current constraints on and expectations for faculty work? Research from two recent national surveys of chief academic officers on faculty work sheds light on this question by highlighting current faculty employment conditions and expectations. Additional recent research is reviewed to link faculty expectations with student growth. Implications for faculty development that will best serve student needs are explored.” O’Meara, K., & Braskamp, L. (Winter 2005). Aligning faculty reward systems and development to promote faculty and student growth. NASPA Journal, 42 (2), 233-240.

© 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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Benefits

“This study investigated the importance of discipline variations in understanding faculty turnover behaviors. A representative sample of university faculty in Research and Doctoral universities was obtained from a national database. Faculty members, self-identified into a primary academic area, were grouped into eight discipline clusters according to an established framework. Multiple regression models were constructed to examine within each cluster the relative importance of a list of factors that have been identified to be related to faculty turnover. Cross-discipline comparisons of within-cluster variable prioritization revealed substantial discipline variations with regard to the major factors that are critical to faculty turnover. The findings produced evidence that discipline-specific information was indispensable to institutional administrators and policy makers for effective fault retention.” Xu, Y. J. (February 2008). Faculty turnover: Discipline-specific attention is warranted. Research in Higher Education, 49 (1), 40-61.

“This study investigated the leadership behaviors of presidents of Christian colleges and universities in North America. Data were collected from the chief financial administrator, the chief student affairs administrator, and the chief academic administrator on the independent variables of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles for the university president and the dependent variable of followers’ job satisfaction…Identifying specific leadership behaviors that predict followers’ job satisfaction can reduce absenteeism and employee turnover, and is potentially beneficial for leaders who develop and utilize these leadership behaviors for the benefit of their institutions.” Webb, K. S. (January 2009). Creating satisfied employees in Christian higher education: Research on leadership competencies. Christian Higher Education, 8 (1), 18-31.

© 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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Benefits

Benefit 6 …Closer connection and participation in the local business community through more focused and directed programs for adult learners and their needs in business and industry.

“The lack of national attention to preparing future faculty for their roles as citizen-scholars represents a significant missed opportunity. Whereas graduate student involvement in engaged teaching and research, such as service-learning or community-based research, likely has immediate benefits for retention and learning, this article focuses on the impact of engagement during doctoral study on later community engagement when those doctoral students become faculty members. Graduate students who are not encouraged to see the relevance of their disciplines to local schools, governments, business, and the public are significantly less likely as faculty to become engaged scholars. Community engagement offers multiple avenues for integration of teaching, research, and outreach, an integration that many faculty yearn for but do not feel they have the skills to create. Therefore, understanding barriers to and facilitators of community engagement has implications for the institutionalization of community engagement in graduate programs, the quality of faculty work and satisfaction, and the fulfillment of college service missions.” O’Meara, K. (Spring 2008). Graduate education and community engagement. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, (133), 27-42.

© 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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Benefits

Benefit 7 …Greater alignment and partnership with prospective employers of students through development and implementation of joint needs assessments for ongoing student internships and proper student skills preparation for clearly identified post-degree employment opportunities.

“Internships have become a prime form of professional capital, but many remain unpaid, and poorer students suffer. However, colleges — mostly small, private institutions — are coming to their aid, offering modest grants to make the all-important opportunities viable for a more diverse population. The programs reflect not only colleges’ increased attention to career development, but also a broadening definition of educational access. Revamped financial-aid policies may bring lower-income students in the door, but resources like internship grants help them keep up with their more-privileged classmates. While colleges seek to level the playing field, other forces exacerbate lower-income students’ disadvantage. Many companies require that unpaid interns receive academic credit. That often means that students pay tuition, although some colleges draw up vague letters to recognize internships, satisfying employers without conferring — or charging for — credit.” Lipka, S. (July 18, 2008). Subsidizing the internship. Chronicle of Higher Education, 54 (45), A18.

“The mission statements of many public (taxpayer-supported) colleges promise economic development outreach to local business communities. Unfortunately, faculty may be hardpressed to devote time to outreach. The author looks for specific outreach activities that garner strong support from both faculty and business representatives. The author examines the case of four-year business schools…The win-win activities tended to have a strong teaching component, including degree programs for working adults and community-classroom links such as student projects and internships.” Bacdayan, P. (Summer 2008). Finding win-win forms of economic development outreach: Shared priorities of business faculty and community. College Teaching, 56 (3) 143-148.

“Preparing students for ‘real world’ practices is an integral part of the curriculum for many engineering programmes. Such preparation can involve numerous approaches to stimulate realistic experiences, including engaging students with real-world external clients who might use their work. These practices offer the challenge of identifying and selecting suitable projects as well as developing the means to evaluate effectively the learning outcomes related to students’ participation in such projects.” Maleki, R. A. (April 2009). Business and industry project-based capstone courses: Selecting projects and assessing learning outcomes. Industry and Higher Education, 23 (2), 91-102. © 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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Benefits

“This article discusses the implications of the findings of ‘The Workforce Readiness Report Card.’ The survey, which was released in September [2006], reveals how the new U.S. workforce entrants are ‘woefully ill-prepared for the demands of today’s — and tomorrow’s — workplace.’ The study also reveals that employers place much greater value on the applied skills of leadership, critical thinking, and problem solving than on more traditional basic skills such as reading comprehension and mathematics. The ‘Workforce Readiness Report Card’ sounds a serious alarm for the current state of education in the United States. The implications touch numerous areas in today’s education policy, procedures, and theory and presage serious ‘ripple effects’ for the country’s domestic and international standing. The study looks at two basic solutions to ensure that the nation’s students are prepared to successfully meet the demands of the 21st century workplace: (1) Schools must find ways to teach applied skills integrated with core academic subjects; and (2) the business community must be more active in defining the skills they need from their new employees and then partner with schools to create opportunities for students to obtain them.” McLester, S., & McIntire, T. (November 2006). The workforce readiness crisis: We’re not turning out employable graduates nor maintaining our position as a global competitor — Why? Technology & Learning, 27 (4), 22.

