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Figure 4.1. An Example of a Strategy Item with a Positive Variation OLLS Item 6, Look For Opportunities To Use English Low Achievers High Use Medium Achievers

Low Use

High Achievers 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percentage

n 193 170 152

High Achievers Medium Achievers Low Achievers

Response 50 86 109

Low Use % 26 51 72

Response 143 84 43

High Use % 74 49 28

Note: x2 = 106.68 (df = 2), p <.05

Figure 4.2. An Example of a Strategy Item with a Negative Variation OLLS Item 11, Translate What To Say In L1 First Low Achievers High Use Medium Achievers

Low Use

High Achievers 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percentage

High Achievers Medium Achievers Low Achievers

n 193 170 152

Response 140 64 49

Note: x2 = 108.75 (df = 2), p <.05

Low Use % 73 38 32

Response 53 106 113

High Use % 27 62 68


2

Figure 4.3. An Example of a Strategy Item with a Mixed Variation CLLS Item 2, Do Exercises Beforehand Low Achievers High Use Medium Achievers

Low Use

High Achievers 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percentage

High Achievers Medium Achievers Low Achievers

n 193 170 152

Note: x2 = 16.05 (df = 2), p <.05

Response 143 113 116

Low Use % 74 66 76

Response 50 57 36

High Use % 26 34 24


3

Variation in Learnersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Overall Strategy Use Table 4.2. A Summary of Variation in Learnersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Overall Reported Strategy Use LANGUAGE High-achiever Med-achiever Low-achiever PERFORMANCE n=193 n=152 n=170 Significance Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean S.D. level

Pattern of Variation

Overall Strategy Use

High>Med.>Low

GENDER

Overall Strategy Use ETHNICITY

Overall Strategy Use CLASS SIZE

2.61

.34

Females n=270

EXTENT OF THE USE OF ENGLISH

Overall Strategy Use

.37

2.18

.40

(p<.0000)

Males n=245

Mean

S.D.

Mean

S.D.

Significance level

Pattern of Variation

2.53

.36

2.38

.45

(p<.0000)

Females > Males

Indians n=83

Chinese n=227

Malays n=205

Mean

S.D.

Mean

S.D.

Mean

S.D.

Significance level

2.56

.40

2.46

.38

2.42

.42

n.s.

Larger Classes n=206

Overall Strategy Use

2.50

Neither Large nor Small Classes n=190

Smaller Classes n=119

Mean

S.D.

Mean

S.D.

Mean

S.D.

Significance level

2.50

.37

2.34

.45

2.57

.36

(p<.0000)

High-user n=135

Pattern of Variation

Low-user n=380

Mean

S.D.

Mean

S.D.

Significance level

Pattern of Variation

2.66

.34

2.39

.41

(p<.0000)

High > Low

Pattern of Variation Smaller > Larger Larger > Neither


4

Variation in Learners’ Use of Three Strategy Categories Table 4.3 Variation in Learners’ Reported Use of Strategy Categories According to Their Language Performance High-achiever n=193

Med.-achiever n=152

Low-achiever n=170

STRATEGY CATEGORY

Mean

S.D.

Mean

S.D.

Mean

S.D.

Significance level

Pattern of Variation

CLLS

2.54

.36

2.58

.36

2.34

.39

(p<.0000)

Med. >High > Low

OLLS

2.76

.41

2.43

.39

2.02

.37

(p<.0000)

High > Med. > Low

ELLS

2.52

.56

2.63

.56

2.18

.56

(p<.0000)

Med. > High > Low

Table 4.4. Variation in Learners’ Reported Use of Strategy Categories According To Their Gender Females n=270

Males N=245

Mean

S.D.

Mean

S.D.

Significance level

Pattern of Variation

CLLS

2.56

.36

2.43

.40

(p<.0001)

Females > Males

OLLS

2.48

.40

2.38

.53

(p<.018)

Females > Males

ELLS

2.55

.53

2.34

.62

(p<.0000)

Females > Males

STRATEGY CATEGORIES

Table 4.5. Variation in Learners Reported Use of Strategy Categories According To Ethnicity Indians n=83

Chinese n=227

Malays n=205

STRATEGY CATEGORIES

Mean

S.D.

Mean

S.D.

Mean

S.D.

Significance level

Pattern of Variation

CLLS

2.63

.33

2.46

.36

2.50

.43

(p<.005)

Indians>Malays>Chinese

OLLS

2.57

.50

2.47

.50

2.32

.48

(p<.0001)

Indians>Chinese> Malays

ELLS

2.48

.56

2.47

.55

2.44

.63

n.s.


5

Table 4.6. Variation in Learners’ Reported Use of Strategy Categories According To Class Size Larger Classes

Neither Large nor Small Classes n=190

n=206

Smaller Classes N=119

STRATEGY CATEGORIES

Mean

S.D.

Mean

S.D.

Mean

S.D.

Significance level

CLLS

2.53

.35

2.39

.40

2.63

.35

(p<.000)

OLLS

2.48

.45

2.40

.57

2.41

.43

n.s.

ELLS

2.52

.35

2.39

.35

2.63

.35

n.s.

Pattern of Variation Smaller > Larger Larger > Neither

. Table 4.7. Variation in Learners’ Reported Use of Strategy Categories by the Extent of Their Reported Use of English Outside the Classroom High-user n=135

Low-user n=380

STRATEGY CATEGORIES

Mean

S.D.

Mean

S.D.

Significance level

Pattern of Variation

CLLS

2.57

.38

2.47

.38

(p<.0059)

High > Low

OLLS

2.88

.37

2.27

.43

(p<.0000)

High > Low

ELLS

2.52

.55

2.42

.59

n.s

Figure 4.4 Summary of Learners’ Reported Use of Three Strategy Categories Varying Significantly According To the Various Independent Variables STRATEGY CATEGORIES

Classroom Language Learning Strategies Category (CLLS) Out-of-Class Language Learning Strategies Category (OLLS) Exam Language Learning Strategies Category (ELLS)

Language Performance

Gender

Ethnicity

Class Size

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Extent of Use of English Yes Yes


6

Table 4.8. Individual Strategies Exhibiting Significant Variation by Language Performance % of High Use Individual Strategy Item

(3 or 4)

High-

Medium-

Low-

achievers

achievers

achievers

observed x

I. Positive Variation (used more frequently by more successfull learners) OLLS 1 Converse in English with parents at home *

56

14

4

182.47

OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines *

78

45

17

182.33

OLLS 2 Converse in English with friends in school *

56

19

7

176.9

OLLS 3 Converse in Eng. with friends out of school *

57

19

7

158.29

OLLS 33 Read English story books *

70

39

13

148.7

OLLS 4 Converse in English with teachers in school *

54

18

9

133.81

OLLS 30 Guess meaning form context (in reading) *

84

64

31

129.13

CLLS 12 Speak Only English in class *

59

20

16

124.29

OLLS 14 Think in English *

53

22

11

121.77

OLLS 24 Write letters in English *

55

23

8

121.68

OLLS 6 Look for opportunities to use English *

74

49

28

106.98

OLLS 5 Get parents to correct usage of English *

64

34

18

92.55

OLLS 16 Listen to parentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; speech *

64

35

32

91.52

OLLS 13 Talk to oneself in English *

55

39

18

90.67

OLLS 8 Correct ones own speech *

91

77

49

87.87

OLLS 17 Listen to English news *

66

46

26

83.82

OLLS 7 Attend functions conducted in English *

57

28

12

82.96

OLLS 22 Watch English T.V. programs *

77

61

36

81.66

OLLS 31 Get general meaning first (in reading) *

78

56

39

75.32

OLLS 20 Memorize lyrics of English songs *

71

61

38

66.15

OLLS 10 Think of what to say direct in English *

57

44

29

65.08

CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English in class *

74

59

40

63.04

OLLS 29 Use newly learnt/read vocabulary *

72

58

35

62.42

OLLS 19 Understand lyrics of English songs *

83

70

56

56.77

OLLS 9 Ask for repetition during conversation *

76

62

45

55.8

ELLS 6 Study grammar book *

49

47

27

47.53

OLLS 26 Use English-English dictionary *

64

53

39

43.99

OLLS 23 Watch English movies *

58

45

28

42.99

ELLS 5 Do past exams papers *

58

56

31

42.59

OLLS 18 Listen to English radio programs *

59

41

26

39.7

CLLS 10 Answer silently to oneself *

75

71

52

37.18

OLLS 15 Practice Reading alound *

59

54

34

36.83

CLLS 14 Discuss with parents at home *

43

27

20

36.5

OLLS 36 Make use of computer programs *

25

18

6

28.32

ELLS 7 Join a discussion group *

22

17

8

25.1

OLLS 35 Practice essay writing *

22

17

8

23.8

CLLS 6 Ask teacher to clarify *

54

49

33

22.54

OLLS 28 Read sample sentences in the dictionary *

81

72

65

22.28

CLLS 5 Pay attention in class *

82

70

66

20.15

CLLS 9 Volunteer to answer questions when sure *

61

60

45

16.62

ELLS 4 Memorize essay formats **

76

70

58

15.49

CLLS 13 Discuss with friends after class **

57

54

40

13.62


7

% of Individual Strategy Item

High Use (3 or 4)

High-

Medium-

Low-

achievers

achievers

achievers

observed x

II. Negative Variation (used more frequently by less successfull learners) OLLS 11 Translate what to say in L1 first *

27

62

68

108.75

OLLS 27 Use English-Malay dictionary *

43

71

72

52.39

6

12

13

30.71

CLLS 17 Translate everything into L1*

30

67

58

85.92

ELLS 3 Do exercises in the workbook *

66

72

49

30.18

ELLS 1 Read over notes/exercises *

59

73

51

20.72

CLLS 2 Do exercises beforehand **

26

34

24

16.05

CLLS 1 Read textbook beforehand * III Mixed Variation

Note: * p <.01, ** p <.05 Critical value of x2 = 12.69 (df = 2) p > .05

Figure 4.5. An Example of a Strategy Item Showing Authentic Language Use (Speaking) OLLS Item 3, Converse In English With Friends Out Of School Low Achievers High Use Medium Achievers

