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forest city INFILL the story of a cleveland neighborhood and its conceptual path of renewal

kammeron hughes mla capstone 2013


forest city INFILL

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kammeron hughes

forest city INFILL

thank you First I must thank my classmates. These three years have been an absolute joy and I feel so lucky to have been a part of our class. Discovering my passion one piece of trace at a time with you all around me was truly one of the best experiences of my life thus far. I will miss you all (and the bone zone) with all my heart, and cannot wait to see each and everyone one of us achieve success. To my capstone committee and studio professors, Matthew Tucker, Vince deBritto, Jamuna Golden and Rebecca Krinke, who put up with my lack of updates and desire to work completely in my own head, I thank you. You each found a way to drive me and push me in a direction, to explore new parts of this complicated thing that is capstone, and without you I may not have gotten to a point I could call a project. Thank you. To my parents, Paulette and Bill, thank you for all of your support. Because of you I am unafraid to follow my dreams and feel supported 100% of the time. You have encouraged me to go in

my own direction and have always been there to help. Thank you especially for moving to Cleveland, as without that move, landscape architecture may never have been on my life path. I love you.

forest city INFILL

kammeron hughes

the story of a cleveland neighborhood and its conceptual path of renewal

To my brother Chris, of course your few suggestions were genius. Keep on lawyering. I love you. To my friends, near and far, you keep me sane. I love you. To Cleveland, thank you for being you. kammeron hughes 2013 Master of Landscape Architecture Capstone University of Minnesota

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How can forest as infill create social, economic and environmental opportunities in a debilitated neighborhood of Cleveland, Ohio?

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contents

contents

3. p. 52

BACKGROUND

p. 68 pp. 6 - 7

pp. 8 - 9

pp. 10 - 13

pp. 14 - 18

CONCEPTUAL LANDUSE PLAN

A Overview

pp. 56 - 65

B 2015-2035

pp. 66 - 67

C Public

A

B Project

pp. 68 - 71

A Overview

pp. 72 - 81

B 2015-2035

pp. 82 - 83

C Public

pp. 84 - 87

A Overview

pp. 88 - 97

B 2015-2035

pp. 98 - 99

C Public

pp. 100-103

A Overview

Statement

C Reasoning DNeighborhood Selection

& site time line

harvests

space detail

E Kinsman

pp. 22 - 23

F

pp. 24 - 25

G Research

pp. 26 - 31

H Process

Questions

and Ideation

AForest

pp. 38 - 39

BDiagrams C Forest Types

and

Infill

DConceptual

Landuse Planning

pp. 50 - 51

E Detail

ORCHARD ESPLANADE

As Infill

Resources

Designs

harvests

space detail

& site time line

harvests

space detail

6. p. 100

pp. 42 - 49

RESIDENTIAL FOREST

Assets

pp. 32 - 37

& site time line

5. p. 84

pp. 19 - 21

pp. 40 - 41

KINSMAN FIELD

Definitions

2. p. 32

pp. 52 - 55

4.

contents 1. p. 6

CHURCH YARD

7. p. 104

NEXT STEPS

& site time line

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Important definitions that will inform the way language is used in design definitions

foreclosure - a bank or other secured creditor selling or repossessing a parcel of real property (immovable property) after the owner has failed to comply with an agreement between the lender and borrower called a “mortgage” or “deed of trust.” abandonment – something abandoned by its owner with the intention of not retaking it community - a social unit larger than a small village that shares common values human interaction scale – the level of community at which people have day to day and human to human contact, interactions landscape scale – the landscape that combines both the lands physical origins and the cultural overlay of human presence

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economic scale – the level of community at which money is passed and humans make a livelihood

implied edge - a dividing line or border not physically noticeable to the human eye

nature - living things and the outdoors, separate of creations by man

urban fringe - the transition zone where densely urban and suburban areas meet

urban tissue - the built and natural environment that makes up a metropolitan area

sprawl - haphazard growth or extension outward by a population

excess open space – landscape parcels with no program and no necessary need at this moment in time in a certain neighborhood

unbounded city - a city without hard borders such as a river or lake. a city with the ability to grow in at least one direction without physical implications

strategic land amendment - assembled contiguous lots in order to make larger parcels of develop-able land or green space available amenity - something that contributes to physical or material comfort, past those of basic necessities

shrinking city - a city that has lost or is losing large amounts of population and therefore is also suffering from a shrunken built environment - the circumstances or conditions that surround one

need - something required to have a basic quality of life

built environment - built structures that make up how a place looks and feels

edge - a dividing line or border, often uncomfortable with physical differences apparent

natural environment - non built structures that make up the way a place looks and feels

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infill - the introduction of new land uses asset - anything tangible or intangible that is capable of being owned or controlled to produce economic, environmental or social value forest - an area with a high density of trees or other usable resources resource - a source or supply from which benefit is produced conceptual landuse - an abstract and new way of thinking about landuse plan - how something is applied to the physical landscape


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Vacancies, abandonment, vandalism and a changing economic climate have created large areas of low grade urban tissue. project summary

Since the 1960’s declining populations have rattled communities across the rust-belt. Entire community structures are changed by the shrinking of populations and changing of economic climates. Within shrinking communities, homes, and in extreme cases, entire blocks, can become abandoned. Abandonment of homes leads to a multitude of problems; fewer “eyes on the street,� built structures falling apart, dangerous untamed natural areas, community disconnection, fewer tax payers to support public works, schools and other amenities, and expensive infrastructure traveling out to areas that are no longer in need. To limit the danger of decrepit buildings being left to rot, and possibly pose danger for people still residing in the neighborhoods affected, cities are spending billions of dollars to tear down foreclosed and abandoned homes. What is left are communities with an excess of open space and declining

BACKGROUND

opportunities for human interaction. This excess of open space that is created is my capstone canvas. I am exploring how uniting the built and natural environments can improve the sense of community and reduce edge effects on the southeast side of Cleveland, Ohio, USA. This site has been dramatically cleared because of abandonment after shrinking populations and is in need of a renewed sense of place and a sense of community on multiple scales. The site will be reconnected through design to an intact community via human interaction scale, landscape scale, and economic scale.