“This paper focuses on the development of work-based learning programmes within higher education in the UK. It explores how ‘partnership’ with employers came to be seen as a central aspect of this new form of provision. However, we suggest that this emphasis on partnership has been problematic. We focus, in particular, on three areas of concern. Firstly, the limited evidence that employers wish to engage in these sorts of relationships with universities. Secondly, the problems arising from the different cultures of the potential partners and, in particular, different understandings of ‘learning’ and ‘knowledge.’ Thirdly, the emergence of the quality assurance agenda within higher education, which is reducing the influence of employers in these programmes. We conclude that the emphasis placed on partnership in the policy and practice literature may well be hindering the more widespread development of work-based learning in higher education.” Reeve, F., & Gallacher, J. (June 2005). Employer/university ‘partnerships’: A key problem for work-based learning programmes? Journal of Education and Work, 18 (2), 219-233.

© 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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Benefits

“If one mantra dominates the field of workforce development, it is partnership and collaboration: the need to link disparate training providers and colleges, to better connect employers with training courses and to unite public and private sector funding. The need for partnership is clear, but all the rhetoric and legislative mandates supporting this goal have not added up to much. There are few exceptions to this rule, but one has arisen in an unlikely locale — New York City. This paper presents a case study of a groundbreaking collaborative, the New York Information Technology Career Ladders Consortium, which has evolved around a philosophy of career progression and pooled services.” Workforce Strategy Center. (June 2006). Strength in partnership: Building a new approach to workforce development in New York City. [Pamphlet]. Author: Brooklyn, NY.

Benefit 8 …Development of world-class marketing and collateral materials that clearly communicate the mission, vision, values, and purpose of the institution and provide compelling opportunities for donors to partner with the institution financially and socially.

“Strategic plans migrated to higher education for the corporate world. Although some universities have been drafting them for at least 40 years, their use has exploded over the last decade…Now virtually every institution, from research universities to community colleges, has a plan. Competition for students, globalization, cost crunches, and the accountability push from Washington and state capitals, as well as accrediting bodies, have all fed colleges’ need for more-detailed performance indicators and financial modeling. To be useful, the plan must give an honest assessment of where the institution is and where it wants to go, planning experts say.” Fain, P. (October 2007). Vision for excellence. Chronicle of Higher Education, 54 (6), A26.

© 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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Benefits

Benefit 9 …Development and packaging of institution information for accrediting purposes that is first-rate, informative, and consistent.

“The monitoring and quality standards used by the regional associations fail to escape or significantly alter the perception that religious colleges and universities are inferior to other higher education facilities. Essentially, the limited definitions of educational quality and the expectations of accreditation agencies place a special burden on religious colleges and universities by challenging the congruence between their faith and academic missions.” Donahoo, S., & Lee, W. Y. (September 2008). Serving two masters: Quality and conflict in the accreditation of religious institutions. Christian Higher Education, 7 (4), 319-338.

Benefit 10 …Development of programs to appeal to federal, state, and private entities offering grants and research donations to support graduate and post-graduate programs and further the academic growth and standing of the institution.

“The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 represents both an opportunity and a challenge for states to set priorities. A substantial portion of these one-time federal funds can be used to reposition higher education strategically to protect access and quality and to stimulate the increased cost-effectiveness and degree productivity required to meet future needs for higher education. Policymakers, governing boards, and campus and system leaders must approach the difficult decisions that lie ahead with a commitment to basic principles, devising and implementing strategies to preserve college opportunity while stimulating innovations to prepare for a future that will require enhanced access, quality, cost-effectiveness, and productivity.” The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. (March 2009). The Challenge to States: Preserving College Access and Affordability in a Time of Crisis. [Pamphlet]. Author: San Jose, California.

© 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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Benefits

Benefit 11 …New program development that is more closely aligned with the needs and demands of the changing stakeholder population (i.e., adult learners, technology-based learners, employers, parents and families, etc.).

Benefit 12 …Development of flexible educational programs that meet the pricing and convenience needs of a changing student population who will not live on campus and experience a traditional four-year degree experience. “The importance of the interconnectedness of academic, student, and technical support processes intrinsic to the provision of on-line instruction has been frequently depicted as a ‘service web,’ with students at the center of the infrastructure. However, as programming to support distance learning continues to develop, such service Webs have grown complex; it is increasingly probable that students are becoming ‘caught in the Web,’ unable to navigate an intricate virtual system of resources, services and programming. In the absence of clarity, coordination, planning, and ongoing evaluation, institutional resources may evolve to become inaccessible to students. Without the requisite infrastructure the best attempts to retain distant students can actually have the unintended consequence of further isolating them in vast institutional cyber-mazes.” McCracken, H. (2008-09). Best practices in supporting persistence of distance education students through integrated web-based systems. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 10 (1), 65-91.