Low Use

High Achievers 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percentage

High Achievers Medium Achievers Low Achievers

n 193 170 152

Note: x2 = 158.29 (df = 2), p <.05

Response 83 137 142

Low Use % 43 81 93

Response 110 33 10

High Use % 57 19 7


8

Figure 4.6. An Example of a Strategy Item Showing Authentic Language Use (Reading) OLLS Item 33, Read English Story Books Low Achievers High Use

Medium Achievers

Low Use

High Achievers 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percentage

n 193 170 152

High Achievers Medium Achievers Low Achievers

Response 57 104 132

Low Use % 30 61 87

Response 136 66 20

High Use % 70 39 13

Note: x2 = 148.70 (df = 2), p <.05

Figure 4.7. An Example of a Strategy Item Showing Authentic Language Use (Listening) OLLS Item 16, Listen To Parents' Speech Low Achievers High Use Medium Achievers

Low Use

High Achievers 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percentage

High Achievers Medium Achievers Low Achievers

n 193 170 152

Note: x2 = 91.52 (df = 2), p <.05

Response 70 111 119

Low Use % 36 65 68

Response 123 59 33

High Use % 64 35 32


9

Figure 4.8. An Example of a Strategy Item Showing Getting Out of Class Assistance OLLS Item 5, Get Parents To Correct Usage Of English At Home Low Achievers High Use Medium Achievers

Low Use

High Achievers 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percentage

n 193 170 152

High Achievers Medium Achievers Low Achievers

Response 69 112 124

Low Use % 36 66 82

Response 124 58 28

High Use % 64 34 18

Note: x2 = 92.55 (df = 2), p <.05

Figure 4.9. An Example of a Strategy Item Showing Making Use of the Media OLLS Item 17, Listen To English News Low Achievers High Use Medium Achievers

Low Use

High Achievers 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percentage

High Achievers Medium Achievers Low Achievers

n 193 170 152

Note: x2 = 83.82 (df = 2), p <.05

Response 65 92 112

Low Use % 34 54 74

Response 128 78 40

High Use % 66 46 26


10

Variation in Reported Use of Individual Strategies by Gender Table 4.9. Individual Strategies Exhibiting Significant Variation According To Gender % of High Use (3 or 4) observed Female Male x Individual Strategy Item I. Strategies Used Significantly More Often by Female Students

CLLS 4 Sit near front rows * ELLS 3 Do exercises in workbook * OLLS 15 Practice reading aloud * CLLS 11 Use dictionary in class * CLLS 17 Translate everything in L1 * OLLS 24 Write letters in English * ELLS 5 Do past exam papers * CLLS 13 Discuss with friends after class * ELLS 4 Memorize essay formats * OLLS 13 Talk to oneself in English * OLLS 14 Think in English * ELLS 1 Read over notes/exercises* ELLS 6 Study grammar book * OLLS 17 Listen to English news * CLLS 16 Listen to teacherâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s speech * OLLS 12 Self-monitoring ** OLLS 27 Use English-Malay dictionary ** CLLS 7 Ask friends clarify ** OLLS 28 Read sample sentences in dictionary ** OLLS 26 Use English-English dictionary ** OLLS 31 Get general meaning first (when reading) **

56 70 56 50 56 32 53 59 76 41 32 68 50 52 80 59 66 72 77 57 63

31 55 43 43 44 30 45 42 61 37 29 54 35 43 66 56 54 62 69 48 54

33.94 25.63 19.06 18.86 17.97 17.74 17.2 17.11 14.53 13.44 12.89 12.54 11.9 11.88 10.83 10.69 10.39 10.31 9.55 8.99 8.74

42 7 45

53 12 53

15.02 11.5 7.81

II. Strategies Used Significantly More Often by Male Students OLLS 23 Watch English movies * CLLS 1 Read texbook beforehand * OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines **

Note: *p<.01, **p<.05 Critical Value of x2 = 7.80 (df = 1) p < .05


11

Variation of Individual Strategies by Class Size Table 4.10 Individual Strategies Exhibiting Significant Variation According To Class Size

Individual Strategy Item I. Mixed Variation CLLS 17 Translate everything into L1 * CLLS 12 Speak only English in class * OLLS 6 Look for opportunities to use Eng.* CLLS 2 Do exercises beforehand * CLLS 1 Read textbook beforehand * OLLS 34 Take private tuition * OLLS 22 Watch English T.V. programs * CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English * CLLS 13 Discuss with friends after class * CLLS 16 Listen to teacher’s speech ** CLLS 8 Volunteer to answer questions ** CLLS 3 Sit near bright students ** CLLS 15 Read over class work ** CLLS 4 Sit near front rows ** CLLS 18 Get help from friends nearby **

% of High use (3 or 4) Neither Large nor Large Small Smaller classes classes classes 44 37 59 32 11 33 61 53 53 78 18 45 26 43 71

42 38 43 20 7 24 59 43 41 65 22 40 19 40 70

Observed x 75 20 52 33 10 30 60 63 60 77 17 52 27 52 82

52.39 42.58 33.56 31.55 23.86 20.64 19.53 19.04 17.93 15.87 14.48 14.32 14.19 12.99 12.74

Note: * p <.01, ** p <.05 Critical Value of x2 = 12.70 (df = 2) p < .05

Figure 4.10. An Example of a Strategy Item with “L > S > N” Type of Mixed Variation CLS Item 1, Read Textbook Beforehand Smaller Classes High Use Neither Large/Small

Low Use

Larger Classes 82

84

86

88

90

92

94

96

98

100

Percentage

Larger Classes Neither Large/Small Smaller Classes

n 206 190 119

Response 183 176 107

Low Use % 89 93 90

Note: x2 = 23.68 (df = 2), p <.05

Figure 4.11.

Response 23 14 12

High Use % 11 7 10


12

An Example of a Strategy Item with “S > L > N” Type of Mixed Variation CLLS Item 3, Sit Near Bright Students Low Achievers

High Use Low Use

Medium Achievers High Achievers 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percentage

n High Achievers 193 Medium Achievers 170 Low Achievers 152 Note: x2 = 14.34 (df = 2), p <.05

Response 107 88 90

Low Use % 55 52 59

Response 86 82 62

High Use % 45 48 41

Figure 4.12. An Example of a Strategy Item with “N > L > S” Type of Mixed Variation CLLS Item 18, Get Help From Friends Nearby Low Achievers High Use Low Use

Medium Achievers High Achievers 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Percentage

High Achievers Medium Achievers Low Achievers

n 193 170 152

Note: x2 = 14.48 (df = 2), p <.05

Response 65 34 39

Low Use % 34 20 26

Response 128 136 113

High Use % 66 80 74


13

Variation of Individual Strategies by Ethnicity Table 4.11 Individual Strategies Exhibiting Significant Variation According To Ethnicity

Individual Strategy Item Pattern I. Indians > Chinese > Malays

% of High use (3 or 4) Observed Indians Chinese Malays x

OLLS 4 Converse in Eng. with teachers in shcool* OLLS 3 Converse in English with friends in school* OLLS 2 Converse in Eng. with friends out of school* OLLS 1 Converse in English with parents* OLLS 24 Write letter in English* OLLS 14 Think in English* OLLS 10 Think of what to say direct in English* CLLS 12 Speak only English in class* OLLS 13 Talk to oneself in English* OLLS 6 Look for opportunites to use English* OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines* OLLS 7 Attend functions conducted in English* OLLS 12 Self-monitoring* OLLS 23 Watch English movies* OLLS 16 Listen to parents' speech* OLLS 30 Guess meaning from context* CLLS 10 Answer silently to oneself ** CLLS 8 Volunteer to answer questions** CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English in class** OLLS 35 Practice essay writing** CLLS 1 Read textbook beforehand**

48 46 46 46 39 42 65 47 58 64 68 36 75 48 60 68 81 33 72 24 17

43 42 37 29 38 35 51 39 38 53 48 34 56 46 39 66 69 17 57 16 11

7 12 14 15 18 20 38 22 31 47 43 22 53 42 37 56 59 16 55 14 6

84.24 73.22 60.63 59.21 51.21 49.82 46.92 41.15 40.26 32.54 27.42 26.57 24.07 23.16 22.42 20.54 20.11 20.04 18.52 17.29 9.38

Pattern II. Malays > Chinese > Indians CLLS 17 Translate everything into L1* OLLS 11 Translate what to say into L1* OLLS 27 Use English-Malay dictionary*

37 41 51

59 51 64

69 63 71

69.98 53.71 46.32

Pattern III. Indians > Malays > Chinese CLLS 4 Sit near front rows* CLLS 16 Listen to teacher's speech** CLLS 15 Read over class work** CLLS 3 Sit near bright students**

53 81 35 49

39 69 19 41

47 76 24 48

23.01 21.16 19.52 17.17

Note: *p<.01, **p<.05 Critical Value of x2 = 16.7 (df = 2) p <.05


14

Table 4.12 Individual Strategies Exhibiting Significant Variation According To The Extent of Learnersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Reported Use of English Outside the Classroom