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reasoning

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reasoning

Ohio Percentage population change, 2000-2010 Gain 10%-19.9% Gain 20% or more No change to 9.9% gain Loss up to 9.9%

reasoning

Cuyahoga County

The catastrophic changes that affected many cities across the US in the 1950’s created a rustbelt consisting of areas appearing war-torn and forgotten. First they were cleared of people by highways and suburban sprawl, then by the disappearance of the built environment and the disintegration of community structure. As these areas lost population, the neighborhoods became abandoned. Over time, vacant buildings were seized by the city, heavily dilapidated structures were demolished and clearance by way of vandalism created a landscape fragmented by a network of open spaces and few single family homes per block.

Percentage population change, 2000-2010 Gain 20% or more Gain 10%-19.9% No change to 9.9% gain Loss up to 9.9% Loss 10% or more

Cleveland

Population change and ranking among the nations largest cities

BACKGROUND

In cities like Cleveland, entire neighborhoods were isolated, seeming worlds away from any economic activity. The unboundedness of Northeast Ohio allowed for an

BACKGROUND

erasure of any context needed to create a sense of place. This change in the late 20th century was followed by the foreclosure crisis starting in 2006. This created another wave of population and housing stock loss on top of already struggling communities. Neighborhoods that had been struggling for years were piled on with new disaster. Low density standalone housing that has made up the built environment of these areas for decades is the most vulnerable to weathering and vandalism. With multitudes of vacant properties on the cities hands, Cleveland and Cuyahoga County created an aggressive demolition policy in hopes of re imagining said communities. This removal of nuisance properties through demolition was done in hopes of


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reasoning

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reasoning foreclosures removed from landscape

The city of Cleveland has seen a changing urban fabric over the years and exists now in a piecemeal fashion with over 20,000 vacant parcels poking holes in a once connected and vibrant landscape.

foreclosures in 2011

reasoning cont.

increasing public safety, appearance and property values in neighborhoods and clearing the path for new development. While studying these cleared areas from aerial view, it appears an idealized “American Dream� of the pastoral landscape could begin to exist four miles away from a bustling city center, and less than a mile away from important cultural and health institutions. Instead, what exists, are dangerous bare neighborhoods with edge conditions built up by some of the highest economic impactors in Ohio. Very little social and fiscal support is passed over or through these edges into the neighborhoods that could be feeding right into the system. Census tract boundaries disappear as dozens of square miles of residential and industrial space waste away into the landscape. Cuyahoga County Land Bank policies

BACKGROUND

have begun to support positive change as they lay a groundwork where it is possible to make changes at a community level through vacant lot reuse, merging parcels, and supporting urban gardening and small scale agriculture. This policy support is just the very beginning of what needs to happen in these areas for real change and improvement to occur. The reasons that these areas became developed in the first place are still the reasons they deserve a second chance at success now. Proximity to the downtown core, multiple opportunities for public transit and proximity to businesses of high economic and cultural importance exist now. The problems lie in the connections between these things and the neighborhoods themselves. Physical, social, psychological and economic connections are nonexistent.

Valuable open space and a kind of blank canvas characterize the physical environment. Crime, poverty, and a lack of support characterize the social environment.

cleveland foreclosures

Altering the urban fabric is often quite difficult as many public and private hands are in the mix of policy and ownership.

2012

1953

E 75th to E 79th between the red and blue RTA lines

E 75th to E 79th between the red and blue RTA lines

BACKGROUND

As cities like Cleveland go through this decline, however, the urban spaces become more and more flexible. This new found flexibility and the remaining positive possibilities are what create the opportunity for landscape architecture intervention.


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neighborhood

Fairfax and Kinsman are two neighborhoods on Cleveland’s near southeast side. neighborhood

Cleveland, Ohio is a city made up of neighborhoods. Over time each neighborhood has garnered an identity of its own.

neighborhood being overlapped by the city’s cultural and medical centers creates multiple dangerous edge conditions.

Fairfax and Kinsman are two neighborhoods on Cleveland’s east side that are ideally located between downtown, the Cuyahoga River, and the museum and university district called University Circle.

After its annexation to Cleveland in 1872, the neighborhoods now known as Fairfax and Kinsman underwent a period of rapid residential development which continued until 1920, when the area’s population reached 60,000. As the city of Cleveland was reaching its highest population in 1950 of over 900,000 people, these neighborhoods acted as the core of the cities industry, and it’s industrial workers. As the industrial needs of the region shrank and families followed the quality highway system outside the city limits, the neighborhood population shrank dramatically. Together today Kinsman and Fairfax have less than 1/5th their pre World War II populations.

Euclid Avenue, near the neighborhood’s northern border, became the site of many of Cleveland’s largest and most architecturally distinguished churches as well as the county’s largest employer, the Cleveland Clinic. The Cleveland Clinic marks the northern edge of the neighborhood and creates an edge in the middle of the census bounded area. The predominantly poverty stricken

BACKGROUND

BACKGROUND


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neighborhood

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forest city INFILL neighborhood

Cleveland Clinic and University Hospitals

$11 billion

economic impact in Ohio

The edge conditions on the site create boundaries that block all forms of movement and communication. edge conditions

Railways

30 miles

in Kinsman and Fairfax

Industrial (working and abandoned)

300 acres

in Kinsman and Fairfax

Vacant land

450 acres

BACKGROUND

in Kinsman and Fairfax

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neighborhood

Vacancies and empty lots create an open network without much structure neighborhood cont.

As these two neighborhoods lost population, they became abandoned. The identity that had been formed over the years is now unintelligible and in some places completely forgotten. The fragmented network that now exists fails to support community, and instead supports further decline and high levels of crime. Street scape on areas that were once part of Cleveland’s most dense retail sector cease to exist as entire blocks consist of boarded up store fronts. The feeling of community appears extremely weak, if not completely lost. The majority of the neighborhoods appear piecemeal at birds eye and street level because of vacant lots and unused infrastructure. As you move south through the neighborhood it becomes highly disconnected because of industrial plants (both in use and abandoned) and multiple rail lines (both freight and rapid

BACKGROUND

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kinsman

transit). These rail lines pose many problems in the way of pedestrian and vehicle connection, while also creating pockets that are completely cleared of anything but urban shrub fill. They also create multiple opportunities in the Kinsman and Fairfax neighborhoods as in this area three rapid transit stops exist, on two separate lines. This gives the neighborhood an 11 minute train trip from most of its interior into the downtown core as well as out to sprawling suburbs. Pursuits at reuse of vacant sites have been attempted, as a few community garden plots exist in the area to support local residents, but no real job sector through urban agriculture has been created.