Benefit 13 …A stronger ability to attract donation monies from multiple sources as a result of widespread recognition of new programs and policies that are responsive to more stakeholder and community needs.

Benefit 14 …Increased new student attraction due to more flexible degree programs, improved affordability options, close alignment with employers and skill set requirements in the job market. © 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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SCORE Project Premises

Premise 1 …That colleges and universities do not have sufficient resources (time, money, personnel, etc.) to develop a customer satisfaction model that will enable them to produce the quality end product that employers need to significantly improve their businesses’ ability to meet the demands of a global economy.

“Another reason is just as likely: They’re afraid that their institution will look weak. Given today’s competition for students, for faculty members, and for philanthropic dollars, the pressure that college leaders feel to sound reassuring notes about their institutions and their future is certainly understandable. But that sort of face-saving may be damaging in the longer run if it postpones the kind of reinvention that many institutions need. The timidity could be especially harmful considering all the challenges colleges already face, including the coming demographic shifts in the traditional-age college population, the mandate to serve military veterans, and the economic imperative to educate a work force to fill as many as 10 million predicted new jobs that will require bachelor’s degrees or better by the next decade. Those factors, combined with the financial crisis, leave the higher-education sector and its 3.6 million employees at its biggest inflection point since the end of World War II, when the original GI Bill generation and, later, post-Sputnik spending on science transformed the academic landscape.” Blumenstyk, G. (May 1, 2009). In a time of crisis, colleges ought to be making history. Chronicle of Higher Education, 55 (34), A1.

“Unlike the many businesses that develop concrete, reproducible items, a university encompasses the characteristics related to a service industry. Shank et al. (1995) states that: Educational services are intangible, heterogeneous, inseparable from the person delivering it, variable, perishable, and the customer (student) participates in the process. Additionally, colleges and universities are increasingly finding themselves in an environment that is conducive to understanding the role and importance of service quality; this environment is (continued) © 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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a fiercely competitive one. As is evident from this final statement, competition in higher education is just as prevalent as in any other organization, so it makes the understanding of student satisfaction all the more critical to the university’s success.” Kroncke, K. A. (2006). Correlation between faculty satisfaction and student satisfaction in higher education. Thesis. The Ohio State University.

“Ignored Customers’ Needs Dormitories and the campus quad are images of America’s higher-education past that now apply to only a minority of students. Today’s college students are older, often have jobs, and are less likely to be white. Many are not interested in a traditional residential experience. What’s more, as the nation’s population growth has shifted to the South, the numbers of potential students who can pay full freight are now more often located in hot spots like suburban Dallas and Atlanta. Colleges that have paid close attention to those shifts are generally in decent shape. Leading that pack are for-profit institutions, most of which have healthy bottom lines despite the recession. The colleges that succeed in this evolving new world will be the ones that aren’t afraid to try new ideas, like setting up out-of-state branch campuses, spending more on strategic advertising, and building partnerships with community colleges.” Chronicle of Higher Education Staff. (March 13, 2009). 13 reasons colleges are in this mess: How greed, incompetence, and neglect led to bad decisions. Chronicle of Higher Education, 55 (27), A1.

Premise 2 …That Christ-centered colleges and universities must find a way to cultivate, recruit and retain students through improved customer satisfaction. They cannot compete with public institutions on price.

“One thing that’s happened this year is that there’s all this talk, and one-sided media stories, about how private colleges are unaffordable,” Ms. Sweezey the director of admissions at Gettysburg College said. “It’s become almost viral that there’s no loans, that schools are having problems. The truth is that a lot of private colleges have more financial aid available this year, but there’s lots of misinformation out there. And my guidance counselor friends tell me students may be applying to fewer places and turning to their state university, which will be at capacity.” Lewin, T. (December 22, 2008). Private colleges worry about a dip in enrollment. The New York Times.

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“Tuition-driven private colleges that have not established a firm identity will lose prospective students to those that have staked out a clear market position, as well as to lower-cost public universities, community colleges, and for-profit institutions, which are nimble at marketing. Pamela Fox, president of Mary Baldwin College, says the key to staking out turf is doing it within the college’s mission. For Mary Baldwin, that means adding a personal touch to both a traditional women’s campus and adult education centers. Colleges must clearly show that they add value beyond their liberal-arts core, she says: “That’s the gravy that goes with your meat and potatoes.” Chronicle of Higher Education Staff. (March 13, 2009). 13 reasons colleges are in this mess: How greed, incompetence, and neglect led to bad decisions. Chronicle of Higher Education, 55 (27), A1.

“Stagnation in family income growth, real declines in government need-based grant aid, and increased subsidies for public sector institutions have worked together to drive private college tuition up relative to both family resources and to public university tuition. As a result, families have turned increasingly to the public sector. Private college tuition now represents approximately 50 percent of median household income in most states, compared to 25 percent 15 years ago. Perhaps more troubling, CCCU members increasingly compete in a market that does not perceive significant differences between smaller, private colleges and large, public universities. Indeed, the claims of these public universities blur distinctions between large, public universities and colleges like CCCU’s.” Hardwick-Day, Inc. (2001). Comparative alumni research: What matters in college after college. Council for Christian Colleges & Universities.