Individual Strategy Item I. Strategies Used Significantly More Often by High-user of English OLLS 3 Converse in Eng. with friends out of school* OLLS 2 Converse in English with friends in school* OLLS 1 Converse in English with parents at home* OLLS 4 Converse in English with teachers in school* CLLS 12 Speak only English in class* OLLS 14 Think in English* OLLS 24 Write letters in English* OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines* OLLS 13 Talk to oneself in English* OLLS 6 Look for opportunities to use English* CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English in class* OLLS 10 Think of what to say direct in English* OLLS 33 Read English story books* OLLS 5 Get parents to correct usage of English OLLS 7 Attend functions conducted in English* OLLS 17 Listen to English news* OLLS 30 Guess meaning from context (when reading)* OLLS 8 Correct ones own speech* OLLS 31 Get general meaning first (when reading)* OLLS 9 Ask for repitition during conversation* OLLS 18 Listen to English radio programs CLLS 6 Ask teacher to clarify* OLLS 22 Watch English T.V. programs* OLLS 26 Use English-English dictionary* OLLS 23 Watch English movies* OLLS 35 Practice essay writing* OLLS 15 Practice reading aloud* OLLS 16 Listen to parents' speech* OLLS 29 Use newly learnt/read vocabulary* CLLS 8 Volunteer to answer questions* OLLS 20 Memorize lyrics of English songs* OLLS 36 Make use of computers* CLLS 14 Discuss with parents at home* CLLS 10 Answer silently to oneself* OLLS 19 Understand lyrics of English songs** CLLS 9 Volunteer to answer question when sure* ELLS 6 Study grammar book** CLLS 15 Read over class work** ELLS 4 Memorize essay formats**

II. Strategies Used Significantly More Often by Low-user of English OLLS 11 Translate what to say in L1 first* CLLS 17 Translate everthing into L1* OLLS 27 Use English-Malay dictionary* CLLS 18 Get help from friends nearby**

% of High use (3 or 4) High-user Low-user Observed of Eng. of of Eng. x

84 82 78 74 77 71 73 86 72 82 81 76 75 69 56 74 84 93 79 76 59 62 76 67 62 24 65 67 71 29 68 27 42 78 79 64 51 30 78

10 10 9 13 18 16 15 36 27 42 51 38 32 31 22 39 55 67 52 58 38 41 54 48 39 13 45 33 51 16 54 14 27 63 68 53 39 21 65

304.41 290.38 276.47 204.24 196.86 177.73 166.87 129.34 121.04 113.12 86.48 86.23 85.82 73.92 67.62 58.94 40.41 37.16 31.42 30.83 30.23 27.48 27.04 25.86 23.62 22.36 22.15 19.94 19.86 18.71 16.51 15.63 14.88 14.54 13.04 10.22 9.25 8.29 7.82

19 19 38 63

62 62 69 76

162.06 119.35 53.69 10.84


15

Factor Analysis Table 4.13. Lists of the 9 Factors Extracted FACTORS

Factor Weight

Factor 1: Strategies for Using the Language OLLS 3 Converse in English with friends out of school OLLS 2 Converse in English with friends in school OLLS 4 Converse in English with teachers in school OLLS 1 Converse in English with parents at home CLLS 12 Speak only English in class OLLS 14 Think in English OLLS 24 Write letters in English OLLS 9 Ask to repeat if don’t understand conversation OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines OLLS 13 Talk to oneself in English OLLS 6 Look for opportunities to the English CLLS 17 Translate everything into L1 OLLS 7 Attend functions conducted in English OLLS 10 Think of what to say direct in English OLLS 33 Read English story books CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English in class

.87 .84 .78 .74 .72 .72 .69 .63 .62 .61 .57 .52 .51 .50 .48 .43

Factor 2: Strategies for Exams Preparation ELLS 1 ELLS 4 ELLS 3 ELLS 6 ELLS 5 ELLS 2

Read over notes/exercises Memorise essay formats Do exercises in workbook Study grammar book Do past exams papers Read over textbook

.67 .66 .64 .62 .53 .43

Factor 3: Strategies for Utilising English Media OLLS 19 Understand lyrics of English songs OLLS 20 Memorise lyrics of English songs OLLS 18 Listen to English radio programs OLLS 22 Watch English T.V. programs OLLS 23 Watch English movies OLLS 17 Listen to English news

.80 .76 53 .53 .42 .42

Factor 4: Strategies for Dealing with New Words OLLS 30 Guess meaning from context OLLS 31 Get general meaning first OLLS 29 Use newly learnt vocabulary OLLS 28 Read sample sentence in dictionary

.58 .57 .54 .51

Factor 5: Strategies for Centring Learning CLLS 5 Pay attention in class CLLS 16 Listen to teacher’s speech CLLS 15 Read over class work

.63 .60 .42

Factor 6: Out of Class Social Learning Strategies CLLS 14 Discuss with parents at home OLLS 5 Get parents to correct usage of English OLLS 16 Listen to parents’ speech

.74 .67 .56

Factor 7: Classroom Social Learning Strategies CLLS 7 Ask friends to clarify CLLS 13 Discuss with friends CLLS 18 Get help from friends nearby

.78 .68 .65

Factor 8: Classroom Advance Preparation Strategies CLLS 1 Read textbook beforehand CLLS 2 Do exercises beforehand

.65 .62

Factor 9: Classroom Physical Restructuring Strategies CLLS 3 Sit near bright students CLLS 4 Sit near front rows

.64 .59


16

Factors Strongly Related to Language Performance Table 4.14 A Summary of How Each Factor Relates to Language Performance Factor Variation by FACTORS Weight Language Performance Factor 1: Strategies for Using the Language OLLS 3 Converse in English with friends out of school .87 Positive OLLS 2 Converse in English with friends in school .84 Positive OLLS 4 Converse in English with teachers in school .78 Positive OLLS 1 Converse in English with parents at home .74 Positive CLLS 12 Speak only English in class .72 Positive OLLS 14 Think in English .72 Positive OLLS 24 Write letters in English .69 Positive OLLS 9 Ask to repeat if don’t understand conversation .63 Positive OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines .62 Positive OLLS 13 Talk to oneself In English .61 Positive OLLS 6 Look for opportunities to the English .57 Positive CLLS 17 Translate everything into L1 .52 Mixed OLLS 7 Attend functions conducted in English .51 Positive OLLS 10 Think of what to say direct in English .50 Positive OLLS 33 Read English story books .48 Positive CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English in class .43 Positive Factor 2: Strategies for Exam Preparation ELLS 1 Read over notes/exercises .67 Mixed ELLS4 Memorise essay formats .66 Positive ELLS3 Do exercises in workbook .64 Mixed ELLS6 Study grammar book .62 Positive ELLS5 Do past exams paper .53 Positive ELLS2 Read over textbook .43 Factor 3: Strategies for Utilising English Media OLLS 19 Understand lyrics of English songs .80 Positive OLLS 20 Memorise lyrics of English songs .76 Positive OLLS 18 Listen to English radio programs 53 Positive OLLS 22 Watch English T.V. programs .53 Positive OLLS 23 Watch English movies .42 Positive OLLS 17 Listen to English news .42 Positive Factor 4: Strategies for Dealing with New Words OLLS 30 Guess meaning from context .58 Positive OLLS 31 Get general meaning first .57 Positive OLLS 29 Use newly learnt vocabulary .54 Positive OLLS 28 Read sample sentence in dictionary .51 Positive Factor 5: Strategies for Centring Learning CLLS 5 Pay attention in class .63 CLLS 16 Listen to the teacher’s speech .60 CLLS 15 Read over class work .42 Factor 6: Out of class Social Learning Strategies CLLS 14 Discuss with parents at home .74 Positive OLLS 5 Get parents to correct usage of English .67 Positive OLLS 16 Listen to parents’ speech .56 Positive Factor 7: Classroom Social Learning Strategies CLLS 7 Ask friends to clarify .78 CLLS 13 Discuss with friends .68 Positive CLLS 18 Get help from friends nearby .65 Factor 8: Advance Preparation Strategies CLLS 1 Read textbook beforehand .65 Negative CLLS 2 Do exercises beforehand .62 Mixed Factor 9: Classroom Physical Restructuring Strategies CLLS 3 Sit near bright students .69 CLLS 4 Sit near front rows .59 Note: Positive = item which shows significant positive variation, Negative = item which shows significant negative variation Mixed = item which shows significant mixed variation, - = item which shows no significant variation


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Factors Strongly Related to Gender Table 4.15. A Summary of How Each Factor Relates to Gender FACTORS Factor 1: Strategies for Using the Language OLLS 3 Converse in English with friends out of school OLLS 2 Converse in English with friends in school OLLS 4 Converse in English with teachers in school OLLS 1 Converse in English with parents at home CLLS 12 Speak only English in class OLLS 14 Think in English OLLS 24 Write letters in English OLLS 9 Ask to repeat if don’t understand conversation OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines OLLS 13 Talk to oneself In English OLLS 6 Look for opportunities to the English CLLS 17 Translate everything into L1 OLLS 7 Attend functions conducted in English OLLS 10 Think of what to say direct in English OLLS 33 Read English story books CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English in class Factor 2: Strategies for Exam Preparation ELLS 1 Read over notes/exercises ELLS4 Memorise essay formats ELLS3 Do exercises in workbook ELLS6 Study grammar book ELLS5 Do past exams paper ELLS2 Read over textbook Factor 3: Strategies for Utilising English Media OLLS 19 Understand lyrics of English songs OLLS 20 Memorise lyrics of English songs OLLS 18 Listen to English radio programs OLLS 22 Watch English T.V. programs OLLS 23 Watch English movies OLLS 17 Listen to English news Factor 4: Strategies for Dealing with New Words OLLS 30 Guess meaning from context OLLS 31 Get general meaning first OLLS 29 Use newly learnt vocabulary OLLS 28 Read sample sentence in dictionary Factor 5: Strategies for Centring Learning CLLS 5 Pay attention in class CLLS 16 Listen to the teacher’s speech CLLS 15 Read over class work Factor 6: Out of class Social Learning Strategies CLLS 14 Discuss with parents at home OLLS 5 Get parents to correct usage of English OLLS 16 Listen to parents’ speech Factor 7: Classroom Social Learning Strategies CLLS 7 Ask friends to clarify CLLS 13 Discuss with friends CLLS 18 Get help from friends nearby Factor 8: Advance Preparation Strategies CLLS 1 Read textbook beforehand CLLS 2 Do exercises beforehand Factor 9: Classroom Physical Restructuring Strategies CLLS 3 Sit near bright students CLLS 4 Sit near front rows