Kinsman itself is characterized by wide open spaces and an editable structure. kinsman

Looking at Kinsman as a single entity rather than in the group of foreclosure affected east side neighborhoods tells a more dramatic tale. In the 1960’s the railroads that create boundaries throughout the site and had supported the entire industrial economy started losing work. The people living in Kinsman consisted of mainly blue collar workers, so when the railroads left, and the jobs left, they left as well. While the east side Cleveland neighborhoods are all suffering from vacancy, Kinsman has suffered the most. Entire blocks of homes have been removed at more than one location and the population and housing stock are still declining. The Cuyahoga Land Bank estimates that they will gain another 50 and possibly knock down another 20 vacant buildings in 2013. Kinsman then, is a community

BACKGROUND

disconnected from the formal economy, social network and a city structure that allows a place to thrive. The infrastructure of the city is aging and wearing, and this is evident throughout the neighborhood. The streets haven’t been repaved in years, the sidewalks are nonexistent, and the storm-water infrastructure is unnecessarily collecting runoff from a decidedly non-urban area. The majority of the landscape is made up of broken concrete and turf grass. The turf grass on some parcels is consistently mowed in the growing season, but other than that there is no preparedness for people to return. That turf grass that is mowed suggests other issues in Kinsman. One, that takes money and effort by the city. Two, while it may look


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kinsman

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kinsman

28.5%

of households are currently vacant

2012

5,010

1,700

population

housing units lost since 1980

kinsman

pastoral during some seasons, it adds little environmental support and almost no biodiversity. Three, packed urban fill and turf grass offer very little water permeation, further debilitating the city of Cleveland’s already struggling storm-water and sewer system. The systems are combined throughout the city, and have been mandated by the EPA to reduce their runoff into lake Erie by 4.6 billion gallons by 2035.

$37,400

median house value

1951

22,109

6.25

population

acres per person

All of these aspects have led to very little in community support and a non-existent quality of life in Kinsman. While the population has shrunk dramatically, 5,000 people do still call Kinsman home.

1,156

housing units built before 1939

The majority of the adult residents are women, at 65% of the population. The median age of all residents is 26 years old, with the median age of the male population being 21. 65% of the population has a less than high school level education.

BACKGROUND

$12,517

median household income

BACKGROUND


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assets

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assets

heritage trees

churches

assets

vacant buildings

kinsman assets There are unique neighborhood amenities that have persisted and support glimpses of care and ownership throughout the neighborhood. I call these assets. Faith based organizations within the neighborhood bounds of Kinsman have endured, with multiple churches housed in their original buildings and in abandoned homes still drawing parishioners. Other vacant buildings are left standing and in high enough quality that they could be reused in the near future. Others could easily be removed. High quality trees that have been growing since before the days of the high population numbers still live in a few spots throughout the neighborhood. Urban brush and young weed trees are extensive throughout the neighborhood, but only a few native “heritage trees� still

thrive.

rapid transit stops

The historic population of Kinsman worked at the multiple ironwork factories and foundries that thrived through the proximity of the extensive rail infrastructure throughout the metro area. That rail proximity still exists, but rather than a high population of people, Kinsman benefits from a high percentage of open space. While the rail system used to move metalworks and people, it can now work to re-generate the forest city, with Kinsman acting as the growing heart.

vacant parcels

built structure

parcel map

All of these characteristics paint a picture of extreme opportunity.

miles 1

3/4

1/4

0

.5

1 feet

0 0

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1/2

1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 .5

1

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2

3

kilometers


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How can you use community assets to create opportunities for social engagement, economic gain and environmental benefits?

kammeron hughes

additional research questions

forest city INFILL

How can landscape architecture work to renew a sense of community in a place that has been lost? How is that sense of community created? This question is one that has been a motivator for landscape architects for generations. Since the beginning of the profession a main goal has been using the landscape to create spaces people want to inhabit or inhabit in specific ways. Looking at this question from a modern point of view after researching historic planning ideals leads to modern and “new” modes of designing for community development. How can open space in debilitated communities be used to successfully create informal economies and a better quality of life for a neighborhoods inhabitants while also reconnecting said community to an existing formal economy and developed area? As best laid plans from the past go to waste what kind of solutions can be made that will allow communities

BACKGROUND

BACKGROUND

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to flexibly grow as economic impactors and personal motivators change over time? Solutions on how to strengthen communities and creative ways to reconnect lost places into the common society grid will be necessary until all development is deemed “resilient.” Should implied edges created as political boundaries or census tracts be used at the physical human level? How can edges be broken when the functions on each side exist completely separate of each other? What do communities need? What amenities strengthen a community? If faith based organizations pull people to Kinsman on Sundays, how can they pull people in more often or permanently?


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the story of forest infill as a solution to vacancy in the shrinking city process & ideation

Answering the research questions begins to tell the story of forest infill as a solution to vacancy in the shrinking city. Exploring historic planning of cities, informal economies, foreclosure and city renovation, and the idea of design after loss of density started to unlock possible conceptual solutions. Historical garden city planning took people out of dense, dirty cities and gave them access to a countryside ideal. When Kinsman was at its most dense some of the negative city aspects of life such as smog, closing out of nature and foul air existed. As people left for greener pastures though the opposite aspects of clean air, land lying idle and a lack of society have overcome.

The pastoral openness and newly

BACKGROUND

flexible zoning/parcelization process in Cleveland suggested doing both small scale interventions and large moves across the neighborhood to amplify the assets and begin to solve the problems. In the first iteration of ideation phase two design ideas emerged. One looked outside the site to bring in resources and connect to the external formal economy. The other worked from the core of vacant land and edited from within keeping resources in the neighborhood.

garden city planning diagram

Howard, Ebenezer, and Frederic J. Osborn. Garden Cities of To-morrow. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T., 1965. Print.