“People will pay more for better service, but only so much more. And with the economy in a free fall, more families have less money to pay. The number of low-cost online institutions and no-cost alternatives on the other side of the accreditation wall is growing. The longer the relentless drumbeat of higher tuition goes on, the greater their appeal. “There’s still time for higher-education institutions to use technology to their advantage, to move to a more-sustainable cost structure, and to win customers with a combination of superior service and reasonable price.” Carey, K. (April 3, 2009). What colleges should learn from newspapers’ decline. Chronicle of Higher Education, 55 (30), A21.

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“Community colleges and for-profit institutions should continue to thrive because of their reputations for convenience. The rest of colleges — regional public universities, small liberalarts colleges, and private universities without national followings — can expect to compete for students based on price, convenience, and the perceived strengths of the institutions.” Werf, M. Van Der & Sabatier, G. (June 2009). The college of 2020: Students. Chronicle Research Services is a division of The Chronicle of Higher Education, Inc.

Premise 3 …That colleges and universities often fail to meet or exceed a significant number of stakeholder expectations and needs with the end product (i.e., graduates).

“In most Christian organizations, 80 percent of presidents and CEOs have come up through the program side of the ministry. This is good because it means they have the leverage of the organization’s DNA and plenty of relationships. Sadly, the skills and knowledge to lead an organization have never been taught, nor has intentional mentoring been provided.” Pue, C. (January 9, 2009). Attracting and developing future leaders: How to invest in those who may be leading your nonprofit in 20 years. Christian Leadership Alliance.

“While educators and policymakers have commendably focused on getting more students into college, too little attention has been paid to helping them graduate. The result is that unacceptable numbers of students fail to complete their studies at all, while even those that graduate don’t always learn enough. We want a higher-education system that gives Americans the workplace skills they need to adapt to a rapidly changing economy. To meet the challenges of the 21st century, higher education must change from a system primarily based on reputation to one based on performance. We urge the creation of a robust culture of accountability and transparency throughout higher education.” U.S. Department of Education. (September 2006). A Test of Leadership: Charting the Future of U.S. Higher Education. Washington, D.C.

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“It is notable that many of the outcomes that AAC&U members are focusing on today are the ones that employers would like to see colleges and universities emphasizing more. The survey revealed that employers believe that colleges and universities should do more to achieve learning outcomes in several areas to ensure that individuals will be successful and contributing members of today’s global economy. Indeed, majorities of business executives said that colleges and universities should place more emphasis than they currently do on 13 of the 16 learning outcomes tested, and there was no area in which they felt colleges should place less emphasis. Business executives felt the following areas were most in need of increased emphasis by higher education institutions: – Science and technology (82% should place more emphasis) – Applied knowledge in real-world settings through internships and other hands-on experiences (73% should place more emphasis) – Critical thinking and analytical reasoning skills (73% should place more emphasis) – Communication skills (73% should place more emphasis) – Global issues (72% should place more emphasis)” Hart Research Associates. (April 2009). Trends in learning outcomes, general education, and assessment: A survey among members of the Association of American Colleges and Universities.

“As postsecondary education’s role in society and the economy grows in importance, it is critical that colleges and universities define what is meant by a high-quality education. Everyone agrees that higher education should offer quality courses and programs that meet the needs of students, society and the workforce. We all also agree that programs and institutions should support the success of students in meeting their goals. Unfortunately, research suggests that there is little consensus on what this means; it also shows that we are unable to clearly determine whether an institution actually provides quality courses and supports student success.” Matthews, D., Powell D. S. & Campbell, A. (February 2009). A stronger nation through higher education: How and why Americans must meet a “big goal” for college attainment. Lumina Foundation for Education.

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“The trends we see are sending a clear message —A high school diploma is no longer enough to be successful in today’s world. Now more than ever, higher education is the key to building and maintaining a competitive economy and the benefits it brings. We need a more educated workforce to fill the openings left by retiring Baby Boomers, meet the increasing skill requirements of today’s jobs, and jobs for tomorrow. Nations that have figured this out have become our strongest competitors in the global marketplace. We are spending more and not getting the results we need from higher education. The United States spends more per student than any other nation on earth, but has the lowest college completion rate. As a result, we are now one of only two nations whose young population (25–34 year olds) is less educated than its older population (35–44 year olds).” National Conference of State Legislatures. Blue Ribbon Commission on Higher Education: Big Questions, Practical Answers, New Strategies for Setting and Moving a Higher Education Agenda. [Pamphlet]. Julie Davis Bell, NCSL Education Group Director.

Premise 4 …That for colleges and universities to excel they need to develop partnerships with all stakeholders in order to co-produce a comprehensive learning experience that will produce graduates who can excel in the workforce.

“The commission calls on businesses to partner with schools and colleges to provide resources for early and ongoing college awareness activities, academic support, and college planning and financial aid application assistance. Such efforts should include developing students’ and parents’ knowledge of the economic and social benefits of college through better information, use of role models and extensive career exploration. We call on the business community to become directly and fully engaged with government and higher education leaders in developing innovative structures for delivering 21st-century educational services — and in providing the necessary financial and human resources for that purpose.” U.S. Department of Education. (September 2006). A Test of Leadership: Charting the Future of U.S. Higher Education. Washington, D.C.