Factor Weight

Variation by Gender

.87 .84 .78 .74 .72 .72 .69 .63 .62 .61 .57 .52 .51 .50 .48 .43

Females > Males Females > Males Males > Females Females > Males Females > Males -

.67 .66 .64 .62 .53 .43

Females > Males Females > Males Females > Males Females > Males Females > Males -

.80 .76 53 .53 .42 .42

Males > Females Females > Males

.58 .57 .54 .51

Females > Males Females > Males

.63 .60 .42

Females > Males -

.74 .67 .56

-

.78 .68 .65

Females > Males Females > Males

.65 .62

Males > Females -

.69 .59

Females > Males

Note: Females > Males = item used significantly more often by females than by males Males > Females = item used significantly more often by males than by females, - = item which shows no significant variation


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Factors Strongly Related to Ethnicity Table 4.16. A Summary of How Each Factor Relates to Ethnicity Factor FACTORS Weight Variation by Ethnicity Factor 1: Strategies for Using the Language OLLS 3 Converse in English with friends out of school .87 Indian > Chinese > Malay OLLS 2 Converse in English with friends in school .84 Indian > Chinese > Malay OLLS 4 Converse in English with teachers in school .78 Indian > Chinese > Malay OLLS 1 Converse in English with parents at home .74 Indian > Chinese > Malay CLLS 12 Speak only English in class .72 Indian > Chinese > Malay OLLS 14 Think in English .72 Indian > Chinese > Malay OLLS 24 Write letters in English .69 Indian > Chinese > Malay OLLS 9 Ask to repeat if don’t understand conversation .63 OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines .62 Indian > Chinese > Malay OLLS 13 Talk to oneself In English .61 Indian > Chinese > Malay OLLS 6 Look for opportunities to the English .57 Indian > Chinese > Malay CLLS 17 Translate everything into L1 .52 Malay > Chinese > Indian OLLS 7 Attend functions conducted in English .51 Indian > Chinese > Malay OLLS 10 Think of what to say direct in English .50 Indian > Chinese > Malay OLLS 33 Read English story books .48 CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English in class .43 Indian > Chinese > Malay Factor 2: Strategies for Exam Preparation ELLS 1 Read over notes/exercises .67 ELLS4 Memorise essay formats .66 ELLS3 Do exercises in workbook .64 ELLS6 Study grammar book .62 ELLS5 Do past exams paper .53 ELLS2 Read over textbook .43 Factor 3: Strategies for Utilising English Media OLLS 19 Understand lyrics of English songs .80 OLLS 20 Memorise lyrics of English songs .76 OLLS 18 Listen to English radio programs 53 OLLS 22 Watch English T.V. programs .53 OLLS 23 Watch English movies .42 Indian > Chinese > Malay OLLS 17 Listen to English news .42 Factor 4: Strategies for Dealing with New Words OLLS 30 Guess meaning from context .58 Indian > Chinese > Malay OLLS 31 Get general meaning first .57 OLLS 29 Use newly learnt vocabulary .54 OLLS 28 Read sample sentence in dictionary .51 Factor 5: Strategies for Centring Learning CLLS 5 Pay attention in class .63 CLLS 16 Listen to the teacher’s speech .60 Indian > Chinese > Malay CLLS 15 Read over class work .42 Indian > Chinese > Malay Factor 6: Out of class Social Learning Strategies CLLS 14 Discuss with parents at home .74 OLLS 5 Get parents to correct usage of English .67 OLLS 16 Listen to parents’ speech .56 Indian > Chinese > Malay Factor 7: Classroom Social Learning Strategies CLLS 7 Ask friends to clarify .78 CLLS 13 Discuss with friends .68 CLLS 18 Get help from friends nearby .65 Factor 8: Advance Preparation Strategies CLLS 1 Read textbook beforehand .65 Indian > Chinese > Malay CLLS 2 Do exercises beforehand .62 Factor 9: Classroom Physical Restructuring Strategies CLLS 3 Sit near bright students .69 Indian > Chinese > Malay CLLS 4 Sit near front rows .59 Indian > Chinese > Malay Note: Indian > Chinese > Malay = item which shows significant variation with Indian > Chinese > Malay Malay > Chinese > Indian = item which shows significant variation with Malay > Chinese > Indian - = item which shows no significant variation


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Factors Strongly Related to Class Size Table 4.17. A Summary of How Each Factor Relates to Class Size Factor Variation by FACTORS Weight Class Size Factor 1: Strategies for Using the Language OLLS 3 Converse in English with friends out of school .87 OLLS 2 Converse in English with friends in school .84 OLLS 4 Converse in English with teachers in school .78 OLLS 1 Converse in English with parents at home .74 CLLS 12 Speak only English in class .72 Mixed OLLS 14 Think in English .72 OLLS 24 Write letters in English .69 OLLS 9 Ask to repeat if don’t understand conversation .63 OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines .62 OLLS 13 Talk to oneself In English .61 OLLS 6 Look for opportunities to the English .57 Mixed CLLS 17 Translate everything into L1 .52 OLLS 7 Attend functions conducted in English .51 OLLS 10 Think of what to say direct in English .50 OLLS 33 Read English story books .48 CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English in class .43 Mixed Factor 2: Strategies for Exam Preparation ELLS 1 Read over notes/exercises .67 ELLS4 Memorise essay formats .66 ELLS3 Do exercises in workbook .64 ELLS6 Study grammar book .62 ELLS5 Do past exams paper .53 ELLS2 Read over textbook .43 Factor 3: Strategies for Utilising English Media OLLS 19 Understand lyrics of English songs .80 OLLS 20 Memorise lyrics of English songs .76 OLLS 18 Listen to English radio programs 53 OLLS 22 Watch English T.V. programs .53 Mixed OLLS 23 Watch English movies .42 OLLS 17 Listen to English news .42 Factor 4: Strategies for Dealing with New Words OLLS 30 Guess meaning from context .58 OLLS 31 Get general meaning first .57 OLLS 29 Use newly learnt vocabulary .54 OLLS 28 Read sample sentence in dictionary .51 Factor 5: Strategies for Centring Learning CLLS 5 Pay attention in class .63 CLLS 16 Listen to the teacher’s speech .60 Mixed CLLS 15 Read over class work .42 Mixed Factor 6: Out of class Social Learning Strategies CLLS 14 Discuss with parents at home .74 OLLS 5 Get parents to correct usage of English .67 OLLS 16 Listen to parents’ speech .56 Factor 7: Classroom Social Learning Strategies CLLS 7 Ask friends to clarify .78 CLLS 13 Discuss with friends .68 Mixed CLLS 18 Get help from friends nearby .65 Mixed Factor 8: Advance Preparation Strategies CLLS 1 Read textbook beforehand .65 Mixed CLLS 2 Do exercises beforehand .62 Mixed Factor 9: Classroom Physical Restructuring Strategies CLLS 3 Sit near bright students .69 Mixed CLLS 4 Sit near front rows .59 Mixed Note: Mixed = item which shows a mixed significant variation, - = item which shows no significant variation


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Factors Strongly Related to the Extent of Learners’ Reported Use of English Table 4.18. A Summary of How Each Factor Relates to the Extent of Learners’ Use of English Factor Variation by the Extent of Learners’ FACTORS Weight Reported Use of English Out of Class Factor 1: Strategies for Using the Language OLLS 3 Converse in English with friends out of school .87 High-user > Low-user OLLS 2 Converse in English with friends in school .84 High-user > Low-user OLLS 4 Converse in English with teachers in school .78 High-user > Low-user OLLS 1 Converse in English with parents at home .74 High-user > Low-user CLLS 12 Speak only English in class .72 High-user > Low-user OLLS 14 Think in English .72 High-user > Low-user OLLS 24 Write letters in English .69 High-user > Low-user OLLS 9 Ask to repeat if don’t understand conversation .63 High-user > Low-user OLLS 25 Read English newspapers/magazines .62 High-user > Low-user OLLS 13 Talk to oneself In English .61 High-user > Low-user OLLS 6 Look for opportunities to the English .57 High-user > Low-user CLLS 17 Translate everything into L1 .52 Low-user > High-user OLLS 7 Attend functions conducted in English .51 High-user > Low-user OLLS 10 Think of what to say direct in English .50 High-user > Low-user OLLS 33 Read English story books .48 High-user > Low-user CLLS 19 Be brave to speak English in class .43 High-user > Low-user Factor 2: Strategies for Exam Preparation ELLS 1 Read over notes/exercises .67 ELLS4 Memorise essay formats .66 High-user > Low-user ELLS3 Do exercises in workbook .64 ELLS6 Study grammar book .62 High-user > Low-user ELLS5 Do past exams paper .53 ELLS2 Read over textbook .43 Factor 3: Strategies for Utilising English Media OLLS 19 Understand lyrics of English songs .80 High-user > Low-user OLLS 20 Memorise lyrics of English songs .76 High-user > Low-user OLLS 18 Listen to English radio programs 53 High-user > Low-user OLLS 22 Watch English T.V. programs .53 High-user > Low-user OLLS 23 Watch English movies .42 High-user > Low-user OLLS 17 Listen to English news .42 High-user > Low-user Factor 4: Strategies for Dealing with New Words OLLS 30 Guess meaning from context .58 High-user > Low-user OLLS 31 Get general meaning first .57 High-user > Low-user OLLS 29 Use newly learnt vocabulary .54 High-user > Low-user OLLS 28 Read sample sentence in dictionary .51 Factor 5: Strategies for Centring Learning CLLS 5 Pay attention in class .63 CLLS 16 Listen to the teacher’s speech .60 High-user > Low-user CLLS 15 Read over class work .42 Factor 6: Out of class Social Learning Strategies CLLS 14 Discuss with parents at home .74 High-user > Low-user OLLS 5 Get parents to correct usage of English .67 High-user > Low-user OLLS 16 Listen to parents’ speech .56 High-user > Low-user Factor 7: Classroom Social Learning Strategies CLLS 7 Ask friends to clarify .78 CLLS 13 Discuss with friends .68 CLLS 18 Get help from friends nearby .65 Low-user > High-user Factor 8: Advance Preparation Strategies CLLS 1 Read textbook beforehand .65 CLLS 2 Do exercises beforehand .62 Factor 9: Classroom Physical Restructuring Strategies CLLS 3 Sit near bright students .69 CLLS 4 Sit near front rows .59 Note: High-user > Low-user = item used significantly more often by high-user than low-user of English Low-user > High-user = item used significantly more often by low-user than high user of English - = items which shows no significant variation