BACKGROUND

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Scrap metal and an industrial heritage create new opportunities and an identity for the Kinsman neighborhood and its residents. design scenario 1

process & ideation

sculpture or metal goods

Scenario 1: -Cleveland Institute of Art & Cleveland School of the Arts use existing warehouse buildings for large scale piece manufacturing -Scrap yards surrounding site support material needs of classes -Recycling yard is added to the site to “organize” materials as well as create jobs for the community -Said recycling yard should create power in some way -”Park” area next to site becomes display space for sculpture and improved public green -Bridges into site become neighborhood signifiers by being amended with scrap metal and artistic talent of students working in the area -Storage and collection of scrap metal creates space in interesting ways Both the pedestrian and train traffic experience improved by

BACKGROUND

BACKGROUND


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An urban forest of high quality native species takes over the void left after population loss while creating regional ecosystem benefits. process & ideation

design scenario 2

land’s largest and oldest sewer pipes lay under this site)

Scenario 2: -An urban forest of high quality native plant species is created in the void left from population loss. -This will suggest to the city, and surrounding areas, plants that can be used and left basically untouched, that will resist looking like the scrub plants left in the current landscape. -Create a native seed bank and street tree “grove” for the county. -Infrastructure is consolidated and residential units (11) from the interior are removed, while the adjacent residential area is improved. -Rapid Transit stops become “forest” stops with land bridge atmosphere attributed, to remove the “dark corner” feeling created by entering the site under crumbling bridge structures -Storm-water pipes under site can be day lit in forested areas and improved to be areas of retention and treatment (some of Cleve-

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BACKGROUND

-Existing buildings (only 4 warehouses) become urban nature education centers and/or a magnet school based around agriculture


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How can you use community assets to create opportunities for social engagement, economic gain and environmental benefits?

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forest as infill

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The systems put into place to create a beneficial landscape in Kinsman range from larger scale stabilization processes to small parcel scale storm-water collection and reuse. Each parcel has a unique set of characteristics and therefore will be edited, accentuated and managed in a unique way.

Forest as infill is a conceptual solution to vacancy in the shrinking city forest infill solutions

Kinsman will be an experiment in solutions to increase quality of place in shrinking cities across the globe. Forest is used as infill and in turn generates economic, environmental and social opportunities. As the residents of Kinsman begin to feel a community connection through the physical growth of high quality forest on their vacant parcels, economic and social activity will increase. Ownership of the land and a unique physical appearance will create community strength literally from the ground up. As Kinsman grows a forest inside its boundaries, it will begin to benefit the greater metro area. Kinsman will be the life generator for the forest city. The edges created by the rails themselves that act as disconnecters become beneficial with the growth of a working forest. They provide large scale movement opportunities while also suggesting a “walled city” affect for the most heavily forested portion of Kinsman. Entrance experiences are heightened by the elevat-

CONCEPTUAL LANDUSE PLAN

ed rail lines and the landscape change from built up streetscapes to working orchard, nursery and forest space. The neighborhood of Kinsman will supply innovation to the region and remove a huge portion of runoff from entering the overrun sewer system in the area. By 2040 over 44,000 trees located in both working and natural plantings will collect over 33 million gallons of storm-water a year, and that doesn’t include all the regional benefits of street trees and native plantings added to urban vacant lots. The forest system has multiple benefits aside from beautifying Cleveland’s streets and generating a more resilient landscape across the region. Education opportunities abound in a working forest. A magnet school based first on the forest maintenance and growth then expanding to include technology and craft ventures will anchor the neighborhood of Kinsman as a highlight of the Cleveland Metropolitan School System.

Twenty seven percent of the parcels in Kinsman are currently vacant. Ten percent of those vacant properties have a vacant building in the boundaries. Most of the vacant parcels are owned by the city of Cleveland through foreclosure and bank purchase or tax delinquency. This creates opportunity for larger scale site editing and greater opportunity for landuse or zoning changes. The design implementation in Kinsman happens on multiple scales. To begin, traditional zoning is conceptualized and changed to include more detailed information about what kinds of zones can become working forest for economic benefit. Once the necessary areas are zoned and given the policy base needed to implement important landscape changes, the landuse plans can be put into place.

forest city INFILL

Design implementation begins in 2015. The critical paths through each design element begin with basic site preparedness steps. Each change, removal or addition to a parcel in Kinsman aims to bring economic, environmental or social benefit to current residents in the neighborhood and surrounding communities. Every vacant parcel in 2015 is treated with similar scaffolding edits. Any non natural materials are collected and inventoried. Lots with turf grass that use city of Cleveland resources by way of mowing, water, sewer or electricity resources will be removed from the cities list of responsibilities and be given to the Kinsman neighborhood.

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Removal of reusable, compostable or sell-able resources

Removal for sale of reusable, compost-able or sell-able resources

Seeding

Harvest of growing resources

Growth of resources

diagrams

These diagram represent the mine, harvest and removal of resources on each forest infill site

Three new categories of landuse are born in Kinsman. Source, flex and firm. These three landuse categories apply to the working forest specifically but can be edited and molded to fit any economic, social, or environmentally beneficial temporal parcel plan. The working forest infill applied through these three lenses creates a strong scaffolding from which Kinsman can grow.

Removal and reuse of resources in site

Renovation and update of built environment

Ongoing system

CONCEPTUAL LANDUSE PLAN


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wood product

nuts

aspen willow switchgrass

walnut pecan ohio buckeye

seeds and cones

built material

heritage trees rain gardens working fields

transplants big toothed aspen tulip tree red maple scarlet oak sassafras apple flowering dogwood serviceberry phytoremediation plants

CONCEPTUAL LANDUSE PLAN

r me su m

stormwater

win

sp r

heritage trees rain gardens working fields

n um

resources The resources harvested throughout Kinsman are its life breath in the new and improved community. Resources vary from the removal of exotic and non-native species and how those are then composted on adjacent sites, to the growing nursery forests that supply transplantable living things to vacant parcels throughout the metro area.

native trees native forbs native shrubs phytoremediation plants bulbs

r te

carbon

au t

metal concrete wood asphalt

turf grass weeds leaf litter fruit waste

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sycamore tulip tree walnut pecan sassafras

biomass

composting

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bark

pulp lumber

g in

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limbs and boughs green ash american elm willow big toothed aspen walnut sycamore

cut flowers

The harvest of resources can last throughout the year and changes over time as each parcel transitions from quick stabilization harvest techniques to high level economic gainers or private land ownership.