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“To succeed in this effort, colleges and universities must become more customer-centric organizations that are better equipped to meet the changing needs of their customers, particularly with respect to access and affordability. The problem is that — on the whole — universities are not designed to respond rapidly to the changing education and training needs of industry. – In a 2005 survey of more than 500 corporate and government organizations undertaken by Eduventures, among the top capabilities employers reported seeking in third-party providers of education and training were “customization” and “applied learning.” – When asked to identify those areas where universities could improve to better meet their education and training needs, the top two areas identified were “applied learning” and “customization.” – Clearly, there is still some distance for many colleges and universities to travel before they can effectively serve employers seeking these capabilities. But the effort must be made to better align their educational offerings with the needs of employers — those organizations that ultimately employ the students passing through their institutions on the way to a better life. – Otherwise, industry will continue to do what it has done for the past two decades: work around higher education by creating its own system for training and development. History is littered with examples of industries that, at their peril, failed to respond to — or even see — changes in purchaser behavior: from the railroad industry to the computer hard disk industry to the music industry. When it comes to the adult learner community — those 92 million Americans — our institutions of higher education face similar risks of having their market share substantially reduced and their services increasingly characterized by obsolescence. For higher education institutions to effectively mobilize to meet our real education needs, it will be necessary first to recognize the diverse faces of higher education — and that means recognizing the extent to which adult learners are the future of higher education.” Stokes, P. J. (April 2006). Hidden in plain sight: Adult learners forge a new tradition in higher education. Eleventh in a series of Issue Papers released at the request of Chairman Charles Miller to inform the work of the Secretary of Education’s Commission on the Future of Higher Education.

“In this consumer-driven environment, students increasingly care little about the distinctions that sometimes preoccupy the academic establishment, from whether a college has for-profit or nonprofit status to whether its classes are offered online or in brick-and-mortar buildings. Instead, they care — as we do — about results.” U.S. Department of Education. (September 2006). A Test of Leadership: Charting the Future of U.S. Higher Education. Washington, D.C.

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“Indications that member institutions engage students in real-world learning opportunities in general education rank near the bottom of the list of characteristics. Low marks for civic learning or engagement activities (38% describes very well), service learning opportunities (38%), and experiential learning opportunities (36%) indicate that though these are increasingly popular topics of discussion, no single one of these real-world learning approaches is yet being incorporated into general education programs on a broad scale.” Hart Research Associates. (April 2009). Trends in learning outcomes, general education, and assessment: A survey among members of the Association of American Colleges and Universities.

“According to Weidemann (vice president for outreach of Penn State University), demand for postsecondary education in Pennsylvania is usually aligned with specific jobs, particularly those in targeted industry clusters: the life sciences (medical, healthcare), business and financial services, education, advanced materials, building and construction, agriculture and food production, logistics and transportation, information and communication services, and lumberwood-and-paper. To meet these demands, industry is partnering with higher education in creative ways. One thing we’re seeing is companies coming together as a consortium to develop certificate programs that align with industry clusters in the state,” said Weidemann. Lakin, M. B. & Mullane, L. (September 15, 2006). State by state: Building capacity in higher education for adult learners. American Council on Education.

“Educators are increasingly finding that students want to design their own curricula and find ways to learn in their own style. Colleges that attempt to cram their styles down students’ throats on the basis that it is “good for them” may quickly find themselves uncompetitive in the new higher-education universe. Good teaching will always be at the core of a good university, but for most colleges, higher education will become a more retail-based industry than it ever has been. The students of the future will demand it. Many colleges have a long way to go before they can fulfill that demand.” Werf, M. Van Der & Sabatier, G. (June 2009). The college of 2020: Students. Chronicle Research Services is a division of The Chronicle of Higher Education, Inc.

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Premise 5 ...That students and parents are placing an increasingly greater emphasis on a college or university’s ability to provide career-oriented internships during the course of education and reliable employment opportunities at graduation.

“Real-world experiences may prove to be critical once students enter the workplace. In the 2007 business leaders survey, 69% said that they think that completion of a supervised and evaluated internship or community-based project that requires students to apply their college learning in real-world settings would be very effective in ensuring that recent college graduates possess the skills and knowledge needed for success. Furthermore, faculty-evaluated internships or community-based learning experiences ranked highest among a list of potential practices that business leaders would recommend for colleges and universities to develop to assess student learning.” Hart Research Associates. (April 2009). Trends in learning outcomes, general education, and assessment: A survey among members of the Association of American Colleges and Universities.

“Despite increased attention to student learning results by colleges and universities and accreditation agencies, parents and students have no solid evidence, comparable across institutions, of how much students learn in colleges or whether they learn more at one college than another. America’s national capacity for excellence, innovation and leadership in higher education will be central to our ability to sustain economic growth and social cohesiveness. Our colleges and universities will be a key source of the human and intellectual capital needed to increase workforce productivity and growth. They must also continue to be the major route for new generations of Americans to achieve social mobility.” U.S. Department of Education. (September 2006). A Test of Leadership: Charting the Future of U.S. Higher Education. Washington, D.C.

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Premise 6 …That there are currently no metrics by which employers can properly compare graduates from similar degree programs from different institutions to determine who will be the best candidate for a job.

“I know that talking about standards can make people nervous, but the notion that we have 50 different goalposts is absolutely ridiculous. We need standards that are collegeready, career-ready, and benchmarked against challenging international standards.” Duncan, A. (July/August 2009). Outlook: The perfect storm for reform: Reform is not just good education policy — it’s good economic policy. Currents. Council for Advancement and Support of Education.