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Table 4.19. A Summary of Factors Strongly Related to the Various Independent Variables FACTORS

Factor 1: Strategies for Using the Language Factor 2: Strategies for Exams Preparation Factor 3: Strategies for Utilising English Media Factor 4: Strategies for Dealing with New Words Factor 5: Strategies for Centring Learning Factor 6: Out of class Social Learning Strategies Factor 7: Classroom Social Learning Strategies Factor 8: C/room Advance Preparation Strategies Factor 9: C/room Physical Restructuring Strategies

Language Performance

Gender

Yes

Ethnicity

Class Size

Yes

Extent of Use of English Yes

Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes Yes Yes

Yes

Yes Yes

Does Learners’ Strategy Use Vary Significantly With Language Performance? If So, What Is the Main Pattern of Variation That Exists? (RQ3) Overall Reported Strategy Use 1. ANOVA results show significant variation in learners’ overall reported strategy use according to their language performance - with high language achievers reporting greater overall strategy use than low language achievers. Categories of Reported Strategy Use 1. ANOVA results show significant variation in learners’ reported use of all the three strategy categories (CLLS, OLLS & ELLS) according to their language performance. 2. Medium achievers report greater use of strategies than high and low achievers in the way they learn English in the classroom (CLLS) and in the way they prepare for their English examinations (ELLS) 3. High achievers report greater strategy use than medium and low achievers in learning English out of the classroom (OLLS). 4. Low achievers report lesser strategy use than high and medium achievers whether learning English in the classroom (CLLS) or out of the classroom (OLLS) or preparing for their English exams (ELLS). Individual Items of Reported Strategy Use 1. Chi-square tests show that a large portion (79%) of learners’ reported use of individual strategy items vary significantly according to their language performance. 2. The main pattern of variation that exists is a positive one indicating that high achievers report greater strategy use than low achievers. 3. Half of the individual strategy items which show significant positive variation by learners’ language performance are related to authentic language use - indicating that high achievers report greater use of strategies for using the language naturalistically than low achievers. 4. Other individual strategy items which show significant positive variation by learners’ language performance are related to a) making use of parents and b) making use of English media - indicating that high achievers report greater use of strategies relating to utilising parents and English media than low achievers. Underlying Relationship 1. Results of factor analysis show that Factor 1 (Strategies for Using the Language), Factor 3 (Strategies for Utilising the Media), Factor 4 (Strategies for Dealing with New Words) and Factor 6 (Out-of-class Social Learning Strategies) relate strongly to learners’ language performance. 2. The main underlying relationship between learners’ reported strategy use and their language performance is a positive variation in the use of mainly Out-of-class Language Learning Strategies indicating that high language achievers differ significantly from low achievers in the way they learn English out of the classroom compared to the way they learn English in the classroom and in preparation for their English examinations, particularly in strategies related to using the language, utilising English media and parents, and dealing with new words.


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Does Learners’ Strategy Use Vary Significantly With Social Factors (Gender and Ethnicity)? If So, What Are the Main Patterns of Variation That Exist? (RQ4) A. Gender Overall Reported Strategy Use 1. ANOVA results show significant variation in learners’ overall reported strategy use according to gender - with females reporting greater overall strategy use than males. Categories of Reported Strategy Use 1. ANOVA results show significant variation in learners’ reported use of all the three strategy categories (CLLS, OLLS & ELLS) according to their gender. 2. Female students report greater strategy use than male students whether learning English in the classroom (CLLS) or out of the classroom (OLLS) or preparing for their English exams (ELLS). Individual Items of Reported Strategy Use 1. Chi-square tests show that more than one third (39%) of learners’ reported use of individual strategy items vary significantly according to gender. 2. The main pattern of variation that exists is female students reporting greater strategy use than male students. 3. Most (88%) of the individual strategy items which show significant variation according to gender are used more by female students than by male students. 4. Although the strategies which show significant variation according to gender represent strategies from all the three strategy categories (CLLS, OLLS and ELLS), the highest percentage of them are related to strategies for exams preparation - indicating that females report greater strategy use than males in the way they prepare for their English examinations than in the way they learn English in or out of the classroom. Underlying Relationship 1. Results of factor analysis show that Factor 2 (Strategies for Exams Preparation) and Factor 7 (Classroom Social Learning Strategies) relate strongly to gender. 2. The main underlying relationship between learners’ reported strategy use and gender is females reporting greater use than males in strategies for exams preparation and social learning in the classroom.


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B. Ethnicity Overall Reported Strategy Use 1. ANOVA results show no significant variation in learners’ overall reported strategy use according to their ethnic background. Categories of Reported Strategy Use 1. ANOVA results show significant variation in learners’ reported use of two of the three strategy categories (CLLS & OLLS) according to their ethnicity. 2. Indian students report greater strategy use in the way they learn English in the classroom (CLLS) and out of the classroom (OLLS) than the Malay and the Chinese students. 3. No significant variation is found in learners’ reported use of strategies for exams preparation (ELLS) according to ethnicity. Individual Items of Reported Strategy Use 1. Chi-square tests show that nearly half (45%) of learners’ reported use of individual strategy items vary significantly according to ethnicity. 2. The most common pattern of variation in the reported use of individual strategies is Indians > Chinese > Malays in which Indian students report greater strategy use than the other two ethnic groups, with Malay students reporting lesser strategy use 3. Although the strategies which show significant variation by ethnicity represent strategies from two of the three strategy categories (CLLS and OLLS), the Out-of-class Language Learning Strategies show the highest percentage of category representation – indicating that students of different ethnic groups differ significantly in the reported use of strategies relating to learning out of the classroom compared to strategies relating to learning it in the classroom. 4. Indian students also report greater use of strategies pertaining to the naturalistic use of English than the other two ethnic groups, with Malay students reporting lesser use of the same strategies. 5. Malay students report greater use of strategies related to the use of L1 than the other two ethnic groups. Underlying Relationship 1. Results of factor analysis show that Factor 1 (Strategies for Using the Language), Factor 5 (Strategies for Centring Learning) and Factor 7 (Classroom Physical Restructuring Strategies) relate strongly to ethnicity. 2. The main underlying relationship between learners’ reported strategy use and ethnicity is associated mainly to the naturalistic use of English with Indian students reporting greater strategy use than the other two ethnic groups, and with Malay students reporting lesser use.


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Do Learners’ Strategy Use Vary Significantly With Situational Factors Such As Class Size and the Extent of Learners’ Use of English Out of the Class? If So, What Are the Main Patterns of Variation That Exist? (RQ5) A. Class Size Overall Reported Strategy Use 1. ANOVA results show significant variation in learners’ overall reported strategy use according to students studying in classes of different sizes, but the relationship is a complex one . Categories of Reported Strategy Use 1. ANOVA results show significant variation in learners’ reported use of only one of the three strategy categories (CLLS) according to students studying in different class size. 2. Students in smaller classes report greater use of Classroom Language Learning Strategies (CLLS) than students in larger and neither large nor small classes. Students in larger classes report greater strategy use of CLLS than those in the ‘neither’ class size group. Individual Items of Reported Strategy Use 1. Chi-square tests show that only about a quarter (24%) of learners’ reported use of individual strategy items vary significantly according to students studying in classes of different sizes. 2. The main patterns of variation that exist are mixed ones - indicating that though there are patterns they are highly complex ones which cannot be explained in simplistic terms. 3. Although the individual strategy items that vary significantly with class size represent two strategy categories (CLLS and OLLS), the Classroom Language Learning Strategies show the highest percentage of category representation - indicating that learners studying in classes of different sizes differ more in the way they learn English in the classroom than they way they learn it out of the classroom. Underlying Relationship 1. Results of factor analysis show that Factor 5 (Strategies for Centring Learning), Factor 7 (Classroom Social Learning Strategies), Factor 8 (Classroom Advance Preparation Strategies) and Factor 9 (Classroom Physical Restructuring Strategies) relate strongly to class size. 2. The main underlying relationship between learners’ reported strategy use and class size mainly concerns the way these learners studying in classes of different size learn English in the classroom, but the relationship is a complex one which is not easily described in simple terms.