flowering dogwood tulip tree peony rose daylily tulip hyacinth

fruit

The diversity of harvested resources not only benefits community members economically, it also begins to create social opportunity spaces and guarantees a high level of biodiversity throughout the Kinsman neighborhood.

apple currant blackberry blueberry raspberry grapes

CONCEPTUAL LANDUSE PLAN


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harvest-able resources & common removals source forest

forest infill types

flex forest

Nursery stock and consistently harvested materials

cut flowers wood products limbs and boughs bark biomass nuts seeds and cones fruit

Harvested and working environment with selective pieces and parts curated for future site use

cut flowers wood products limbs and boughs bark biomass nuts seeds and cones fruit

firm forest

transplants

composting built material

storm-water carbon credit

composting built material

storm-water carbon credit

composting

storm-water carbon credit

Once was a working landscape but has since been deemed private or zoned for non-harvest related activities

nuts seeds and cones fruit

CONCEPTUAL LANDUSE PLAN

transplants

CONCEPTUAL LANDUSE PLAN


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2 mile long detail slice

assets and forest infill axon

conceptual landuse plan

The detail design slice is made up of unique neighborhood assets, the highest percentage of vacancy in Cleveland and three major public transportation options The major design moves are implemented on a slice of the Kinsman neighborhood within which to apply the forest infill strategies at a more detailed scale.

vacant lots turn to forest infill

The Kinsman slice acts as a way for the neighborhood to change, as well as an experimental section from which other vacancies can be edited and renewed. The slice covers multiple kinds of vacancies and therefore multiple kinds of solutions, and their subsequent phasing.

Kinsman assets

feet 0

1000

CONCEPTUAL LANDUSE PLAN

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

CONCEPTUAL LANDUSE PLAN

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ownership and partnership

ownership and partnership

27 % source 2015

40 % source 2020

church

The Cuyahoga County Land Bank and the city of Cleveland are the current owners of all the gray parcels in the ownership map to the right. Those parcels are the first chosen to receive forest infill. Through this plan the land bank properties are transitioned to a new neighborhood/city development corporation who manages the beginnings of forest infill parcels and takes ownership of street side plantings as well as the original sale of the vacant lots.

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church

More faith based institutions have taken ownership of vacant parcels on the northern part of the site, while the working industrial companies at the southern tip have worked with the land bank to take over control of the forest infill sites in their vicinity. cmsd

cmsd

The industrial companies are working with residents in the neighborhood to plant, study and harvest phytoremediation resources on their parcels. The Cleveland Municipal School District (CMSD) is partnered with the land bank to control and study large swaths of source forest in the slice.

The churches on the northern edge of the site take ownership of the parcels surrounding their sites to manage as they and the neighborhood see fit.

industrial

public space source forest flex forest firm forest

Kinsman residents have the opportunity to rent or work with any of the source forest infill parcels.

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ownership and partnership

ownership and partnership

28 % source 12 % flex 2025

church

botanical garden

2030

40 % forest

The Cleveland Municipal school district has taken ownership of additional parcels in 2025 to begin working on an agricultural innovation magnet school on the northern edge of Kinsman. The school district has also partnered with the industrial parcels to increase the research and study of phytoremediation plant resources .

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church

In 2030 the forest as infill landuse plan has been implemented to a point where private landowners who reside in Kinsman are looking to buy working parcels and use them as a personal asset.

27% source 12% flex 1 % firm 40 % forest

cmsd

cmsd

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industrial

public space source forest flex forest firm forest forestry building vacant building planted

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ownership and partnership

ownership and partnership

27 % source 9 % flex 4 % firm

botanical garden

2035 The Cleveland Botanical Garden and Cleveland Museum of Natural History have started a partnership with the Kinsman land development bank in 2035. These two institutions are interested in research and the greater benefit the Kinsman forest can have on the metro region.

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botanical garden

2040

church

church

A few of the areas managed by the Cleveland Municipal School District have been transitioned to firm forest, and public space, by 2040. These continue to be looked after by the magnet school students, but no longer act as large economic and research assets.

40 % forest

cmsd

17 % source 16 % flex 8 % firm 41 % forest

cmsd

By 2040, the Kinsman forest has spread to an area larger than the slice itself, and multiple other partnerships have been forged.

The botanical gardens urban agriculture program takes over a large greenhouse and multiple parcels to open up a market and working station for their forest resources and begins to act as a large benefactor for the Kinsman forest.

The neighborhood is now a destination for both visitors to the forested park areas and the market and esplanade, as well as a place the residents of Kinsman can be proud to call home.

industrial

industrial

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detail sites

pg. 84

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pg. 68

public space 27 % source

source forest flex forest firm forest forestry building

40 % source

vacant building planted

28 % source 12 % flex 40 % forest

27% source 12% flex 1 % firm 40 % forest

pg. 52

pg. 100

2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040

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kammeron hughes

detail sites

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To understand what Kinsman with forest infill feels like to a human, and also to see what exactly is harvested, what resources are mined from the landscape, we now jump down in scale again to four specific sites that deserve greater exploration.

CHURCH YARD

KINSMAN FIELD

RESIDENTIAL FOREST

27 % source 9 % flex 4 % firm 40 % forest

ORCHARD ESPLANADE

17 % source 16 % flex 8 % firm 41 % forest

CONCEPTUAL LANDUSE PLAN

CONCEPTUAL LANDUSE PLAN


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kammeron hughes

2855 E 79th Street

forest city INFILL

kammeron hughes

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6 minute walk

church yard

CHURCH YARD

KINSMAN FIELD

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now public space

2015

2855 E 79th Street

church yard

The spot that begins the entire transformation of the neighborhood is not a vacant lot, but using the community cornerstone, The New Community Apostolic Church, begins to support any economic benefit possibilities happening on the surrounding vacant lots after quick stabilization of the neighborhood. The church is surrounded by vacant land including an unused parking lot. Said parking lot marks the very first move of forest infill. Sycamore trees are brought in as broken concrete is removed to create a welcoming and usable space for church gathering events and a neighborhood market. The church yard is adjacent to one of the transit stops in Kinsman, and exists right along a major bus route. The church yard is weighted more heavily in the social and economic benefit categories than environmental affects, but the sycamore trees that will carry through the sites

history collect thousands of gallons of storm-water each year and support biodiversity of the neighborhood. As the neighborhood esplanade develops, the church yard itself will transition to a more private space, and the market and community activities it hosts will move to larger open spaces that have been improved over the years through selective harvest. The sycamores planted in 2015 become a ritual and community identifier for people growing up in and visiting the neighborhood. As the surrounding parcels are constantly at change acting as economic, environmental and social benefactors, this lot is the starting anchor that holds a constant.