“In the United States, there is little understanding, or consensus, about what a particular degree at a particular institution stands for,” said Clifford Adelman, of the Institute for Higher Education Policy, an expert on the Bologna Process. “One of the aims of the tuning process is to produce comparability,” said Cary Nelson, president of the American Association of University Professors.” Lewin, T. (April 9, 2009). Colleges in 3 states to set basics for degrees. The New York Times.

“For the project, groups of faculty members and students from universities in each participating state will survey current students, recent graduates, and employers in an effort to define the knowledge and skills that a degree in a given discipline represents. The information will also be used to track how student achievement translates into employability.” Labi, A. (April 8, 2009). Europe’s higher-education restructuring holds lessons for U.S. Chronicle of Higher Education.

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“Learning assessment is incomplete when only internal formative assessment or only external summative assessment is used,” Mr. Shavelson, a professor of education at Stanford University wrote. “Both are needed and need to be aligned with one another. Without this combination, campuses may be fooling themselves and their external constituencies as to the progress they are making in improving student learning. But the report also suggests that many college leaders are worried that their students do not know about the learning outcomes they are supposed to achieve. And — in a discovery that will cheer some education advocates and dismay others — the survey found that relatively few colleges are using external learning assessments that might allow institutions to compare their performance with that of their peers. Such highly particularized learning assessments have sometimes been criticized as inadequate. In recent years, some education advocates have argued that whatever the merits of colleges’ internal assessment systems, they should also find ways to compare their students’ learning with that of their peers. One disheartening element of the new report, in Ms. Schneider’s (President of the Association of American Colleges and Universities) view, is that few respondents said they believed that their students knew about and understood their institution’s learning goals. Among colleges that have established a common set of learning goals for all undergraduates, just 5 percent of respondents said they believed that “almost all” students knew about and understood those goals, and only 37 percent said a majority of their students understood the goals.” Glenn, D. (April 28, 2009). Colleges increase efforts to measure what students learn, survey finds. Chronicle of Higher Education.

“The undertaking is known as The Bologna Process, named for the Italian city that is home to Europe’s oldest university, where the education ministers of 29 countries first agreed to the agenda and “action lines” that would bring down education borders in the same way that economic borders had been dissolved. That means harmonization, not standardization. When these national higher education systems work with the same reference points they produce a “zone of mutual trust” that permits recognition of credentials across borders and significant international mobility for their students. Everyone is singing in the same key, though not necessarily with the same tune. In terms reaching across geography and languages, let alone in terms of turning ancient higher education systems on their heads, The Bologna Process is the most far-reaching and ambitious reform of higher education ever undertaken. The Bologna Process is an analogue to the macroeconomic theory of convergence, the ways in which nations move from different stages of development to a more-or-less common platform of performance. Macroeconomic historians have demonstrated time-and-again: nations that learn from other nations grow; those that do not learn, don’t. Up to now, the U.S. has not even registered for the course, but it is our turn to learn, and hope lies in the

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fact that we have begun. (continued) European higher education authorities, academic leaders, faculty, and students have accomplished and learned over the first decade of their considerable efforts, particularly in the challenging matters of: – Student learning outcomes (set in what are called “qualification frameworks”), – The relationship of these frameworks to credits and curriculum reform, – The construction of new paths to student participation in higher education, including refinement of “short-cycle” degrees analogous to our Associate’s, and combinations of e-learning and part-time status, – The reflection of all of this in the documentation of student attainment called “Diploma Supplements,” and the expansion of this documentation in a lifelong “Europass,” – The establishment of a “zone of mutual trust” through an all-encompassing culture of quality assurance, and an international accreditation register, and – Consolidating and hence clarifying the myriad of academic credentials offered across 46 countries into common “cycles,” which, in combination with qualification frameworks, a common credit system, and quality assurance, assures the recognition of degrees across national borders. Adelman, C. (April 2009). The Bologna process for U.S. eyes: Re-learning higher education in the age of convergence. Lumina Foundation for Education to the Global Performance Initiative of the Institute for Higher Education Policy.

Premise 7 …That a significant percentage of college graduates lack necessary skills in writing, critical thinking, strategy and interpersonal communications to meet the demands of the business world.

“And for the country as a whole, future economic growth will depend on our ability to sustain excellence, innovation, and leadership in higher education. But even the economic benefits of a college degree could diminish if students don’t acquire the appropriate skills. ...we are disturbed by evidence that the quality of student learning at U.S. colleges and universities is inadequate and, in some cases, declining. A number of recent studies highlight the shortcomings of postsecondary institutions in everything from graduation rates and time to degree to learning outcomes and even core literacy skills. According to the most recent National Assessment of Adult Literacy, for instance, the percentage of college graduates deemed proficient in prose literacy has actually declined from 40 to 31 percent in the past

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decade. (continued) These shortcomings have real-world consequences. Employers report repeatedly that many new graduates they hire are not prepared to work, lacking the critical thinking, writing and problem-solving skills needed in today’s workplaces. In addition, business and government leaders have repeatedly and urgently called for workers at all stages of life to continually upgrade their academic and practical skills. Most important, and most worrisome, too many Americans who could benefit from postsecondary education do not continue their studies at all, whether as conventional undergraduates or as adult learners furthering their workplace skills.” U.S. Department of Education. (September 2006). A Test of Leadership: Charting the Future of U.S. Higher Education. Washington, D.C.