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B. Extent of Learners’ Reported Use of English Outside the Classroom Overall Reported Strategy Use 1. ANOVA results show significant variation in learners’ reported overall strategy use according to the extent of their reported use of English outside of the classroom - with high-users of English reporting greater overall strategy use than low-users of English. Categories of Reported Strategy Use 1. ANOVA results show significant variation in learners’ reported use of two of the three strategy categories (CLLS and OLLS) according to the extent of their reported use of English out of the class. 2. High-users of English report greater use of classroom and out-of-class language learning strategies than low-users of English - indicating that students who use English as the main language of communication with friends and at home report greater use of in and out of classroom learning strategies than the students who use L1 as the main language of communication with friends and at home. Individual Items of Reported Strategy Use 1. Chi-square tests show that more than two thirds (69%) of learners’ reported use of individual strategy items vary significantly with the extent of their reported use of English out of the class. 2. Most (91%) of the individual strategy items which show significant variation according to the extent of learners’ reported use of English outside the classroom are used more by high-users than low-users of English. 3. Although the strategies which show significant variation according to the extent of learners’ reported use of English outside the classroom represent strategies from all the three strategy categories (CLLS, OLLS and ELLS), the Out-of-class Language Learning Strategies show the highest percentage of category representation - indicating that high-users of English differ significantly in the reported use of strategies relating to learning English out of the classroom rather than strategies relating to learning it in the classroom or for preparing for its examination. 4. About two thirds of the individual strategy items which show significant variation according to the extent of learners’ reported use of English outside of the classroom are related to strategies for practising or using English in natural language situations. 5. Other individual strategy items which show significant positive variation by the extent of learners’ reported use of English out of the classroom are related to a) making use of parents and b) making use of English media - indicating that high-users of English report greater use of strategies relating to utilising parents and English media than low-users of English. Underlying Relationship 1. Results of factor analysis show that Factor 1 (Strategies for Using the Language), Factor 3 (Strategies for Utilising the Media), Factor 4 (Strategies for Dealing with New Words) and Factor 6 (Out-of-class Social Learning Strategies) relate strongly to the extent of learners’ reported use of English out of the classroom. 2. The main underlying relationship between learners’ reported strategy use and the extent of their reported use of English outside of the classroom mainly concerns the way learners learn English out of the classroom particularly in terms of strategies for using the language in a naturalistic way and utilising English media and parents, with high-users reporting greater use of these strategies rather than low-users of English.


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Summary 1. The results in this study support the general findings of previous similar correlational studies. However, this study does not only provide fresh evidence, but it also presents it in a more detailed manner. 2. Significant variation between learners’ overall reported strategy use according to language performance, gender and the extent of their reported use of English out of the classroom was found. 3. In particular, greater overall use of language learning strategies among more successful learners than the less successful ones, among females than males, and among high-users than low-users of English was noted. 4. Significant variation of learners’ reported overall strategy use and the Classroom Language Learning Strategies category according to class size is noted. However, the relationship is a mixed one. 5. Significant differences according to language performance and gender in learners’ reported use of all the three strategy categories used in the SQ have been noted. 6. Although there is no significant correlation in learners’ overall reported strategy use, ethnicity is shown to be significantly related to two of the strategy categories and about half of the individual strategy items. In particular, the results indicate that Indian students report greater strategy use in the way they learn English in the classroom, as well as in the way they learn it out of the classroom than do the other two ethnic groups. 7. It was demonstrated that the results of the analysis at the individual strategy level reveal a more detailed pattern of relationships between the reported strategy use and the independent variables selected. 8. At the individual strategy level, the main pattern of significant variation in terms of language performance is a positive variation, indicating that more successful learners report higher levels of strategy use than less successful learners. Specifically, these different groups of learners differ more in the way they learn English out the classroom than the way they learn it in the classroom or the way they prepare for their English examinations.

9. In contrast, it is found that female students report greater use of strategies than male students more in the way they prepare for their English examinations than the way they learn English in and out of the classroom.


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10.It is also found that although Indian students report a high percentage of use of strategies relating to the naturalistic use of English, Malay students report a low percentage of use of similar strategies. On the other hand, with regard to strategies having to do with the use of L1 in the learning of English, the pattern of variation that emerges is exactly the opposite. 11.In relation to the extent of the respondents’ use of English, it is noted that generally, those who are learning English in an environment where the language is the means of everyday communication (measured in terms of its use with friends and at home) report using a greater number of learning strategies than those who are learning it in a setting where that language is not the daily means of communication. 12.The results of the factor analysis provide parallel evidence to the findings obtained through the different levels of analysis of variance. In general, the factor analysis shows that language performance, the extent of the respondents’ reported use of English and class size demonstrate the greatest influence on students’ strategy use. 13.The factor analysis also provides fresh evidence of the importance of authentic language use in language learning. In fact, the factor with the largest amount of individual strategies loading significantly in it is Factor 1 - Strategies for Using the Language. Moreover, this factor is found to be related strongly with three out of the five independent variables measured in the analysis. 14.One interesting finding of the factor analysis is that more successful learners are found to differ significantly from less successful learners in the reported strategies they employ for naturalistic use of English, utilising the English media, dealing with new words and utilising an out of class social agent to assist language learning; namely, the parents. Similar patterns are also noted with the extent of learners’ reported use of English, suggesting an overlap of how the two variables work in relation to the reported strategy use. 15.The nine factors emerging from the factor analysis support the three strategy categories that were developed and used in the questionnaire survey.


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Reported Classroom Language Learning Strategies Table 6.1. A Summary of Classroom Language Learning Strategies Reported by Respondents in Interviews in the Main Study Reported Classroom Language Learning Strategies (RCLLS) RCLLS1 Discuss with friends* RCLLS2 Discuss with teachers RCLLS3 Ask for clarification from friends RCLLS4 Ask for clarification from the teacher RCLLS5 Join a group discussion RCLLS6 Learn from own mistake/error RCLLS7 Read English materials RCLLS8 Read textbook/workbook* RCLLS9 Read grammar book RCLLS10 Refer to the dictionary* RCLLS11 Do exercises in the revision book RCLLS12 Converse in English with friends* RCLLS13 Pay attention during the lesson* RCLLS14 Be prepared before the lesson RCLLS15 Revise the previous lesson RCLLS16 Volunteer to answer questions RCLLS17 Be active in class Note: *also reported in the pilot study strategies in bold were also observed during the CO

What Learners Report Doing in Order to Learn English in the Classroom Table 6.2. A Comparison Between What GOOD LEARNERS and POOR LEARNERS Report Doing in Order to Learn English in the Classroom (Q6a) GOOD LEARNERS n POOR LEARNERS n RCLLS1 Discuss with friends 1 RCLLS4 Ask for clarification from teachers 17 RCLLS2 Discuss with teachers 2 *NOTHING 7 RCLLS3 Ask for clarification from friends 3 RCLLS5 Join a group discussion 1 RCLLS6 Learn from own mistake/error 2 RCLLS7 Read English materials 7 RCLLS8 Read textbook/workbook 6 RCLLS10 Refer to the dictionary 3 RCLLS11 Do exercises in revision book 5 RCLLS12 Converse in English with friends 13 RCLLS13 Pay attention during the lesson 4 RCLLS16 Volunteer to answer questions 1 RCLLS17 Be active in class 1 *NOTHING 6 Note: * 11 % of ‘GOOD’ learners report doing ‘nothing’ 88 % of ‘POOR’ learners report doing ‘nothing’


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What Learners Report Doing Before an English Lesson Table 6.3. A comparison Between What GOOD LEARNERS and POOR LEARNERS Report Doing Before an English Lesson (Q7a) GOOD LEARNERS n POOR LEARNERS n RCLLS7 Read textbook/workbook 3 RCLLS4 Ask for clarification from the teacher 1 RCLLS8 Read grammar book 2 RCLLS14 Be prepared before the lesson 2 RCLLS14 Be prepared before the lesson 5 *NOTHING 24 RCLLS15 Revise the lesson 2 *NOTHING 60 Note: * 83% of the ‘GOOD’ learners report doing ‘nothing’ 89% of the ‘POOR’ learners report doing ‘nothing’


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Reported Out-of-class Language Learning Strategies Table 6.4. A Summary of Out-of-class Language Learning Strategies Reported by Respondents in Interviews in the Main Study Reported Out-of-class Language Learning Strategies (ROLLS) ROLLS1 Discuss with friends* ROLLS2 Discuss with teachers ROLLS3 Join a group discussion ROLLS4 Ask for clarification from friends* ROLLS5 Ask for clarification from teacher* ROLLS6 Ask for clarification from parents* ROLLS7 Get friends correct ones usage of English ROLLS8 Get siblings correct ones usage of English ROLLS9 Get parents correct ones usage of English* ROLLS10 Learn from own mistake/errors ROLLS11 Correct ones own mistakes ROLLS12 Talk to oneself in English* ROLLS13 Practise reading aloud* ROLLS14 Read English materials* ROLLS15 Read textbook/workbook ROLLS16 Read revision book ROLLS17 Read grammar book ROLLS18 Read sample essays* ROLLS19 Read the dictionary ROLLS20 Refer to the dictionary* ROLLS21 Refer to the thesaurus ROLLS22 Keep a vocabulary list ROLLS23 Do exercises in revision book* ROLLS24 Do exercises in workbook ROLLS25 Practise doing grammar exercises* ROLLS26 Practise on writing* ROLLS27 Do a lot of practise* ROLLS28 Do essay writing ROLLS29 Write summary* ROLLS30 Write letters* ROLLS31 Write in diary ROLLS32 Write poems ROLLS33 Converse in English with friends* ROLLS34 Converse in English with parents* ROLLS35 Practise conversing in English* ROLLS36 Not using/mixing L1 when conversing in English ROLLS37 Converse in English with siblings ROLLS38 Watch English programmes on television* ROLLS39 Watch English movies* ROLLS40 Listen to English news* ROLLS41 Listen to English programmes in the radio* ROLLS42 Listen to speech of others ROLLS43 Listen to English conversation tapes* ROLLS44 Listen to English songs* ROLLS45 Pay attention during the lesson