public space

public space

public space

public space

public space

CHURCH YARD

2020 2025 2030 2035 2040

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flex forest 2855 E 79th Street In 2015 the church yard has had quick stabilization harvesting of concrete and the beginnings of turf grass and exotic removal and composting. Sycamores are planted in formal rows, and will grow to create a formal anchor space for the neighborhood. A local market begins here to host the local farmers and neighborhood residents selling resources they have mined from their parcels or created with their hands.

2015

removal and compost of turf grass

CHURCH YARD

seeding of native meadow groundcover after turf is removed

growth of tree line and harvest of limbs and boughs, bark, seeds and cones

addition of market stalls and renovation of church building

removal and reuse of built materials

sale of transplants from other parcels

CHURCH YARD

seeding and care of grape vines on chain link fence


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flex forest 2855 E 79th Street In 2020 the church has taken ownership of more surrounding parcels and has started a cut flower and bulb harvesting field to support its events as well as sell at its weekly market.

2020

removal and compost of turf grass

CHURCH YARD

seeding and subsequent harvest of cut flowers and bulbs

growth of tree line and harvest of limbs and boughs, bark, seeds and cones

improvement of market stalls and additional renovation of church building

removal and reuse of built materials

sale of transplants from other parcels harvest of bark from sycamore trees

CHURCH YARD

seeding and care of grape vines on chain link fence


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flex forest 2855 E 79th Street The cut flower and bulb fields are thriving as the church prepares additional parcels for resource management, The market is thriving and is still a major support for the entire Kinsman neighborhood as it is known throughout the city and attracts both Kinsman residents and outsiders to support the local economy.

2025

removal and compost of exotic species and urban fill

CHURCH YARD

seeding and subsequent harvest of cut flowers and bulbs

growth of tree line and harvest of limbs and boughs, bark, seeds and cones

improvement of market stalls and additional renovation of church building

harvest of bark and seeds from sycamore trees

sale of transplants from other parcels

CHURCH YARD

harvest of grape vines on chain link fence


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flex forest 2855 E 79th Street The formal sycamore plantings are getting large enough in 2030 to create a more private experience in the church yard, with possibilities to be blocked from the street. As the market is now well known, a major street presence every day is unnecessary to keep it busy, but the plantings do not completely block traffic, therefore inviting guests in to the yard, to experience the site that was first edited in the Kinsman forest.

2030

edit of fencing to accommodate future grape vines

seeding and subsequent harvest of cut flowers and bulbs seeding of grape vines

CHURCH YARD

growth of tree line and harvest of limbs and boughs, bark, seeds and cones

sale of goods from market stalls and church events

harvest of bark and seeds from sycamore trees

sale of transplants from other parcels

CHURCH YARD

harvest of grape vines on chain link fence


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flex forest 2855 E 79th Street The church is now producing their own grapes along with cut flowers and bulbs. The fall and spring harvests bring many people and the market still acts as an anchor at the southern edge of the Kinsman market esplanade.

2035

harvest of grapes

CHURCH YARD

seeding and subsequent harvest of cut flowers and bulbs

growth of tree line and harvest of limbs and boughs, bark, seeds and cones

harvest of bark and seeds from sycamore trees

harvest of grape vines on chain link fence

sale of goods from market stalls and church events

CHURCH YARD


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kammeron hughes

2855 East 79th Street

Church yard market as anchor church yard

The church yard market is the anchor of Kinsman from the beginning. Acting as the economic heart the market supports the harvest of resources throughout Kinsman and brings people in from other neighborhoods to purchase goods.

environmental benefits social opportunity economic impact

sycamore grove sculpted wall grape vines and orchard cut flower fields church built structure

2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040

CHURCH YARD

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7701 Kinsman Avenue 6 minute walk

Kinsman Field

CHURCH YARD

KINSMAN FIELD

RESIDENTIAL FOREST

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now 2015 7701 Kinsman Avenue

Kinsman Field

Public space and energy production are the focus at Kinsman Field. Selective harvest and controlled site succession create a working landscape that has a high production and export value and then transitions into high quality open space to support the increased population and activity in Kinsman.

the existing infrastructure through street trees, native plant seeding and improved materiality. public space Once Kinsman has a renewed tree canopy the resources travel out to the greater metro area to improve Cleveland’s forest canopy and natural ecosystems overall. public space

The exports from sites such as this travel various distances. At the beginnings of the infill forest majority of exports leave their specific parcel but move around in the Kinsman neighborhood to improve

public space

public space

public space

KINSMAN FIELD

2020 2025 2030 2035 2040

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source forest 7701 Kinsman Avenue Kinsman Field is a major resource harvester in 2015. The Cleveland Municipal School District has taken management responsibility for the site, after partnering with the Cuyahoga County Land Bank.

2015 2035

The major production on this site is biomass harvest, mainly of switchgrass.

built materials harvested

KINSMAN FIELD

seeding and growth of walnut trees

seeding and growth of biomass grasses

harvest of walnuts

harvest of biomass grasses

heritage tree growth

planting of tulip trees

carbon sequestration storm-water collection

harvest of tulip transplants

KINSMAN FIELD


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source forest 7701 Kinsman Avenue As biomass harvesting continues, the school district takes advantage of the vacant buildings to the north of the site and take over those parcels as well. The buildings are renovated to become greenhouses so more intensive year round research can take place on site.