“Nearly half the executives said that entry-level workers lacked writing skills, and 27 percent said that they were deficient in critical thinking.” Korkki, P. (August 26, 2007). Young workers: U nd 2 improve ur writing skills. The New York Times.

Premise 8 …That all Christ-centered colleges and universities are fishing out of the same pool of potential students. Few, if any, Christ-centered colleges are trying to expand the overall potential pool of students.

Premise 9 ...That by defining outcomes and relationally improving stakeholder connectivity at all levels, the intellectual, social and financial aspects of the college/university community will be enhanced and sustained.

“At a time when we need to be increasing the quality of learning outcomes and the economic value of a college education, there are disturbing signs that suggest we are moving in the opposite direction. As a result, the continued ability of American postsecondary institutions to produce informed and skilled citizens who are able to lead and compete in the 21st-century global marketplace may soon be in question.” U.S. Department of Education. (September 2006). A Test of Leadership: Charting the Future of U.S. Higher Education. Washington, D.C. © 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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“Despite their focus on learning goals and reporting them in a variety of ways, the survey findings suggest that these modes of communication are not highly effective, as many administrators note a lack of student understanding of the specified learning outcomes. Among those who say they have learning outcomes for all undergraduates, just 5% say that they think almost all students understand their institution’s intended learning outcomes. Less than two in five (37%) administrators believe that a majority of students understand the outcomes, nearly half (49%) say some students understand, and just fewer than one in 10 (9%) say not many students understand their university’s outcomes.” Hart Research Associates. (April 2009). Trends in learning outcomes, general education, and assessment: A survey among members of the Association of American Colleges and Universities.

“Institutions have to be perceived as relevant to the world and connected to communities in deeper ways than in the past...” Pulley, J. (July/August 2009). Education: Our most powerful tool for social progress and economic recovery. Currents. Council for Advancement and Support of Education.

Premise 10 ...That alumni donor rates are a small percentage of the total living graduate population at most colleges and universities and enhanced cultivation of alumni will increase overall institutional support.

“...fewer than 20 colleges and universities in the United States in which at least half of the alumni contribute financially to their alma mater in any given year. And the trend is heading downward, not up. My colleagues and I are looking forward to serving as class agents. Between now and the time we begin our volunteer work, will someone explain to us why the college needs philanthropic support? During our four years as undergraduates, we have been privileged to receive an incredible education; established wonderful relationships with outstanding faculty members and classmates; enjoyed one of the most beautiful campuses in the country; and had access to the finest facilities, playing fields, and living accommodations available anywhere. It’s hard to imagine why the college needs more money. This is the conundrum faced by many schools, colleges, and universities. Their success in winning the minds, hearts, and financial support of alumni will have a major impact on the future direction and quality of the institution, but unfortunately, the track record in engaging alumni is underwhelming. The percentage of alumni who support their alma maters has © 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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decreased over the past 15 years in every sector of U.S. education... (continued) One of the most stunning findings in their analyses is that more than 80 percent of alumni who ultimately make gifts of $1 million or more to their alma maters were consistent donors the first five years out of school.” McClintock, B. R. (July/August 2009). Cultivating your crop: Don’t forget to educate alumni about the value of the institution. Currents. Council for Advancement and Support of Education

Premise 11 …That because of a declining birthrate, the pool of potential traditional undergraduate students is shrinking.

“The U.S. is on the cusp of seeing the first overall decline in the number of high school graduates produced nationally in more than a decade. State education agencies and postsecondary institutions used to planning for ever-larger demand emanating from students progressing along the traditional educational pipeline will need to adjust to a contraction in the national supply of high school graduates as it begins to gradually decline after 2008. In particular, postsecondary institutions accustomed to filling entering classes with relative ease will likely face greater competition for fewer traditional-age students. Those who have not already turned greater attention to nontraditional enrollments may be compelled to do so — a positive development if, as expected, the jobs of the future will demand more education and skills mastery. Meanwhile, many schools and school districts have already been seeing reduced rates of growth in the earlier grade levels, but they will also need to be prepared for renewed growth that will begin picking up, as the number of births has increased in recent years.” Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education. (March 2008). Knocking at the college door: Projections of high school graduates by state and race/ethnicity. 1992-2022.

“After a decade of campus-crowding growth, the size of the nation’s high school graduating class has begun to decline with this year’s seniors, and is projected to drop 4.5% by 2014. Then, modest growth is expected to resume. The change, however, is uneven across the country, with the deepest dips — up to 20% over the next few years — forecast for New England and Upper Midwest states, home to numerous colleges. Schools from those regions are boosting recruiting in California and other populous states, including Texas, Florida and Arizona, and looking for more students overseas, especially from China and India.” Gordon, L. (November 29, 2008). Out-of-state colleges boost recruiting efforts in California. Angeles Times.Learning, Fullerton, CA © 2009Los Partnership for Lifelong

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“Projections show that by next year or the year after, the annual number of high school graduates in the United States will peak at about 2.9 million after a 15-year climb. The number is then expected to decline until about 2015. Most universities expect this to translate into fewer applications and less selectivity, with most students likely finding it easier to get into college. The demographic changes include sharp geographic, social and economic variations. Experts anticipate, for example, a decline in affluent high school graduates, and an increase in poor and working-class ones. In response, colleges and universities are already increasing their recruitment of students in high-growth states and expanding their financial-aid offerings to low-income students with academic potential.” Finder, A. (March 9, 2008). Math suggests college frenzy will soon ease. The New York Times.