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ROLLS46 Revise the lesson* ROLLS47 Elaborate on notes/point taken in class ROLLS48 Use what has read/learnt ROLLS49 Play word games ROLLS50 Memorise formats* ROLLS51 Guess meaning of a word ROLLS52 Do homework ROLLS53 Compare between English and L1 ROLLS54 Attend functions conducted in English* ROLLS55 Take private tuition* Note: * also reported in the pilot study

What Learners Report Doing in Order to Learn English As a Whole Table 6.5. A Comparison Between What GOOD LEARNERS and POOR LEARNERS Report to Do Learning English as a Whole (Q10a) GOOD LEARNERS n POOR LEARNERS n ROLLS4 Ask for clarification from friends 1 ROLLS 4 Ask for clarification from friends 1 ROLLS6 Ask for clarification from parents 4 ROLLS15 Read textbook/workbook 1 ROLLS7 Get friends correct ones usage of English1 1 ROLLS19 Read the dictionary 2 ROLLS9 Get parents correct ones usage of English 1 ROLLS20 Refer to the dictionary 2 ROLLS12 Talk to oneself in English 1 ROLLS46 Revise the lesson 1 ROLLS14 Read English materials 53 ROLLS55 Take private tuition 5 ROLLS19 Read the dictionary 1 *NOTHING 8 ROLLS20 Refer to the dictionary 2 ROLLS22 Keep a vocabulary list 1 ROLLS23 Do exercises in revision book 1 ROLLS24 Do exercises in workbook 2 ROLLS28 Do essay writing 1 ROLLS30 Write letters 2 ROLLS33 Converse in English with friends 8 ROLLS34 Converse in English with parents 6 ROLLS37 Converse in English with siblings 1 ROLLS38 Watch English programs on television 5 ROLLS39 Watch English movies 3 ROLLS40 Listen to English news 2 ROLLS41 Listen to English programs in the radio 2 ROLLS46 Revise the lesson 1 ROLLS53 Do homework 1 ROLLS54 Attend functions conducted in English 3 ROLLS55 Take private tuition 4 Note: *40% of the ‘POOR’ learners report doing ‘nothing’


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What Learners Report Doing to Learn English Grammar Table 6.6. A Comparison Between What GOOD LEARNERS and POOR LEARNERS Report Doing to Learn English Grammar (Q10b) GOOD LEARNERS n POOR LEARNERS n ROLLS4 Ask for clarification from friends 1 ROLLS5 Ask for clarification from teacher 1 ROLLS6 Ask for clarification from parents 2 ROLLS15Read textbook/workbook 2 ROLLS7 Get friends correct ones usage of English 1 ROLLS23Do exercises in revision book 1 ROLLS9 Get parents correct ones usage of English 2 *NOTHING 7 ROLLS10Learn from own mistake/errors 2 ROLLS14Read English materials 4 ROLLS15Read textbook/workbook 3 ROLLS16Read revision book 4 ROLLS17Read grammar book 8 ROLLS20Refer to the dictionary 2 ROLLS23Do exercises in revision book 7 ROLLS24Do exercises in workbook 2 ROLLS25Practice doing grammar exercises 1 ROLLS43Listen to English conversation tapes 1 ROLLS53Compare between English and L1 1 *NOTHING 10 Note: *67% of the ‘POOR’ learners report doing ‘nothing’ *20% of the ‘GOOD’ learners report doing ‘nothing’

What Learners Report Doing to Improve Spoken English Table 6.8. A Comparison Between What GOOD LEARNERS and POOR LEARNERS Report Doing to Improve Spoken English (Q10d) GOOD LEARNERS n POOR LEARNERS n ROLLS2 Discuss with teacher 1 ROLLS4 Ask for clarification from friends 1 ROLLS7 Get friends correct ones usage of English 2 ROLLS5 Ask for clarification from teacher 2 ROLLS8 Get siblings correct ones usage of English 1 ROLLS55Take private tuition 1 ROLLD9Get parents correct ones usage of English 3 *NOTHING 13 ROLLS11Correct ones own mistakes 1 ROLLS12Talk to oneself in English 2 ROLLS13Practice reading aloud 4 ROLLS33Converse in English with friends 18 ROLLS34Converse in English with parents 14 ROLLS35Practice conversing in English 2 ROLLS36Not using/mixing L1 when conversing in English 3 ROLLS38Watch English programs on television 3 ROLLS41Listen to English programs in the radio 13 ROLLS42Listen to speech of others 1 ROLLS43Listen to English conversation tapes 1 ROLLS44Listen to English songs 1 ROLLS54 Attend functions conducted in English 1 ROLLS55 Take private tuition 1 Note: *76% of the ‘POOR’ learners report doing ‘nothing’


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What Learners Report Doing To Improve Their Written English Table 6.9. A Comparison Between What GOOD LEARNERS and POOR LEARNERS Report Doing to Improve Written English (Q10e) GOOD LEARNERS n POOR LEARNERS n ROLLS1 Discuss with friends 2 ROLLS4 Ask for clarification from friends 1 ROLLS7 Get friends correct ones usage of English 3 ROLLS16Read revision books 1 ROLLS8 Get siblings correct ones usage of English 1 *NOTHING 13 ROLLS9 Get parents correct ones usage of English 3 ROLLS10Learn from own mistake/errors 2 ROLLS14Read English materials 21 ROLLS18Read sample essays 4 ROLLS23Do exercises in revision book 1 ROLLS24Do exercises in workbook 1 ROLLS26Practice on writing 3 ROLLS28Do essay writing 21 ROLLS29Write summary 2 ROLLS30Write letters 7 ROLLS31Write in diary 1 ROLLS32Write poems 1 ROLLS47Elaborate on notes/point taken in class 1 ROLLS50Memorise format 1 ROLLS52Do homework 1 ROLLS55Take private tuition 1 Note: *87% of the ‘POOR’ learners report doing ‘nothing’

Table 6.10. A Comparison Between What GOOD LEARNERS and POOR LEARNERS Report Doing in Learning New Words (10g) GOOD LEARNERS n POOR LEARNERS ROLLS4 Ask for clarification from friends 1 ROLLS20Refer to the dictionary ROLLS6 Ask for clarification from parents 4 *NOTHING ROLLS14Read English materials 13 ROLLS19Read the dictionary 4 ROLLS20Refer to the dictionary 12 ROLLS21Refer to the thesaurus 1 ROLLS22Keep a vocabulary list 2 ROLLS33Converse in English with friends 1 ROLLS48Use what has been read/learnt 4 ROLLS49Play word games 3 ROLLS50Memorise 1 ROLLS51Guess meaning of a word 2 ROLLS54Attend functions conducted in Eng. 1 Note: *87% of the ‘POOR’ learners report doing ‘nothing’

n 1 7


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Reported Exam language learning strategies Table 6.11. A Summary of Reported Exam language learning strategies Reported Exam Language Learning Strategies (RELLS) RELLS1 Discuss with friends* RELLS2 Join a group discussion RELLS3 Ask for clarification from friends RELLS4 Ask for clarification from parents* RELLS5 Let siblings correct ones usage of English* RELLS6 Read English materials RELLS7 Read textbook/workbook* RELLS8 Read exercise book* RELLS9 Read revision book* RELLS10 Read grammar book* RELLS11 Read vocabulary list RELLS12 Read notebook* RELLS13 Read sample essays* RELLS14 Read past exam papers RELLS15 Do past exam papers RELLS16 Do exercises in revision book* RELLS17 Do exercises in workbook RELLS18 Practice on writing RELLS19 Do essay writing* RELLS20 Watch English programs on television RELLS21 Revise the lesson* RELLS22 Memorise* RELLS23 Take private tuition Note: *also reported in the pilot study strategies in bold print are also reported as strategies employed out of the classroom (ROLLS) strategies in bold italics print are also reported as strategies employed both in and out of the classroom (RCLLS and ROLLS respectively)


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Table 6.12. A Comparison Between What GOOD LEARNERS and POOR LEARNERS Report Doing in Preparing for Their English Examinations (Q9a) GOOD LEARNERS n POOR LEARNERS n RELLS2 Join a group discussion 1 RELLS1 Discuss with friends 1 RELLS4 Ask for clarification from parents 1 RELLS3 Ask for clarification from friends 1 RELLS5 Get siblings correct ones usage of English 1 RELLS7 Read textbook/workbook 5 RELLS6 Read English materials 2 RELLS8 Read exercise book 4 RELLS7 Read textbook/workbook 3 RELLS9 Read revision book 6 RELLS8 Read exercise book 2 RELLS21Revise the lesson 2 RELLS9 Read revision book 5 *NOTHING 2 RELLS10Read grammar book 2 RELLS11Read vocabulary list 1 RELLS12Read notebook 2 RELLS13Read sample essays 6 RELLS14Read past exam papers 6 RELLS15Do past exam papers 1 RELLS16Do exercises in revision book 17 RELLS17Do exercises in workbook 4 RELLS18Practice on writing 2 RELLS19Do essay writing 7 RELLS20Watch English programmes on television 1 RELLS21Revise the lesson 7 RELLS22Memorise formats 1 RELLS23Take private tuition 8 *NOTHING 8 Note: *10 % of both groups of learners report doing ‘nothing’

Range and Individual Types of Strategies Reported by Learners Table 6.13. Types of Individual Strategy Items Reported by GOOD and POOR Learners