2020 2035

The population of Kinsman being young and high school educated suggests that the addition of these agricultural opportunities could greatly affect residents current economic state as well as long term future.

built materials harvested greenhouse built

KINSMAN FIELD

seeding and growth of walnut trees

seeding and growth of biomass grasses

harvest of walnuts

harvest of biomass grasses

heritage tree growth

planting of tulip trees

carbon sequestration storm-water collection

harvest of tulip transplants

KINSMAN FIELD


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source forest 7701 Kinsman Avenue Biomass production has been moved south in Kinsman to larger less public sites, as Kinsman Field begins to transition into a public open space.

2025 2035

Tulip trees to be harvested at transplants are planted in the switchgrass fields. As these trees grow the switchgrass is shaded out, and production transitions to a nursery and public space area. The walnut harvesting and greenhouse production are still going strong.

greenhouse materials seeded and harvested

seeding and growth of walnut trees

seeding and growth of biomass grasses

harvest of walnuts

harvest of biomass grasses

street removed and groundcover seeded

heritage tree growth

planting of tulip trees

carbon sequestration storm-water collection

harvest of tulip transplants

tulip trees planted tulip tree transplants harvested

KINSMAN FIELD

KINSMAN FIELD


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flex forest 7701 Kinsman Avenue In 2030 Kinsman Field becomes a flex space, where previously it had been all source forest. Less planting and harvesting of tulip trees exists, and selective stands are left in place to create shade and gathering areas once the field is made completely public.

2030 2035

greenhouse materials seeded and harvested

seeding and growth of walnut trees harvest of walnuts

tulip tree growth

heritage tree growth

tulip tree transplants harvested

carbon sequestration storm-water collection

street removed and groundcover seeded

KINSMAN FIELD

KINSMAN FIELD

harvest of tulip transplants


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flex forest 7701 Kinsman Avenue Kinsman Field is a transitioned in 2035 into a fully public park. Being at the corner of two busy thoroughfares and now existing in a busy working neighborhood, the public open space acts as a gathering space for large public events, as well as an indicator of the increased quality of life in Kinsman, and how that quality of life came about.

2035

greenhouse materials seeded and harvested

seeding and growth of walnut trees harvest of walnuts

tulip tree growth

heritage tree growth carbon sequestration storm-water collection

street removed and groundcover seeded

KINSMAN FIELD

KINSMAN FIELD

growth of permanent park trees


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7701 Kinsman Avenue

Kinsman field opened to public Kinsman Field

Kinsman field is unique in that it has a major biomass harvesting function for the first 15 years of its life, yet slowly lets people in to experience what a working field of switchgrass is like. The grass biomass function changes as tulip tree transplants are added. This render highlights what the experience would be like in the summer of 2025 for a person exploring Kinsman field. The field is a great location for educational outings and for other vacant lots to adopt practices from. From this time in Kinsman Field’s life the public is welcome into the area.

environmental benefits social opportunity economic impact

walnut alley planted field building and greenhouse heritage tree groundcover paths

2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040

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7701 Kinsman Avenue 6 minute walk

Kinsman Field

CHURCH YARD

KINSMAN FIELD

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now 2015 7798 Trenton Avenue

Residential

The farthest south site that gets detail treatments is part of the improved residential neighborhood in Kinsman. Fifty year old apartment buildings were removed in 2011 and fenced in vacant land was left. The surrounding streets hold most of the inhabited homes in Kinsman, as well as a new elementary school. The most intensive nursery site is located here, as well as a large ground cover native planting bank.

2020

Harvesting here exists until 2035 when it becomes flex space until residential units are rebuilt and selective tree and resource removals create a “wild� open upland forest for public use.

2025 public space

public space

public space

RESIDENTIAL FOREST

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source forest 7798 Trenton Avenue The residential forest is a major tree transplant production area. The site is currently all fenced in, which creates a great opportunity for high level production, as the public is originally kept out of the site.

2015

The tree transplants first are transferred around vacant lots in Kinsman, either to begin another working parcel or act as street tree replacements. Once the neighborhood is reforested, the transplants can begin traveling out into the greater metro area.

curb and street removal and reuse

removal of turf grass and exotic species

planting of rain garden plants

seeding of hops vines on fence planting of tulip and scarlet oak trees

tulip trees planted

heritage tree growth

harvest of tulip tree transplants

scarlet oak growth

removal and compost of turf and groundcover

removal and compost of urban fill and groundcover

RESIDENTIAL FOREST

RESIDENTIAL FOREST

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source forest 7798 Trenton Avenue The residential forest is still an active nursery in 2020, but the street scape is being transformed in preparation for a more public existence.

2020

Curbs are removed and rain gardens line the edge of the street, while sidewalks are improved.

curb and street removal and reuse

growth and harvest of tulip and oak trees

seeding of hops vines on fence

planting of rain garden plants

harvest of hop flowers

planting of tulip and scarlet oak trees

RESIDENTIAL FOREST

tulip trees planted

heritage tree growth

harvest of tulip tree transplants

scarlet oak growth harvest of scarlet oak trees

removal and compost of turf and groundcover removal of curbs and gutters rain garden seeding

RESIDENTIAL FOREST

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flex forest 7798 Trenton Avenue While the residential forest is still private, the transition to public park space is in full swing. Selective transplant harvest of tulip and oak trees begins to leave specimens for the future public park.

2025

planting of rain garden plants

growth and harvest of tulip and oak trees

seeding of hops vines on fence

harvest of rain garden plants and seeds

harvest of hop flowers

planting of tulip and scarlet oak trees

RESIDENTIAL FOREST

tulip trees planted

heritage tree growth

sassafras and maple planted

harvest of tulip tree transplants

scarlet oak growth

harvest of sassafras and maple transplants

harvest of scarlet oak trees

rain garden seeding

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flex forest 7798 Trenton Avenue Kinsman field is opened to the public in 2030, while transplant harvest of red maple and sassafras trees is still in effect. The groundcover of native meadow throughout most of the site under the trees is used in seed banking, and the fences that lined the entire site are still used in places for hop flower growing and harvest.

2030

harvest of rain garden plants and seeds

growth and harvest of tulip and oak trees

seeding of hops vines on fence

harvest of hop flowers

harvest of tulip and scarlet oak transplants

RESIDENTIAL FOREST

native meadow seeded

heritage tree growth

sassafras and maple planted

growth of permanent trees

scarlet oak growth

harvest of sassafras and maple transplants

harvest of scarlet oak trees

RESIDENTIAL FOREST

curb and gutter removal seeding of rain garden


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flex forest, almost firm forest 7798 Trenton Avenue In 2035 the residential forest is fully available for public use. Programmed to work in conjunction with the elementary school in Kinsman, the open space is used throughout the year by school children and the wider public.