Premise 12 …That currently, nearly 40% of postsecondary students are twenty-five years of age or older. There is the potential to expand the number of adult learners.

“In fact, the “traditional” student is anything but traditional if by that term we mean “common,” “conventional,” or “customary.” – – – –

40 percent of today’s students study part-time. 40 percent attend two-year institutions. 40 percent are aged 25 or older. 58 percent are aged 22 or older.”

Stokes, P. J. (April 2006). Hidden in plain sight: Adult learners forge a new tradition in higher education. Eleventh in a series of Issue Papers released at the request of Chairman Charles Miller to inform the work of the Secretary of Education’s Commission on the Future of Higher Education.

“Nearly 40 percent of today’s postsecondary students are self-supporting adults age 24 and up; almost half attend school part-time; more than one-third work full-time; 27 percent have children themselves. In 2005, more than 12 million adults age 25 and older participated in credential or degree-granting programs in colleges and universities.” U.S. Department of Education. (September 2006). A Test of Leadership: Charting the Future of U.S. Higher Education. Washington, D.C.

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Premise 13 …That close to 90% of the fastest-growing jobs will require some postsecondary education.

“In an era when intellectual capital is increasingly prized, both for individuals and for the nation, postsecondary education has never been more important. Ninety percent of the fastest-growing jobs in the new knowledge-driven economy will require some postsecondary education.” U.S. Department of Education. (September 2006). A Test of Leadership: Charting the Future of U.S. Higher Education. Washington, D.C.

“Moreover, nearly 60 percent of U.S. workers between the ages of 25 and 64 do not hold a college degree.” Lakin, M. B. & Mullane, L. (September 15, 2006). State by state: Building capacity in higher education for adult learners. American Council on Education.

“While many jobs still do not require a college degree, nor will they in the future, most of the higher-paying, career-oriented jobs increasingly require a college degree as a means of entry or advancement.” Werf, M. Van Der & Sabatier, G. (June 2009). The college of 2020: Students. Chronicle Research Services is a division of The Chronicle of Higher Education, Inc.

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Premise 14 …That to compete in the global marketplace it is imperative that all Americans have some postsecondary education.

“The world has changed in ways that render the traditional patterns of response to economic downturns — reducing college access and affordability — counterproductive to the economic well-being of the states and the nation. With rising unemployment, the need and demand for higher education will only increase as displaced workers seek new skills. When the nation and the world emerge from this recession, the competitive knowledge-based global economy will continue to demand more college-educated workers. As 78 million baby boomers — the largest and best-educated generation in the nation’s history — prepare for retirement, those who will replace them in the workforce must equal and exceed their levels of education and skills. Yet large proportions of our young and growing populations face major hurdles in getting to and through college.” The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. (March 2009). The Challenge to states: Preserving college access and affordability in a time of crisis. [Pamphlet]. Author: San Jose, California

“But today that world is becoming tougher, more competitive, less forgiving of wasted resources and squandered opportunities. In tomorrow’s world a nation’s wealth will derive from its capacity to educate, attract, and retain citizens who are able to work smarter and learn faster — making educational achievement ever more important both for individuals and for society writ large. America must ensure that our citizens have access to high quality and affordable educational, learning, and training opportunities throughout their lives. We recommend the development of a national strategy for lifelong learning that helps all citizens understand the importance of preparing for and participating in higher education throughout their lives.” U.S. Department of Education. (September 2006). A Test of Leadership: Charting the Future of U.S. Higher Education. Washington, D.C.

© 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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Premises

“It is imperative to invest in public higher education. If you’re not training and educating people, you are really missing the point and failing to deal with the economic stress.” “Nothing less than the country’s economic power and global standing are at stake,” Compton (executive producer of Two Million Minutes: A Global Examination) argues. “At a time when most new jobs and industries require some postsecondary education, the U.S. has fallen from first to tenth worldwide in the percentage of citizens with at least a bachelor’s degree. Meanwhile, countries in Asia and elsewhere are making massive new public investments in education.” Pulley, J. (July/August 2009). Education: Our most powerful tool for social progress and economic recovery. Currents. Council for Advancement and Support of Education.

“But if the public views the nation’s colleges only as sources of economic development and individual mobility, those institutions’ obvious failure to produce during an extended downturn could destroy their base of support.” Schrecker, E. (June 26, 2009). The bad old days: How higher education fared during the Great Depression. Chronicle of Higher Education, 55 (40), B9.

© 2009 Partnership for Lifelong Learning, Fullerton, CA

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Delivery of sustainable customer satisfaction model. (2– 5 days)

(45– 60 days)

Development of improvement strategies.

(45– 55 days)

Development of goals for implementation of improvement strategies.

(30– 45 days)

Compiling of survey results.

(15– 20 days)

Solicit response to survey requests.

(15– 20 days)

Dissemination of stakeholder surveys.

(30– 45 days)

Development of stakeholder surveys.

(45– 55 days)

Research and data gathering.

(30– 45 days)

Interviews with key stakeholders.

Letter from institution president introducing PFL3. (10–15 days)

DAY 1

9 MONTHS

12 MONTHS

Projected Timeline

SCORE PROJECT DEVELOPMENT TIMELINE

45


Sustainable Customer Outcomes Relationally Empowered