INDIVIDUAL TYPES OF STRATEGIES REPORTED

1. Discuss with friends (RCLLS1, ROLLS1, RELLS1) 2. Discuss with teachers (RCLLS2, ROLLS2) 3. Join a group discussion (RCLLS5, ROLLS3, RELLS2) 4. Ask for clarification from friends (RCLLS3, ROLLS4, RELLS3) 5. Ask for clarification from the teacher (RCLLS4, ROLLS5) 6. Ask for clarification from parents (ROLLS6, RELLS4) 7. Get friends correct ones usage of English (ROLLS7) 8. Get siblings correct ones usage of English (ROLLS8, RELLS5) 9. Get parents correct ones usage of English (ROLLS9) 10. Learn from own mistake/error (RCLLS6, ROLLS10) 11. Correct ones own mistakes (ROLLS11) 12. Talk to oneself in English (ROLLS12) 13. Practice reading aloud (ROLLS13) 14. Read English materials (RCLLS7, ROLLS14, RELLS6) 15. Read textbook/workbook (RCLLS8, ROLLS15, RELLS7) 16. Read revision book (ROLLS16, RELLS9) 17. Read grammar book (RCLLS9, ROLLS17, RELLS10)

Good Learners n

3 3 2 6 11 7 3 9 6 1 3 4 100 16 10 12

Poor Learners n

1 5 5 8 7 -


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18. Read sample essays (ROLLS18, RELLS13) 12 19. Read exercise book (RELLS8) 2 20. Read vocabulary list (RELLS11) 1 21. Read notebook (RELLS12) 3 22. Read past year papers (RELLS14) 6 23. Do past year paper (RELLS15) 1 24. Read the dictionary (ROLLS19) 5 25. Refer to the dictionary (RCLLS10, ROLLS20) 21 26. Refer to the thesaurus (ROLLS21) 1 27. Keep a vocabulary list (ROLLS22) 3 28. Do exercises in revision book (RCLLS11, ROLLS23, RELLS16) 31 29. Do exercises in workbook (ROLLS24, RELLS17) 9 30. Practise doing grammar exercises (ROLLS25) 1 31. Practise on writing (ROLLS26, RELLS18) 5 32. Do lot of practice (ROLLS27) 2 33. Do essay writing (ROLLS28, RELLS19) 20 34. Write summary (ROLLS29) 2 35. Write letters (ROLLS30) 9 36. Write in diary (ROLLS31) 1 37. Write poems (ROLLS32) 1 38. Converse in English with friends (RCLLS12, ROLLS30) 40 39. Converse in English with parents (ROLLS34) 20 40. Converse in English with siblings (ROLLS37) 1 41. Practise conversing in English (ROLLS35) 2 42. Not using/mixing L1 when conversing in English (ROLLS36) 3 43. Watch English programmes on television (ROLLS38,RELLS20) 9 44. Watch English movies (ROLLS39) 3 45. Listen to English news (ROLLS40) 2 46. Listen to English programmes in the radio (ROLLS41) 4 47. Listen to speech of others (ROLLS42) 3 48. Listen to English conversation tapes (ROLLS43) 2 49. Listen to English songs (ROLLS44) 1 50. Pay attention during the lesson (RCLLS13, ROLLS45) 5 51. Be prepared before the lesson (RCLLS14) 4 52. Revise the lesson (RCLLS15, ROLLS46, RELLS21) 27 53. Elaborate on notes/point taken in class (ROLLS47) 2 54. Use what has read/learnt (ROLLS48) 4 55. Play word games (ROLLS49) 3 56. Memorise format (ROLLS50, RELLS22) 6 57. Guess meaning of a word (ROLLS51) 2 58. Do homework (ROLLS52) 2 59. Compare between English and L1 (ROLLS53) 1 60. Attend functions conducted in English (ROLLS54) 5 61. Take private tuition (ROLLS55, RELLS23) 7 62. Volunteer to answer questions (RCLLS16) 1 63. Being active in class (RCLLS17) 1 Note: items in normal print are reported by both the ‘GOOD’ and the ‘POOR’ learners items in italic print are reported only by the ‘POOR’ learners items in bold print are reported only by the ‘GOOD’ learners

4 2 5 1 2 3 6 -


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Table 6.14 Summary of Strategies Associated With Success and Failure in Learners’ Language Learning SUCCESSFUL LANGUAGE LEARNERS Seek and take opportunities to use the target language naturalistically in and out of the classroom. Make use of a wide variety of target language input. Do not depend on the teacher alone. Instead, utilise other out of class social agents to assist in the language learning process Take advantage of the media available as a source of input to the target language. Read English materials extensively and for different purposes Use the target language extensively Use a wide range and types of strategies in learning the various language areas

UNSUCCESSFUL LANGUAGE LEARNERS Depend on classroom activities. Do not seek and take opportunities to use the target language in natural situations Rely heavily on the textbook for language input. Be highly dependent on the teacher in the language learning process Do not make use of the media available Do not read English materials Avoid using the target language. Instead, prefer to revert to the use of L1 in the learning of English. Use a fairly limited range and types of strategies in learning the various language areas

A. Reported Individual Types of Strategies A total of 63 individual types of strategies are reported to be employed by the interviewees in our study. In particular,: -the greatest proportion of these individual types of strategies (87%) are reported in relation to learners’ own initiative in learning English out of the classroom indicating the extent of autonomous learning reported by the respondents in approaching their language learning. Successful Language Learners Report the use of a larger repertoire of language learning strategies (63 individual types).

Unsuccessful Language Learners Report the use of a smaller repertoire of language learning strategies (12 individual types).

B. Reported Classroom Language Learning Strategies (RCLLS) A total of 17 Classroom Language Learning Strategies are reported to be used by the interviewees and there are marked differences between what good and poor learners report doing in the classroom while learning English. Particularly,: Successful Language Learners Report a larger repertoire of Classroom Language Learning Strategies especially strategies related to social and ‘active’ classroom learning. Appear to be high-users of English in the classroom.

Unsuccessful Language Learners Report a limited repertoire of Classroom Language Learning Strategies. Most of them (88%) report doing nothing. Appear to be low-users of English in the classroom and have the tendency to revert to BM or MT.

-there are no marked differences between what both types of learners report doing in preparation before an English lesson.


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C. Reported Out-of-class Language Learning Strategies (ROLLS) A total of 55 individual types of Out-of-class Language Learning Strategies are reported by the interviewees and there are marked differences between what good and poor learners report doing out of the classroom in learning English. In particular,: Successful Language Learners Report a larger repertoire of Out-of-Class Language Learning Strategies especially strategies related to seeking and taking opportunities to use English in natural language situations. Report making use of English media and parents to assist them in learning English.

Unsuccessful Language Learners Report a smaller repertoire of Out-of-Class Language Learning Strategies. No evidence of strategies related to seeking and taking opportunities to use English in natural language situations is reported. (No evidence of this is reported)

D. Reported Exam Language Learning Strategies (RELLS) A total of 23 individual types of Exam Language Learning Strategies are reported to be employed by the interviewees. In particular,: -most (79%) of the strategies reported by the learners in preparing for the English exams are also reported to be used for learning English in and out of the classroom. Successful Language Learners Report a larger repertoire of Exam Language Learning Strategies. Report reading a wider range of materials. Report making use of parents and siblings to assist them in preparing for English exams.

Unsuccessful Language Learners Report a smaller repertoire of Exam Language Learning Strategies. Report reading a limited range of materials. (No evidence of this is reported)

E. Reported Strategies for Learning English Grammar There are marked differences between what poor and good learners report doing while learning English grammar. Specifically,: Successful Language Learners Report a larger repertoire of individual types of strategies in dealing with learning of English grammar.

Unsuccessful Language Learners Report a limited repertoire of individual types of strategies in dealing with learning of English grammar. Two thirds of them (67%) report doing nothing.

Report utilising parents to assist them learning of English grammar.

(No evidence of this is reported) Seem to be dependent on the teacher and the textbook.


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F. Reported Strategies for Improving Reading Comprehension There is a marked difference between what good and poor learners report doing to improve reading comprehension. In particular,: Successful Language Learners Report reading extensive English materials which include storybooks, novels, newspapers, magazines, encyclopedias etc.

Unsuccessful Language Learners (No evidence relating to extensive reading is reported)

G. Reported Strategies for Improving Listening Comprehension There is a marked difference between what good and poor learners report doing to improve listening comprehension. Particularly,: Successful Language Learners Report listening to various English media available as one of the sources of input of the target language.

Unsuccessful Language Learners (No evidence of this is reported)

H. Reported Strategies for Improving Spoken English There are marked differences between what good and poor learners report doing to improve their spoken English. Specifically,: Successful Language Learners Report a larger repertoire of individual types of learning strategies for improving spoken English especially those related to seeking and using practice opportunities. Report making use of English media and parents to improve their spoken English. Report listening to and correcting their own speech. Report not using or mixing BM or MT with English when conversing.

Unsuccessful Language Learners Report a limited repertoire of individual types of learning strategies for improving spoken English. Three quarters (76%) of them report doing nothing. (No evidence of this is reported) Seem to be dependent on the teacher and friends. (No evidence of this is reported) (No evidence of this is reported)

I. Reported Strategies for Improving Written English There are marked differences between what good and poor learners report doing to improve their written English. Specifically,: Successful Language Learners Report a larger repertoire of individual types of learning strategies for improving written English especially those related to seeking and using practice opportunities. Report making use of parents and siblings to improve their spoken English. Report engaging in various kinds and purposes of writing. Report reading extensive English materials.

Unsuccessful Language Learners Report a limited repertoire of individual types of learning strategies for improving written English. Most (87%) of them report doing nothing. (No evidence of this is reported) (No evidence of this is reported) (No evidence of this is reported)


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J. Reported Strategies for Learning New Words There is a marked difference between what good and poor learners report doing while learning new words. In particular,: Successful Language Learners Report a larger repertoire of individual types of strategies for learning of new words. Report utilising parents in learning new words.

Unsuccessful Language Learners Report a limited repertoire of individual types of strategies for learning of new words. Most of them (87%) report doing nothing. (No evidence of this is reported)


Findings of Malaysian Data