2035

The edges of the residential forest are being redeveloped with single family homes as land value increases in Kinsman because of the reforestation and innovative entrepreneurial opportunities.

harvest of rain garden plants and seeds

growth of permanent trees

heritage tree growth

harvest of sassafras and maple transplants

scarlet oak growth harvest of scarlet oak trees

RESIDENTIAL FOREST

RESIDENTIAL FOREST

new housing units built


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7798 Trenton Avenue

The residential forest becomes a high quality parkland with diverse tree species residential forest

The residential forest in 2035 has just become public ground, and the parcels surrounding it are being redeveloped to house additional residents of Kinsman. The working forest has become a new park that supports the biodiversity and seed collection aspects of the new Kinsman identity. In 2035 the edges of the park are still being edited, thus considered flex space, while the majority of the interior trees that are left will be home here in the forest for the remainder of their life. The selective harvest on the parcels surrounding the residential forest are planted such that intensely harvested areas are located in future building footprints, and selective trees are left outside those footprints. Thus, the lots will have 20 year old trees in a safe place when additional residential units are built.

environmental benefits social opportunity economic impact

heritage tree and surroundings raingarden and streetscape planted fields hops vines housing development

2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040

RESIDENTIAL FOREST

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2801 East 79th Street 6 minute walk

Orchard Esplanade

CHURCH YARD

KINSMAN FIELD

RESIDENTIAL FOREST

ORCHARD ESPLANADE

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This aspen planting is 4 rows deep of a 6’ by 6’ grid, then transitions into a source forest for street trees.

Along the esplanade multiple parcels of source forest are made up of aspen biomass plantings. The western edge of E 79th supports tree biomass to create a dense edge on one side, while the eastern edge supports meadow and grass biomass source parcels. The western edge also receives editing in the way of rain garden and sidewalk improvements.

The site just north of the church yard is the heart of the “edible forest” development in Kinsman. The Current conditions on this site include three vacant buildings that hint at the historic density and activity once happening in this neighborhood. Two fenced in parcels will support fruit tree groves with an edible understory of currants, strawberries, and raspberries. The western edge of the esplanade will gain built structures as the economy in Kinsman grows. As a resource place holder biomass plantings take up each future building site. The biomass plantings on the western edge are easily clear cut to put up the built structures, while the eastern edge will have open forest and edible forest parcels to support established trees when the public begins to visit Kinsman more regularly.

ORCHARD ESPLANADE

Moving the northern edge of the esplanade, adjacent to the prairie, we are introduced to the vacant warehouse sites and the second transit stop. The intervention on this site is slight for the first few years as ownership needs to be transitioned to the neighborhood development committee. Once this has taken place, the fenced in site becomes an experiment in storm-water control and collection as well as native tree harvesting possibilities. The innovation and agriculture magnet school begins as a external campus where after school and extra curricular programs are hosted but transitions into a fully formed campus experience on this site by 2040. By 2040 the esplanade has grown to a developed corridor that has a unique identity representing the ways Kinsman was renewed. In 1950 this neighborhood supported the economy with the people it housed, now it supports the greater regional economy, ecology and social network through forestry.

Over time many biomass parcels located on E 79th will transition to built structure.

This aspen biomass planting consists of an entire parcel planted at a dense 5 foot on center grid.

The Orchard Esplanade offers multiple parcels for edible forest and plant growth as well as a public streetscape and built structures for rent to sell local goods and supply Kinsman with much needed services orchard esplanade

The biomass planting acts as a natural barrier for the street tree forest, while still acting as a resource on its own.

2015

2015

now turf grass section

2015

2015

meadow section

The pear grove begins in a fenced in parcel on East 79th. The chain link fence that currently exists is used to trellis grape vines, and keep the public out of the harvest area.

2015 2020

The grove is a piece of source forest, where half the trees are used as transplants and half are used strictly to harvest fruit.

A large group of parcels on the esplanade receive quick stabilization efforts of turf grass removal and replacement of native meadow grasses.

2025 edible source forest esplanade

ORCHARD ESPLANADE

This large parcel group will transition into open public space as the esplanade grows in popularity. As of 2015 its main action is storm-water collection, while seed banking will begin to happen after the native plantings no longer need intensive management.


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Kinsman will gain a distinct community identity and a renewed density of place in closing

Forest as infill used as a design solution to vacancy in Kinsman creates economic, social and environmental opportunities that previously did not exist. The young high school educated population will be given opportunities from the start to try something new and use the skills they already posses to build a future career. Working with resource heavy lots with both city employees and researchers will lead to a population with unique

NEXT STEPS

NEXT STEPS

skill sets and an understanding of innovative agricultural practices. An entrepreneurial spirit throughout the whole of Kinsman is garnered as the population matures in a changing environment. Over time, through forest infill, Kinsman will gain a distinct community identity and a renewed density of place that makes it an intriguing and exciting place to spend time.


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references

kammeron hughes

forest city INFILL references

Alberti, M., & Marzluff, J. M. (2004). Ecological resilience in urban ecosystems: linking urban patterns to human and ecological functions. Urban ecosystems, 7(3), 241-265.

“Cleveland Parks 1895 Plan.” Cleveland Parks 1895 Plan. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 May 2013. <http://www.railsandtrails.com/ Cleveland/1895ClevelandParks/index.htm>.

As neighborhoods empty, planners look for new and bold uses for Cleveland’s green acres | cleveland.com. (n.d.). Blogs cleveland.com. Retrieved October 10, 2012, from http://blog.cleveland.com/metro/2011/03/imagination_could_transform_va.html

“Cleveland Waste-to-Energy Power Plant Could Make Eco History.” Earth911com Cleveland WastetoEnergy Power Plant Could Make Eco History Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 May 2013. <http://earth911.com/news/2010/02/16/cleveland-waste-to-energy-powerplant-could-make-eco-history/>.

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2013_UMN MLA Capstone- Hughes: FOREST CITY INFILL, Cleveland, OH